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Anthony Zee

California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 and Department of

Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106

1 introduction

I was asked to give a series of lectures on various topics in Quantum Field

Theory as applied to condensed matter physics and particle physics. What

I plan to do is actually the following, is to start with some topics that are

relevant to condensed matter physics and hopefully depending on how fast I

can go I will eventually get to some particle physics.

A very fascinating intellectually very interesting development in theoreti-

cal physics in the last twenty years or so is to use the relativistic quantum ﬁeld

theory in condensed matter physics and in particular the Dirac equation as

coming to condensed matter physics, some area of condensed matter physics.

A ﬁrst sight of the insight is total surprise because the Dirac equation de-

scribes relativistic fast moving electrons and condensed matter dealing with

very slow moving electrons by the standards of particle physics the electron

are almost sitting there. So this is certainly a big surprise. I’d like to also say

a few words about the use of relativistic quantum ﬁeld theory on condensed

matter physics. This is very diﬀerent from when I was in graduate school.

∗

These series lectures are given at Academia Sinica in Taiwan R.O.C. and this note is

taken by Yu-Sheng Liu, Nien-En Lee, and Shen-Hsi Yu. If there is any error or suggestion,

please mail to: mestelqure@gmail.com.

1

At that time they was use on relativistic quantum ﬁeld theory on condensed

matter physics.

And the Feynman diagram is just a use of bookkeeping devise because

everything is small perturbative with a small coupling constant. So Feynman

diagram is to keep track of diﬀerent terms. But now is completely diﬀerent.

Some new books1 which give a sort of more modern view on relativistic ﬁeld

theory. And how is diﬀerent is in the old day the degree of freedom does not

change. The electrons remain electrons. But in the modern development,

the degrees of freedom in many cases are completely diﬀerent. The most

famous example of course is the quantum Hall eﬀect for which two Nobel

Prize were given. One of the really fascinating aspect why people consider the

quantum Hall eﬀect so interesting is that the microscopic degree of freedom is

of course electrons. But somehow the macroscopic degree of freedom involve

distances turns out to be Chern-Simons gauge which is completely diﬀerent.

On microscopic level of course there’s some lattice and the electrons moving

around. There is certainly no gauge ﬁeld, the electrons never heard of Chern-

Simons. Somehow the degree of freedom changed.

High-TC superconductivity is another interesting example. Of course

here we don’t have a ﬁxed, unique theory. We don’t know what the correct

theory is. So there’re many theories. Again the basic degree of freedom are

electrons but some theory are also gauge theory. You probably heard of that

holons, spinons and also various gauge theory and so on. So again many of

the concept from relativistic quantum ﬁeld theory.

2 Non-Relativistic vs Relativistic

2.1 Basic Notations

xµ = (x0 , xi ) = (x0 , x1 , x2 , x3 )

∂

∂µ ≡ (1)

∂xµ

( ∂ )2 −→

∂ 2 = η µν ∂µ ∂ν = ∂02 − ∂i2 = − ∇2

∂t

The diagonal terms of Minkowski metric ηµν are (-1,1,1,1). We will set c = 1

and ~ = 1 in the following contents.

1

X. G. Wen, A. Tsvelik, A. Altland et al.

2

2.2 From Relativistic to Non-Relativistic

I’m going to start with a relativistic scalar ﬁeld Φ → eiα Φ, this is a complex

scalar ﬁeld, which means that we can change component by a phase angle of

phi. We write down the Lagrangian.

( )( ) ( )2

L = ∂µ Φ† ∂ µ Φ − m2 Φ† Φ − λ Φ† Φ (2)

This is the simplest kind of the relativistic ﬁeld theory that people write

down. Where m is the mass. The equation of motion from this Lagrangian

is ( 2 ) ( )

∂ + m2 Φ = −2λ Φ† Φ Φ (3)

So to understand the relationship between the non-relativistic and relativistic

physics, let’s ﬁrst study free ﬁeld λ = 0. Then we have this equation.

( 2 )

∂ + m2 Φ = 0 (4)

have the ﬁeld oscillating like Φ ∝ e−iEt , and E = m + ϵ. ϵ is the diﬀerence

between total energy and the mass. In non-relativistic physics, ϵ ≪ m. So

when the non-relativistic energy is small, we can make an approximation

We factor out the fast time dependence. e−iEt is oscillating very fast and

φ(⃗x, t) is changing much slowly.

