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Lesson Plans

CompTIA’s Network+
(Exam N10-002)
Table of Contents
CompTIA’s Network+ ......................................................................................................1
Table of Contents...............................................................................................................1
Course Overview................................................................................................................2
Course Preparation............................................................................................................4
Section 1-1: Networking Theory.......................................................................................5
Section 1-2: Standards Organizations..............................................................................8
Section 1-3: A Typical Computer Network...................................................................10
Section 1-4: Varieties of Computer Networks...............................................................13
Section 2-1: The OSI Application Layer........................................................................16
Section 2-2: The OSI Presentation Layer......................................................................18
Section 2-3: The OSI Session Layer...............................................................................21
Section 2-4: The OSI Transport Layer..........................................................................23
Section 2-5: The OSI Network Layer.............................................................................25
Section 2-6: The OSI Data Link Layer..........................................................................28
Section 2-7: The OSI Physical Layer.............................................................................31
Section 2-8: Multi-Layer Concepts.................................................................................34
Section 3-1: Cables and Connectors...............................................................................36
Section 3-2: Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)................................................................................39
Section 3-3: Other LAN Standards................................................................................43
Section 3-4: WAN Links..................................................................................................46
Section 4-1: Common Protocol Suites............................................................................50
Section 4-2: TCP/IP.........................................................................................................56
Section 5-1: Security........................................................................................................65
Section 5-2: Fault Tolerance...........................................................................................70
Section 5-3: Performance................................................................................................73
Section 6-1: Installation...................................................................................................75
Section 6-2: Maintenance................................................................................................78
Section 6-3: Troubleshooting..........................................................................................80
Appendix A: Network+ Exam Objectives.....................................................................84

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Course Overview
This course prepares students for the Microsoft certification Exam N10-002, CompTIA's
Network+ Certification.

Before beginning the Network+ course, students should have a basic knowledge of
computer hardware and software. CompTIA's A+ certification is excellent preparation.
Recommend that students consider completing the following courses:

o TestOut for CompTIA's A+ Core Hardware


o TestOut for CompTIA's A+ Operating System Technologies

Module 1
Module 1 introduces the concept of a network.

Module 2
Module 2 explains details of the OSI model.

Module 3
Module 3 introduces Physical and Data Link standards used to build a network's
foundation.

Module 4
Module 4 introduces common protocols that correspond to the upper layers of the OSI
model. The focus is the TCP/IP protocol suite.

Module 5
Module 5 explains principles for managing access to the network and its resources.

Module 6
Module 6 explains and summarizes several network administration tips.

Module 7
Module 7 reviews details for the Network+ exam. It is meant to be used as a final review
and study guide.

Network+ Exam Focus


This section of each lesson plan summarizes the most important topics for the Network+
exam. If your course focuses on exam preparation, be sure to emphasize these topics.

Lab/Activities
This section of each lesson plan contains two different types of activities that can be
adapted to your classroom environment. Lecture activities can be presented on the board
or with handouts. They do not require student computers, so they work well in a

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
traditional classroom. Computer lab activities require a lab where students are able to
configure their own computers. If you don’t teach in a computer lab, the computer lab
activities can be used as homework.

Homework Suggestions
Require each student to maintain a lab notebook. This could be a simple spiral notebook
or a three-ring binder. As part of their homework and during lab activities, have students
record/document the steps required to complete certain procedures. Recording procedures
reinforces steps and concepts, and gives the student a place to look for directions when
they want to repeat a task, but don’t remember the exact procedure. It also provides an
assessment tool for the instructor.

The Homework Suggestions section also lists the focus question for the next section.
Present this question at the end of class. Start each class with the focus question presented
in the previous class. Encourage students to be prepared to answer the question, but make
sure they understand that you don’t need a complete answer. You want them to preview
the next section for a basic answer. This can help stimulate a better quality discussion and
questions during the lecture. It will also help you assess student understanding of the
topic.

Consider the focus question for Section 1-3. What are the major components of a
computer network? Students should be able to provide simple responses such as:
• Resources, servers, and clients.
• Connectivity devices like routers and hubs.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Course Preparation
In Advance
Setup TestOut courseware and create student accounts. You may want to arrange a tour
of your building’s infrastructure. It’s a great way to enforce networking concepts.

Instructor computer setup


Install Windows 2000 Server on the instructor computer. You may want to set up the
computer to dual boot between Windows 2000 server and Professional. Most of the
concepts can be adequately demonstrated on Windows 2000 Professional computer.
However, there are a few places where a server is helpful. For example, in Section 2-5, if
you are running Windows 2000 Server you can use your computer to demonstrate routing
concepts. This material assumes you are running Windows 2000, but you could also use
Windows NT 4.0.

Ideally, your classroom hub or switch will be accessible so you can unplug the classroom
network from the rest of the network. This allows you to practice items that are
potentially disruptive. When running something that is potentially disruptive, simply
unplug the classroom until the practice is over. For example, when students practice
assigning IP addresses, unplug the classroom so you don’t have to worry about duplicate
IP addresses.

Student computer setup


Computers need to be able to run the TestOut material. Because the TestOut material
contains audio, computer should have sound cards. You may want to require students to
bring their own headphones or provide them. The suggested computer labs were written
for Windows 2000 Professional computers, but most labs can be adapted to other
Windows operating systems.

One way to create this a practice lab is to use removable hard drives in the student
computers. Students check out the drives for their classes. This allows you to teach
multiple classes in a single lab, while preventing one class from damaging or destroying
the installations used by another class. To facilitate the frequent computer operating
system rebuilds required by this type of lab, consider investing in disk duplication
software. You could also create unattended installation files to automate the baseline
Windows 2000 installations needed for the lab computers.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 1-1: Networking Theory
Preparation
This section introduces basic networking concepts. Before class, make sure the
courseware is installed and student accounts have been created.

Exam Objectives
2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions.
3.5 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance.
3.6 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery.

Vocabulary: network, resource, service, client, OSI model, application layer,


presentation layer, session layer, transport layer, network layer, data link layer,
physical layer

Focus Question: What is a computer network?

Time
About 2 hours

Network+ Exam Focus


Network Components
• Router - A device that connects two or more segments of a network with different
IDs, and routes data between each segment.
• Hub - A device that connects multiple computers together in a local area network.
When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all
segments of the LAN can see all packets.
• Switch - A hub that directs a network packet only to the destination host's port
instead of all ports, as a normal hub does. Doing so increases network
performance.
• Repeater - A device that baseband networking systems use to regenerate digital
signals when they attenuate.
• Gateway - Any device that translates between protocols. A gateway can be
hardware or software based.
OSI Model
• Be able to recite the OSI layers in order, identify the main purpose of each layer,
and associate devices with the correct layer.

Lecture Tips
• Introduce Instructor.
• Have each student introduce themselves, explain why they are taking the course,
and what they hope to get out of it.
• Hand out and explain syllabus, lab policies, and any other required introductory
material.

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• Explain the lab notebook to students and make sure they understand that they
must have a notebook for the next class session.
• Demonstrate login to network.
• Demonstrate how to access the courseware.
• Counsel students who don’t meet the prerequisite requirements. Before beginning
the Network+ course, students should have a basic knowledge of computer
hardware and software. CompTIA's A+ certification is excellent preparation.
• Introduce the concept of a computer network.
o Computers connected to exchange information.
• Define network resources, services, and clients.
• Briefly introduce the OSI model. Explain the function of each OSI layer.
o Application layer.
o Presentation layer.
o Session layer.
o Transport layer.
o Network layer.
o Data link layer.
o Physical layer.
• Introduce OSI mnemonics.
o All People Should Transport Network Data Physically.
o Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away.
• Introduce managing network access.
o Define network security.
o Define network fault tolerance.
o Define network performance.
• Introduce common network administration tasks.
o Installation.
o Maintenance.
o Troubleshooting.

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• Have the class recite the OSI mnemonics aloud a few times.
• Try activities to help students put the OSI layers in the correct order, and identify
function of each layer.
o Label cards with OSI layers and hand them out to the class. Have students
line up in the correct order.
o Have students write the OSI layers in order three times.
o Bring labeled blocks and ask students to stack them.
o Give a student a function and ask him or her to identify the layer.
o Give a student a layer and ask him or her to identify the function.
• The following idea would make a nice pop quiz for the next class period.
o Write the OSI layers in order and define the main purpose of each layer.
Computer Lab Activity
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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• Log on to the network and start the courseware.

Assessment
Use the introduction to basic networking terms to check prerequisite background. As
students log on and start the courseware, check for basic interface skills. Students who
have trouble finding the Start Menu or using the mouse probably belong in a basic skills
course.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 1-1 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o How are networking standards set?

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Section 1-2: Standards Organizations
Preparation
This section introduces several organizations that are involved in setting networking
standards.

Vocabulary: ISO, IEEE, ISOC, InterNIC, ICANN, IEC, ANSI, ITU, EIA/TIA,
RFC

Focus Question: How are networking standards set?

Time
About 30 minutes

Network+ Exam Focus


This section does not directly address any exam objectives. However, some of these
organizations are mentioned later in the course when students are introduced to standards.
For example, exam requirements include knowledge of the IEEE 802.2 standard.

. Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Briefly discuss the role of each of the standards organizations.
o ISO
o IEEE
o ISOC
• Discuss RFCs.
o InterNIC
o ICANN
o IEC
o ANSI
o ITU
o EIA/TIA

Lab/Activity
Computer Lab Activity
• Go to http://www.icann.org/ and find out how to register for an Internet domain
name.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 1-2 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What are the major components of a typical network?
• Use the Internet to find an RFC describing private IP addressing. (Don’t expect
students to read or understand the RFC at this point.) Where did you find it?
• Go to http://standards.ieee.org/.
o Search for Ethernet. What number(s) is/are associated with the Ethernet
standard?
o Search for Token Ring. What number(s) is/are associated with the Token
Ring standard?

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 1-3: A Typical Computer Network
Preparation
This section introduces components used to build a typical computer network.

Exam Objectives
1.6 Identify the purpose, features, and functions of network components.
2.4 Identify the OSI layers at which network components operate.
3.4 Identify the main characteristics of network attached storage.

Vocabulary: client, server, resource, workstation, thin client, service software,


protocol, network card, driver, client software, application, cable, repeater, hub,
patch panel, bridge, switch, router, gateway

Focus Question: What are the major components of a typical network?

Time
About 1 hour

Network+ Exam Focus


Network Components
• Network Interface Card (NIC) - A device inserted into a slot in a computer that
allows it to connect to the network.
Network Implementation
• Network Attached Storage (NAS) - Another name for a file server. Offers storage
space to clients. NAS differs from a storage area network (SAN) in that a SAN
offers high-speed data storage and retrieval to servers only.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Introduce typical computer network components.
o Resources, servers, clients, connectivity devices.
• Discuss network resources and servers.
o Service software.
o Protocol software.
o Network card and driver.
o Explain the difference between:
• External server devices.
• External server devices including resources.
• NAS – another name for a file server.
• Internal server devices.
• Discuss client computers.

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o Applications.
o Client software.
o Protocol software.
o Network card and driver.
• Discuss network communication between two devices.
o Explain how the network communication takes place with respect to the
OSI model.
• Use a diagram of the OSI layers on two computers. Show how data
passes down the OSI layers on the first computer, over the physical
connection, and up the OSI layers on the second computer.
o Explain how the network communication can be passed through
connectivity devices.
• Stress the fact that a connectivity device operates at specific
layer(s) of the OSI model. Students need to be able to associate
devices with layers for the certification exam.
• Discuss connectivity devices.
o Physical layer .
• Cable
• Repeater
• Hub (passive and active)
• Patch panel
o Data link layer.
• Bridge
• Switch
o Network layer.
• Router
o Various layers.
• Gateway

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• Write layers and devices on slips of paper and put them in a box. Have each
student retrieve a card and identify the layer associated with the device or one
device associated with the layer.
• The following idea would make a nice pop quiz for the next class period.
o Give students a list of devices and have them identify the layers at which
the devices work
Computer Lab Activity
• If you can, take a tour of a wiring closet and point out cables, patch panels, hubs,
routers, etc.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 1-3 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o How are networks classified, and what types of services do they typically
provide?
• Read a few resources from Cisco. (You may want to skim these and reread after
completing Module 2.)
o White Paper: Layer 3 Switching Demystified.
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/so/neso/lnso/cpso/l3c85_wp.htm
o LAN Switching and VLANS.
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/lanswtch.htm#
xtocid1
o Internetworking Technology Handbook.
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/ is a great
source for introductions to many networking topics.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 1-4: Varieties of Computer Networks
Preparation
This section introduces some of the major factors that influence network type, such as
network size and network standards.

Exam Objectives
1.6 Identify the purpose, features, and functions of network components.
2.11 Identify the basic characteristics of WAN technologies.
2.12 Define the function of remote access protocols and services.

Vocabulary: LAN, MAN, WAN, peer-to-peer, server-based, protocol suite, file


server, web server, print server, mail server, fax server, application server,
database server, remote access server, directory server, share level security, user
level security, password protected shares, authentication, network operating
system

Focus Question: How are networks classified, and what types of services do they
typically provide?

