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Mobilization on the Home Front Chapter 25.1

Mobilization on the Home Front

Chapter 25.1

Selective Service and the GI

• 5 Million American’s volunteered to serve.

• 10 Million more were drafted through the Selective Service Act

GI – Government Issue

– First used to describe weapons, clothing, etc. and later used to describe soldiers.

Act • GI – Government Issue – First used to describe weapons, clothing, etc. and later

Women join the Effort

• Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)

– Gen Marshall pushed for the creation of the WAAC

• Congress opposed!

– “Who will do the cooking, the washing, and the mending?”

– “Silliest piece of legislation” he had ever seen

– “Think of the humiliation. What has become of the manhood of America, that we have to call on our women to do what has ever been the duty of men?”

What has become of the manhood of America, that we have to call on our women

Women join the Effort

• 13,000 women applied on the first day applications were available. • 250,000 women served in this and other auxiliary branches during the war.

the first day applications were available. • 250,000 women served in this and other auxiliary branches

Minorities Join the Effort

• Why fight for democracy for some foreign country when we don’t even have it here?” African American Editorial

“Just carve on my tombstone, ‘Here lies a black man killed fighting a yellow man
“Just carve on my
tombstone, ‘Here lies a
black man killed fighting
a yellow man for the
protection of a white
man.’”

Minorities Join the Effort

• Minorities realized that things might be bad now, but how much worse might they be under a fascist government?

• More than a million African-Americans served during WWII.

– They were in segregated units and limited to mostly non-combat roles. – 25,000 Native Americans joined the services, including 800 women.

Life on the Home Front

• Factories transitioned from making consumer goods to making war materials overnight.

– Car plans built tanks and airplanes

– Pencil factories made bomb parts

– Soft-drink companies stopped filling bottles with coke and started filling bombs with gun powder.

made bomb parts – Soft-drink companies stopped filling bottles with coke and started filling bombs with

The Sleeping Giant is Awoken

• Prefabricated parts make the construction of ships fast!

• 1 Liberty Ship took 4 days to construct

Giant is Awoken • Prefabricated parts make the construction of ships fast! • 1 Liberty Ship

Labor Effort

• Out of the 18 million workers in war industries, 6 million were women.

– Women got paid 40% less than men in the same jobs.

• 2 Million were African-Americans

6 million were women. – Women got paid 40% less than men in the same jobs.

Roosevelt Backs Down

A. Philip Randolph, a leading African- American labor leader organized a march on Washington to protest discrimination in war industries.

We loyal Colored Americans demand the right to work and fight for our country.
We loyal Colored
Americans demand
the right to work and
fight for our country.

Mobilization of Scientists

• Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD)

– Penicillin

– DDT

Mobilization of Scientists • Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) – Penicillin – DDT

The Manhattan Project

• National Committee on Uranium

• Einstein – 3-5 years to produce an atomic bomb.

• Offices were located in NYC

• National Committee on Uranium • Einstein – 3-5 years to produce an atomic bomb. •

Internment of Japanese Americans

Presidential Order

9066: All persons of Japanese ancestry must be relocated to US Internment Camps throughout the US.

Presidential Order 9066 : All persons of Japanese ancestry must be relocated to US Internment Camps

The Government Takes Control of the Economy

 
 

Agencies and Laws

 

What the Regulations Did

National War Labor Board (NWLB)

 

•Limited wage increases •Allowed negotiated benefits such as paid vacations, pensions, and medical insurance. •Kept unions stable by forbidding workers to change unions.

Office of Price Administration (OPA)

 

•Fought inflation by freezing wages, prices, and rents. •Rationed foods such as meat, butter, cheese, vegetables, sugar, and coffee.

War Production Board (WPB)

 

•Rationed fuel and materials vital to the war effort such as gasoline, heating oil, metals, rubber, and plastics.

Department of the Treasury

 

•Issued war bonds to raise money for the war effort and to fight inflation.

Revenue Act of 1942

 

•Raised the top personal-income-tax rate to 90% •Added lower- and middle-income Americans to the income tax rolls.

Smith-Connally Labor Disputes Act (1943)

 

•Limited the right to strike in industries crucial to the war effort. •Gave the president power to take over striking plants.