Diﬀerentiate (5) with respect to time

∂ [ ∂]

Φ(⃗x, t) = e−iEt − im + φ(⃗x, t) (6)

∂t ∂t

Do it twice

∂2 [ ∂ ]2

−iEt

Φ(⃗x, t) = e − im + φ(⃗x, t)

∂t2 ∂t (7)

( ∂ ∂2 )

= e−iEt − m2 − 2im + 2 φ(⃗x, t)

∂t ∂t

so far everything is exact. But now the approximation is that we neglect the

secondary derivative term

∂2 ( ∂)

−iEt

Φ(⃗

x , t) ≈ e − m 2

− 2im φ(⃗x, t) (8)

∂t2 ∂t

3

So this is the physics at the fundamental level is relativistic, and it’s

only in certain regime that become non-relativistic. In term of the actual

practice of physics, in terms of how many people are working on diﬀerent ﬁeld

probably 95% of physicists are working on non- relativistic physics, which is

an approximation. So it’s very interesting to see how the non- relativistic

physics approximation comes out.

Plug (8) into (4)

( ∂ →2 )

−

− 2im − ∇ φ = 0 (9)

∂t

Divide by 2m

−

→2

∂ ∇

−i φ= φ (10)

∂t 2m

This is the Schrödinger equation.

Of course this is old news, not new news. If any of you done this in 1926,

you would have won the Nobel Prize. But to do this in 90 years later is not

so profound. At that time is highly nontrivial, and it’s still highly nontrivial

to me that it took me many years to understand because at ﬁrst sight it

looks very non-obvious since these two equations look very diﬀerent. And

in particular there is lots of confusion when the particle physicists talk to

condensed matter physicists. For example, the m in (10) is in the denomi-

nator, but for particle physicists the m square is an additive term, which is

something you add to the gradient square.

Historically it is quite interesting because Schrodinger actually derived

the Klein-Goren equation ﬁrst before Klein and Gordon. Because by 1926

everybody understand special relativistic, so it’s actual more natural to de-

rive the relativistic equation ﬁrst. Many people wrote down Klein-Gordon

equation including Schrodinger, Klein and Gordon. But Schrodinger note

that applying Klein-Gordon equation to the Hydrogen atom, it did not get

the right answer. So it took him some time to ﬁnd the Schrodinger equa-

tion. It’s backward the way the students learn it. The students learn the

very ugly Schrodinger equation ﬁrst, and they learn about the Klein-Gordon

equation. The other very important thing to realize is that in particle physics

and in condensed matter physics, the time derivative is diﬀerent. The time

derivative in non-relativistic physics is ﬁrst-order, and the space derivative is

second-order. While in relativistic physics of course the space and time are

treated in equal footing.

one of the thing is in relativistic theory you can derive the current. As

I said there is a global U (1) symmetry Φ → eiα Φ. With this global U(1)

4

symmetry there is an associated current.

[ ( ) ]

Jµ = i Φ† ∂µ Φ − ∂µ Φ† Φ (11)

In non-relativistic physics we do the same thing,

√ that we have the decompo-

sition as before except that we divide it by 2m.

1

Φ(⃗x, t) = √ e−iEt φ(⃗x, t) (12)

2m

Plug (12) into (11) and the non-relativistic limit of current become

J0 = φ † φ

i [ † ( ) ] (13)

Ji = φ ∂i φ − ∂i φ† φ

2m

So in non-relativistic physics we don’t talk about one single current but we

talk about the number density and the density current. But in relativistic

physics they are uniﬁed.

When I teach a course on non-relativistic quantum mechanics, I realize

there are diﬀerent levels of students. So we can start with the lowest level

ﬁrst. The lowest level students are totally idiot, don’t understand anything.

And then the higher level people who understand things and of course they

are good students can apply all the equations and get 100 in the ﬁnal exam.

Then there are really really good students in the course of non-relativistic

quantum mechanics look at the number density and the current and worry

and can not go to sleep. These are really good students because these for-

mulas look completely diﬀerent. So the question is when you took a course

on non-relativistic quantum mechanics, did you worried about this? I didn’t

worry about this, but I should because it really look completely diﬀerent.

It looks very strange. But in fact you see now in the context of relativis-

tic physics why it comes from the same thing. Now the fact is so diﬀerent

actually leads to another Nobel Prize in physics if you’re smart enough.

