Sunteți pe pagina 1din 139

Programmable

Solutions
in Digital Modems
Bringing Broadband Access
to the Home
Agenda
• Technology overview
– Motivation for digital modems
• Digital modem technologies
– Spartan-II FPGAs in satellite modems
– Spartan-II FPGAs in ISDN modems
– Spartan-II FPGAs in cable modems
– Spartan-II FPGAs in DSL modems
• Digital modems evolves into the Residential gateway
• Conclusions
So What is Broadband Access?
• High speed connection to the Internet
– Greater than 128Kbps
– Always on!
– Simultaneous up-Link and down-link communication
– Overcomes Internet frustrations
– Made possible by digital modems
• Leading broadband access technologies
– xDSL, cable, satellite, ISDN digital modems
Digital Modem Growth Drivers

• Internet users are demanding more Bandwidth


– Home networking
• Internet services such as voice, video & data
– Streaming video, web browsing, email, MP3 files, VoIP, digitized
photographs, Video-on-Demand, online gaming
• Multiple information appliances having Internet access
• Online shopping using high resolution images
– Telecommuters and day extenders
• Connecting to corporate LAN through the Internet
• Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology
– Home businesses
Digital Modem Growth Drivers

• Analog modems have hit the wall at 56 Kbps


• Digital modems offer vastly greater bandwidth
– Satellite: 400 Kbps to 38 Mbps
– DSL: 1.5 Mbps to 52 Mbps
– Cable: up to 10Mbps
Frustrated Maybe ….

Average Download Times


Connection Web Page 3 minute Music File 30 second Video/Movie
Speed (30KBytes) (3MBytes) (50 MBytes)
28.8 kbps 9 seconds 15 minutes 4 hours

56 kbps 4.5 seconds 7.5 minutes 2 hours

ISDN (144 kbps) 2 seconds 3 minutes 55 minutes

DSL/Cable 1.5Mbps) <1 seconds 15 seconds 5 minutes


Digital Modems - WW Unit Shipments
16000

Cable
14000
DSL

12000 High
HighVolume!
Volume! ISDN
14
14Million
MillionUnits
Units
10000 inin2001
2001
K Units

8000

6000

4000

2000

0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Source: Dataques t Year CAGR 39.2%
Impact on the Internet Household
• Facilitation of work at home
– Similar high-speed access as work
• Potential to leverage voice
– PBX service to the work-at-home population over broadband is
a substantial value-add
– Voice over DSL and cable
• Impact of always-on and continuous connectivity
• Benefits to new bandwidth-intensive applications /
devices
– Voice, video, data, music and multimedia
• Lower prices / higher speeds
Satellite Modems
Satellite Modem Overview
• Use the same transponders used to deliver TV
• Standards
– DSS: Hughes Network Systems (HNS) proprietary
– DVB (ETS 300-421): Open standards consortium
– Primestar (ITU-R 217/11): Being phased out
• Issues
– Shared media
– Unidirectional, return channel is via modem
• Estimated $100M modem sales in 1999
Data Broadcasting
Download

Satellite
Operator

PSTN
Home User
Upload

World Wide Web


System Block Diagram
• Key functional blocks
Satellite System Host – Satellite interface
Interface Glue Interface
– CPU complex
– Host interface
CPU – Application specific
system glue

Flash RAM
• Application specific
system glue is required
for interconnecting
ASSPs
Satellite Interface Components
Quadrature I A/D Clock
QPSK/BPSK Viterbi Synch & Reed-Solomon
Data Descrambler
Demodulator Decoder De-I nterfearer Decoder
from Tuner D A/D Data

Tuner Processor
To AGC
Interface Interface

• Tuner
– RF components packaged in shielded module
• Decoder
– Single ASSP
– Processor interface
• Eight bit microprocessor bus, serial, I2C, etc.
Satellite Interface ASSP Providers

• Market is dominated by Conexant Systems and


Broadcom Corporation
• Both are single chip solutions
– Demodulator
– Forward error correction
– Dual eight-bit A/D converters

Supplier Components Processor Interface Standards Availability


2
Broadcom BCM4201 Universal Satellite Receiver I C, SPI DSS, DVB, Primestar Now
Conexant HM1211 Demodulator serial, motel DVB, DSS Now
Host Interfaces
• Popular interfaces for satellite modems
– USB for external modem
– PCI for add-in card
• USB
– Comes with all new PCs
– Customer does not have to open PC
• PCI
– Lower cost, no case or power supply
– Limits system interoperability
• No PCI slots in iMac
Satellite Modem Design
• HNS DirecPC®-USB receiver
• The challenge
– Add USB interface to satellite modem architecture
– Leverage ASIC technology developed for PCI card
• Spartan-II XC2S30 is used for system level glue,
interfacing
– CPU
– Demodulator
– HNS ASIC
– USB controller
Higher Density Enables New Applications

0
Spartan-III

1
250K

$ Spartan-II
System Gates

100K

Spartan-XL Ethernet
Digital Modem
40K MAC

Video Line
Buffer
Graphics Car d
PCI--
PCI
ATM
30K MIPS IMA Office Networking
Bridge
Reed Solomon
HDLC 32-bit,
32- Encoder Set-Top Box
FIFOs UARTs 33--MHz
33
PCI 64 Bit
PALs PCI Embedded µP Apps

1998 1999 2000 2001


Satellite Modem Block Diagram
NET2800
USB USB
ODU Tuner Controller Cable

LSI
LNB
Demod- FIFO
Controller
ulator

XC2S30 PCI Bus


HNS
SRAM Boot
Channel ASIC
64K x 32 PROM
Interface

IDT79R3041 A/D Bus


RISC
Processor Latch
Address Bus
* HNS Proprietary ASIC
Spartan-II Device Functions
• Processor interface
– Control registers, watchdog timer
• Data buffer between HNS ASIC & demodulator
• 32-bit CRC check for incoming packets
• USB controller interface
– Bus arbitration, FIFO control, DMA control
• PCI target interface
– Lets RISC chip take over host processor functions
Quadrature Data from Tuner
Satellite Modems
I - Channel Q - Channel
Input Input

