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SECTION 2 \Ve can also use w¡}] have done te>5a)' whar we think
has probably happened:
Other Peifect forms There's no point phoning: theyJll have gane out.
e We can use should / ought to or ntay / might lllstead
of will if there is some uncertainty abour the
prediction of present or future:
1 should have finished mabng this ea/u by the time
Past Perfect emphasises that we are talking about a Sue comes home. (= 1 thll1k 1 wiU have, but l'm not
period before a time in the past. rf the time sequence sure. See Unir 4, Section 3.2 for modal Perfect5)
is clear (e.g. because we use after), both Past Simple
and Pasr Perfecr are possible:
[ gOl to wor/~ after Simon arrived / had arrived.
Ar other times Past Perfect is essential to We use Perfect infinitives:
understanding the sequence, and we often add • after link verbs like seem and appear 1:0 refer to a
already, as soon as, ol' until: previous time period (an ordinary toinfinitive wiJJ
When [ arrived, they'd already started. (= they usually refer to the present or future):
started before 1 arrived) When Larrived, they TheTe seems to have been some sort of mi.stake.
started. (= r arrived before they started) o after phrases expressing emotions and feelings:
I'm sorry to have kept YOli waiting:
She wasfelt not to have met the standards requim1.
Unlike Present Perfect, we can use Past Perfect with
a definite time reference:
T ai'rived at nine o'clock but he had got there at eight. We can use a Perfect -ing form to emphasise that one
thing happens before another:
1 didn't remember having met/meeting her before.
There ís one exception to the time sequence rules on HavingfinaHy grasped what 1 meant, he got down to
Past Perfece 'Nhen we use before, the verb in Past work.
Simple can refer to something that takes place before
the verb in Past Perfecto The first action may prevent
the second from happening:
The waiter took my plate away before I'd finished
eating. Perfect passives can sometirnes be confusing
L was blamed for it before Fd even had a chance to because we use both be (= passive) and have
defind myself (= Perfect) as auxiliaries:
The refi¡geeshave been prevented from. entering the
country. This pietm'e is thought to have been painted
We use Past Perfen with reporr verbs and with hope, by a pupil ofRembrandt's.
intend, expect, etc. to talk about plans that have not
fH been fulfilled. Had is usually stressed in speech
with tbis use:
L had hoped to talk lo him but he was too busy.
1 had thought of phoning him but decided against it.
Which of the poinrs in tbis Section do these
examples illustrate?
1 'How did you become a teacher?' Td intended to
be an actor, but things didn't work out,'
2 1 turned on the computer, but before 1 had
We often use Future Perfectwith the preposition by managed to log on there was a power cut.
or the phrase by the time meaning 'at some point 3 After he told me what he wanted, we tall<.:ed
before the time mentioned': about the plans for the next day;
[t's taleing her so long to write that book that by the 4 The exhibition will have finished by the time 1 get
time she's finished it people will have forgotten the around to seeing it.
incident it's based on. 5 They appear to have accepted most of your terms.

e Fill each of the blanks with a

suitable word or phrase.

G Match the beginnings (1-8) with a suitable ending (a-h). Example: All the best
have gane if we don't
things will
get to the sale
Example: O +i soon.
After I'd fmished teaching
(O a and had come to ensure that I was really happy when they
earlier that morning,) the school was run efficiently. announced decided to get
1 He told me that b he had made a terrible mistake. married.
2 I asked him c that he wanted to enrol as a 2 She proceeded to fix the faulty
3 He explained how a young student. wiring, having fmt been
man d had come to reception. switched off.
4 john had immediately e tbat the man was able to 3 It wasn't until he mentioned the "

assumed explain there had been a conference that 1 met ¡i
5 So, before the young man had misunderstanding. before. I!
had a chance to say anything, f what had happened. 4 By next Christmas we p

6 John, who was in a terrible g John had given him an decorating the house.
hurry, thenleft the man to it, application formo 5 He is planning completed
7 It wasn't until he returned ten h wondering why he looked so all bis coursework by next week. I¡
minutes later puzzled. 6 It's six o'dock 1 imagine they
8 He was actually a school (i 1 found John standing outside ....... for the airport by now ¡.!.¡

inspector my dassroom.) 7 The suspect is believed . ;!