Plug (12) into (2)

∂Φ† ∂Φ

− m2 Φ† Φ

∂t ∂t

1 [( ∂ ) † ][( ∂) ] m †

= im + φ − im + φ − φφ

2m ∂t ∂t 2 (14)

(

i † ∂φ ∂φ † ) †

1 ∂φ ∂φ

= φ − φ +

2 ∂t ∂t 2m ∂t ∂t

∂φ

≈ iφ†

∂t

5

In the third line we neglect the last term and after integration by parts. We

arrive the following Lagrangian

∂φ 1

L = iφ† − ∂i φ† ∂i φ − g 2 (φ† φ)2 (15)

∂t 2m

λ

where g = 4m 2 . This Lagrangian is what condensed matter physicists used to

discuss thing like superﬂuid and also the starting point on superconductivity,

Landau-Ginzberg theory. Since φ† φ is the density in non-relativistic physics,

we can give another name for this density ρ = φ† φ. Then we rewrite

√

φ= ρeiθ (16)

i 1 [ 1 ]

L = ∂0 ρ − ρ∂0 θ − ρ(∂i θ)2 + (∂i ρ)2 − g 2 ρ2 (17)

2 2m 4ρ

That is a very simple Klein-Gordon Lagrangian for the relativistic scalar ﬁeld

using rho and theta. As I said this can describe superﬂuid and so on because

the scalar ﬁeld describes a bunch of bosons. Collection of helium atoms for

example could be describe by this Lagrangian. Now once again, if you’re

very smart you look at this Lagrangian, you see that there is something very

strange. So there is another Nobel Prize there waiting for you to claim. But

almost none of us are that smart certainly not I’m smart enough to see where

the Nobel Prize is. So the Nobel Prize is the time derivative term of θ in

(17). This term, as you can see, is very strange because Heisenberg told us

many years ago as he is in the same age as many people in this room that

the conjugate momentum is p = δL δ q̇

and then Heisenberg said that there is

a new area of physics, which is a revolution in physics, that is p and q are

no longer to be considered as c-numbers and their commutator is [p, q] = −i,

and this is called Quantum Mechanics.

But now here you see some very strange because there is something really

odd here, the time derivative of theta ρ ∂θ

∂t

. This is not possible in relativistic

physics. To particle physicists it is very strange because that means time

and space are not the same. In relativistic physics time and space are always

connected, so we can’t have a simple thing like this. We all use Newtonian

mechanics in which everything is second order in time, but how this become

ﬁrst order in time.

6

The conjugate momentum to theta is δLδ θ̇

= −ρ. As Heisenberg told us

that the commutator between rho and theta is

[N, θ] = i (19)

∫

where N ≡ dD xρ(⃗x, t) is the total number. This is one of the most amazing

thing in physics.

Einstein said that the most comprehensible thing about nature is that

nature is comprehensible. So I always like to say that one of the most amazing

things about students in physics is that they are not amazed. Because I just

show you one of the most amazing thing. And you think about it, it is

so profound. Anderson 2 says that this relationship is the most important

relationship in condensed matter physics. If you think about it, it is very

strange. Number and angle is conjugate to each other in quantum mechanics.

Number we understand, angle we also understand, but why but why these

two things are conjugate? You should be amazed.

Who is the smart student who saw that this is a Nobel Prize that he can

get? Of course is Brian Josephson. This is the physics of Josephson junction,

and now is used in all kind of high-tech applications such as superconductivity

and so on. N is the number of cooper pairs and θ is the phase angle of

superconductivity. So in fact the story was something like Josephson heard

Anderson giving a lecture, I think Anderson is pretty upset that he missed

the Nobel Prize, but he won the Nobel Prize later for some other thing.

Josephson is the student listening to the lecture, I think Joseph is 21 years

old at that time. And he saw that there is something very strange. So

this applies to superconductivity in Josephson junction. This is a very long

story we can not go into here because this is obviously not a course on

superconductivity.

I’m going to talk about language barrier. Obviously there is language barrier

between every languages in the world. But there is more serious language

2

See P. Anderson, Basic Notions of Condensed Matter Physics, p.235.

7

barrier because in the late 1980 lots of particle physicists went into condensed

matter physicists. For example, X. G. Wen and S. C. Chiang. These are

famous people now in condensed matter physics. They were all young guys

like you. They were both hired by Santa Barbara as particle physics postdocs.

They both switch while they were post doc to condensed matter physics. So

now one is the professor in MIT and the other is the professor in Stanford.