De-I nterleaver
ADC ADC Clock RAM
Generator

QPSK/BPSK Viterbi Synch & Reed-Solomon


Descrambler
Demodulator Decoder De-I nterleaver Decoder

Data Clock

RAM
System
I/O Interconnectivity
Tuner Flash
CPU
Interface

RF In Decryption Video Encoder MPEG A/V


MPEG
Transport & A/V
RAM
VIDEO AUDIO
ISDN Modems
ISDN Overview

PRI - Primary Rate ISDN


23 or 30 Bearer Channels @ 64kbps
1 Data Channel @ 64kbps
BRI - Basi c Rate ISDN
2 Bearer Channels @ 64kbps
1 Data Channel @ 16kbps
Understanding ISDN Equipment

Terminal Equipm ent (TE1) - ISDN ready Netw ork Terminator (NT1) - Subscriber Line Isolation
Terminal Equipm ent (TE2) - Non ISDN Netw ork Terminator (NT2) - Network Switch (PBX)
Terminal Adapter (TA) - Analog to ISDN
ISDN
Integrated Digital Services Network

• High-speed, fully digital telephone service


– Upgrades today's analog telephone network to a
digital system
• Can operate at speeds up to 144Kbps
– 5 or more times faster than today's analog modems
– Dramatic speed up of information transfer over the
Internet or over a remote LAN connection
• Rich media like graphics, audio, video or other applications
• Widely available
ISDN

• The Original Digital Service


– Technology was defined in the mid-80s
• Uses circuit switched technology to support
– D (Delta) channels are used for signaling
– Data is transported over 64 Kbps B (Bearer) channels
– Channels may carry voice, packet data, video
Two Major Variants
• BRI (Basic Rate Interface)
– Targeted at home and small business users
– Provides 2 B channels over a single twisted pair

• PRI (Primary Rate Interface)


– Targeted at larger corporate customers
– Provides 23 B channels over T1 in North America
– Provides 30 B channels over E1 in Europe
ISDN Model
Functional Groupings
• TE2 (Terminal Equipment 2)
– Non-ISDN equipment such as personal computers
• TA (Terminal Adapter)
– Interfaces non-ISDN equipment to the ISDN
• TE1 (Terminal Equipment 1)
– ISDN terminal equipment such as ISDN phones
• NT1 (Network Termination Equipment, Layer 1)
– Terminates the ISDN network connection at the physical layer
• NT2 (Network Termination Equipment, Layer 2)
– Terminates the ISDN network connection at the data link layer
Reference Points
• R (Rate) Reference Point
– Non-ISDN interface between non-ISDN user equipment and
terminal adapter
• S (System) Reference Point
– Interface between Terminal Adapters (TA) or terminal and
Network termination
• T (Terminal) Reference Point
– Interface between Network Termination (NT) equipment
• U (User) Reference Point
– Interface between customer and central office
U Reference Point
• Connects subscriber to Central Office (CO)
• Point to point connection with a 5.5 km maximum
distance
• 2 wire interface
• 2B1Q line coding
– 2B1Q in North America
– 4B3T in Europe
• Adaptive equalization, echo cancellation
• Data is scrambled
– Improve clock recovery & spectral characteristics
S/T Interface

• Interconnects customer premises equipment


(CPE)
• Bus topology
• 4 wire interface
• 1 km maximum distance
• Alternate Space Inversion (ASI) line coding
Proprietary TDM interfaces
• Used to connect ISDN devices inside equipment
• 4 to 7 wire interfaces
– Clock
– Data In
– Data Out
– Start of frame indicator
• Several versions defined by ASSP vendors
– CHI (Concentration Highway Interface): Lucent
– IOM-2 (ISDN Oriented Modular Interface): Infineon, AMD
– IDL (Inter-chip Digital Link): Motorola
ISDN In the Real World
External ISDN Modem
• Includes processor for protocol processing
• Optional POTS interface
• System glue
– Interface glue for ASSPs
– ISDN TA functions
Internal ISDN Modem
• Uses host for protocol processing
• Voice features use host’s sound card
• System glue
– Host bus interface
– ISDN TA functions
Always On ISDN
• Provides continuous Internet connectivity
• Forwards IP traffic over the D channel
– 16 kbps bandwidth
– X.25 encapsulation
• Requires support from
– ISP
– Phone company
– Hardware (modem/router)
IDSL

• IDSL = ISDN Digital Subscriber Loop


• Developed by Ascend
• Uses ISDN transport
– 2B+D - 144 kbps
– Static connections, no signaling
• Does not support ISDN voice calls
– Requires VoIP instead
ASSP Providers
Supplier Device Function
Motorola MC145572 U-Interface Transceiver
MC145574 S/T-Interface Trans ceiver
MC145575 Passive ISDN Terminal Adapter
MC145576 Single-Chip NT1
AMD Am79C30A/32A Digital Subscriber Controller
Lucent T7234 Single-Chip NT1
T7256 Single-Chip NT1 with Microprocess or and TDM Interfac e
T7237 U-Interface 2B 1Q Transceiver
T9000/T9001 ISDN Network Termination Node (NTN) Devices
T7250 S/T-Interface with HDLC
National TP3410 U-Interface Transceiver
TP3420A S/T Interface Devic e
Infineon P EB 2091 U-Interface Transceiver
P EB 2086 S/T Interface Devic e
P EB 8090 Single-Chip NT1
P EB 8191 Single-Chip NT1 with Microprocess or and TDM Interfac e
Yamaha YTD423 HDLC with Microprocessor Interface
YTD421 S/T Interface Devic e
Asahi Kasei AK520S Single-Chip NT1
Design Example: ISDN PCMCIA Modem

• Design objectives
– Lowest possible total product cost
• Target < $30 for complete solution
– Fastest time-to-market solution
• Use available intellectual property as possible
• PCMCIA core - Mobile Media Research, Xilinx Alliance Partner
• Spartan/XC9500 support solution
– Spartan FPGAs implement system glue functions & PCMCIA
interface
– XC9500 manages memory interface
– Spartan/XC9500 very cost effective
ISDN PCMCIA Modem

• PCMCIA - standard PC laptop interface


– Implemented using IP core
• Requires system glue
– Motorola MC145572 U transceiver to PCMCIA interface
• Memory control in CPLD
ISDN PCMCIA FPGA
ADDR[12:0]
Data Out DATA[7:0]
Addr
Memory ECS
Controller SCS
/Buffer PCS
Manager PINT
MUX Data In
WE
OE

IREQ#
IORD# HDLC In
Data In
IOWR# B Ch 1
REG#
CE1#
PCMCIA Addr HDLC Out
STSCHG# Interface
INPACK# Data Out
SA[25:0] FSR
D[7:0] HDLC In IDL FSX
B Ch 2 Mux/ DCL
DeMux DOUT
HDLC Out DIN