Time
About 1 hour

Network+ Exam Focus


Remote Access Protocols
• ICA - A protocol developed by Citrix, which allows a user to remotely control an
application (such as a word processor) on a server. The application remains on the
server and the interface is presented to the user.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Networks can be classified by size and scope. Explain each concept. How does
your network fit into these categories?
o LAN
o MAN
o WAN
• Briefly mention LAN and WAN standards. These are covered in detail later in the
course, so at this point simply mention that they exist.
o LAN technologies.
• Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Token Ring, FDDI.
• What does your network use?
o WAN technologies.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• PSTN, T1/E1 or T3/E3, SONet, SDH, ISDN, DSL, DOCSIS,
Frame Relay, ATM.
• What does your network use?
• What do students use to connect to the Internet from home?
• Briefly mention protocol suites. These are covered in detail later in the course, so
at this point simply mention that they exist.
o Define protocol suite/stack.
o TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBIOS/NetBEUI, AppleTalk, SNA, DNA, XNS,
VINES.
• Discuss client/service roles.
o Peer-to-peer networks.
o Server-base networks (client/server networks).
o What does your network use?
• Networks provide services and resources. Discuss common services. Whenever
possible, use examples from your own network environment. Do students use any
of these services at school? What types of servers are providing these resources?
o File
o Web
o Print
o Mail
o Fax
o Application
o Database
o Directory
o Remote access
o ICA
• Developed by Citrix.
• Allows a user to remotely control an application (such as a word
processor) on a server.
• The application remains on the server and the interface is presented
to the user.
• Discuss security models. Use your own network as an example.
o Share level security.
• Password protected shares.
o User level security.
• Authentication.
o What type of security does your network use? How do students access
resources?
o Discuss vendors and network operating systems.
o Define network operating system.
o Peer-to-peer with share-level security.
• Microsoft Windows 9x (95, 98, or ME), Microsoft Windows 3.11
for Workgroups, Apple Macintosh OS, IBM OS/2 Warp Client,
Artisoft LANtastic.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
o Peer-to-peer with user-level security.
• Microsoft Windows NT Workstation, 2000 Professional, XP
Home, XP Professional, UNIX.
o Server-based with user-level security.
• Microsoft Windows NT Server, 2000 Server, or .NET Server,
Novell NetWare, UNIX, AppleShare IP, Apple Macintosh OS
Server, IBM OS/2 Warp Server, Banyan VINES, IBM LAN
Server, Microsoft LAN Manager.

Lab/Activity
Computer Lab Activity
• Log on to the network as a group. Discuss the logon screen and user vs. share
level security. What type of security are you using? How do you know? Do the
interfaces and operating system give you any indication of the type of security?
• Use My Network Places (Network Neighborhood) to browse your computer
network.
o Identify servers and discuss the services provided by each server.
o Identify client computers. Are any of them participating in a peer-to-peer
network?

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 1-4 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What are the functions of the application layer of the OSI model?
• On a Windows 2000 Professional computer, right-click My Computer, then click
Manage. Browse to System Tools > Local Users and Groups > Users. What user
accounts exist? Does this computer use share or user level security?
• On a Windows 9x/Me computer, logon with a user name. Then logon again with a
different user name. Log on again, but this time cancel the logon dialog box so
that no user name is entered. Are these actual user accounts? Do they control your
ability to use the computer? What are they for?

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 2-1: The OSI Application Layer
Preparation
The Application layer of the OSI model (Layer 7) describes how network clients learn
about and use network services. This section discusses concepts related to the
Application layer.

Exam Objectives
2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions.

Vocabulary: service advertisement, active service advertisement, passive service


advertisement, active client advertisement, passive client advertisement, service
protocols

Focus Question: What are the functions of the application layer of the OSI
model?

Time
About 1 hour

Network+ Exam Focus


OSI Model
• The Application layer provides an interface to the software that allows programs
to use network services. The term application does not refer to a specific program,
such as a word processor.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• The Application layer provides an interface to the software that allows programs
to use network services.
o The term application does not refer to a specific program, such as a word
processor; this is a common misunderstanding.
o Example: You are running Word and try to open a file stored on a file
server and the request for the file is transferred to the network by the
application layer.
• Briefly discuss service advertisement.
o Active service advertisement.
o Passive service advertisement.
o Active client advertisement.
o Passive client advertisement.
• Discuss service protocols.
o Remind students of major services: file, print, web, mail, fax, application,
database, directory, remote access.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
o There are protocols to support each of these services. A few examples that
students may recognize:
• HTTP supports transfer of web files between web servers and web
clients.
• SMTP allows a client to send mail. POP3 allows a client to receive
mail.
• What protocol does your network use for its directory service?

Lab/Activity
Computer Lab Activity
• Explore a few service protocols. (Check sites to make sure they are available
before class.)
o Use a browser to open http://www.microsoft.com and an ftp site. Point
out the http and ftp protocols. They tell the browser which service protocol
you are using.
o Open a mail client such as Outlook Express. Open the properties for a mail
account and point out the POP, IMAP, and SMTP server configuration
parameters.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 2-1 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What are the functions of the presentation layer of the OSI model?
• Research the following question. Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol suite contains the
Service Advertisement Protocol (SAP). What type of advertisement technique
does it use?

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 2-2: The OSI Presentation Layer
Preparation
The Presentation layer of the OSI model (Layer 6) describes how information is
translated into an appropriate format to be transmitted over a network. This section
discusses concepts related to the Presentation layer.

Before class, prepare the lecture activity.

Exam Objectives
2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions.

Vocabulary: data encryption, data compression, symmetric encryption, secret key


encryption, session key, asymmetric encryption, public key, private key, digital
signature, digital envelope, signing, sealing

Focus Question: What are the functions of the presentation layer of the OSI
model?

Time
About 1 hour

Network+ Exam Focus


OSI Model
• The Presentation layer acts as a translator between the application and the
network. It formats data in a fashion that the network can use. It manages
encryption and decryption. Presentation layer protocols also code and decode
graphic and file format information.
• The details of data encryption are not required for the Network+ exam. However,
this topic comes up frequently in networking and computer security, so if you
have time in your schedule, cover it.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• The Presentation layer acts as a translator between the application and the
network. It formats data in a fashion that the network can use. It manages
encryption and decryption. Presentation layer protocols also code and decode
graphic and file format information.
• Discuss data encryption.
o Symmetric encryption (secret key encryption).
• One key is used to encrypt and decrypt.
• How do you exchange the key safely?
o Asymmetric encryption.

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• Public key available to anyone.
• Private key kept secret.
• Digital signature used to sign a message – proof of identity .
• Digital envelope use to seal a message – keep the message secret.
o Use the lecture activity to help students understand this topic
• Discuss data compression.
o Communicate using less data.
o Why do you want data compression when you make a 56K dial-up
connection to your ISP?
o Why do we compress pictures posted on the web? What is a jpeg?

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• Make two identical keys. Label them both symmetric. Make two different keys.
Label one private and the other public. You also need a piece of paper to represent
a message and an envelope.
• Symmetric encryption activity.
o Give a symmetric key to one student. Explain that you are using your key
to encrypt your message. Then pass the message around the class.
 Who can read the message?
 What is the security issue with this technique? (How do you keep
the key secret – you need to get a copy of it to the person who is
supposed to be able to read the message.)
• Asymmetric encryption activity.
o Put your public key on display in front of the class, and put your private
key in your pocket or desk.
o Give the message paper to a student. Ask him or her to encrypt the
message with your public key. (Have student put the message in the
envelope and lock it with the key.)
 Why can the student encrypt the message? (Stress the point that
your public key really is public and anyone can use it to encrypt
something.)
o Pass the message around the class until it gets to you. Make a point of
using your private key to open the envelope, but don’t let them see your
private key. (It’s private!)
 Who can read the message?
 What happens if your private key is compromised?
o Now demonstrate signing. Write your name on the message and use your
private key to encrypt the signature.
 Who can decrypt the signature? (Stress that they all have access to
the public key.)
 What is the point of signing the message? (You are the only one
with your public key. If students can decrypt your signature, you
must have sent the message.)

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
 What happens if your private key is compromised? (Someone else
can pretend to be you!)
Computer Lab Activity
• Open or create a .bmp with Paint. Save the file using the .gif format. Open file
properties, or use Windows Explorer to determine the size of each file. How much
was the file compressed when you saved it as a gif?

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 2-2 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What are the functions of the session layer of the OSI model?
• Use the Internet to investigate PGP – Pretty Good Privacy.
• Use the Internet to investigate encryption restrictions.
o Many countries restrict access to or export of encryption technologies.
o Why? What types of restrictions can you find? Does the US have any
restrictions?

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 2-3: The OSI Session Layer
Preparation
The Session layer of the OSI model (Layer 5) describes how network clients and services
establish, maintain, and terminate communication sessions with each other. This section
discusses concepts related to the Session layer.

Get a couple small, soft balls for the lecture activity.

Exam Objectives
2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions.

Vocabulary: connection-oriented communication, connectionless


communication, session initialization, session maintenance, session termination

Focus Question: What are the functions of the session layer of the OSI model?

Time
About 1 hour

Network+ Exam Focus


OSI Model
• The Session layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing and
maintaining a connection between two nodes on the network. It describes how
network clients and services establish, maintain, and terminate communication
sessions with each other.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• The Session layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing and
maintaining a connection between two nodes on the network. It describes how
network clients and services establish, maintain, and terminate communication
sessions with each other.
o The term “traffic cop” is often used to describe this layer
• Do the lecture activity.
• Discuss connection-oriented.
o Establish, maintain, terminate the connection.
o Creates a session.
o Reliable.
o Creates overhead.
• Discuss connectionless communication.
o Does not verify existence of the other device.
o Does not establish, maintain, or terminate the connection.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 21


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
o Less reliable.
o Less overhead.
• Discuss connection-oriented communication phases.
o Session initialization (handshaking).
o Session maintenance (data transmission phase).
o Session termination (connection release).

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• You want to introduce the idea of making a connection before starting to
communicate. Don’t give the students any warning. Simply toss a ball to someone
in the class. Then tell another student that you are going to toss a ball his or her
way, and throw the ball.
o If you want someone to catch the ball, which approach is more reliable?
o If all you are worried about is throwing the ball, which approach is faster?
o Which approach takes more effort on your part?

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 2-3 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What are the functions of the transport layer of the OSI model?
• Research TCP, which is a connection oriented protocol. How does TCP perform
handshaking?

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 22


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 2-4: The OSI Transport Layer
Preparation
The Transport layer of the OSI model (Layer 4) describes how messages are accurately
delivered between network clients and services. This section discusses concepts related to
the Transport layer.

Exam Objectives
2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions.

Vocabulary: acknowledged communication, unacknowledged communication,


error control, flow control, receive buffer, guaranteed rate flow control, stop-and-
wait flow control, stop-and-go flow control, source-quench flow control,
windowed flow control

Focus Question: What are the functions of the transport layer of the OSI model?

Time
About 1 hour

Network+ Exam Focus


OSI Model
• The Transport layer makes sure that messages are transferred from node A to
node B reliably, without errors, and in the correct sequence. It manages flow
control, the speed at which the recipient can accept data. If a message is too large
for type of network, the Transport layer breaks the message into smaller pieces.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• The Transport layer makes sure that messages are transferred from node A to
node B reliably, without errors, and in the correct sequence.
o It manages flow control, the speed at which the recipient can accept data.
o If a message is too large for type of network, the Transport layer breaks
the message into smaller pieces.
• Example: Most Ethernet networks cannot use packets greater than
1500 bytes. Token Ring packets may be much larger (4,464 to
17,914 bytes). If a packet is too large when it passes from the
Token Ring network to the Ethernet network, it has to be broken
into smaller pieces.
• Use the lecture activity to introduce acknowledged and unacknowledged
communication.
• Define acknowledged communication.
o More overhead, accurate communication.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 23


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
o Example: TCP sends back messages in effect saying, “yes I got that data.”
• Define unacknowledged communication.
o Quick, but less accurate.
• Define error control.
o The sender should resend segments that are not received.
• Use the lecture activity to introduce the need for flow control.
• Define flow control.
o The sender should send data as rapidly as possible, without overwhelming
the receiver.
o Explain receive buffers.
o Briefly mention different approaches to flow control.
• Guaranteed rate flow control.
• Stop-and-wait flow control.
• Stop-and-go flow control.
• Source-quench flow control.
• Windowed flow control.

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• Introduce acknowledged and unacknowledged communication. You need a few
note cards to represent message segments.
o With two students, one student passes a card to another. The second
student must say “I have card 1” before the first student can pass the next
card.
o With two students, one student passes a card to another. The first student
simply hands the cards over as fast as he can. The second student takes the
cards, but doesn’t say anything, even if he drops a card. (Encourage the
second student to drop a card.)
o Which technique is faster? Which is more accurate? Which generates
more overhead?
• Introduce the need for flow control. Draw a picture of a device with three buffers.
Have another device rapidly send messages. What happens to the messages when
the buffer is full?

Assessment
Did students participate?

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 2-4 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What are the functions of the network layer of the OSI model?
• Research TCP windowed flow control. How does it work?

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 24


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 2-5: The OSI Network Layer
Preparation
The Network layer of the OSI model (Layer 3) describes how data is routed to its
destination. This section discusses basic concepts related to the Network layer.

Before class, configure your computer as a router. If you only have one NIC in the
computer, use Add/Remove Hardware to install a second, fake NIC. Configure the IP
settings for the NIC. Run the RRAS wizard and configure the computer as a router. Open
Routing and Remote Access, right click the server, and select Enable Routing and
Remote Access. Select the router option and follow the steps in the wizard. This sets up a
routing table that you can demonstrate for the class.

If your computer is not normally configured as a router, after class, open Routing and
Remote Access, right click the server, and select Disable Routing and Remote Access.
Then use Device Manager to uninstall the fake NIC.

Exam Objectives
1.6 Identify the purpose, features, and functions of the following network
components:
2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions.
2.4 Identify the OSI layers at which the following network components
operate:

Vocabulary: routable, non-routable, network address, point-to-point addressing,


multi-point addressing, circuit switched, packet switched, source intelligent,
router intelligent, packet intelligent, permanent circuits, on-demand circuits, store-
and-forward data transfer, cut-through data transfer, route table, static routing
table, dynamic routing table, unicast, multicast, broadcast

Focus Question: What are the functions of the network layer of the OSI model?

