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Lesson 4 12th of April 2011

Past Tense Continuous exprimă:


1) cu verbe de activitate durativă fără scop:
a) o acţiune în desfăşurare într-un moment trecut, amintită în momentul vorbirii:
I was walking at two o’clock yesterday.
I was walking at this last week.

Notă: Această formă verbală este frecvent folosită în descrieri, pentru redarea unor activităţi
durative, în desfăşurare, care contrastează cu activităţi non-durative, succesive şi terminate, pentru redarea
cărora se foloseşte Past Tense simplu (forma caracteristică naraţiunilor): It was a cold winter evening.
Outside, the wind was blowing. A big fire was burning in the fireplace. The old woman came in and went
near the fire. She warmed her hands and sat down.

b) o acţiune durativă în desfăşurare, întreruptă de o acţiune non-durativă, momentană:


He came in when/while I was eating.
A intrat când/în timp ce mâncam.

When he rang up I was (just) going out. Când a telefonat (tocmai) ieşeam. He called me just as I was
leaving. M-a strigat exact când plecam.
c) două acţiuni paralele în desfăşurare în trecut: She was eating while I was washing. Ea mânca în
timp ce eu mă spălam.

2) cu verbe de activitate durativă care implică atingerea unui scop: - o acţiune trecută, dar
neîncheiată: He was reading a book last night. Citea o carte aseară. (Comparaţi cu: He read a book last
night. a citit o carte aseară.

1.8. Mai-mult-ca-perfectul (Past Perfect Tense Simple)

1.8.1. Definiţie. Past Perfect este un timp folosit când vorbitorul se plasează psihologic pe o axă a
trecutului, pentru a desemna un eveniment anterior unui moment sau unui eveniment trecut, care este
amintit în momentul vorbirii:

I had finished the book by ten o’clock yesterday.


by the time you came.

1.8.2. Formă. Mai-mult-ca-perfectul se formează din forma de Past Tense a verbului have +
participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat:

I had finished the book before you came.


I’d finished the book before you came.
Terminasem cartea înainte să vii tu.
He had already left by ten o’clock. El plecase deja la ora 10.

1.8.3. Întrebuinţare. Mai-mult-ca-perfectul este întrebuinţat pentru a exprima:


1) o acţiune trecută, încheiată înaintea unui moment trecut: I had finished my lessons by ten o’clock
yesterday. Îmi terminasem lecţiile înainte de ora 10 ieri.
2) o acţiune trecută, încheiată înaintea altei acţiuni trecute: When Doris got to the theatre, the show
had (already) started. Când a ajuns Doris la teatru spectacolul (deja) începuse. Mother had cooked the dinner
by the time father arrived home. Mama gătise deja cina câna a ajuns tata acasă.
3) o acţiune trecută, încheiată imediat înaintea unei alte acţiuni trecute:
Lesson 4 12th of April 2011

I had just got into the classroom when the bell rang. No sooner had I got into the classroom than the
bell rang. Tocmai/de-abia intrasem în clasă când a sunat clopoţelul.

I had hardly got into the classroom when the bell rang. No sooner had I got into the classroom than
the bell rang. Tocmai/de-abia intrasem în clasă când a sunat clopoţelul.

4) o acţiune trecută, săvârşită într-o perioadă de timp anterioară unei alte acţiuni trecute, dar
ajungând până la aceasta (cu compliniri adverbiale începând cu for sau since): He had been in the classroom
for two minutes when the teacher came in. Era în clasă de două minute când a intrat profesorul. He had lived
in Bucharest since 1975 when I met him. Locuia în Bucureşti din 1975 când l-am cunoscut.