HDLC In
D Ch
HDLC Out
ISDN PCMCIA FPGA Block Diagram
Spartan Functionality

ASSP Manufacturer / Part Spartan System Glue -


Number Functions
ISDN U–Interface Motorola Handshaking
Transceiver MC145572 ASSP Interface
IDL Data Multiplexing
IDL Data Demultiplexing
Host: PCMCIA Xilinx PCMCIA Interface Functions
XCS40XL-4VQ100C & Function Control Register
Mobile Media Research Files
(PCMCIA IP Core)
CPU Philips System Initialization
8051 Microcontroller Functions
Xilinx - The Super Glue of System Logic

With Xilinx

ISDN Interfaces Host ASSPs


Terminal Adapter RS - 232
Terminal Equipment Ethernet
USB
Without Xilinx FireWire
ISDN Summary
• Perfect match for use in ISDN modems
– Faster Time-To-Market with programmable logic
– Easily integrates system logic functions
• Interface, control, decode, state machines, etc.
– Extremely cost effective
• Customer benefits using Xilinx in ISDN modems
– Most efficient way to integrate standard ASSPs
– Hits both price & performance targets
– Speeds Time-To-Market (TTM)
• Maximizes new product revenue
• “Off-the-shelf” IP further accelerates TTM
– Provides total IC / Software / IP solution
Cable Modems
Cable Modem Overview
Cable
• Internet access on the same cable that delivers
regular CABLE (CABLE is short for cable TV
(CATV) network)
• Offered by cable companies
• Subscriber uses a cable modem to access this
broadband connection
• Potential speeds up to 10Mbps
– Number of users on the system affects speed
Cable Modems
• Device that allows high-speed data access from a PC to
the Internet via a cable TV (CATV) network
• Modem in the true sense of the word
– Modulates and demodulates signals
– Delivers Internet data to the desktop at blazing speeds
– It simply uses the increased bandwidth of the TV cable instead
of an ordinary phone line
• Can be part modem, part tuner, part
encryption/decryption device, part bridge, part router,
part NIC card, part SNMP agent, and part Ethernet hub
Cable Modems
• They typically have two connections
– One to the cable wall outlet and the other to a PC
• Online access via cable modems provides PC
users faster access to online information
– Up to 1000 times faster than today’s fastest telephone
modems
– Cable modem speeds range from 500 Kbps (500,000
bits per second) to 10 Mbps (10 million bits per
second)
• In comparison V.90 56K modems top out at 56,000 bps
Cable Modem - Market Drivers
• Increasing popularity of the Internet
• Increasing demand for high speed access to Internet
• Rapid entrance of AT&T into cable business
• Increasing use of cable modem services by small
businesses and SOHOs
• Growth in telecommuting
• Increasing availability of multimedia & interactive
applications requiring high-bandwidth capabilities
Cable Modem - Market Drivers
• Cable already passes by the majority of all
households
• Cable modems were the first to market and have
the largest customer base
• Increasing acceptance of DOCSIS standard
• Increased deployment of hybrid fiber coax
systems
• Aggressive marketing of cable modem services
stimulates demand
Cable Modem - Market Restraints
• Limited availability of cable modem services to
residential customers
• Speed decrease due to shared nature of cable
modem services
• Relatively expensive cost of service
• Expensive cost of equipment purchase and
installation
• Competition from ADSL services
Cable Modem - Market Restraints

• Limited availability of cable modem services to


businesses
• Concerns over data security
• Limited choices of Internet Service Providers
(ISPs) due to fight over open access
• Low upstream transmission speeds discourage
the usage of cable modem services
What is a Cable Modem?
• CABLE - short for cable TV (CATV) network
• MODEM - MOdulator-DEModulator
• Cable modem
– Client device for providing 2 way communications
(data, voice and video) over the ordinary cable TV
network cables
• Downstream - Data flowing from the CMTS to the cable
modem
• Upstream - Data flowing from the cable modem to the
CMTS
How Do Cable Modems Work?
• Connect the Cable Modem to the TV outlet for your cable TV
• The cable TV operator connects a Cable Modem Termination
System (CMTS) at their end (the Head-End)
– The CMTS is a central device for connecting the cable TV network to a data
network like the Internet

CMTS (Head-End) Cable Modem

Upstream Demodulator Upstream Modulator


QPSK/16-QAM QPSK/16-QAM

Downstream Modulator Downstream Demodulator


64-QAM /256-QAM 64-QAM /256-QAM
Cable Modem at the Subscriber Location

Set-Top Box

One-to-Two
Splitter

Cable M odem

RF QAM
Tuner Modulator

PC
Data and
QPSK/QAM
MAC Control PC
Modulator
Logic
PC
DOCSIS Cable Modem
SRAM

10/ 100
Tuner SAW
Ethernet
CPU &
DOCSIS DOCSIS
LAN USB
Transceiver MAC
Controller
PGA LPF
HPNA 2.0

RAM Flash

• DOCSIS - Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification


– The dominating cable modem spec that defines the technical specs for
both the cable modem and the CMTS
• Architecture
– Tuner, transceiver (modulator/demodulator), MAC, CPU, interface
OSI Layer Stack-up for DOCSIS Cable Modem

OSI DOCSIS
Higher Layers Applications
DOCSIS Control
Transport Layer TCP/UDP
Messages
Network Layer IP
Data Link Layer IEEE 802.2
Upstream Downstream
Physical Layer TDMA (min-slots) TDM (MPEG)
QPSK/16-QAM 64/256-QAM
Inside a Cable Modem
• Tuner
– Connects directly to the CATV outlet
– Converts TV channel to a fixed lower frequency (6-40 MHz)
• Normally a tuner with build-in diplexer is used, to provide both
upstream and downstream signals through the same tuner
• Must be of sufficiently good quality to be able to receive the digitally
modulated QAM signals
• A new concept of a silicon tuner is in the works
– “Tuner on a chip”
– Expected to cut the cost down quite a bit compared to a more
conventional tuner module
– Companies
• Sharp, Temic, Panasonic
Inside a Cable Modem