Time
About 1½ hours

Network+ Exam Focus


OSI Model
• The Network layer determines how data is routed from one part of the network to
another. It also resolves the logical computer address (at the network layer) with
the physical address of the network adapter (at the data link layer).
Network Components
• Router - A device that connects two or more segments of a network with
different IDs, and routes data between each segment.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 25


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
WAN Technologies
• Packet switching - A technology that allows packets from the same transmission
to take different routes to reach their destination.
• Circuit switching - A technology that creates a dedicated route or circuit between
two hosts on a WAN. All data moves along that route.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• The Network layer determines how data is routed from one part of the network to
another. It also resolves the logical computer address (at the network layer) with
the physical address of the network adapter (at the data link layer).
o The network layer is responsible for routing data between subnetworks. It
needs some type of addressing to identify computers, so it can decide
where to send the messages.
• Define network addressing. (Stress this topic.)
o Discuss non-routable addressing.
o Discuss routable addressing.
o Draw a picture of a network with a router connecting a few segments.
Explain how non-routable and routable addressing works in this
environment.
• A non-routable address does not have segment IDs, so computers
on different segments cannot communicate.
• A routable address has segment IDs, so computers on different
segments can communicate.
• Explain the difference between point-to-point and multipoint addressing. (Stress
this topic.)
o Point-to-point – send a message from one computer to another computer
• Unicast.
o Point-to-multicast – send a message from one computer to many
• Broadcast.
• Multicast.
• Define routing.
o What is the function of a router? (Stress this topic.)
• It looks at the network address on a message and determines where
to send the message.
o Very briefly discuss routing methods (This is not needed for the exam.)
• Circuit switched.
• Packet switched.
• Source intelligent.
• Router intelligent.
• Packet intelligent.
• Permanent circuits.
• On-demand circuits.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 26


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• Store-and-forward data transfer.
• Cut-through data transfer.
• Discuss route tables.
o This is how the router determines where to send the message.
o Explain the difference between:
• Static route tables.
• Use the route command on your computer to show your
routing table. Point out that you have two NICs in your
computer.
o Type route /? for help.
• Administrator enters information manually.
• A lot of work in large environments.
• Dynamic route tables.
• Routing protocols allow routers to communicate and build
the tables dynamically.

Lab/Activity
Computer Lab Activity
• Use the route command to display the routing table on student computers.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 2-5 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What are the functions of the data link layer of the OSI model?
• Use the Internet to investigate routers. Compare features and price of two
different routers.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 27


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 2-6: The OSI Data Link Layer
Preparation
The Data Link layer of the OSI model (Layer 2) describes how one node prepares data to
be sent to another node, and how multiple nodes coordinate the use of a single physical
communication medium. This section discusses concepts related to the Data Link layer.

Before class create a handout listing about 5 to 10 different MAC addresses. Some
addresses should be legitimate, some not.

Exam Objectives
1.6 Identify the purpose, features, and functions of the following network
components:
2.1 Given an example, identify a MAC address.
2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions.
2.4 Identify the OSI layers at which the following network components
operate:
3.3 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs.

Vocabulary: framing, physical address, hardware address, MAC address, media


access control, CSMA/CA, CSMA/CD, sequencing, time division, token passing,
polling, bridge, switch, VLAN, broadcast domain

Focus Question: What are the functions of the data link layer of the OSI model?

Time
About 1 hour

Network+ Exam Focus


OSI Model
• The Data Link layer controls communication between the Network and Physical
layers. If divides data from the Network layer into frames that can be transmitted
on the Physical layer.
MAC Address
• A MAC address is a hardware address that uniquely identifies each host on a
network. Every NIC is hard-coded with a MAC address. It is comprised of six
pairs of hexadecimal numbers. An example of a MAC address is: 00-A9-23-B3-
55-FF.
Network Implementation
• Virtual LAN (VLAN) - A network of computers that behave as if they are
connected in a single segment even though they are physically located on
different segments of a LAN.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 28


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• The Data Link layer controls communication between the Network and Physical
layers. If divides data from the Network layer into frames that can be transmitted
on the Physical layer.
• Introduce framing.
o Synchronizing sender and receiver.
o Indicating the beginning and end of data transmission.
o Stress physical addressing.
• Physical address, hardware address, MAC address.
• Use ipconfig /all to show students the MAC address on the
instructor computer.
• Discuss media access control methods.
o CSMA.
• CSMA/CA.
• CSMA/CD.
o Sequencing.
• Time division.
• Token passing.
o Polling
• Discuss bridging, switching, and VLANs.
o Define broadcast domain
o What happens when many computers share the same broadcast domain?
How does lots of broadcast traffic affect your network?
o Explain how bridges work.
o Explain how switches work.
o Explain how VLANs work.

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• Pass out the handout and ask students to identify the legitimate MAC addresses.
(You may want to use this as pop quiz during your next class period.)
• Which of the following are legitimate MAC addresses?
o A9-11-0C-B3-97-G1
o JB-A9-45-AC-75-71
o 12-56-63-88-4H-FF
o 5D-92-E9-AA-52-FF
o EF-C4-D4-7C-23-5A
Computer Lab Activity
• Use ipconfig /all (or winipcfg) to determine the MAC addresses of the lab
computers. Record results in lab notebooks.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 29


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Assessment
Check lab notebooks. Check MAC address quiz.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 2-6 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What are the functions of the physical layer of the OSI model?
• Use the Internet to investigate switches. Compare features and price of two
different switches.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 30


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 2-7: The OSI Physical Layer
Preparation
The Physical layer describes how nodes generate physical signals and how the signals are
physically transmitted to other nodes. This section discusses concepts related to the
Physical layer.

Before class, collect examples of cables for demonstration. Prepare diagrams to help
explain the different network topologies. Create a handout containing pictures of different
physical topologies.

Exam Objectives
1.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a
schematic diagram or description:
1.6 Identify the purpose, features, and functions of the following network
components:
2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions.
2.4 Identify the OSI layers at which the following network components
operate:
4.10 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular
physical topology and including a network diagram, identify the network
area affected and the cause of the problem.
4.12 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a
wiring/infrastructure problem, identify the cause of the problem.

Vocabulary: communication media, electromagnetic spectrum, coaxial cable,


twisted pair cable, fiber-optic cable, point-to-point connection, multipoint
connection, network topology, bus, ring, star, tree, mesh, cellular, physical
topology, logical topology, hybrid topology, backbone, signaling, analog, digital,
broadband, baseband

Focus Question: What are the functions of the physical layer of the OSI model?

Time
About 1½ hours

Network+ Exam Focus


OSI Model
• Physical layer controls the way data is actually sent over the physical medium.
Network Topologies
• Bus - Hosts are connected along a single trunk cable.
• Ring - Each host is connected to its neighbor until all hosts in the network form a
ring.
• Star - Hosts are connected to hubs or switches

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 31


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• Mesh - Hosts have more than one connection to the network
Network Components
• Transceiver - the device that converts signals from the computer to signals sent
over the wire, and vice versa. Today, most transceivers are built into NICs.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Physical layer controls the way data is actually sent over the physical medium. It
addresses data coding and the physical components.
o Data coding specifies items such as which signal actually represents a 0
and which represents a 1.
• Discuss communication media.
o Electromagnetic spectrum.
• Radio, microwave, infrared.
• Wireless communication.
• Do students use any wireless devices? Do they know which
technology is used?
• Remote control, handheld computer.
o Common types of cable.
• Coaxial cable.
• Twisted pair cable.
• STP, UTP.
• Fiber-optic cable.
• Multimode, single-mode.
• What type of wire is used for cable TV? A phone line?
• Do any students have home networks? What communication media
do they use?
• What does the school use?
• Define network topology.
o Explain the difference between point-to-point connections and multipoint
connections..
o Present diagrams to help explain each of the different topologies
• Bus.
• Ring.
• Dual, counter-rotating rings.
• Star.
• Stress the difference between physical topology and logical
topology.
• Physical star, logical bus.
• Physical star, logical ring.
• Tree.
• Mesh.
• Partial mesh, full mesh.
©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 32
CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• Cellular.
• Hybrid topology.
• Backbone.
• Discuss signaling.
o Network cards contain transceivers. They transmit and receiver signals
over the communication medium.
• For example, the NIC prepares the signal to be sent over the wire
and picks up signals from the wire.
o Compare analog and digital signals. Draw pictures of signals.
• Analog – continuous.
• Digital – discrete.
o Compare broadband and baseband signals.

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• Pass out example cables as you discuss different types of communication media.
• Pass out the topology handout and ask students to identify each topology. (You
may want to use this as a pop quiz during your next class period.)
Computer Lab Activity
• Diagram the physical cable layout of the lab.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks. Check topology handouts.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 2-7 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o How do you use the OSI model in a real network?
• Draw a diagram of your home’s wiring infrastructure. This is most likely to be a
few cable TV lines, but it could also be a home network.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 33


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 2-8: Multi-Layer Concepts
Preparation
This section discusses concepts related to multiple layers of the OSI model.

Before class, prepare to demonstrate bindings on the instructor computer. Install an


additional protocol if there is only one installed.

Vocabulary: encapsulation, binding, multiplexing, addressing, resolution

Focus Question: How do you use the OSI model in a real network?

Time
About 1 hour

Network+ Exam Focus


This section does not directly address any exam objectives in detail. However, it does
introduce a few concepts that are important to exam topics later in the course.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Define logical communication channels.
o Stress the concept of encapsulation.
o Example: A remote client uses a modem to connect an ISP and then
connects to his business network over the Internet. Messages sent to the
business network are encapsulated so they can be sent over the Internet.
Messages are unpackaged when they arrive at the business so they can be
used on the business network.
• Define multiplexing, binding, and addressing.
o Stress the concept of binding. You can bind multiple protocols to a single
network card.
o Show students how to view bindings on your computer.
o Addressing occurs at multiple levels of the OSI model. Use an example:
• www.school.edu corresponds to IP address 165.13.5.233.
• 165.13.5.233 corresponds to MAC address 00-06-47-3F-57-DA.
• Discuss using the OSI model.
o The OSI model is a theoretical model, not the real world. Actual network
protocol implementations do not correspond directly to the OSI model.
Stress this fact, as it tends to cause confusion!
o Example: TCP/IP was developed independently of the OSI model.
Protocols loosely correspond to levels of the OSI model, but they don’t
match it exactly.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 34


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Lab/Activity
Computer Lab Activity
• What protocol or protocols are bound to the NIC on your lab computer?
o On Windows 2000/XP computers, open Network and Dial-up connections.
On the Advanced menu, select Advanced settings.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 2-8 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What types of cables and connectors are commonly used in networks?
• Use the Internet to investigate the OSI model. Can you find a protocol suite that
actually implements the OSI model (uses the model as it’s primary design guide)?
• Suppose you use your computer to connect to the web site www.microsoft.com.
Draw a diagram and explain the connection process between the your client
computer and the web server. Explain the connection in terms of the OSI model.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 35


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 3-1: Cables and Connectors
Preparation
This section introduces some common cable and connector standards used on computer
networks.

Collect cables, connectors and tools to demonstrate. Collect RJ-45 connectors, UTP, and
crimpers for the cable-making lab.

Exam Objectives
1.4 Recognize the following media connectors and/or describe their uses:
1.5 Choose the appropriate media type and connectors to add a client to an
existing network.
3.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario, configure the connection.
4.5 Given a wiring task, select the appropriate tool.

Vocabulary: American Wire Gauge Wires, RG coaxial cables, IBM Cables,


EIA/TIA 568 UTP cables, EIA/TIA 568 STP cables, EIA/TIA 568 fiber-optic
cables, D-shell connectors, RJ connectors, BNC connectors, fiber optic
connectors, ST connector, SC connector, insulation displacement connectors
(IDCs), IBM data connectors (IDCs), 568A wiring scheme, 568B wiring scheme,
cutter, stripper, punch down tool, crimper, polisher, tester, time domain
reflectometer, tone generator and locator, hardware loopback plug

Focus Question: What types of cables and connectors are commonly used in
networks?

Time
About 1½ hours

Network+ Exam Focus


Connectors
• RJ-11 (modem).
• RJ-45 (10BaseT, 100BaseTX).
• AUI(10Base5, 100BaseTX).
• BNC.
• SC (FDDI, 100BaseFX).
• ST (FDDI, 100BaseFX).
Wiring Tools
• Crimper - A tool used to fasten connectors to wires.
• Media Tester - A tool that tests network cable to ensure conductivity through the
cable. It can also identify crossed wires and improper termination.
• Punch Down Tool - A tool that allows you to attach network and phone wire to a
punch down block.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 36


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• Tone Generator/Tone Locator - Also known as a fox and hound. A set of tools
designed to help locate a single wire amidst many, for example, at a punch down
block. The tone generator creates a signal and the tone locator detects the signal at
the other end of the wire.
• Optical Tester - A tool used to test fiber optic cable for continuity and signal
attenuation.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Discuss cable standards. Pass out examples.
o American Wire Gauge (AWG) Wires.
o Radio Guide (RG) coaxial cables.
o IBM cables.
• Type 1, type 2, type 3, type 5, type 5J, type 6, type 9.
o EIA/TIA 568 UTP cables.
• CAT1, CAT2, CAT3, CAT4, CAT5, CAT5e.
o EIA/TIA 568 STP cables.
o EIA/TIA 568 fiber-optic cables.
• Discuss Connectors. Pass out examples.
o D-shell connectors.
• Low density DB 15 –AUI.
o RJ connectors.
• RJ-11, RJ-45.
o BNC connectors.
o Fiber optic connectors.
• ST connector, SC connector.
o Insulation displacement connectors (punchdown blocks)
o IBM data connectors.
• Demonstrate common wiring schemes.
o 568A wiring scheme – present a diagram.
o 568B wiring scheme – present a diagram.
• Demonstrate cabling tools. Collect as many tools as you can and demonstrate
their use.
o Cutter.
o Stripper.
o Punch down tool.
o Crimper.
• Show students how to create a network cable.
o Polisher.
o Tester.
o Time domain reflectometer (TDR).
o Tone generator and locator.
o Hardware loopback plug.
©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 37
CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• Place a number of connectors in a box. Have each student retrieve a connector
and identify it. If you don’t have enough hardware examples, use pictures.
Computer Lab Activity
• Use the 568A wiring scheme to make RJ-45 network cables. If you have a cable
tester, use it to test student cables. Document the procedure in lab notebooks.
o After completing the lab, discuss the merits of purchasing pre-made
cables. A good electrical supply store (the kind used by electricians) will
sell patch cables in many lengths. If you need a lot of cables, it may be
cheaper to buy them than to make them yourself. (Don’t forget that your
salary counts toward cost!)
o If you don’t have a cable tester, test the cable by connecting a lab
computer to the wall jack or hub. You can tell if a cable works, although
you can’t tell why one fails.

