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# DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, I I T MADRAS

Assignment – 1

## (a) For all x, y, z ∈ V, x + y = z + y implies x = z.

(b) For all α, β ∈ F, x ∈ V, x 6= 0, αx 6= βx iff α 6= β.

1.2 Is the set of positive real numbers with the operations defined by x + y = xy and αx = xα , a
vector space over R?

1.3 In each of the following a nonempty set V is given and some operations are defined. Check
whether V is a vector space with these operations.

## (a) V = {(x1 , 0) : x1 ∈ R} with addition and scalar multiplication as in R2 .

(b) V = {(x1 , x2 ) ∈ R2 : 2x1 + 3x2 = 0} with addition and scalar multiplication as in R2 .
(c) V = {(x1 , x2 ) ∈ R2 : x1 + x2 = 1} with addition and scalar multiplication as in R2 .
(d) V = R2 , for (a1 , a2 ), (b1 , b2 ) ∈ V and α ∈ R, define (a1 , a2 ) + (b1 , b2 ) = (a1 + b1 , a2 + b2 );
0 (a1 , a2 ) = (0, 0) and for α 6= 0, α(a1 , a2 ) = (αa1 , a2 /α).
(e) V = C2 , for (a1 , a2 ), (b1 , b2 ) ∈ V and α ∈ C, define (a1 , a2 ) + (b1 , b2 ) = (a1 + 2b1 , a2 + 3b2 ),
α(a1 , a2 ) = (αa1 , αa2 ).
(f) V = R2 , for (a1 , a2 ), (b1 , b2 ) ∈ V and α ∈ R define (a1 , a2 ) + (b1 , b2 ) = (a1 + b1 , a2 + b2 ),
α(a1 , a2 ) = (a1 , 0).

1.4 Is R[a, b], the set of all real valued Riemann integrable functions on [a, b], a vector space?

1.5 Is the set of all polynomials of degree 5 with usual addition and scalar multiplication of poly-
nomials a vector space?

1.6 Let S be a nonepmty set, s ∈ S. Let V be the set of all functions f : S → R with f (s) = 0. Is
V a vector space over R with the usual addition and scalar multiplication of functions?

1.7 In each of the following, a vector space V and a subset W are given. Check wheather W is a
subspace of V .

## (a) V = R2 ; W = {(x1 , x2 ) : x2 = 2x1 − 1}.

(b) V = R3 ; W = {(x1 , x2 , x3 ) : 2x1 − x2 − x3 = 0}.
(c) V = C[0, 1]; W = {f ∈ V : f is differentiable}.
(d) V = C[−1, 1]; W = {f ∈ V : f is an odd function }.
(e) V = C[0, 1]; W = {f ∈ V : f (x) ≥ 0 for all x}.
(f) V = P3 (R); W = {at + bt2 + ct3 : a, b, c ∈ R}.
(g) V = P3 (C); W = {a + bt + ct2 + dt3 : a, b, c, d ∈ C, a + b + c + d = 0}.
(h) V = P3 (C); W = {a + bt + ct2 + dt3 : a, b, c, d integers }.

1.8 Let A ∈ Rn×n . Let 0 ∈ Rn×1 be the zero vector. Is the set of all X ∈ Rn×1 with AX = 0 a
subspace of Rn×1 ?