• Demodulator
– Performs analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion,
demodulation (QAM-64/256), Reed Solomon error
correction and MPEG frame synchronization
• In the receive direction, the interface signal feeds a
demodulator
– Companies
• Broadcom, Conexant Systems, SGS Thomson, VLSI
Technologies/Philips, LSI Logic, Fujitsu
Inside a Cable Modem
• Burst modulator
– Performs Reed Solomon encoding, modulation (QPSK/16-
QAM), frequency conversion, digital-to-analog conversion
• In the transmit direction, a burst modulator feeds the tuner
• The output signal is fed through a driver with variable output level, so
the signal level can be adjusted to compensate for the unknown cable
loss
– Companies
• Broadcom, Conexant Systems, Analog Devices, SGS Thomson
• Combined demodulator and burst modulator chips are
also available
– The integration race drives more functions into a single chip
Inside a Cable Modem
• MAC (Media Access Control) sub-layer in the network
stack (runs on both the cable modem and head-end)
– Extracts data from MPEG frames, filters data, protocol
execution, times transmission of upstream bursts
– Sits between the receive and transmit paths
– Can be implemented in hardware or split between hardware
and software
– Assigns upstream frequency & data rate
– Allocates time-slots (upstream bandwidth)
– The MAC is complex compared to an Ethernet MAC
– Requires CPU to handle MAC layer functions
– Companies: Broadcom, Texas Instruments, Conexant
Inside a Cable Modem
• Interface
– Data passes through the MAC and goes into the computer
interface of the cable modem
– PCI bus, USB, Ethernet, HomePNA
• CPU - microprocessor
– Required for external cable modems
• Single-chip cable modem are emerging
– Combines the MAC, demodulator, burst modulator, CPU,
Ethernet/HomePNA/PCI/USB interfaces
– Additional parts such as memory, tuner, analog, power supply
will not be within the single-chip cable modem
QAM & QPSK

• QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation


– A method of modulating digital signals using both
amplitude and phase coding
• QPSK - Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
– A method of modulating digital signals using four
phase states to code two digital bits per phase shift
Downstream Data Channel in
Cable Modem Physical Layer
• Downstream
– The signal received by the cable modem from the CMTS
• Modulation
– 64 QAM and 256 QAM
• Bandwidth
– 6 MHz (USA) & 8 MHz (EU) occupied spectrum that coexists
with other signals in cable
• Frequency
– 42-850 MHz (USA) and 65-850 MHz (EU)
Downstream Data Channel in
Cable Modem Physical Layer
• Data rates
– 27-56 Mbps
• Continuous stream of data with no implied framing,
provides complete PHY and MAC decoupling
• Downstream data is received by all cable modems
– The total bandwidth is shared between all active cable
modems on the system
– Each cable modem filters out the data it needs from the stream
of data
Upstream Data Channel in
Cable Modem Physical Layer
• Upstream
– Data flowing from the cable modem to the CMTS
– It is always in bursts
– Many modems can transmit on the same frequency
• Modulation formats
– QPSK (2 bits per symbol) and 16 QAM (4 bits per symbol)
• Bandwidth per channel
– 2 MHz for a 3 Mbps QPSK channel
• Frequency
– 5-65 MHz
Upstream Data Channel in
Cable Modem Physical Layer
• Data rates
– 320 kbps to 10 Mbps
• Transmit bursts of data in time slots (TDM)
– Slots may be marked as reserved, contention or
ranging
• One downstream is normally paired with a
number of upstream channels to achieve the
balance in data bandwidths required
Standards & Technologies -
Many Different
• 1st generation - proprietary systems
• MCNS - Multimedia Cable Network System
– Limited partnership by formed by Comcast, Cox, TCI, Time
Warner, MediaOne, Rogers Cable and CableLabs
• DOCSIS
– Managed by CableLabs (certification program for vendors)
• IEEE 802.14
• Products from different vendors must be interoperable
– Helps to develop a mass market for cable modems
Summary

• Cable modems provide high-speed Internet


access
• Always-on connection
• Cable data networks provide privacy, security,
data networking, Internet access and quality-of-
service features
xDSL Modems
DSL Overview

xDSL Modem
(Internal or external) Splitter
(Voice & Data) 1.0Gps

A - Rack of ADSL Line Cards


B - Voice routed over PSTN
ADSL

C - Multiplexed Internet access


Voice

freq
ADSL Equipment

• ADSL - employs existing Telco wiring


• Digital Subscriber Local Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) located in
CO
• DSL employs adaptive digital modulation technologies to achieve
increased data rates (1.5 Mbps - 8 Mbps)
DSL Market Trends
• Typical telephone call lasts 3 minutes
– Internet traffic lasts 3+ hours with no increased revenue
• Increased traffic requires increased investment in
switching equipment
– DSL services enable local telco to generate revenue from
investments in additional switching equipment
• Competition from digital ISPs causing steep reduction in
service costs
– Digital ISPs include satellite & cable
DSL Market Trends

• Minimizing cost structures imperative to offering price


competitive solutions
• Lowering DSLAM cost has greatest impact on total cost
reduction
– More channels provided than used
– Line card is best target for cost reduction
• Spartan-II FPGAs deliver
– Low cost / gate
– Feature set
• Allows increased integration for lower total solution cost
DSL Technologies

DSL Type Download Upload Distance (feet)


ADSL (Asymmetrical) 0.5 - 8 Mbps 64 Kbps to 640 Kbps 12K to 18K

ADSL G.lite 1 Mbps 128 Kbps 12K to 18K

HDSL (High Bit Rate) 1.544 Mbps 1.544 Mbps 12K on 2 pairs

HDSL (High Bit Rate) 2.048 Mbps 2.048 Mbps 12K on 3 pairs

HDSL2 1.544 Mbps 1.544 Mbps 12K on 1 pair

RADSL (Rate Adaptive) Variable to 12 Mbps Variable to 1 Mbps 18K to 25K

SDSL (Symmetrical) 12 Kbps to 1.5 Mbps 12 Kbps to 1.5 Mbps 11.5K to 22K

VDSL (Very High Bit Rate) 25 Mbps to 50 Mbps 25 Mbps to 50 Mbps 3K


Generic DSL Line Card
Processor

SSTL-2/3
DSL DSL Driver Translators
Channels HDLC System
/Receiver
Controller Controller
Chip(s)

PCI
Memory
PLLs/ Clock Management

PCI Backplane
Hot Swap Controllers Interface GTL/GTL+
Transceivers

High Performance Backplane


Spartan-II Feature Rich For
DSL Solutions
Delay Locked Loop (DLL) Configurable Logic Block (CLB)
Clock
management Logic and
Multiply clock Distributed RAM
Divide clock CL DLL IOB IOB DLL CL
De-skew clock
I/O Routing Ring
I
O
R CLB ... CLB R I
O
B
A
M
A
M
B SelectI/OTM

...