Assessment
Were students able to identify the connectors? Check cables and lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 3-1 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o How does an Ethernet network function?
• Make a crossover cable. (Use the Internet to find a wiring diagram for crossover
cables.)
• You need to purchase CAT5 cable for a new network. Where are you going to
buy it? How much does it cost?
• You need to purchase patch cables for a new network. Where are you going to
buy them? How much do they cost?

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 38


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 3-2: Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
Preparation
Most local area networks are based on Ethernet standards defined by IEEE's 802.3
committee. Ethernet is a broad name for a family of specific standards. This section
covers the Ethernet standards.

Exam Objectives
1.2 Specify the main features of 802.2, 802.3, 802.5, 802.11b, and FDDI
networking technologies.
1.3 Specify the characteristics (speed, length, topology, cable type, etc.) of
802.3 (Ethernet) standards, 10Base-T, 100Base-TX, 10Base-2, 10Base-5,
100Base-FX, and Gigabit Ethernet
1.4 Recognize media connectors and/or describe their uses.
1.5 Choose the appropriate media type and connectors to add a client to an
existing network.
1.6 Identify the purpose, features, and functions of network components.

Vocabulary: Ethernet, 10Base5, 10Base2, 10BaseT, 100BaseTX, 100BaseFX,


1000BaseT, 1000BaseLX, 1000BaseSX, 1000BaseCX, 802.3

Focus Question: How does an Ethernet network function?

Time
About 1½ hours

Network+ Exam Focus


IEEE Standards
• 802.3 - Ethernet
Ethernet Standard (802.3)
• You can identify important details of Ethernet networks based on their names.
Name Speed Length Topology Cable
10Base2 10 Mbps 185 meters Bus Thinnet
10Base5 10 Mbps 500 meters Bus Thicknet
10BaseT 10 Mbps 100 meters Star CAT3 UTP
100BaseTX 100 Mbps 100 meters Star CAT5 UTP
1000BaseT 1000Mbps 100 meters Star CAT5 UTP
Connectors
• RJ-11 (modem)
• RJ-45 (10BaseT, 100BaseTX)
• AUI (10Base5, 100BaseTX)
• BNC
• SC (FDDI, 100BaseFX)
• ST (FDDI, 100BaseFX)

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 39


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Ethernet.
o Bus topology.
• Physical bus or logical star, physical bus.
o CSMA/CD media access method.
• 10Base5.
o Topology: Classic bus.
o Trunk cable: RG-11 coaxial.
o Drop cables: Four-pair (eight-wire) STP.
o Connectors: AUI (DB-15).
o Minimum distance between transceivers: 2.5 meters.
o Maximum drop cable length: 50 meters.
o Maximum trunk cable length before needing a repeater: 500 meters.
o Maximum distance between any two end nodes: 2,460 meters.
• Diameter limited by the Ethernet 5-4-3 rule.
o Maximum nodes per cable segment: 100.
o Maximum nodes per network: 300.
• 10Base2.
o Topology: Classic bus.
o Trunk cable: RG-58 A/U or RG-58 C/U coaxial.
o Connectors: BNC/
o Minimum distance between transceivers: 0.5 meters/
o Maximum trunk cable length before needing a repeater: 185 meters/
o Maximum distance between any two end nodes: 925 meters/
• Diameter limited by the Ethernet 5-4-3 rule.
o Maximum nodes per cable segment: 30.
o Maximum nodes per network: 90.
• 10BaseT.
o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus.
o Cables: Category 3 or greater UTP.
o Connectors: RJ-45.
• Uses two wire pairs (four wires--positions 1, 2, 3, and 6).
o Maximum cable segment length: 100 meters, which includes all cables
between a computer and hub.
o Maximum cable segment lengths of 150 meters are possible with category
5 cable.
o Maximum distance between two end nodes: 500 meters over a maximum
of four active hubs.
o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment.
o Maximum 1024 nodes per network.
• 100BaseTX.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 40


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus.
o Cables: Category 5 or greater UTP or type 1A STP.
o Connectors: RJ-45 for UTP cable, DB-9 for STP cable.
• Uses two wire pairs (four wires--UTP positions 1, 2, 3, and 6, or
STP pins 1, 5, 6, and 9).
o Maximum cable segment length: 100 meters, which includes all cables
between a computer and hub.
o Maximum distance between two end nodes: 205 meters over a maximum
of two active hubs.
o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment.
o Maximum 1024 nodes per network.
• 100BaseFX.
o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus.
o Cables: Multimode 62.5/125 fiber-optic .
o Connectors: SC connectors recommended (other types of fiber-optic
connectors such as ST connectors are also permitted).
• Uses two fiber-optic strands (one receives data, the other sends
data).
o Maximum cable segment length: 412 meters when operating in half-
duplex mode and 2000 meters when operating in full-duplex mode.
o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment.
• 1000BaseT.
o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus.
o Cables: Category 5E or greater UTP and type 1A STP.
o Connectors: RJ-45 for UTP cable, DB-9 for STP cable.
• Uses all four wire pairs (eight wires).
o Maximum cable segment length: 100 meters, which includes all cables
between a computer and hub.
o Maximum distance between two end nodes: 200 meters over a maximum
of one active hub.
o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment.
• 1000BaseLX.
o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus.
o Cables: Multimode 62.5/125 fiber-optic, Multimode 50/125 fiber-optic,
Single-mode fiber-optic.
o Connectors: SC connectors recommended.
• Uses two fiber-optic strands (one receives data, the other sends
data).
o Wavelength: 1300 nanometers.
o Maximum cable segment length: 316 meters (half-duplex), 550 meters
(multimode full-duplex), or 5000 (single mode full-duplex).
o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment.
• 1000BaseSX.
o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 41


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
o Cables: Multimode 62.5/125 fiber-optic, Multimode 50/125 fiber-optic
o Connectors: SC connectors recommended.
• Uses two fiber-optic strands (one receives data, the other sends
data).
o Wavelength: 850 nanometers.
o Distances: Maximum cable segment length: 275 meters (half-duplex), 550
meters (full-duplex). Using 50/125 fiber-optic cables increases the cable
segment length further.
o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment.
• 1000BaseCX.
o Topology: Physical star/Logical bus.
o Cables: Twinaxial cable.
o Connectors: Miniature DB-9 connectors, and 8-pin Fibre Channel Type 2
connectors.
o Maximum cable segment length: 25 meters.
o Maximum 2 nodes per cable segment.
• Use the lecture activity to review standards.

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• Ask questions and have students respond verbally or record answers in lab
notebooks.
• Which standard(s) use fiber? Coaxial cable? Twisted pair?
• Which standard(s) use BNC connectors? RJ-45 connectors? SC connectors?
• What is the maximum cable length for 10Base2? 10Base5? 10BaseT? 100BaseT?

Assessment
Check lab notebooks or verbal responses.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 3-2 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o Ethernet is the most popular LAN standard. Are they any other LAN
standards?
• If the school uses Ethernet, diagram a portion of the network. Identify hubs,
switches, node lactations, and cable lengths.
• You are installing a 10BaseT network. Price hubs, switches, and NICS.
• You are installing a 100BaseTX network. Price hubs, switches, and NICS.
• You are installing a 1000BaseT network. Price hubs, switches, and NICS.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 42


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 3-3: Other LAN Standards
Preparation
Most local area networks (LANs) are based on Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), but other LAN
standards also exist. This section explains the basic characteristics of some other LAN
standards.

Exam Objectives
1.2 Specify the main features of 802.2, 802.3, 802.5, 802.11b, and FDDI
networking technologies.
1.4 Recognize media connectors and/or describe their uses.
1.5 Choose the appropriate media type and connectors to add a client to an
existing network.
1.6 Identify the purpose, features, and functions of network components.
2.11 Identify the basic characteristics of WAN technologies.

Vocabulary: Wi-Fi, IEEE 802.11b, Token Ring IEEE 802.5, FDDI, 100VG-
AnyLAN, IEEE 802.12, ARCNet, Token Bus, LocalTalk

Focus Question: Ethernet is the most popular LAN standard. Are they any other
LAN standards?

Time
About 1½ hours

Network+ Exam Focus


IEEE Standards
• 802.2 - Logical Link Control (LLC).
• 802.5 - Token Ring .
• 802.11b – Wireless.
• Token Ring - A less-common networking standard. It uses a ring topology. Most
Token Ring networks run at 4 or 16 Mbps.
• FDDI - A fiber optic networking standard that uses a dual ring topology for high
fault tolerance. It usually operates at 100 Mbps.
Connectors
• RJ-11 (modem).
• RJ-45 (10BaseT, 100BaseTX).
• AUI(10Base5, 100BaseTX).
• BNC.
• SC (FDDI, 100BaseFX).
• ST (FDDI, 100BaseFX).

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 43


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)

Network Components
• Multi-station Access Unit (MAU) - Another name for a hub. The name usually
denotes the type of hubs used on Token Ring Networks.
• Wireless Access Point - A device that functions like a hub in a wireless network.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• 802.11b – wireless networking (WiFi).
o For the exam, stress the 802.11b number and wireless networking terms,
not the term WiFi.
o Framing: Variable length frames.
o Media Access: CSMA/CA.
o Topology: Cellular.
o Signaling: Direct sequence spread spectrum signaling. Data rate can reach
11 megabits per second.
• 802.5 – Token Ring.
o Framing: Variable length frames up to 18,000 bytes in length.
o Media Access Control: Token passing.
o Topology: Ring (hybrid of a ring and a physical star/logical ring).
o Signaling: Baseband signaling, commonly at 4 or 16 megabits per second
(updated 100 and 1000 megabit versions also exist).
• All nodes must be configured to operate at the same speed.
o Cables: IBM STP, UTP, and fiber-optic cable.
o Connectors:
• DB-9 connectors to connect network cards to STP cables.
• IBM Data Connectors to connect STP cables to hubs or wall
outlets.
• RJ-45 for most UTP cables.
• Media filters to convert other connectors.
• SC or ST connectors for most fiber-optic cables.
• FDDI – Fiber Distributed Data Interface.
o Framing: Variable length frames up to 4500 bytes in length.
o Media Access Control: Token passing .
o Topology: Ring .
• Dual attachment devices connect to dual counter rotating rings.
• Single attachment devices connect only to the primary ring.
o Signaling: Baseband signaling, 1300 nanometer light waves, 100 megabits
per second.
o Cables: 62.5/125 multimode fiber recommended, single mode fiber.
o Connectors: SC or ST recommended.
• Briefly mention other standards.
o 100VG-AnyLAN – IEEE 802.12 .

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
o ARCNet – ANSI 878.1.
o Token Bus – IEEE 802.4.
o LocalTalk.
• 802.2 – Logical Link Control (LLC).
o Data Link sublayer – standardizes how Network layer protocols
communicate with Data Link protocols.
o Network layer and Data Link layer communicate via 802.2 protocol rather
than communicating with each other directly.
o Network layer and Data Link layer do not need to know how to
communicate directly.
• Summarize with the lecture activity.

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• Quiz students on IEEE standards. (This could also be a pop quiz for your next
class period.)
o 802.2, 802.3, 802.5, 802.11b, LLC, Ethernet, Token Ring, Wireless
 Call out a standard number and ask students to tell you the name.
 Call out a standard number and ask students to describe it.
 Call out a name and ask students for the standard number.

Assessment
Check verbal responses to lab activity or quiz.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 3-3 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o How do you connect to a WAN?
• You are installing a Token Ring network. Investigate the cost. Price NICS and
MAUs.
• You are installing a wireless network. Investigate the cost. Price wireless
transceivers and access points.
• You are installing a FDDI network. Investigate the cost. Price hubs, cabling, and
NICs.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 45


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 3-4: WAN Links
Preparation
This section introduces some technologies used to create WAN links.

Before class, make sure you understand your school’s WAN connections.

Exam Objectives
1.4 Recognize the following media connectors and/or describe their uses:
1.5 Choose the appropriate media type and connectors to add a client to an
existing network.
1.6 Identify the purpose, features, and functions of the following network
components:
2.11 Identify the basic characteristics of the following WAN technologies.
3.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario, configure the connection.
4.2 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a small office/home office
network failure, identify the cause of the failure.
4.3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity
problem, identify the cause of the problem.

Vocabulary: WAN media, PSTN, T1, E1, SONET/SDH, ISDN, DSL, cable
modems, wireless, satellite, frame relay, ATM, CSU/DSU

Focus Question: How do you connect to a WAN?