In particular I know that X. G. Wen when he came to Santa Barbara he

didn’t know anything about condensed matter physics. But six month later,

he knew everything. He told me that one of the problems is the language

barrier. So let me explain to you.

At ﬁrst I ﬁnd it very hard to understand what the condensed matter

people are doing because the language barrier is very big. Here is an example,

to us the mass square is just a term in the Lagrangian. But to them the

mass is something in the denominator. The other language barrier is that

the particle physicist have to remember that the condensed matter physicist

are not interested in the vacuum, or emptiness. They are not interested

in empty spacetime. But in particle physicist, we’re interested in empty

spacetime. That’s the most interesting thing to us because everything comes

from the emptiness. This is a huge diﬀerence.

They will see the Lagrangian describes a bunch of bosons, but it is around

the vacuum. So let’s look at this term, g 2 ρ2 in (17). But this cause another

interest in vacuum they interested in stuﬀ around. This is really a cultural

variety because particle physicist wants to look at something really basic and

the only thing that is basic is spacetime. And condensed matter physicists

want to look at a lump of stuﬀ which is not basic at all, which is just a lump.

They have ﬁnite density of particles. So how do we introduce ﬁnite density

particles? We shift the Hamiltonian by introducing chemical potential.

H → H + µN (20)

a list like ”the ten worst words in physics”. Most people vote chemical

potential. Because you don’t know what it is, it smells like chemistry. I’ll

tell you a joke in Santa Barbara that my colleague Walter Kohn, who won a

Nobel Prize. But the Nobel Prize was in chemistry. So we told him that he

is not allowed into the physics department. When I saw this term, chemical

potential, I could not understand, it took me many years. When I was

an assistant professor, I ﬁnally understand chemical potential. In order to

8

introduce some stuﬀ enough to study emptiness, they say you have to take

you Lagrangian, and introduce chemical potential. The number density is

just φ† φ. So we have to make the shift, where we take

(21)

= g 2 (φ† φ − ρ)2 + upto some additive constant

To particle physicists, this is very exciting because this is one of thins

that they really in love with, the double well potential which particle physi-

cists call it the Higgs potential, and condensed matter physicists ﬁnd this is

very strange, they call it the Anderson potential. So Particle physicists are

going to ﬁnd a very amazing phenomena which is the negative mass square.

That’s because in particle physics this term −µ(φ† φ) is the mass term. Neg-

ative mass square is this minus sign. Condensed matter physicist would say

that this is completely trivial, this is just the chemical potential. There’s a

language barrier, that to learn diﬀerent languages. What is to us is mass, to

them is the chemistry potential.

The chemical potential is a knob that the experimentalist could turn.

The chemical potential is like temperature which is something external that

you can adjust. I mean it has to do with the density of electrons for example

in the Quantum Hall Eﬀect or in many systems you can adjust density of

electrons versus density of holes. So something you can adjust, it’s a external

parameter. In particle physics where the negative mass square comes from

of course nobody knows. So that’s also a parameter for us, but it’s not

something we can adjust. So in many ways the two ﬁelds condensed matter

and particle physics complement each other and they has to be a very fruitful

history of cross fertilization. So in theoretical physics there has been very

important for example all this concepts of spontaneous symmetry breaking in

particle physics gauge ﬁelds and so on. Many of them came from condensed

matter physics went into particle physics. And some of the idea of particle

physics now coming back in the condensed matter physics in particular the

Dirac equation. So I would say it fair to say that 30 years ago, none of the

condensed matter physicist know anything about Dirac equation. And in

fact that time the generation gap is huge in condensed matter physics. So in

particle physics the generation gap is even bigger.

I like to tell this story because I want to inspire young people here, because

I don’t know what the young people here are waiting for. Do the same thing

9

that the students in United States do which is waiting for something. And

so I’m always asking the students what they are waiting for. You should

make your great discovery now. You know when you’re young. What are

you waiting for, you’re waiting for somebody to give you a piece of paper,

and that’s completely crazy. Newton did not wait for a piece of paper. So

the question is what you are waiting for. So even I mean in the old days,

in the days of Galileo there was not even this piece of paper, nobody had a

piece of paper.