...
Technology
R R
I I Chip to Backplane
A A
O
B M CLB ... CLB M
O
B
PCI 33MHz 3.3V
PCI 33MHz 5.0V
Block Memory I/O Routing Ring PCI 66MHz 3.3V
GTL, GTL+, AGP
CL DLL IOB IOB DLL CL
True Dual-Port TM Chip to Memory
4K bit RAM HSTL-I , HSTL-III
4Kx1 HSTL-I V
SSTL3-I, S STL3-II
2Kx2 Power Management SSTL2-I, S STL2-II
1Kx4
CTT
512x8
256x16
Power-down mode
Configuration & register Chip to Chip
LVTTL, LVCMOS
state maintained
Power-down status pin
Spartan-II Clock Management

Delay Locked Loops Lower Memory and Board Costs


Spartan-II Memory Solutions

C o rnrneer r ns
or yy Co esigigns
MMeemmorrencceeDDes External Memory
n
e e RReefefe re
r
FFre e Interface
Block RAM

Distributed RAM SDRAM


4Kx1
2Kx2 SGRAM
1Kx4
512x8
PB SRAM
16x1 256x16 DDR SRAM
ZBT SRAM
QDR SRAM
Large FIFOs
DSP Coeffic ients Vide o Line Buffers
Small FIFOs Cache Ta g Mem or y

200 MHz Memory Continuum - Transparent Bandwidth


1998 1999 2000
Spartan-II Block RAM
• True Dual-port Static RAM - 4K bits
– Independently configurable port data width
– 4K x 1; 2K x 2; 1K x 4; 512 x 8; 256 x 16
– Fast synchronous read and write
• 2.5-ns clock-to-output with 1-ns input address/data setup
W R
R W Data Flow Spartan-II
A to B Yes
Port B
Port A

Spartan-II
True Dual-Port B to A Yes
Block RAM A to A Yes
W W B to B Yes
R R
Memory Corner
• Collaboration between Xilinx and major memory vendors to provide
comprehensive web-based memory solutions
• Free reference designs (VHDL/Verilog)
• SRAM, DRAM & embedded FPGA memory solutions
• Data sheets, app notes, tutorials, FAQs, design guidelines

r O fffeferrss
Coornrneer Oesigignnss
y
oorry C nceeDDes
e mm
MMe efeerreenc
R ef
FFrereee R
Spartan-II - System Integration
Generic DSL Line Card
DS3134
CN8478 Processor
$10 - $120 Bt8471/2 $16 - $65
PSB2110 MPC107
PM7380 GT64130 SSTL-2/3
DSL DSL Driver Translators
Channels HDLC System $4
/Receiver
Controller Controller
Chip(s)

PCI
Memory
PLLs/ Clock Management PCI9610

$3 PCI9054 $12 - $25


PCI Backplane S5933

Hot Swap Controllers Interface S5920 GTL/GTL+


GT64115 Transceivers
$3
$6
High Performance Backplane
Generic DSL Line Card
Logic and Interface Savings By Using Spartan-II FPGAs

Processor
XC2S100
$9.95
SSTL-2/3
DSL DSL Driver Translators
Channels HDLC System
/Receiver
Controller Controller
Chip(s)

PCI
Memory
PLLs/ Clock Management

XC2S100 PCI Backplane


Hot Swap Controllers $9.95 Interface GTL/GTL+
Transceivers

High Performance Backplane


Spartan-II IP Solutions for
HDLC Controllers
• Spartan-II + HDLC Controller IP =
Programmable HDLC Controller Solution
• AllianceCORE partners
– Memec Design Services
• Single channel XF-HDLC controller core
– CoreEl Microsystems
• PPP8 HDLC (CC318f) controller core
• The two IP solutions are crafted to cater to different
applications
Spartan-II IP Solutions for
HDLC Controllers
AllianceCORE Partners Memec Design Services CoreEl Microsystems

Products/Cores Single Channel XF-HDLC Controller CC318f - PPP8 HDLC


Specification Standard International ISO/IEC3309 RFC1619 PPP over SONET
Address Recognition N.A. N.A.
Data Rate DC to 53Mbps (STS-1) N.A.
CRC/FCS 16- & 32- Bit 16- & 32- Bit
FIFO customization Yes N.A.
DMA customization Yes N.A.
Multiple HDLC Scaling Yes Yes
Synchronous Full N.A.
supports programmable address,
control, protocol fields; supports 8-
Features full duplex operation allowed
bit pkt & framer interface; error
detection statistics
Memec Design Services

Single-Channel XF-HDLC Controller Block Diagram


CoreEL MicroSystems

CC318f HDLC Controller (Transmitter) Block Diagram


CoreEL MicroSystems

CC318f HDLC Controller (Receiver) Block Diagram


The Spartan-II Competitive
Advantage: Data Rate/Throughput
• HDLC controller solution data throughput
– Spartan-II
• 53Mbps
– Typical HDLC controller ASSP data throughput
• ~ 2.5 - 8.192Mbps
• HDLC controller solution CRC
– Spartan-II
• 16-bit and 32-bit provided
– Typical HDLC controller ASSP
• No flexibility
The Spartan-II Competitive
Advantage: 100k Unit Cost
• Typical HDLC controller ASSP
– ~$4.56 (1 channel)
– ~$60 - $120 (multi channel)
• Spartan-II HDLC controller solution
– ~$3.95 (1 channel)
– ~$10 (multi channel)

The Spartan-II Solution has a Clear Competitive


Advantage over Stand-alone ASSPs
A Successful Programmable Solution
1
External PLD
Relative Component Cost

7K Gates

External DLLs,
memories,
Spartan-II FPGAs
0.5 Controllers and Lower Overall
translators
System Cost

XC2S30-5 PQ208
0.1 PCI ASSP
PCI Master 15K Gates Logic
and Slave I/F
PCI Master I/F

Standard Chip

Solution <$6
Solution <$6
Programmable ASSP - Value
• Time to market
• Flexibility
• Field upgradability
• Address lower volume strategic applications
• Distribution and inventory management