Time
About 1½ hours

Network+ Exam Focus


Network Components
• Modem - A device that allows a computer to transmit data over telephone lines.
• CSU/DSU - Two devices that are packaged as a single unit. A CSU performs
protective and diagnostic functions for a telecommunications line. The DSU
connects a terminal to a digital line.
WAN Technologies
• Packet switching - A technology that allows packets from the same transmission
to take different routes to reach their destination.
• Circuit switching - A technology that creates a dedicated route or circuit between
two hosts on a WAN. All data moves along that route.
• ISDN - A communication standard for sending digital data over regular telephone
wires. ISDN supports transfer speeds of 64 Kbps along a single communication
channel (also known as a B channel). Most telephone companies offer two
telephone lines: One for voice and one for data, or two for data for a maximum
throughput of 128 Kbps.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 46


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• FDDI - A fault-tolerant fiber optic networking standard (mentioned previously)
FDDI networks are typically used as backbones for WANs.
• ATM - A circuit-switching WAN technology that transfers data cells in a small,
fixed size.
• Frame Relay - A packet-switching protocol used for connecting hosts on a WAN.
Mostly telephone companies use it.
• Sonet - A very high speed standard for connecting fiber optic systems. The
international equivalent of this standard is SDH.
• T1 - A communication standard with a data rate of 1.544 Mbps. It is comprised of
24 - 64 Kbps channels. The international equivalent of T1 is E1, which has a
transmission speed of 2 Mbps.
• T3 - A communication standard with a data rate of 44.7 Mbps. It is comprised of
672 - 64 Kbps channels. It is the standard for the backbone of the Internet. The
international equivalent of T3 is E3, which has a transmission speed of 34.4
Mbps.
• OC-x - A standard for specifying the speed of fiber optic networks conforming to
the SONET standard.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• WAN media.
o Your business is not likely to own the infrastructure for the WAN links.
Instead, you typically lease it from someone else.
o What does your school do?
o Power cable, phone cables, television cables, radio, microwave
• Discuss WAN communication issues.
o A WAN is often a network over a network
o Transceivers must be appropriate for the medium
o WAN media might need to carry other signals
o WAN media might support one direction only
• Review circuit and packet switching.
o Packet switching - A technology that allows packets from the same
transmission to take different routes to reach their destination
o Circuit switching - A technology that creates a dedicated route or circuit
between two hosts on a WAN. All data moves along that route.
• PSTN – the public switched telephone network.
o Point-to-point connections between modems (over the circuit switched
network)
o Due to FCC regulations regarding power levels sent over communication
lines, actual V.90 data rates do not exceed about 53 kbps.
o With V.90 modems, upstream speeds (from the client) remain 33.6 kbps.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 47


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• T1 and E1 PDH.
o Data rate of 1.544 Mbps. It is comprised of 24 - 64 Kbps channels. The
international equivalent of T1 is E1, which has a transmission speed of 2
Mbps.
o Data rate of 44.7 Mbps. It is comprised of 672 - 64 Kbps channels. It is the
standard for the backbone of the Internet. The international equivalent of
T3 is E3, which has a transmission speed of 34.4 Mbps.
o Use a Channel Service Unit (CSU) and Data Service Unit (DSU) to
connect a computer to one of these lines.
• SONET/SDH.
o A very high speed standard for connecting fiber optic systems. The
international equivalent of this standard is SDH.
o OC-x is a standard for specifying the speed of fiber optic networks
conforming to the SONET standard.
• ISDN.
o For sending digital data over regular telephone wires. ISDN supports
transfer speeds of 64 Kbps along a single communication channel (also
known as a B channel).
o Most telephone companies offer two telephone lines: One for voice and
one for data, or two for data for a maximum throughput of 128 Kbps.
• DSL.
o Some channels are dedicated to receiving downstream data, while others
are dedicated to sending upstream data.
o Usually dedicates more channels to receiving downstream data.
o Downstream Upstream
1.544 to 8.448 mbps 16 to 640 kbps
• Cable modems.
o Establish a WAN link over TV cables.
o Downstream Upstream
31.2 mbps to 55.2 mbps 5 mbps to 10 mbps
o Multiple nodes usually share channels, so the actual data rate per node can
be much slower than the preceding rates
o Upstream communication is not always supported. You may use a
telephone connection to send upstream data to an Internet service
provider.
• Wireless and satellite.
o Wireless WAN links
• Frame relay.
o A packet-switching protocol used for connecting hosts on a WAN. Mostly
telephone companies use it.
o Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs)--Virtual circuit between two frame relay
endpoints is established when needed and disconnected when no longer
needed.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
o Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs)--Virtual circuit between two frame
relay endpoints is established for permanent use.
• ATM
o A circuit-switching WAN technology that transfers data cells in a small,
fixed size.
o Packet switching 53-byte (fixed length) cells at SONET/SDH speeds.
o Supports switched virtual circuits and permanent virtual circuits.
• FDDI.
o Fault-tolerant fiber optic networking standard (mentioned previously)
FDDI networks are typically used as backbones for WANs.

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• As a group, discuss and diagram your school’s WAN connectivity. Record
diagram in lab notebooks.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 3-4 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What are the common network protocol suites?
• If you have a computer at home and connect to the Internet, diagram your home’s
WAN connectivity.
• You are shopping around for WAN connection options. Check on T1, DSL, cable
modem, and ISDN price and availability in your area.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 49


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 4-1: Common Protocol Suites
Preparation
This section introduces several protocol suites.

Exam Objectives
2.3 Differentiate between network protocols in terms of routing, addressing
schemes, interoperability, and naming conventions.
2.5 Define the purpose, function, and/or use of protocols within TCP/IP.
2.6 Define the function of TCP/UDP ports. Identify well-known ports.
2.8 Identify IP addresses and their default subnet masks.
2.9 Identify the purpose of subnetting and default gateways.
3.1 Identify the basic capabilities of server operating systems.
3.2 Identify the basic capabilities of client workstations.
3.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario, configure the connection.
3.11 Given a network configuration, select the appropriate NIC and network
configuration settings.
4.3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity
problem, identify the cause of the problem.
4.4 Given specific parameters, configure a client to connect to the following
servers:
4.11 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a client connectivity
problem, identify the cause of the problem.

Vocabulary: TCP/IP protocol suite, HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3, IMAP4,


NNTP, NTP, telnet, LPD/LPR, FTP, TFPT, SSL, TCP, UDP, IP, IP address,
subnet mask, default gateway, DNS, fully qualified domain name, URL, NetWare
(IPX/SPX) protocol suite, NCP, NLMs, SPX, IPX, Windows/IBM
(NetBIOS/NetBEUI) protocol suite, SMB, NetBIOS, NBF, NetBEUI, NetBIOS
name, UNC, Macintosh (AppleTalk) protocol suite, AFP, ASP, ATP, ADSP,
DDP, AppleTalk name, AppleTalk type, AppleTalk zone, SNA, DNA, XNS,
VINES

Focus Question: What are the common network protocol suites?

Time
About 2 hours

Network+ Exam Focus


Network Protocols
• TCP/IP.
o Routable protocol.
o Protocol used on the Internet.
o Uses classes and 32-bit IP addresses to identify hosts on the network.
• IPX/SPX.
©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 50
CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
o Novell NetWare protocol.
o Routable protocol.
o Uses MAC addresses to identify hosts on a network.
o Different versions of IPX/SPX use different frame types. Hosts using
IPX/SPX must use the same frame type to communicate.
• NetBEUI.
o Non-routable protocol.
o Fast, good for small Windows-only networks.
o Uses computer names to identify hosts on a network.
• AppleTalk.
o Routable protocol.
o Used primarily on older Macintosh computers (New Macintosh computers
use TCP/IP as their standard protocol).
o Supports a maximum of 254 hosts.
o Uses dynamically assigned ID numbers to identify hosts on a network.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Introduce the Internet (TCP/IP) protocol suite.
o Introduce common protocols and explain their functions.
• HTTP.
• HTTPS.
• SMTP.
• POP3.
• IMAP4.
• NNTP.
• NTP.
• Telnet.
• LPD/LPR.
• FTP.
• TFPT.
• SSL.
• TCP.
• UDP.
• IP.
o Introduce the concept of an IP address. IP addressing is covered in more
detail in the next section.
• 32 bits, 4 octets, decimal value between 0 and 255.
• IP addresses are routable. They have a network ID and a host ID.
• The subnet mask separates the host and network ID.
o IP addresses are routable.
• Default gateway – the router on your subnet.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 51


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• Run ipconfig on your computer and discuss your configuration
parameters.
o Introduce DNS naming standards.
• Draw a diagram to show the hierarchical nature of DNS names.
• Where does your school’s DNS name fit in the tree?
• Define FQDN – fully qualified domain name.
• Add a couple computer names to your diagram and determine their
FQDNs.
• Trace the FQDN for a computer at your school.
o Discuss TCP/IP interoperability
• It is the protocol suite of the Internet.
• Default protocol for UNIX, Windows NT 4.0, 2000, and XP, and
NetWare 5.0.
• Non-proprietary and widely used.
o Discuss URLs
• Protocol://hostname or IPaddress:port/directory/filename ?
parameters.
• Present example URLs and discuss the syntax of each:
• http://www.microsoft.com
• ftp://ftpserver.company.com
• http://192.168.1.15/data/sales/invoice.html
• Introduce the NetWare (IPX/SPX) protocol suite.
o Briefly introduce common protocols and discuss their functions.
• NCP
• NLMs
• SPX
• IPX
o Introduce IPX addressing.
• 4-byte network address.
• Host ID address is the device’s MAC address.
o IPX addresses are routable.
o NetWare servers use SAP to broadcast their names and the fact that they
are NetWare servers.
o IPX/SPX is used primarily in NetWare environments. It is proprietary.
• Introduce the Windows/IBM (NetBIOS/NetBEUI) protocol suite.
o Briefly introduce common protocols and discuss their functions.
• SMB
• NetBIOS
• NBF
• NetBEUI
o Introduce addressing.
• NetBIOS names are 15 characters plus an additional byte to
identify services.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 52


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• On a Windows 9x computer, the NetBIOS name is simply the
computer name.
• NetBIOS names are not hierarchical like DNS names.
o NetBIOS/NetBEUI addresses are not routable.
o NetBIOS over TCP/IP provides a NetBIOS interface, but implements the
networking using TCP/IP.
o Discuss UNCs.
• \\Servername\shared resource.
• Present examples and discuss syntax.
• \\server1.
• \\server1\data.
• \\server1\data\sales.
• \\server1\data\sales\meeting10-25-01.doc.
• Introduce the Macintosh (AppleTalk) protocol suite.
o Briefly introduce common protocols and discuss their functions.
• AFP
• ASP
• ATP
• ADSP
• DDP
o Introduce addressing.
• Phase 1 – Up to 254 nodes per segment, network IDs between 1
and 1024.
• Phase 2 – 16 bits for network ID, 8 bits for the node ID.
o AppleTalk is routable.
o AppleTalk names have a name, type, and zone.
o TCP/IP is more widely used on Macs.
• Briefly mention other protocol suites.
o SNA
o DNA
o XNS
o VINES
• Discuss configuring interoperability.
o Computers need to be running the same protocols.
o Load client software to allow the client to talk to the server.
o Gateways can translate between protocols.

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• Close notebooks. Give each student the name of a protocol and ask him or her to
explain the protocol function.
• Present the diagram with the router. Ask the students to determine which
computers can communicate with each other. You could do this as a group, hand
out the diagram and use it as a quiz, or assign it as homework.
©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 53
CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• You may want to use this as a pop quiz for the next class period. Give the students
a handout listing UNC paths and ask them to identify legitimate syntax.
o \\fileserver2.
o \\fileserver2:80.
o \\mail1\templates\expenses.xls.
o \\mail1\templates\expenses.xls?december.
Computer Lab Activity
• Use ipconfig to determine the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway of
your computer. Record procedure and results in lab notebooks.

Assessment
Were students able to identify protocols? Were they able to determine which computers
could communicate with each other? Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 4-1 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o How does IP addressing work?
• Hand out a DNS diagram with computer names at the bottom level. Ask students
to identify the FQDN for each computer.
• Substitute server and path names appropriate to your environment. Go to the Run
command and type the following UNC paths. What do you see? Explain how the
UNC command syntax determines the results.
o \\server
o \\server\sharename
o \\server\sharename\folder
o \\server\sharename\folder\file.txt
• Identify the legitimate IP addresses in this list. If an IP address is not correct,
explain the problem.
o 221.25.166.255
o 15.0.0.5
o 257.25.69.235
o 12.15.222
o 192.16.8.35
o 199.301.10.171

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 54


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 55
CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 4-2: TCP/IP
Preparation
This section explains the TCP/IP protocol suite in greater detail.

Exam Objectives
2.5 Define the purpose, function, and/or use of protocols within TCP/IP.
2.6 Define the function of TCP/UDP ports. Identify well-known ports.
2.7 Identify the purpose of network services.
2.8 Identify IP addresses and their default subnet masks.
2.9 Identify the purpose of subnetting and default gateways.
2.10 Identify the differences between public vs. private networks.
3.9 Identify the purpose, benefits, and characteristics of using a proxy.
3.11 Given a network configuration, select the appropriate NIC and network
configuration settings.
4.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario, select the appropriate TCP/IP utility
from among the following:
4.7 Given output from a diagnostic utility, identify the utility and interpret the
output.
4.8 Given a scenario, predict the impact of modifying, adding, or removing
network services on network resources and users.

Vocabulary: IP Version 4 (IPv4), IPv4 classes, Class A, Class B, Class C, Class


D, Class E, default subnet mask, Classless IP addressing, subnetting, DHCP, IP
Version 6 (IPv6), cache, broadcast, local file, name server, host name resolution,
Hosts file, DNS name servers, NetBIOS names resolution, Lmhosts File,
NetBIOS Name Servers (WINS Servers), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP),
private IP networks, NAT router, proxy server, ipconfig, Winipcfg, ifconfig,
netstat, nbtstat, ping, tracert, nslookup, arp, Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP)

Focus Question: How does IP addressing work?

Time
About 5 hours

Network+ Exam Focus


OSI Model
• Remember that Application-layer protocols that require guaranteed delivery, like
FTP and Telnet, use TCP as their Transport protocol. Application-layer protocols
that do not require guaranteed delivery, like TFTP use UDP.
The TCP/IP Protocol
• The following are common protocols used within the TCP/IP protocol stack:
• IP - Responsible for addressing and formatting packets.