3.1 Galilean Algebra

I will now discuss the Galileo algebra which is of course the algebra of non-

relativistic physics. Galileo is of course a super smart guy in all the stuﬀ,

it’s amazing that I always ﬁnd reading Galileo’s papers. You know you read

the papers that us post on the ArXiv and such nonsense you read three

sentences and you want to throw it away. Then if you read Galileo’s paper

it is so beautiful. Galileo ﬁgures out the Galilean algebra. He talks about

the butterﬂies in the ship, that’s how he understand Galilean algebra. Say

considering a sailing ship moving alone, and underneath it some butterﬂies

ﬂying around. And the butterﬂies did not aﬀected by the velocity of the

ship.

I am going to write down some generators of Galilean algebra

∂

T ranslation Px = , etc.

∂x

(22)

∂ ∂

Rotation Jx = x − y , etc.

∂y ∂x

Note that if I acting (I + aPx ) on Lagrangian, then Mr. Taylor from 18th

century tells us

∂

(I + aPx )L(x, y, z) = (I + a )L(x, y, z) ≈ L(x + a, y, z) (23)

∂x

for a is an inﬁnitesimal transformation.

In Quantum Mechanics we promote these generators to physical quanti-

ties.

10

We can check it quickly

These are the algebras. So far this is just geometry of Euclidean space.

So we can even call these Euclidean algebra. To have Galilean algebra we

need physics, physics is dynamics. So dynamics is translation in time. This

operator we call it H.

∂

Dynamics H = (25)

∂t

H is for Hamilton. The commutators

But now we haven’t even introduce Galileo yet. Mr. Galileo with his

sailing ship is going to tell us about boost

∂

Boost Kx = t , etc. (27)

∂x

For example if we act (I + vKx ) on the coordinate

x′ = (I + vKx )x = x + vt

y′ = (I + vKx )y = y

(28)

z′ = (I + vKx )z = z

t′ = (I + vKx )t = t

The coordinates with prime are the transformed boosted frame. It is easy to

check

[Ki , Kj ] = 0, [Ji , Kj ] = −ϵijk Kk (29)

Now comes the less obvious stuﬀ, something more profound.

[Ki , H] = Pi (30)

This commutator is not zero and this is something we can understand. Under

boost, the energy

p2 (⃗p + m⃗u)2 p2

E= → = + ⃗u· p⃗ + O(u2 ) (31)

2m 2m 2m

So you said the change in energy is in fact momentum.

11

Finally,

[Ki , Pj ] = 0 (32)

So this is it. We summarize the Galilean algebra

[Pi , H] = 0, [Ji , H] = 0, [Ki , Kj ] = 0 (33)

[Ji , Kj ] = −ϵijk Kk , [Ki , H] = Pi , [Ki , Pj ] = 0

When I got to graduate school, I sign up for Schwinger’s class of Quantum

Field Theory. At that time he was still at Harvard. He gives Quantum Field

Theory every year. And all of the students sign up for the class every year. It

doesn’t matter if they’ve already taken three times or more. The ﬁrst day I

arrived, ﬁrst class that’s what Schwinger’s lecture was about Galilean group.

Without understanding Galilean group he said you understand nothing. This

is my ﬁrst day of graduate school, and Schwinger stopped here, and he said

now come something profound.

Look at these equations (33). The zero of [Ki , Pj ] = 0 looks very strange.

In mathematics there’s something called central extension of algebra. To a

mathematician, if you give him a algebra, he’ll ask how can this algebra be

extended. So to mathematicians this zero means it commute with all other

generators. So for example we can check this.

Here we use the Jacobi identity. It is easy to check that the right hand side

is zero which is consistent with the left hand side.

So therefore we can promote [Ki , Pj ] to a c-number.

This c-number is one of the most important things in physics. We use the

letter M. We discover something amazing which is called mass, but math-

ematicians call it central charge because this is from central extension. By

2

dimensional analysis [M ] = [KP ] = LT2 , [~] = [pq] = MTL , and ~=1. So M

12

P2

has just dimension of mass. We consider this object 2M

and you discover

this object has a very nice property.

P2 1 ( )

[Ki , ]= [Ki , Pj ]Pj + Pj [Ki , Pj ]

2M 2M (36)

1

= (2M δij )Pj = Pi

2M

With [Ki , H] = Pi , I ﬁnd that in some combination

P2

[Ki , H − ]=0 (37)

2M

Therefore it is consistent to write

P2

H= + arbitrary c − number (38)

2M

In some civilizations somewhere in the galaxy, one can discover the newtonian

mechanics in this amazing high power way.

13

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