e Correct any sentences that are unacceptable.

fled the country.
8 After he had lost bis glasses, he
1 By the time he is fIfty,he willlive in tbis country for half bis life. ... but to buy another pair.
2 It's a surprise party and they won't know anything about it until
they got here.
3 They're probably planning a quiet evening together; 1know they
won't have guessed what we're doing.
4 The other seventy guests should be arrived before Mikis and Maria
get here.
5 By the time we will have fmished, everybody will have eaten and
drunk as much as they can.
e Complete these sentences
using the words given.
e Cross out and correct eight errors in tbis extraet from a
composition. A ninth error has already been corrected.
Example: By the time we/ get therel
he/left· Dear Sir
By the time we get there he will have I had recently been on a two-week holiday with your company to the
left· island of Thassos.
I am sorry to llave s¿,id say that it was the worst holiday I've ever
1 Helen is bound jOrgotten/
hado Over the years I went on many holidays to Greece, a country I
tomorrow/my birthday. havenow come to know quite well. Ithink I can safely say that, until
2 We reached the next town having this year, al! of those holidays were wonderful. For example I have
hopelessly lost!than once. once spent six weeks on (rete, which I had not visited before. I had
loved that holiday so much that I returned every spring for the last
3 Summer will practically be over
four years.
by / time we/ round to / a holiday. This year, however, was different. I honestly consider this to had
4 Apparently, bis explanation been the worst holiday of my life. This is not the fault of Thassos: the
felt / been /less than satisfactory. fault lies entirely with your company whose inability to organise the
5 Colin ought/phoned/now, sure/y? simplest thing is quite unbelievable.
As both the outward and return flights have been delayed for
6 Don't worry. Everyone jOrgotten
several hours, there was nobody to meet us at the airport or transfer
alllit/time you see them again. us to our hotel, and when we eventually did reach the hotel, we
discovered it had been built over a mile from the beach. Reading
your brochure careful!y, we feel this was not what we have expected.
become more an inÚrarian to discuss the subjecr
rhan a demand for 3 yes ar no answer:
I was thinking- would you nÚnd sWl1pping seatsf
COl1tinuous forms I was wondering if Y0l.!. wanted to go out this eVeJHl1g.
Were you lookingfor anything in particular?

Like other Perfect temes, Perfect Continuous tenses

focus on a past period that leads up to a later one.
Perfect Conrinuous tenses, as with other Continuous Note we can't use I was thinking with whether or if:
tenses, show that an event continues and/or is J:t I ••.•'as tlti111ei11g ,,t,/tcther V6U 'id W¡;C to camc reunid fa
temporary: my placc fin coffcc:
Fve been meaning lo tell you about it since the ./I was thinking - would you like to come round to
weekend. Next October ['ll have been playing with my place for cojjee?
J was wondering whether you'd like to come round
this team for ten years. He'd been drívingfor hours
a.nd he l1eededa rest. to my place jOr coffie?
• We use Past or Present Perfect Continuous to taIk
abour something that is incomplete, just finishing
or about to change. The Past and Present Perfect
Verb and other structures that can be followed by a
Simple can suggest the action is fmished:
['d been staríng at the computer screen all evening
to-infinitive can a1sobe followed by a Continuous
when a solution suddenly stnLck me. I've been reading
infinitive to emphasise that something is still
\Var and Peace again. (= 1 may not have finished) continuing or is temporary:
Tt',\ridiculous for him to be dríving in central A.ther¡s
['ve read War and Peace again. (= I've finished)
I1this age.
• The Continuous can emphasise the action; the
Several cycZistsare thought to have been taking drugs
Simple focuses 011the result:
during the race.
What have you been doing? (= tell me about your
activities) What have you done? (= tell me the
result of your activities)
o The difference betweel1 choosing Continuous or The Perfect Continuous passive is very uncommon
because it involves two forms of be:
Simple may only be a matter of emphasis rather
than meaning: The Botley Road has been being widened for the past
six weeks.
['ve been waiting herejOr over an hour:
(= emphasising how long)