©2002 TestOut Corporation (Rev 11/02) 56


CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• TCP - Guarantees the delivery of data and that packets are delivered in the same
order in which they are sent.
• UDP - Delivers packets directly over a network without error correction. It is used
primarily for streaming data and video.
• FTP - An Internet protocol used for transferring files.
• TFTP - Also a protocol for transferring files, but does not offer authentication or
guaranteed packet delivery.
• SMTP - A protocol for sending email messages between email servers.
• HTTP - The underlying Application-layer protocol of the Internet. When you type
in a URL, you are typing an HTTP command.
• HTTPS - The protocol used on secure web pages. It is used in conjunction with
SSL, an encryption protocol.
• POP3 - A protocol used to retrieve email from a server.
• IMAP4 - An email retrieval protocol like POP3, but with additional functionality,
like email text search and selective downloading.
• Telnet - A terminal emulation protocol that allows you to remotely connect to a
server. You can then enter commands and have them executed as if you were at
the server.
• ICMP - A protocol used for sending control, information or error messages. The
ping command uses ICMP to check connection statuses.
• ARP - A protocol used for finding a hosts MAC address by using its IP address
• NTP - A protocol used for synchronizing time clocks of all hosts on a network.
Common TCP/UDP Port Numbers to Know
• When a TCP/IP packet is sent to a computer, it needs not only a destination IP
address, but also a port number. A port number indicates the destination
application of a packet.
• 15 Netstat 68 DHCP 123 NTP 1701 L2TP
• 21 FTP 69 TFTP 139 NetBIOS 1723 PPTP
• 23 Telnet 80 HTTP 143 IMAP
• 42 WINS 110 POP3 161 SNMP
• 53 DNS 119 NNTP 443 SSL
Network Services
• DHCP - Automatically assigns IP addresses to clients on a network.
• DNS - Resolves host names to IP addresses. Allows a client to contact another host
on a network using a name, which is easier to remember than an IP address.
• WINS - Resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses. A Microsoft version of name
resolution implemented before DNS became the accepted standard.
• NAT - Network address translation. Allows a LAN to use one set of IP addresses
for internal traffic and a different set of addresses for external or Internet traffic.
• ICS - Internet connection sharing. A simple version of NAT that allows multiple
users to access the Internet via a single connection and a single IP address.
• SNMP - A set of protocols used for managing and monitoring large networks.
IP Addresses and Subnet Masks

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• To identify hosts on a network, TCP/IP uses a 32-bit number called an IP address.
It is displayed in decimal format (for example, 172.18.125.0). To identify the
network segment (or subnet) on which the host is located, TCP/IP uses a 32-bit
number called a subnet mask. It is also displayed in decimal format (for example,
255.255.255.0).
• IP addresses are separated into classes. Classes can be determined by the first
number (also known as an octet) in the IP address. Each class has an associated
default subnet mask as well.
• Class First Octet Default Subnet Mask
• Class A 1 to 126 255.0.0.0
• Class B 128 to 191 255.255.0.0
• Class C 192 to 223 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway
• If a host resides on a network with multiple subnets, the host must be configured
with the IP address a default gateway. A default gateway is the IP address of a
router. When a host needs to send a packet to another host on the network, it first
checks the destination IP address to see if the host is located on the local subnet.
If it is not, the host sends the packet to the default gateway, or the router. The
router then forwards the packet to the appropriate destination.
Public and Private IP Addresses
• The Internet is a public network. IP addresses used on the Internet are public IP
addresses. Private networks that do not connect to the Internet or that use NAT to
access the Internet use private IP addresses. Private IP addresses are reserved
ranges of IP addresses that cannot be used on the Internet. There is one range for
each class, as shown in the table below:
• Class Private IP Address Range.
• Class A 10.0.0.1 - 10.255.255.254.
• Class B 172.16.0.1 - 172.31.255.254.
• Class C 192.168.0.1 - 192.168.255.254.
IPv6
• Ipv6 is an updated, emerging version of the IP protocol. It addresses the current
system's shortage of IP addresses. An example of an IPv6 address is
2A50:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A.
Network Implementation
• Firewall - A system implemented to prevent unauthorized communication in or
out of a private network. The most common type of firewall is the packet filter
firewall, which filters packets based on port number.
• Proxy server - A server that sits between a client and the Internet. It intercepts all
requests from the network to the Internet to see if it can fulfill the requests itself.
If not, it forwards the request to the Internet.
TCP/IP Utilities
• For the exam, you need to recognize the output of these utilities.
• Tracert - A utility that traces a packet from a local host to a remote host. The
output shows the routers through which a packet passes, as well as how long it

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takes to pass trough each router. Use tracert to locate a faulty router or where
delays are occurring.
• Ping - A utility that helps you determine whether another host is reachable from
your computer. Use this utility when you are unable to reach a host and you want
to find the scope of the problem.
• Arp - A utility that helps you detect invalid arp cache entries. The arp cache maps
IP addresses to MAC addresses. If a computer on the local subnet has recently
changed IP addresses, an incorrect arp cache entry will prevent you from
contacting it.
• Netstat - A utility that shows the current status of TCP/IP connections.
• Nbtstat - A utility that helps you troubleshoot NetBIOS naming problems. You
can also use the utility to remove or correct preloaded name cache entries.
• Ipconfig - A utility that displays current TCP/IP settings for your computer. Use
this utility to verify that the settings are correct and (in some cases) ensure that
your computer is able to contact a DHCP server and receive IP addressing
information.
• Ifconfig - The Linux version of the Ipconfig utility
• Winipcfg - The Windows 95/98 version of the Ipconfig utility. Winipcfg uses the
standard Windows interface instead of a command-line interface.
• Nslookup - A command-prompt utility that allows you to send test queries to DNS
servers. These queries are useful for diagnosing and solving DNS name resolution
problems, and for verifying that DNS records are correct.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• IP Version 4 (IPv4).
o TCP/IP addressing.
• 32 bits, 4 octets, decimal numbers between 0 and 255.
• Subnet mask separates network and host ID.
• Use a binary example to explain how the mask is used to determine
the network ID.
Address 11000000 10101000 01000001 00010001
Mask 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
Subnet 11000000 10101000 01000001 --------
Host -------- -------- -------- 00010001
o IPv4 classes.
o Explain how to tell if an IP address is Class A, B, C, D or E. The first octet
is:
• A: 1-127 (First octet start with 0)
• 126 network IDs, up to 16,777,214 hosts
• B: 128-191 (First octet start with 10)
• 16,384 network IDs, up to 65,534 hosts
• C: 192-233 (First octet start with 110)
• 2,097,152 network IDs, up to 254 hosts

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• D: 224-231 (First octet start with 1110)
• 268,435,455 multicast group ID
• E: 240-254 (First octet start with 1111)
• Experimental use
o Class A, B, and C networks have a default subnet mask.
• A: 255.0.0.0
• B: 255.255.0.0
• C: 255.255.255.0
• Critical concept: To determine the class of an IP address, you
only need to know the IP address. Class is determined by looking
at the value in the first octet. Each class does have a default subnet
mask, however, the mask does not determine the class. This is a
common point of confusion.
o Special addresses.
• Host ID’s all 0s: network ID.
• Network ID all 0s: specific host on the local network .
• Host ID all 1s: broadcast address for the local network.
• All 0s: default route in a routing table.
• 127.0.0.1: loopback address.
o Classless IP addressing.
• Ignores address classes to allocate IP addresses more efficiently.
• Show students how to convert between the CIDR notation and
dotted decimal notation for masks.
• /24 and 255.255.255.0
o IPv4 subnetting.
• Subnetting is the process of breaking down a large network into
smaller networks.
• Why do you need subnets?
• Example: Suppose you are using a private Class B network
ID, 172.16.0.0, and have 20,000 hosts.
• What would the network be like if you didn’t break it into
smaller pieces? Is it even possible to put 20,000 hosts on
the same network segment?
• Critical Concept. If you use the default subnet mask, you have
one network segment. You don’t have any additional subnets! If
you want to create subnets on your network, you need to create a
custom subnet mask.
• Example: Suppose you are using a private Class B network
ID, 172.16.0.0, and have 20,000 hosts.
• The default mask is 255.255.0.0. All hosts are on the same
network.
• When you create subnets, you simply use more bits than
the default mask for your network.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• Use the mask 255.255.255.0. Now you have 255 subnets,
each of which can have up to 254 hosts.
o IPv4 host configuration.
• IP address, subnet mask, default gateway.
• Configure manually.
• Configure with DHCP (BootP).
• IP Version 6 (IPv6).
o 128 bits, 8 groups of 16 bits, expressed as hexadecimal numbers between
0 and FFFF.
• FEC0:98FE:8856:AAB1:1234:0098:FF72:AC32.
• Loopback address 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1.
o Autoconfiguration.
o Better quality of service.
o Security features.
o Source intelligent routing.
• Introduce name and address resolution methods.
o Cache.
o Broadcast.
o Local file.
o Name server.
• Discuss host name resolution .
o TCP/IP computer name/DNS name.
o Hosts file.
o DNS name servers.
• Discuss NetBIOS names resolution.
o Lmhosts File.
o NetBIOS Name Servers (WINS Servers).
• Discuss Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).
• Introduce private IP Networks.
o Some IP addresses are reserved for private networks and not routed on the
Internet.
o A network may use private IP addressing internally, and have a few public
IP addresses for connecting to the Internet.
o Private IPv4 Addresses.
• 10.0.0.0/8 – 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255.255
• 172.16.0.0/12 – 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0/24 – 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255
• 169.254.0.0/16 – 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255
• Reserved for APIPA – the host automatically picks its own
IP address.
o Private IPv6 Addresses.
• FEC0::/48 – binary beginning 1111 1110 11.
• FEC0::/64 – binary beginning 1111 1110 10.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• Discuss network address translation (NAT) routers.
o A network may use private IP addressing internally, and have a few public
IP addresses for connecting to the Internet.
o NAT translates private addresses to public addresses so the network can
communicate on the Internet.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• Discuss proxy servers.
o The client connects through a proxy server.
o The proxy server can cache requests.
o Proxy servers can also control Internet access, by limiting which clients
can connect to the internet through the proxy server.
• Demonstrate TCP/IP commands. Explain the syntax and use of each command.
o ipconfig
o Winipcfg
o ifconfig
o netstat
o nbtstat
o ping
o tracert
o nslookup
o arp
• Discuss Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• Identify legitimate IP addresses.
o 169.254.2.68
o 235.123.6.198
o 128.256.201.33
• Practice identifying the class of an IP address.
o 45.16.7.8
o 219.34.250.1
o 293.6.17.89
o 145.67.189.203
o 121.45.6.253
o 131.56.78.15
• Given a scenario, what class address should you use? Will you use public or
private IP addresses? Support your decision.
o You need to support 80,000 hosts. The network needs access to the
Internet.
o You need to support 500 hosts. The network needs access to the Internet.
o Your company is an ISP. You need to support connections for 150 Web
servers that your company will be hosting.
• Give a student a quick overview of what a service does. Ask the student to
identify the service.
o DHCP/BootP, DNS, NAT, ICS, SNMP, WINS.
Computer Lab Activity
• Practice each of the following commands:
• Ipconfig, Winipcfg, or ifconfig.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
o Record your IP configuration.
• Ping your local IP address and the IP address of the default gateway. Then ping an
Internet site such as www.microsoft.com.
o What do the results of each ping tell you about your connectivity?
• Run tracert to your default gateway. Then run tracert to an Internet site such as
www.microsoft.com.
o What do the results tell you?
• Run arp-a. Are they any entries in your arp cache? Ping a few computers in the
lab and a computer on the Internet. Run arp -a again. Are they any new entries in
your arp cache?

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 4-2 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What can I do to secure my network?
• Practice identifying the class of an IP address.
o 159.16.129.234
o 161.78.101.2
o 78.91.78.206
o 10.11.13.14
o 67.126.36.56
• Which if the following are valid host IP addresses. Why or why not?
o 23.45.234.261
o 64.64.64.66
o 127.0.0.0
o 10.255.255.255
o 154.90.23.16
• Run nslookup www.microsoft.com. Analyze the results.
• Run netstat on your computer. Then connect to a web site. Run netstat again. Did
anything change? Why?
• Run nbtstat –n. Analyze the results.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 5-1: Security
Preparation
This section introduces important concepts related to security.

Exam Objectives
2.6 Define the function of TCP/UDP ports. Identify well-known ports.
2.12 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services.
2.13 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and
function:
3.1 Identify the basic capabilities of the following server operating systems:
3.2 Identify the basic capabilities of client workstations.
3.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario, configure the connection.
3.8 Identify the purpose, benefits, and characteristics of using a firewall.
3.10 Given a scenario, predict the impact of a particular security
implementation on network functionality.
4.3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity problem
identify the cause of the problem.
4.11 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a client connectivity
problem, identify the cause of the problem.

Vocabulary: physical security, user account, access rights, password policy, SSL,
Kerberos, IPSec, PPP, PPPoE, PPTP, L2TP, firewall, TCP port, UDP port

Focus Question: What can I do to secure my network?