Notă: 1. Mai-mult-ca-perfectul este un timp utilizat mai frecvent în limba engleză decât în limba
română pentru exprimarea anteriorităţii. (În limba română se foloseşte adeseori perfectul compus cu valoare
de mai-mult-ca-perfect: The passengers got out as soon as the train had stopped. Pasagerii au coborât îndată
ce s-a oprit trenul).
2. În limba engleză se poate folosi Past Tense în loc de Past Perfect în următoarele situaţii:
a) după conjucţia after, care indică prin sensul ei raportul de anterioritate nemaifiind necesară şi o
formă verbală specială: The driver started the car after he cheked the engine. Şoferul porni maşina după ce
verifică motorul.

pag: 021

b) În propoziţiile subordonate temporale transformate în vorbire indirectă când verbul din principală
este la un timp trecut: He told me had seen a bear when he was in the mountains. Mi-a spus că a văzut un
urs când a fost la munte.
3. În propoziţiile subordonate introduse de after sau until, folosirea mai-mult-ca-perfectului, prin
contrast cu folosirea lui Past Tense, subliniază raportul de anterioritate, faptul că acţiunea din principală nu a
avut loc decât după ce acţiunea din subordonată a fost încheiată: The pupil on duty left the classroom
AFTER she had turned off the lights. Eleva de servici a părăsit clasa (numai) după ce a stins lumina. The
waiter didn’t take the plates away UNTIL they had finished their dinner. Chelnerul n-a strâns farfuriile până
n-au terminat masa.

Mai-mult-ca-perfectul poate fi folosit: 5) în vorbirea indirectă, pentru a înlocui Present Perfect sau
Past Tense, când verbul din propoziţia principală este la un timp trecut:
Tom: I have spoken to Mary about it.
I spoke to her last week.
Tom said he had spoken to Mary about it.
He added he had spoken to her the week before.
Lesson 4 12th of April 2011

PAST CONTINUOUS - Trecutul continuu


Corespunde imperfectului in romana (vorbeam, scriam, citeam)

Forma: was / were + V-ing

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta ce se desfasoara intr-un anumit moment bine definit sau intr-un moment
trecut raportat momentului vorbirii (ieri pe vremea asta = this time yesterday)
Ex: I was writing this time yesterday / yesterday at 5 o’clock.

2) se foloseste in descrierile pe trecut


Ex: That day the wind was blowing hard.

! pentru naratiune se foloseste trecutul simplu.


Ex: The child got the ball and put it into the box.

3) desemneaza actiunile trecute paralele in desfasurare (cu “when” si “while”)


Ex: While I was talking, you came.

4) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, repetata, care ma enerva


Ex: He was always asking me to help him!

Interogativul si negativul – prin auxiliarul “to be”


Ex: Was I dancing when you came?

PAST PERFECT - Trecutul perfect


Corespunde in romana cu mai mult ca perfectul (cantasem, vorbisem, citisem).

Forma: had + verb III

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, incheiata inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute


Ex: O vazusem inainte sa plece = (inainte am vazut-o si dupa aceea a plecat)
I had seen her before she left.

2) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, incheiata inaintea unui moment trecut


Ex: O vazusem inainte de 1989.
I had seen her before 1989.

3) este specifica constructiilor cu hardly, barely, scarcely, no sooner, mai ales in inversie.
Ex: I had met her before she left.
cu inversie devine
Hardly had I met her when she left.

Adv specifice – after, before, hardly, barely, scarcely, just, already, by the time, for, since
Ex: I had just invited her to dinner when you arrived.

Interogativul si negativul – cu auxiliarul “had”