We can use Pasr Continuous to taIk about plans in

Match the example sentences (1-5) with the
the past:
explanations (a- e) of the uses of the Cominuous.
We were meeting at eight o'cZockand [was already late.
1 I was going to try to finish this tbis evening.
o We can use was going to to taIk about plans in the
past that we still haven't carried out or that we no 2 1was wondering whether you' d thought of going
to see that new film?
longer intend to carry out:
1 was going to phone you but [forgot. 3 He was blinking rapidly in the unaccustomed
• We can use 1was thinking ... to introduce vague
4 1was thinking of meeting Suzette later.
future plans:
5 I've been thinking a lot recently abolit your idea.
1 was thinking of going to London this weekend.
a repeated action
3: U1SDIi'·]~ !:"'ASi eDItJT9ii'JfUlOUS !{>O~ POU1¿ b plans you no longer have or are no longer sure
~~Q(\jll:SrS about
We often use Past Continuous to introduce polite c vague future plans
d polite suggestion
requests, suggestions or inquiries so that they
e emphasising the continuing activity

~ A fj'nen d of yours h as
drafted a composition butq¡¡
is having difficulty with continuous
(1) Tick (./) the correct sentence, a or b.
verb forms and asks you to help.
Example: Whích sentence would be said after one particular meal? Tick (/) the most suitable ofthe
a I'vé eaten too much . ./ b I've been eating too mucho two underlined alternatives your
Whích sentence refers to a temporary friend has given you. The rrrst has
situation? been done for you.
a That lamp sits on that table over I don't normally go to the cinema.
there. Not because I don't like it but
b You're sitting in my seat. because it's justa habít I have never
2 Whích activity is probably not
got into. However, on this occasion 1
completed? decided (./) / was deciding to go
a I've been writing this essay all because my mends (1) had been
evening. constantly going / had constantly
b I've written to him asking for an appointment. gane on about this film all week and
3 Whích is a gradual process? eventually wore me down. It starred
a The increase in traffic noise is becoming a real nuisance. some ephemeral Hollywood actor
b John becomes President of Oxford Rotary Club in Julr whom 1 (2) had vaguely heard of /
4 Whích would you say when you look out of the window early
had vaguely been hearing of but
one morning? couldn't put a face to. We got to the
a It's been raining. b It was raining. cinema eady to frnd people (3) were
5 Whích is a more certain plan? already waiting / already waited
a I was thinking of spending the weekend at my síster's. outside, which suggested that my
b I'm planning to spend the weekend at my sister's. mends weren't the only ones who
6 You saw a colleague waiting for a bus on your way to work. Whích
thought it was worth seeing -
would you say to your other colleagues when you get to the office although I could still think of several
to explain why she was there? other things I would rather (4) have
a She might have gone to see her dentist. been doing / do at that momento
b She might have been going to see her dentist. In the end, the film (5) turned out /
e Match the questions (1-8) with suitable answers (a-h).
1 Why didn't you call?
was turning out to be hot half as bad
as expected, though 1 (6) would have
preferred / would have been
2 When do you think they'll be here?
preferring something with a bit more
3 Why did they loa k so hot and sweaty?
action. The plot centred on two men
4 Why couldn't we use the rooms?
who were planning to carry out
5 Why are they so exhausted?
some immensely complicared
6 Why didn't the students respond?
robbery, though what they (7) didn't
7 Why were they apprehended?
know / weren't knowing was that all
8 What time are they setting off tomorrow?
the time their plans (8) were being
a They could be arriving at any momento closely monitored / were closely
b I think they' d been working out in the gym. monitored by the police. Somewhat
c They must have been doing something wrong. unpredictably, however, they got
d I was going to, but I clean forgot. away with it because they (9) changed
e They weren't listening. / were changing their plans at the
f Well, they hope to have been driving for five hours by lunchtime. last minute. It was okay but (10) I'm
g They were being cleaned. not thinking / 1 don't think of going
h They've been working all day up in the attíe. again.
L{{ l· (:.r-l e ¡"',fr.. \t:! "':f'
t -- .A-¡'