Time
About 2 hours

Network+ Exam Focus


Remote Access Protocols
• RAS - A protocol built in to Windows NT and 2000 that allows a remote user to
log on to a LAN. The client also needs RAS client software, which is built into
most versions of Windows.
• PPP - A protocol used for connecting a computer to the Internet. Encapsulates
TCP/IP packets and sends them to a server, which in turn puts them on the
Internet. Supersedes the SLIP protocol.
Security Protocols
• IPSec - A set of protocols that supports secure exchange of TCP/IP packets. Used
with Virtual Private Networks, which allow a remote client to create a secure
tunnel through an unsecure network (for example, the Internet) to a private
network. The security for IPSec is provided by either PPTP or L2TP, which is a
newer and more secure version of PPTP.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• SSL - A protocol used in conjunction with HTTPS for enabling secure
communication over the Internet.
• Kerberos - An authentication protocol that allows two hosts to verify each other
over a public network like the Internet.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Discuss low-level security.
o Communication medium and topology.
o Physical access to equipment.
• Introduce user accounts and access rights. Present an overview of access rights for
the most common operating systems.
o Windows NT/2000/XP.
• Read, Read & Execute, Write, Modify, Full Control.
o NetWare.
• Read, Write, Erase, Create, Modify, File Scan, Access Control,
Supervisor.
o UNIX.
• Read, Write, Execute, for Owner, Group, Other.
o Macintosh.
• See Folders, See Files, Make Changes, Read/Write, Read Only,
Write Only.
o Stress the nature of these access rights. They allow administrators to
control what users can do to files on the network servers.
o Use your computer to demonstrate access rights to a folder. You are most
likely to demonstrate this with Windows, but if you have access to
additional systems, demonstrate those also.
o Introduce password policies.
• Discussion: What is your password policy? What happens if you
require really long passwords, but don’t train users about the need
for strong security? Why do you want a password policy?
• Do not allow blank passwords.
• Require passwords to be a minimum length.
• Require passwords to fit complexity rules.
• Require periodic password changes
• Do not allow reused passwords.
• Lock out accounts after a certain number of failed attempts.
• Only allow logon during certain hours.
• Don't use words in the dictionary.
• Don't use dates (such as birthdays or anniversaries).
• Use both uppercase and lowercase letters.
• Use non-alphabetic characters (such as numbers and symbols).
• Use mnemonics to create passwords.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• Discuss security protocols.
o Two main areas to protect: data on hard drives and data as it passes over
the network.
• Discussion: You are looking into security. What threats can you
think of to data on hard drives? How could someone threaten data
as it passes over the network?
o SSL - Secure sockets layer.
• Used with HTTPS to enable secure communication over the
Internet.
• Describe the process: Web client gets a certificate from a web
server. The certificate contains the server’s public key. The web
client uses the public key to encrypt a session key and sends it to
the server. The session key is used to keep the entire transaction
secure.
• Widely used when buying online – you want to keep your credit
card number secure!
o Kerberos.
• Authentication protocol – allows two hosts to verify each other
• Windows 2000 Active Directory domains use Kerberos to
authenticate clients.
o IPSec.
• Secure exchange of TCP/IP packets – encrypts TCP/IP packets
• Note: One way to encrypt data is to use an application that
uses encryption. Web browsers and servers using HTTPS
are a good example of this approach. The server and clients
all know how to use SSL and HTTPS.
• Not all applications know how to use encryption. IPSec
encrypts at the Network layer, so data is encrypted no
matter what applications you are using.
• Used with Virtual Private Networks, which allow a remote client
to create a secure tunnel through an unsecure network (for
example, the Internet) to a private network.
• The security for IPSec is provided by either PPTP or L2TP, which
is a newer and more secure version of PPTP.
• Discuss remote access protocols.
o What is remote access? Discuss examples.
• Connecting to an ISP.
• Connecting to a private RAS server.
• Connecting to a private RAS server over a VPN.
• Windows NT and 2000 provide RAS services that allow a remote
user to log on to a LAN. The client also needs RAS client
software, which is built into most versions of Windows.
• Demonstrate creating of different dial-up networking connections
on instructor computer. Use these demonstrations to discuss basic

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remote access concepts. What do you need to configure on the
client for different types of connections?
• Create a dial-up connection to an ISP.
• Create a VPN connection that uses the dial-up ISP
connection.
• Create a dial-up connection to a RAS server.
o PPP.
• Remote access protocol used to dial-up to the Internet.
• Encapsulates TCP/IP packets and sends them to a server, which in
turn puts them on the Internet.
• Supersedes the SLIP protocol.
o PPPoE.
• Sends PPP packets over an Ethernet network, rather than a dial-up
connection.
o PPTP.
• For VPNs – remote client creates a tunnel to private network over
a public network (Internet).
• Encapsulates PPP packets to send over public network.
• Remote access server decrypts the packet and treats it like a PPP
packet.
o L2TP.
• May be used with IPSec for VPNs.
• Discuss firewalls.
o Discuss TCP and UDP ports.
• Port numbers identify a service.
• Example: 192.168.15.23:80 identifies the web (HTTP) service on
computer 192.168.15.23. When a client makes a request for a web
page, it sends the request to port 80 on the web server.
• 15 Netstat.
• 21 File Transfer Protocol (FTP).
• 23 Telnet.
• 25 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
• 53 Domain Name Service (DNS).
• 68 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) client.
• 69 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).
• 80 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
• 88 Kerberos.
• 110 Post Office Protocol, Version 3 (POP3).
• 119 Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP).
• 123 Network Time Protocol (NTP).
• 137 Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS).
• 139 NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT).
• 143 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP).
• 161 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
• 443 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
• 515 Line Printer (LPR).
• 1701 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP).
• 1723 Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP).
o Firewalls can be configured to allow messages through based on IP
address and/or ports.

Lab/Activity
Computer Lab Activity
• If you are running Windows 200/XP, open WINNT\system32\drivers\etc\services.
Do you recognize some of the ports?
• Use the Make New Connection wizard to create a dial-up connection to the
Internet.
o If student computers don’t have modems, install a fake modem at the
beginning of this lab. The following steps are for a Windows 2000
Professional computer. Steps are similar for other Windows platforms.
o Run Add/Remove Hardware wizard > Add/Troubleshoot a device > Add a
new device > No, I want to select the hardware from a list > Modems >
Don’t detect my modem; I will select it from a list > (Standard Modem
Types), select a model > Select a port.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 5-1 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o How can I protect my network from disasters?
• Use the Make New Connection wizard to create a dial-up connection to a private
network.
• Use the Make New Connection wizard to create a VPN connection.
• Create a password policy for the place you work. Defend your choices. How often
will the user be forced to change passwords? How many can they reuse? What is
the minimum password length? Why are these choices appropriate for the
environment you work in?

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 5-2: Fault Tolerance
Preparation
This section explains some basic concepts related to fault tolerance and disaster recovery.

Exam Objectives
3.5 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance.
3.6 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery.

Vocabulary: UPS, RAID 0, disk striping, RAID 1, disk mirroring, disk


duplexing, RAID 5, disk striping with parity, backup markers, normal backup,
copy backup, incremental backup, differential backup, daily-copy backup

Focus Question: How can I protect my network from disasters?

Time
About 1½ hours

Network+ Exam Focus


Network Implementation
• Fault Tolerance - The ability of a network component to still function in the
event of hardware or software failure. Primary fault tolerance strategies include
redundant hard disks, backup power supplies and redundant network paths.
• Disaster Recovery - The ability to restore data and communication after a
network failure. The primary strategy for disaster recovery is backing up data and
storing a copy off-site.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Discuss the difference between fault-tolerance and disaster recover.
o Fault-tolerance – you can stress the network without it failing.
o Disaster recover – you can recover the network after it fails.
• Low-level redundancy.
o Topology.
o Duplicate servers.
o UPS devices.
• RAID.
o RAID 0.
• Disk striping.
• Blocks of data striped across two or more disks.
• Reduces fault-tolerance.
• Increases performance.

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o RAID 1.
• Disk mirroring, disk duplexing.
• Stores data on two disks.
o RAID 5.
• Disk striping with parity.
• Blocks of data striped across three or more disks.
• Parity data can be used to reconstruct data if one disk fails.
• Discuss backup methods.
o Backup markers.
o Normal backup.
o Copy backups.
o Incremental backups.
o Differential backups.
o Daily-copy backups.
o Normal combined with differential.
o Normal combined with incremental.
o Normal combined with differential and copy.
• Demonstrate Windows backup to provide a concrete example of backup concepts.
Show file attributes and point out the Archive attribute.

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
• You need to create a backup plan for your network. Which backup method(s)
backs up and marks files only if they have been changed since the last time they
were backed up?
• You need to create a backup plan for your network. Which backup method(s)
backs up files only if they have been changed since the last full backup but does
not mark them as being backed up?
• You perform a full backup of your file server every Sunday night. The rest of the
week you perform an incremental backup at 11:00 PM. The file server fails at
9:00 AM on Wednesday. How do you restore the server? How much data, if any,
will you loose?
• You perform a full backup of your file server every Sunday night. The rest of the
week you perform a differential backup at 11:00 PM. The file server fails at 1:00
PM on Thursday. How do you restore the server? How much data, if any, will you
loose?
Computer Lab Activity
• Use Windows Backup to back up a folder on your lab computer. (Have students
select a folder that is not too large.) Record procedure in lab notebooks.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

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Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 5-2 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What can you do to increase a network’s performance?
• Backup a file on your computer. Check the archive attribute. Next, change the
contents of the file. Check the archive attribute again.
• Back up My Documents and then restore the folder to a different location.
• Create a backup plan for your home computer. What is your backup device? Do
you plan to spend any money? How much will you back up? How often? Justify
your decisions.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Section 5-3: Performance
Preparation
This section explains some principles for optimizing your network's performance.

Vocabulary: performance, baseline, abnormal performance, trend, bottleneck

Focus Question: What can you do to increase a network’s performance?

Time
About 1½ hours

Network+ Exam Focus


Although this section does not directly cover exam objectives, it does introduce tools that
are widely used by network administrators.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Discuss low-level performance issues.
o Network architecture.
o Computer hardware.
o Use your current network as an example. Are you running 10BaseT or
100BaseT? Do you use hubs or switches? What speed are they?
• Introduce network performance monitoring. Briefly discuss each tool.
o Windows Performance Monitor.
o Windows Network Monitor.
o NetWare MONITOR.NLM.
o NetWare LANalyzer Agent and ManageWise Management Console.
o SNMP.
o Demonstrate one of your network monitoring tools. (This will depend on
your infrastructure, but if students are running Windows 2000 or XP,
demonstrate Performance Monitor.)
• Explain why you should create a baseline.
o How to create a baseline.
o Use it to detect abnormal performance.
o Use it to detect a trend.
o Use examples from your own network to discuss baseline performance.
What are the peak logon times? What are the peak web-surfing times? Are
any of the servers hit really hard? Do they need to be upgraded? How can
you tell?
o Discussion statement: A baseline is a good political tool.

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• How do you convince the money people that the server really
needs to be upgraded and that you are not just looking for cool new
technology?
• Discuss bottlenecks.
o Define bottlenecks: a limiting component, a component that can’t
accommodate the current load placed on it.
o Increate the rate at which the component operates.
• Upgrade a 10 meg hub to a 100 meg switch.
o Decrease the component’s workload.
• Split an overloaded Ethernet segment into two segments (or
replace a hub with a switch).
• Remove unused services from a server.
• Add a CPU to a server.

Lab/Activity
Computer Lab Activity
• Use Performance (System Monitor) to look at the performance of your computer.
o Add counters.
 Processor, % Processor Time.
 Memory, Available Bytes.
 Physical Disk, % Disk Time.
o Generate activity. Play a game, open some files, open a few large
programs, etc.
o What happens to the counters as you generate activity?

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 5-3 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What kinds of tasks are required when you install a network?
• You manage an Ethernet network that uses 100MB hubs. There are 30 clients on
each network segment (subnet). You are thinking about replacing the hubs with
100 MB switches. What type of performance gains do you expect to see? How
much will it cost?

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Section 6-1: Installation
Preparation
Network installation involves four fundamental steps, which are explained in this section.

Before class, make a list of a few areas where your network could use improvement.

Exam Objectives
3.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario, configure the connection.

Vocabulary: network architecture, network service, network operating system,


client operating system

Focus Question: What kinds of tasks are required when you install a network?

Time
About 1 hour

Network+ Exam Focus


This section does not directly address exam objectives.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Discuss planning a network installation. Use your own network as an example.
o Find out about the existing network, plans, and standards.
• What are you using now?
o Choose a network architecture.
• If you could upgrade would you change your architecture, or just
the speed?
o Decide which services the network will provide.
• What do you use now? Is there anything you would like to add?
o Choose a network operating system.
• What OS do you use now? Do you plan to upgrade soon? What
OS? Why?
o Choose client operating systems.
• What OS do you use now? Do you plan to upgrade soon? What
OS? Why?
o Create network administration standards.
• Do you have any defined standards? Who keeps track of them?
How are they decided?
o Announce the installation schedule.

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• Have you ever been involved in an upgrade or installation? Did
you keep to the schedule?
• Discuss installing cables and connectivity devices.
o Spend some time on the 100BaseT installation. This standard is important
because it is the most common standard in use today.
o Stress that the 100-meter cable limit includes all cables between the
computer and the hub. Cable from the patch panel to hub and from the
computer to the wall jack counts toward the limit. Students often miss this
concept.
• Discuss installing servers.
o Choose an appropriate physical environment.
o Physically install the network card.
o Connect the network cable.
o Install the network operating system.
o Install and configure the driver for the network interface card.
o Install and configure network protocol software.
o Install and configure additional network service software.
o Example: You are installing a DNS server in a Windows 2000, 100BaseT
network.
• Where should you put the server? What kind of NIC should you
install? What type of cable and connectors will you use? What is
the network OS? Will you need to install a driver for the NIC? Is
the driver likely to be plug-and-play? What protocol needs to be
installed? What service are you installing?
• Discuss installing workstations.
o Physically install the network card.
o Connect the network cable.
o Install the client operating system.
o Install and configure the driver for the network interface card.
o Install and configure network protocol software.
o Install and configure network client software.
o Example: You are installing a Windows 2000 Professional computer in a
Windows 2000 Active Directory domain, 100BaseT network. You just
installed a DNS server on this same network.
• What kind of NIC should you install? What type of cable and
connectors will you use? What is the client OS? Will you need to
install a driver for the NIC? Is the driver likely to be plug-and-
play? What protocol needs to be installed? What client software
needs to be installed to connect to a Windows 2000 network? Does
this computer need to be configured to use the new DNS server?
How do you configure it as a DNS client?

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity

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• Present the list of desired network improvements. Have students divide into small
groups and plan for network improvements. When students are ready, discuss
group plans as a class.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 6-1 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o What types of tasks are required to maintain a network?
• Plan a home network.

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Section 6-2: Maintenance
Preparation
This section introduces tasks you should regularly perform as maintenance tasks after a
network is set up.

Vocabulary: monitoring, virus, patch, upgrade, documentation

Focus Question: What types of tasks are required to maintain a network?

Time
About 1 hour

Network+ Exam Focus


This section does not directly address exam objectives.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Briefly mention monitoring. You reviewed a few tools in Section 5-3.
o Monitoring adds load, so monitor what you need to, but be careful not to
monitor so much that performance degrades.
• Discuss viruses.
o Install antivirus software on servers and workstations.
o Update software regularly.
o Train users.
o Use your environment as an example. What do you run on lab computers?
How often do you update antivirus software? Are you running antivirus
software on your mail server? Do you scan for problem attachments?
• Discuss software patches and upgrades.
o Manufacturer’s web site.
o Example: Demonstrate the Windows Update website, available on the start
menu or at http://windowsupdate.microsoft.com/.
• Discuss the need for good documentation.