Spartan-II + Soft IP =
Programmable ASSP
Conclusions on Digital Modems

• Demand for greater Internet bandwidth is driving the


need for digital modem solutions
– Satellite, ISDN, cable, xDSL
• Fierce competition spawns wide range of ASSPs
• ASSPs require system glue logic
• Spartan-II FPGA provides higher densities, increased
features and maximum flexibility at low costs
• Spartan-II + Soft IP = Programmable ASSP
The Digital Modem
Evolves Into The
Residential
Gateways
Home Networking using a
Digital Modem
New Dimensions to Home
Internet Access
• Internet revolution
– New ways to communicate, entertain & educate
– Millions of users rushing to Gain Internet access
• Applications & services are fueling demand for
high-speed Internet access
– E-mail, instant messaging, shopping, games, research
• Home users are embracing a variety of new services
– Broadband access will evolve to bring new dimensions to the
Internet experience
Convergence Is Happening!
• Invisible computing embedded within everyday devices
– Increasing intelligence of everyday appliances
• Digital revolution
– Infrastructure: Circuit-switched to IP-based networks
– Analog TV to Digital TV
• Internet is ubiquitous
– Being deployed within commercial channels
• Business-to-Business commerce, secure transaction processing,
banking
• Deregulation of global infrastructure
– Multiple industries such as telecom, cable and utilities
The Push for Home Networking
• Rapid growth in multiple-PC household penetration
– PC penetration exceeds 50% in US households
– Multi-PC/household growth (U.S.): 15M (1998) to 26M(2003) *
• Increasing Internet usage
– Internet usage growth (U.S.): 20% (1997) to 47% (2001) **
• Demand for Broadband
– Broadband penetration growth (U.S.): less than 1M (1998) to
more than 15M (2002) ***
• Info-appliance Invasion
– Increased Sharing of digital content inside the home
* - Dataquest, ** - Yankee Group, *** - Forrester Research
History Repeats Itself Again...
• Television
– There was a time when one television set per home was
considered a luxury
– Today 76% of US households have two or more television sets
– Three factors contributed to multiple TV ownership
• Purchase of newer/bigger/ better television
• Additional television to reduce conflicts over TV use
• Television in bedroom / kitchen
– Replace the word “TV” with “PC” and history repeats itself
again!
Worldwide Home Network &
Residential Gateway Forecast

Source: Cahners In-Stat Group


Residential Gateway
The Key Ingredient For Home Networking

• RGs provide integration of different broadband access


types & different home networking solutions
– Broadband access
• ISDN, satellite, xDSL & cable modems
– Home networking solutions
• No new wires
– HomePNA, HomePlug
• Wireless
– Bluetooth, HomeRF, wireless LANs (IEEE802.11 & HiperLAN2)
• New wires
– Ethernet, IEEE 1394
Four Aspects to Home Networking
Market Requirements and
Solutions Available
Market Requirements Solutions Available

High Speed Access for Data, Voice xDSL, Cable, Powerline, Satellite,
Broadband and Video, Always on, Simultaneous Mobile/Wireless
Up-link &Down-link Communication,
Access Support Simultaneous and Multi-
User Access

Provides Access into the Home, Open System Gateway initiative


Residential Remote Management Access (OSGI), Jini, UPnP, HAVi, DVI
Platform, Bridging between Different
Gateway Networks, Firewall and Security, E-
Services Capabilities

Home Low Cost, Speed, Mobility, Quality of No new wires (Phonelines, Powerlines),
Networking Service, Security, Reliability, New wires (Ethernet, 1394, USB2.0,
Ubiquity, Ease of Use Optic Fiber), Wireless (HomeRF,
Technologies Bluetooth, Wireless LAN)

Digital electronics with advanced Digital TV, HDTV, set-top box, internet
Information computational capabilities that add screen phones, digital VCR, gaming
Application more value and convenience when consoles, MP3 players, cordless
networked phones, security systems, utility
Networks meters, PCs, web pads & terminals,
PDAs, digital cameras, auto PCs etc.
RGs - An Integral Part of Broadband
Access & Home Networking
Broadband
Wide Area Network Access Network

ADSL
ATM
Cable
SONET
Satellite
WDM Residential
Fixed Wireless
IP Switching Gateway
Powerline Televi sio n

Home Networking Technology


(HPNA, RF, Powerline,
Firewire, Ethernet)
Source: Cahners In-Stat
Broadband Based or
Digital Modems RGs
• Broadband termination device that has incorporated the
necessary routing functions within one device
• ADSL or cable termination device with routing
capabilities
• Digital modem that has evolved to incorporate the
necessary functionality to be a RG
• Gateway is sold in conjunction with DSL services
– Can be partially or completely subsidized
– Consumer installs the gateway
• The service provider saves the cost of a truck roll
• Not dependent upon a PC
Broadband Centric or
Digital Modems RGs
• Built to support one specific home networking technology
– HomePNA, Ethernet, USB or wireless
– Future technology advancements require buying another
gateway & reconfiguration of the home network
• Examples
– 2Wire Inc. - Product: HomePortal
• Provides support for both HomePNA & HomeRF solutions
• Platform for PC networking, communications convergence & distributed
entertainment content
• Remotely manageable
– Cayman ADSL 3220H router/RG
– Cisco uBR924 Cable router/RG
RG - An Incremental Deployment