Lesson 4 12th of April 2011

1. Mr Smith never (wake) up in time in the mornings and always (get) into trouble for being late; so one day
he (go) to town and (buy) an alarm clock.
2. To get home he (have to) go through a field where a bad-tempered bull usually (graze). This bull
normally (not chase) people unless something (make) him angry. Now it (lie) near the fence, (chew) the
cud.
3. Unfortunately, as Mr Smith (cross) the field, his alarm clock (go) off. This (annoy) the bull, who
immediately (begin) to chase Mr Smith.
4. Mr Smith (carry) an open umbrella as it (rain) slightly. He (throw) the umbrella to the ground and (run)
away as fast as he could.
5. The bull (stop) and (decide) to attack the umbrella. While he (do) this Mr Smith (climb) over the fence
and (escape).
6. The children (be) afraid because it (get) dark.
7. When he (awake) she (sit) by the window. She (look) at something in the street, but when he (call) her
name she (turn) and (smile) at him.
8. He said he (think) about starting his own business he (not know) whether to take a partner, and (look) at
me hopefully.
9. Why you (interrupt) me just now? I (have) a very interesting conversation with Mr Prim. – I’m sorry, I (not
realise) you still (talk) with him.
10. The murderer (carry) the corpse down the stairs when he (hear) a knock on the door. He immediately
(put) the body down and (try) to hide on the landing.
11. When I (look) through your books I (notice) that you have a copy of Jaws.
12. As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. Tom (turn) round and (hold)
up his hand. The car (stop).
13. When I (arrive) at the station Mary (wait) for me. She (wear) a blue dress and (look) very pretty. As soon
as she (see) me she (wave) and (run) to me.
14. As soon as I (get) into the cottage I (notice) that water (drip) from the ceiling. I (look) for the ladder to fix
the roof when I (remember) I had lent it to Tom.
15. The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work). He (wear) blue overalls and
black shoes.
16. She (say) that the car (travel) at 40 k.p.h. when it (begin) to skid.
17. While he (make) his speech the minister suddenly (feel) faint. But someone (bring) him a glass of water
and after a few minutes he (be able) to continue.
18. I (take) my friend to a murder trial the other day. – Who (be) tried? – A man called Bill Sykes. – Was he
eventually acquitted? – I don’t know. They still (listen) to the evidence when we (leave).
19. He (say) he (not like) his present flat and (try) to find another.
20. I (be) sorry that I (have to) leave the party early, because I (enjoy) myself.
21. As we (come) here a policeman (stop) us. He (say) that he (look) for some stolen property and (ask) if
he could search the car.
22. I (see) you yesterday from the bus. Why you (use) a stick? – I (use) a stick as I had hurt my leg that
morning falling off a horse. – Whose horse you (ride)?
23. When I (hear) his knock I (go) to the door and (open) it, but I (not recognise) him at first because I (not
wear) my glasses.
24. When he (tell) me he (need) another £ 100 loan, I (advise) him to consult a lawyer. He (assure) me he
(see) a financial expert the next day.
25. While the guests (dance) thieves (break) into the house and (steal) a lot of fur coats. The next day, as
they (know) that the police (look) for them, they (hide) the coats in a wood and (go) off in different
directions.
26. He (play) the guitar outside her house when someone (open) the window and (throw) out a bucket of
water.
27. I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand.
28. Why you (lend) him that book? I still (read) it. – I (not know) you still (read) it, I (reckon) you had already
finished by now.
29. What you (do) when the doorbell (ring)? – I (make) a cake. – And what you (do) when you (hear) the
bell? – I (go) to answer it of course. But when I (open) the door there was nobody there.
Lesson 4 12th of April 2011

1. woke; got; went; bought


2. had to; grazed / was usually grazing; did not chase; made; was lying; chewing
3. was crossing; went; annoyed; began
4. was carrying; was raining; threw; ran
5. stopped; decided; was doing; climbed; escaped
6. were; was getting
7. awoke; was sitting; was looking; called; turned; smiled
8. was thinking; did not know; looked
9. did you interrupt; was having; did not realise; were still talking
10. was carrying; heard; put; tried
11. was looking; noticed
12. were walking; heard; turned; held; stopped
13. arrived; was waiting; was wearing; looked; saw; waved; ran
14. got; noticed; was dripping; was looking; remembered
15. escaped; was working; was wearing
16. said; was travelling; began
17. was making; felt; brought; was able
18. took; was being; were still listening; left
19. said; did not like; was trying
20. was; had to; was enjoying
21. were coming; stopped; said; was looking; asked
22. saw; were you using; was using; were you riding
23. heard; went; opened; did not recognise; was not wearing
24. told; needed; advised; assured; was seeing
25. were dancing; broke; stole; knew; was looking; hid; went
26. was playing; opened; threw
27. was just opening; blew
28. did you lend; was still reading; did not know; were still reading; reckoned
29. were you doing; rang; was making; did you do; heard; went; opened