Lab/Activity
Computer Lab Activity
• Go to http://windowsupdate.microsoft.com/ and check to see if your computer
needs any updates.
• Run the antivirus software on lab computers. Scan your hard drives for viruses.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

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Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 6-2 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
o How do I begin to solve network problems?
• Check Windows Update for your home computer.
• Investigate three antivirus packages. Which one do you like best? Why?

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Section 6-3: Troubleshooting
Preparation
This section introduces techniques and tools that can help you troubleshoot.

Before class, prepare troubleshooting examples based on your own network and
experience.

Exam Objectives
4.2 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a small office/home office
network failure, identify the cause of the failure.
4.3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity
problem, identify the cause of the problem.
4.6 Given a network scenario, interpret visual indicators to determine the
nature of the problem.
4.9 Given a network problem scenario, select an appropriate course of action
based on a general troubleshooting strategy. This strategy includes the
steps of the general troubleshooting model.
4.10 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular
physical topology and including a network diagram, identify the network
area affected and the cause of the problem.
4.11 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a client connectivity
problem, identify the cause of the problem.
4.12 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a
wiring/infrastructure problem, identify the cause of the problem.

Vocabulary: power light, link light, activity light, error message, error log,
performance monitor

Focus Question: How do I begin to solve network problems?

Time
About 1½ hours

Network+ Exam Focus


Troubleshooting Hints
• Remote Access - If you are having trouble connecting to a LAN from a remote
location, make sure that your cables are properly connected, that the correct
protocols are installed and that you have the proper permissions to access
resources.
• Link Lights - Use link lights to verify connectivity. When a link light is not lit,
either the cable is bad or one of the devices on either side of the cable is not
functioning properly.

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• Collision Lights - A collision occurs when two hosts on an Ethernet network
send packets at exactly the same time. The result is an unreadable packet. If a
collision light is on frequently on a hub, you either have too much traffic for the
available bandwidth or you may have a malfunctioning NIC in one of the
computers connected to the hub.
• Network Wiring - Network faults differ, depending on the topology used. For
example, if a user disconnects his computer from a bus network, the entire
segment will stop working. Similar problems can happen with ring networks.
Also, if cables are extended beyond their recommended maximum distances or
the wrong cable grade is used, the network will not necessarily cease to function.
However, high data error rates will occur and some hosts may not be able to
connect.
• User Rights and Permissions - Rights and permissions are implemented on a
network to ensure the safety of sensitive information but also easy access to
resources required by many users. If a user is having difficulty accessing a
certain resource on the network, make sure that the user has access rights to that
resource.
• Logging on to a Network - All secure network operating systems require a
username and password to log on. If you are having difficulty logging on,
remember that passwords are case-sensitive. Make sure that Caps Lock is not on.
Also, if you have tried to log on unsuccessfully many times, your account may
have been locked out.

Lecture Tips
• Start with the focus question. Do students have any questions about the material
they have studied?
• Discuss the general troubleshooting model.
o Step 1: Establish the Symptoms.
o Step 2: Identify the Affected Area.
o Step 3: Establish What has Changed.
o Step 4: Select the Most Probable Cause.
o Step 5: Implement a Solution.
o Step 6: Test the Result.
o Step 7: Recognize the Potential Effects of the Solution.
o Step 8: Document the Solution.
• Present troubleshooting examples. Use the model as a guide for solving the
problems.
o Example 1: Draw a diagram with four computers, two on subnet
192.168.1.x/24 and two on subnet 192.168.2.x/24. The subnets are
connected by a router. Router port IP addresses are 192.168.1.1 and
192.168.2.1. Label the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway for
each client. Label the default gateway of one of the clients on subnet 1
incorrectly.

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• One of the clients on subnet 1 can’t communicate with clients on
subnet 2. The other client on this subnet can communicate with
clients on subnet 2.
• Clients are supposed to be configured with DHCP, but upon
inspection, you discover the IP configuration for the problem client
has been set manually.
o Example 2: You run a 100BaseT, Windows 2000 network. Clients run
Windows 2000 Professional or Windows XP. Gina calls to say that she
can’t connect to the file server. What do you do first?
• In this case, the file server is down. Walk through the problem.
o Example 3: You run a 100BaseT, Windows 2000 network. Clients run
Windows 2000 Professional or Windows XP. Mark calls to say that he
can’t connect to the file server. What do you do first?
• In this case, there is a router connecting two subnets. The server is
on subnet 1; Mark is on subnet 2. The router is down, so no one on
subnet 2 can connect to the server. Walk through the problem.
o Example 4: You are having trouble connecting to a Windows 2000 remote
access server. The message indicates you don’t have permission to log on.
• You are having trouble connecting to a LAN from a remote
location.
• Make sure that your cables are properly connected.
• Make sure correct protocols are installed.
• Make sure you have the proper permissions to access
resources. (In this example, Windows 2000 domains
require that the user account be given permission to dial-up
to the remote access server. You don’t have that
permission.)
o Present your own examples.
• Discuss troubleshooting indicators and tools. Demonstrate anything you can.
o Power lights.
o Link lights.
• Use link lights to verify connectivity. When a link light is not lit,
either the cable is bad or one of the devices on either side of the
cable is not functioning properly.
• Look at the link lights on the classroom computers. If there is a
switch or hub in the room, take a look at it too.
o Activity lights.
• Collision Lights - A collision occurs when two hosts on an
Ethernet network send packets at exactly the same time. The result
is an unreadable packet. If a collision light is on frequently on a
hub, you either have too much traffic for the available bandwidth
or you may have a malfunctioning NIC in one of the computers
connected to the hub.
• Look at the activity lights on the classroom computers. If there is a
switch or hub in the room, take a look at it too.

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o Error messages.
• Try to log on with the wrong password. What is the error message?
• User Rights and Permissions - Rights and permissions are
implemented on a network to ensure the safety of sensitive
information but also easy access to resources required by many
users. If a user is having difficulty accessing a certain resource on
the network, make sure that the user has access rights to that
resource.
• Logging on to a Network - All secure network operating systems
require a username and password to log on. If you are having
difficulty logging on, remember that passwords are case-sensitive.
Make sure that Caps Lock is not on. Also, if you have tried to log
on unsuccessfully many times, your account may have been locked
out.
o Error logs.
• Open Event Viewer on a Windows NT/2000/XP computer at take a
look at the error log.
o Environmental factors.
• Dust, dirt, heat, controlled access.
o Performance monitors.
• Remind students of the Performance tool in Windows 2000.

Lab/Activity
Lecture Activity
Computer Lab Activity
• Unplug the network cable for your lab computer. Take a look at the link lights on
the NIC. If possible, look at the lights on the classroom hub or switch.

Assessment
Check lab notebooks.

Homework Suggestions
• Read Section 6-3 and take the section test.
• Research the focus question for the next section.
• Find a STOP message in Event View on a Windows 2000 computer. Research the
cause of the error and the solution to the problem. http://support.microsoft.com is
a good place to look for more information on STOP messages.

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CompTIA Network+ (N10-002)
Appendix A: Network+ Exam Objectives
To find instruction for a particular exam objective, locate the objective below. Then note
the section(s) in the course you need to study. References to the course use the format
[module #]-[section #].

Exam N10-002, CompTIA's Network+ Certification

1.0. Media and Topologies

Objectives TestOut for Network+


1.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a 2-7
schematic diagram or description:

• Star/hierarchical
• Bus
• Mesh
• Ring
• Wireless

1.2 Specify the main features of 802.2 (LLC), 802.3 (Ethernet), 802.5 3-2, 3-3
(Token Ring), 802.11b (wireless), and FDDI networking technologies,
including:

• Speed
• Access method
• Topology
• Media

1.3 Specify the characteristics (e.g., speed, length, topology, cable type, 3-2
etc.) of the following:

• 802.3 (Ethernet) standards


• 10Base-T
• 100Base-TX
• 10Base-2
• 10Base-5
• 100Base-FX
• Gigabit Ethernet

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1.4 Recognize the following media connectors and/or describe their 3-1 to 3-4
uses:

• RJ-11
• RJ-45
• AUI
• BNC
• ST
• SC

1.5 Choose the appropriate media type and connectors to add a client to 3-1 to 3-4
an existing network.

1.6 Identify the purpose, features, and functions of the following 1-3, 1-4,
network components: 2-5 to 2-7,
3-2 to 3-4
• Hubs
• Switches
• Bridges
• Routers
• Gateways
• CSU/DSU
• Network interface cards/ISDN adapters/System Area Network cards
• Wireless access points

2.0. Protocols and Standards


Objectives TestOut for Network+
2.1 Given an example, identify a MAC address. 2-6

2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions. 1-1, 2-1 to 2-7

2.3 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of 4-1


routing, addressing schemes, interoperability, and naming conventions:

• TCP/IP
• IPX/SPX
• NetBEUI
• AppleTalk

2.4 Identify the OSI layers at which the following network 1-3, 2-5 to 2-7
components operate:

• Hubs
• Switches
• Bridges
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• Routers
• Network Interface Cards

2.5 Define the purpose, function, and/or use of the following 4-1, 4-2
protocols within TCP/IP:

• IP
• TCP
• UDP
• FTP
• TFTP
• SMTP
• HTTP
• HTTPS
• POP3/IMAP4
• Telnet
• ICMP
• ARP
• NTP

2.6 Define the function of TCP/UDP ports. Identify well-known 4-1, 4-2, 5-1
ports.

2.7 Identify the purpose of the following network services: 4-2

• DHCP/BootP
• DNS
• NAT/ICS
• WINS
• SNMP

2.8 Identify IP addresses (IPv4, IPv6) and their default subnet masks. 4-1, 4-2

2.9 Identify the purpose of subnetting and default gateways. 4-1, 4-2

2.10 Identify the differences between public vs. private networks. 4-2

2.11 Identify the basic characteristics (e.g., speed, capacity, media) 1-4, 3-3, 3-4
of the following WAN technologies.

• Packet switching vs. circuit switching


• ISDN
• FDDI
• ATM

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• Frame Relay
• SONET/SDH
• T1/E1
• T3/E3
• OC-x

2.12 Define the function of the following remote access protocols 1-4, 5-1
and services.

• RAS
• PPP
• PPTP
• ICA

2.13 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and 5-1
function:

• IPsec
• L2TP
• SSL
• Kerberos

3.0. Network Implementation


Objectives TestOut for Network+
3.1 Identify the basic capabilities (i.e., client support, interoperability, 4-1, 5-1
authentication, file and print services, application support, and security)
of the following server operating systems:

• UNIX/Linux
• NetWare
• Windows
• Macintosh

3.2 Identify the basic capabilities of client workstations (i.e., client 4-1, 5-1
connectivity, local security mechanisms, and authentication).

3.3 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs. 2-6

3.4 Identify the main characteristics of network attached storage. 1-3

3.5 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance. 1-1, 5-2

3.6 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery. 1-1, 5-2

3.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario (e.g., IP, IPX, dial-up, 3-1, 3-4, 4-1,

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PPPoE, authentication, physical connectivity, etc.), configure 5-1, 6-1
the connection.

3.8 Identify the purpose, benefits, and characteristics of using a firewall. 5-1

3.9 Identify the purpose, benefits, and characteristics of using a proxy. 4-2

3.10 Given a scenario, predict the impact of a particular security implementation 5-1
on network functionality (e.g., blocking port numbers, encryption, etc.).

3.11 Given a network configuration, select the appropriate NIC and network 4-1, 4-2
configuration settings (DHCP, DNS, WINS, protocols,
NetBIOS/host name, etc.).

4.0. Network Support


Objectives TestOut for Network+
4.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario, select the appropriate TCP/IP utility 4-2
from among the following:

• tracert
• ping
• arp
• netstat
• nbtstat
• ipconfig/ifconfig
• winipcfg
• nslookup

4.2 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a small office/home 3-4, 6-3


office network failure (e.g., xDSL, cable, home satellite, wireless,
POTS), identify the cause of the failure.

4.3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity 3-4, 4-1,


problem (e.g., authentication failure, protocol configuration, 5-1, 6-3
physical connectivity) identify the cause of the problem.

4.4 Given specific parameters, configure a client to connect to the following 4-1
servers:

• UNIX/Linux
• NetWare
• Windows
• Macintosh

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4.5 Given a wiring task, select the appropriate tool (e.g., wire crimper, 3-1
media tester/certifier, punch down tool, tone generator, optical tester, etc.).

4.6 Given a network scenario interpret visual indicators (e.g., link lights, 6-3
collision lights, etc.) to determine the nature of the problem.

4.7 Given output from a diagnostic utility (e.g., tracert, ping, ipconfig, etc.), 4-2
identify the utility and interpret the output.

4.8 Given a scenario, predict the impact of modifying, adding, or removing 4-2
network services (e.g., DHCP, DNS, WINS, etc.) on network resources
and users.

4.9 Given a network problem scenario, select an appropriate course of 6-3


action based on a general troubleshooting strategy. This strategy includes
the following steps:

1. Establish the symptoms


2. Identify the affected area
3. Establish what has changed
4. Select the most probable cause
5. Implement a solution
6. Test the result
7. Recognize the potential effects of the solution
8. Document the solution

4.10 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular 2-7, 6-3
physical topology (i.e., bus, star/hierarchical, mesh, ring, and wireless)
and including a network diagram, identify the network area affected and
the cause of the problem.

4.11 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a client 4-1, 5-1, 6-3
connectivity problem (e.g., incorrect protocol/client software/authentication
configuration, or insufficient rights/permissions), identify the cause of
the problem.

4.12 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a 2-7, 6-3


wiring/infrastructure problem, identify the cause of the problem
(e.g., bad media, interference, network hardware).

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