From Digital Modems to Residential Gateway


Home Networking is Here!
First Generation RGs
• Not IP based devices & have low bandwidth
• Types
– Digital set-top box RGs
• Broadcast TV into the home
– Utility-centric RGs
• Enable automated meter reading (AMR), energy
optimization, home automation, management & monitoring
– PCs
– Gaming consoles
Second Generation RGs
• Devices that bridge one WAN pipe to one LAN
connection
• Configurations include
– Digital modems connected to a PC
– Or, stand alone devices with the intelligence to handle all of
these functions without the aid of a PC
• Conduct majority of routing functions & IP address mgmt
• Broadband access termination devices with integrated
LAN hubbing routing functionality
– Example: Cayman’s ADSL 3220H router/RG
– Example: General Instruments-Motorola’s DCT 5000+
Advanced Interactive Digital Consumer Terminal
Second Generation RGs
• PC-based architecture RG
– Example: Ericsson’s E-Box
• Set-top box RG
– Has the necessary home routing functionality
– Example: Next level Communications N3 RG
• Smart phones
– Example: Global Converging Technologies or Home Wireless
Networks, Cisco, Alcatel, Nokia, Nortel, Ericsson
• Targeted by service providers & equipment OEMs for
wide scale deployment as RGs in the next 2-3 years
Third Generation
• Multi-service home gateways
• Have capabilities to terminate
– Multiple types of WAN connections (wireless, DSL, cable)
– Multiple LAN connections (Ethernet, RF, HPNA, powerline)
• More expensive given the high degree of modularity
• Will be owned by the consumer
– Service providers do not inherently share CPE equipment
– Unless channel & pricing model changes this is not realistic
• Example
– Sharegate’s RG
Third Generation
• These devices do not exist today but will evolve based
on products available today
• Features
– Modular in design
– Multiple WAN termination of media types such as wireless,
xDSL or cable supported
– Multiple LAN/home networking technologies supported
• Less apt to becoming obsolete with future technology changes
– Deliver telephony/voice services
– Easier to set up
– Remote management is possible
Possibilities Within The Gateway
• Different combinations are available to suit
different particular home networking needs
– Depends on broadband access technologies
• xDSL, cable, ISDN, satellite, mobile/cellular phones,
analog phonelines
– Depends on in-home network technologies
• Phoneline, powerline, Ethernet, IEEE-1394/Firewire,
HomeRF, Bluetooth, wireless LANs (IEEE-802.11 &
HiperLAN2)
Xilinx Envisioned Gateway Model
• Single “small” box • Allow secure access
• Enable high-speed, two-way – From any Internet-accessible
Internet, voice & video remote location via any
communication standard Web browser
– Distribution of broadband • Firewall security protection
services within the house/small
office • Affordable price points
– Seamless connection & • Minimize truck rolls
simultaneous operational
– Management software for
capabilities
remote provisioning, service
• Multiple digital phone management, diagnostics,
(VoDSL) lines software upgrades
– Separate telephone & data
lines
Satellite Modems
Quadrature Data from Tuner
I - Channel Q - Channel
Input Input

De-I nterleaver
ADC ADC Clock RAM
Generator

QPSK/BPSK Viterbi Synch & Reed-Solomon


Descrambler
Demodulator Decoder De-I nterleaver Decoder

Data Clock

RAM
System
I/O Interconnectivity
Tuner Flash
CPU
Interface

RF In Decryption Video Encoder MPEG A/V


MPEG
Transport & A/V
RAM
VIDEO AUDIO
ISDN Modems

ISDN “U” or “S”


Interface PCMCIA Interface CPU UART

RS-XXX FLASH Adapter/


I/O Control SDRAM Interface
Interface

FLASH
HomePNA DRAM
Memory
MAC

HomePNA
PHY
Cable Modem Residential Gateway
Analo g Front
HomePNA
End (AFE)

Analo g IF/AGC
10/100 Base-TX 10/100 Base-TX
MII RJ-45
FEC Ethernet MAC Transceiver
Memory
SAW ADC
USB Device USB
UTP
Controlle r Transceiver

In DMA Interrupt
Tuner QAM FEC Decryption DMA Controlle r &
Demodula tor Decoder Conditio nal Central Arbiter
Access
Flash
Controlle r Flash

Interface
8-/16-/32- bit Cable SDRAM
Microcontroller SDRAM
MAC/SAR Controlle r
Clock Generator
& DLLs SDRAM
SRAM
Controlle r

DAC QPSK/16QAM FEC


Encryptio n
Modula tor Encoder IP Telephony

IP Security Module Direct TDM 4 voice channels


Power
UART (DES & Triple-DES) CODEC or 1 vid eo & 1
Supply
Interface voice channel
ADSL Broadcast Solution
Satellite, cable
or terrestrial
Descrambler

Broadcast
Translator
PC
IP Router ADSL
Scrambler & ATM DSLAM POTS Modem
Sw itch Splitter CPE Set-top box,
hard disk &
TV
VoD Internet Telephone
Serv er & Proxy
Softw are Smart Card

ADSL Central Office Home


DSL Modem Home Gateway
HomePNA

10/100 Base-
MII
TX Ethernet
MAC 8 MHz
10/100 Oscillator
Base-TX UTOPIA DRAM
Transceiver or ISA
Clock Generator
Expansion & DLLs
Bus DRAM 32-bit
Interface Controller Processor
UTOPIA
I/F or DSL
Network ATM Driver/
Interface Receiver
Block Chipset

PCI Bus 8 KB Hasher


Interface Internal List
SRAM Manager

PCI
DSL CPE
(Customer Premise Equipment )
Digital Signal
Processor

Memory
DSL
Analog Transceiv er
Line Driv er/
To line & Front End
Receiv er Equalizer, Reed-
POTS A-to-D & D-to-A Solomon FEC
Line Driv er, HDLC Sy stem
splitter Converters, Encoder/Decoder,
Receiv er & Framer Controller
Filters, Interleaver, Modulator,
Amplifiers
Amplifiers Demodulator, Packet
Format Logic

Interface

Analo g Front
HomePNA
End (AFE)
PCI Backplane
Interface 10/100 Base-TX 10/100 Base-TX
Ethernet MAC MII RJ-45
Transceiver

Clock Generator USB Device USB


UTP
& DLLs Controlle r Transceiver
Summary
• Spartan-II FPGAs are ideal solutions for digital modems
• Digital modems will evolve into the next generation
residential gateways to network your home
– The digital revolution and the Internet are forcing broadband
access to the home
– Home networking will cause bridging the technology islands in
the home today
– This gateway evolution could be part of a PC or set-top box
• In the chaotic home networking market Spartan-II FPGAs
will become the heart of the system
– Reprogrammability allows time-to-market
Extra
V.90/56K Modems - Analog
Phonelines
Broadband Access in Hotel
Rooms
V.90 Modem - Analog Phonelines

• Modem designed to operate with dial-up


telephone lines worldwide
– Supports high-speed analog data, high speed fax &
audio/voice operation
• Integrated modem is host controlled
– Reduces chip count since there is no need for a
separate microcontroller
V.90 Modem - Analog Phonelines
• Data speeds up to 56Kbps from a digitally connected
central site modem - V.90 enabled
– Taking advantage of the PSTN which is primarily digital except
for the client modem to CO local loop
• Modem is ideal for remote access applications such as ISP, online
service, or corporate site
• Data can be sent upstream at speeds up to 33.6Kbps
– As a V.34 data modem, the modem operates at line speeds up
to 33.6Kbps
– Provides error correction
– Provides data compression
• Maximizes data transfer integrity & boost average data throughput to
115.2Kbps
Analog Modems

RS-232,
DAA Modem AFE Ethernet,
Analog Bus
(Data Access (Analog DSP CPU USB, PCI,
Phone Interface
Arrangement) Front End ) PCMCIA,
etc.