~ ~
(1) ¡hough¡ (2) walked / s¡eppecl 1 (that) tbey had
(3) never (4) is (5) me¡ 2 checked / made sure that ¡he
electricity had
Entt·y test ($}
3 !
realised remembered (that) we had
1 (1) got (2) fallen
(3) los¡ (4) count 4 will / shall / '11have finished
a ¡eft (5) enough / it (6) wondered 5 to have
b have been staying (7) done / had (8) torn
6 will have left / will be heading
e have ever gol (9) made / cracked (10) arrived 7 to have
d have all finished / all finish
~ 8 had no alternative./ option / choice
e to see. 1 rve finished / [ finish
2 2 [haven't come
1 had recently := 1 have recently
a had been (wol'king/trainingas) 3 has run / has been ¡ went := 1 have / I've been
b been thinking 01 (01': toying with the 4 like she / as if she has / she's
1 have once spent := 1 once spent
idea 01) 5 best pizza I've / [ have ever
e had been 1 had loved := 1 loved
6 makes / it is that makes 1 rerurned := 1 have returned
d havíng been / being 7 has done nothing
e to have ro had been := to have been
8 ro get / to have gOl
have been delayed := were delayed
we have eX¡:1ected:= we expected / we
a have you been
1 gave up smoking almost ayear had expected
b was trying / had been trying
e wíll have been 2 was last seen
d have been 3 join you [he minute we have SECTION 3
e thinking 01 (or: toying with the idea 01) 4 yet to see such
4 check
a 90in9 to be b comes to a c will have SECTION 2 lb2d3a4c5e
been d the point e to leave
SECTION 1 1 unfulfilled plan
2 Past Perfeet with before ~)
3 obvious time sequenee: use Past Perfee[ (tick:) 1 b 2a 3a 4a 5b 6b
1 It's the third time he has / he's missed or Past Simple ~
4 Future Perfect with by t/te time 1d 2a 3b 4g 5h 6e 7c 8f
a meeting.
5 appear + Perfect infinitive
2 As soon as he fjnishes (01': has
fjnished), he 's going ha me,
(tick:) (1) had been constantly going
3 Tbis is the best lasagne I have / I've
ever hado (2) had vaguely heard of (3) were already
4 Since we've known each other, he has waiting (4) have been doing (5) turned
lb 2f 3d 4e 5g 6h 7e 8a out (6) would have preferred (7) didn't
/ he's always shown impeeeable know (8) were being dosely
5 Sinee I met her, I've never seen her lose monitored (9) changed (10) I'm not
By the time he is fifty; he will have
her temper. lived/will have been living in this
country for half his life.
~'f" i :-.~~
.=~¡¡;-.~~"'. ~~rr~'
p 19
2 1t's a surprise party and they won't know SECTION 4
anything abolit it untiJ they get here.
~ 3 Correct dleck
1 ,/ 4 The other seventy guests should have 1 fixed plans / arrangemems
2 That's the seeond time you've arrived / should arrive before Mikis and 2 a personal imention
forgotten to post something for me. Maria get here. 3 an unalterable arrangement or faet
1 haven't seen Peter since he began 5 By the time we have Hnished, 4 an immediate decision
seeing bis new girlfriend. everybody will have eaten and drunk as 5 an aetion that will happen because it is
4 Evet since we met, you have / you've much as they can. regular 01' decided
never asked me what I prefer to do.
5 In all my life, I have / I've never
spoken to someone / anyone who is 1 to have forgotten that tomorrow is my R~1Uf.JJP~
quite so stupid. birthday <'il",;.
6 .¡ . 2 having got / beeome hopelessly lost (tick:) 1 she's going to
7 .¡ more than once, 2 1'11

8 Since he's lived here, he has / he's 3 by the time we get round to having / 3 I'm going to be
booking a holiday. 4 I'n
usually been extremely friendly. 4 is / was felt to have been less [han
9 They'll join us after they get / 've 5 am leaving
satisfactory. 6 is not
got /'ve had a bite to eat.
10 .¡ 5 ought [Q have phoned by now, surely? 7 would
6 will have forgotten ali abom it by the 8 will be doing
time you see them again.