ROM RAM
Broadband Access in Hotel Rooms
• Business travelers are driving the demand for broadband
in hotels
– They are frustrated by slow dial-up Internet connections while
on the road
• A New class of service providers (SPs) are focusing on
rolling out broadband to hotels by establishing mini
points of presence (Mini-POPs) in the buildings
– Mini-POPs are smaller scale versions of the aggregation
devices that sit in the telecom provider's central office
– SPs are targeting large chains first so that they can win the
rights to wire hundreds of buildings per contract
Broadband Access in Hotel Rooms

• Fees for hotel room broadband service will vary


– Some chains will use a per night charge
– Others will charge by the minute
– Some will employ a flat rate per stay
• Many hotels are also planning to deploy
broadband in conference rooms
– This allows SPs to peddle value added services such
as virtual private networking (VPN) and e-commerce
Broadband Access in Hotel Rooms

• A recent study by Cahners In-Stat found that:


– 48% of hotels plan to deploy broadband in the next 12
months
• 73% of hotels are considering delivering high-speed
Internet access to their guestrooms
• 82% of hotels with over 60% business clientele are
considering rolling out broadband to customers’ rooms
Residential Gateway
The Key Ingredient For Home Networking

• RGs provide integration of different broadband access


types & different home networking solutions
– Broadband access: xDSL & cable modems
• Each modem offers an Ethernet port for connecting one PC
• Increasing number of households have multiple computers
– Tech-savvy users may install Ethernet hub and pull Cat5 cabling
to each computer
– Most users will not find this a viable option due to installation
obstacles or cost
– Home networking solutions: HomePNA, HomePlug, HomeRF,
Wireless LANs, IEEE 1394
Satellite Modem Block Diagram
RF In
Quadrature Data
from Tuner
Components: Tuner, A/D converters, QPSK
Satellite demodulator, Viterbi decoder, Reed-Solomon
Interface FEC, processor interface. Single chip ASSPs
prov ided by Broadcom & Conex ant

Flash
System I nterconnectivity, 32-bit RISC
Memory Controller, CPU processor, provided
RAM Decryption by IDT, MIPS, ARM

Ethernet / USB

Video MPEG
Encoder A/V

VIDEO AUDIO PCI


ISDN CPE - Block Diagram

RS-232 Serial
System Glue / Local Interface Voice
TDM Bus Analog
(PCMCIA, RS232, Ethernet, USB,
CODEC Phone
Ethernet HomePNA)
ASSPs provided by Analog
Devices, Texas Instruments

UU Interface
Interface ISDN
CPU Transceiver
Transceiver Line
ASSPs provided by Motorola,
FLASH Infineon, National, Lucent
FLASH/SDRAM Processors for
Controller protocol processing
RAM are provided by
Philips, Dallas
Semic onductor
Cable Modem - Block Diagram
Cable MAC ex tracts data CPU is prov ided by ARM,
from MPEG frames, filters MIPS, PowerPC
data, protocol ex ecution,
Connects directly to the times transmis sion of CPU & LAN
CATV outlet & converts TV upstream bursts. ASSPs Controller
channel to a fix ed lower are provided by Texas
frequency (6-40 MHz) Instruments, Broadcom,
ASSPs provided by: Sharp, Conexant
Temic, Panasonic
USB
DOCSIS Interface
DOCSIS
Tuner & Memory
Transceiver MAC
Controller HPNA 2.0

Performs A/D, D/A, modulation,


demodulation (QAM-64/256),
Reed Solomon FEC and MPEG
frame synchronization. ASSPs
are provided by Broadcom,
Conexant, SGS Thomson, LSI
Logic, VLSI Technologies RAM Flash
/Philips, Fujitsu, Analog Dev ic es
xDSL Line Card - Block Diagram
DS3134
CN8478
Processor
$10 - $80 Bt8471/2
$16 - $50
PSB2110
MPC107
PM7380
GT64130 SSTL-2/3
DSL Translators
Channels DSL Driver $4
HDLC System
/Receiver
Controllers Controller
Chip(s)

Memory

PLLs/ Clock Management $8 - $15 PCI9610

$3 PCI9054
PCI Backplane S5933
Interface
Hot Swap Controllers S5920 GTL/GTL+
GT64115 Transceivers
$3
$6
High Performance Backplane
xDSL Line Card - Block Diagram
Processor
$9.95
PLLs/ Clock Management
DSL
Channels DSL Driver HDLC
HDLC System
/Receiver
Controller
Controllers Controller
Chip(s)
SSTL-2/3
Translators

Memory

Hot Swap Controllers

PCI Backplane GTL/GTL+


Interface Transceivers
$6

High Performance Backplane


Cable Modem Residential Gateway
Analo g Front
HomePNA
End (AFE)

Analo g IF/AGC
10/100 Base-TX 10/100 Base-TX
MII
FEC Ethernet MAC Transceiver
Memory
SAW ADC
Clock Generator USB Device USB
& DLLs Controlle r Transceiver

In DMA Interrupt
Tuner QAM FEC Decryption DMA Controlle r &
Demodula tor Decoder Conditio nal Central Arbiter
Access
Flash
Controlle r Flash

Interface
8-/16-/32- bit Cable SDRAM
Microcontroller SDRAM
MAC/SAR Controlle r

SDRAM
SRAM
Controlle r

DAC QPSK/16QAM FEC


Encryptio n
Modula tor Encoder IP Telephony
Power
IP Security Module Direct TDM 4 voice channels
Supply UART
(DES & Triple-DES) CODEC or 1 vid eo & 1
Interface voice channel
DSL Modem Home Gateway
HomePNA

10/100 Base-
MII
TX Ethernet
MAC
10/100 32-bit
Base-TX UTOPIA DRAM
Processor 8 MHz
Transceiver or ISA Oscillator

Expansion
DRAM UTOPIA
Bus
Controller I/F or
Interface
ATM
DSL
Network Driver/
Interface Receiver
Block Chipset

PCI Bus 8 KB Hasher


Clock Generator
Interface Internal List
& DLLs
SRAM Manager

PCI