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ABBREVATIONS

ACM : ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTING MACHINERY.


ACI : ASYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATION INTERFACE
ACPI : ADVANCED CONFIGURATION AND POWER
INTERFACE
ADC : ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER
ADPCM : ADAPTIVE DIFFERENTIAL PULSE CODE
MODULATION
AGP : ACCELERATED GRAPHICAL PORT
AI : ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
ALU : ARITHMETICAL & LOGICAL UNIT
ALGOL : ALGORITHMIC LANGUAGE.
ANS : ADVANCED NETWORKS AND SERVICES
ANSI : AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD INSTITUTE
AOL : AMERICAN ON-LINE
API : APPLICATION PROGRAM INTERFACE
AR : ADDRESS REGISTER
ARLL : ADVANCED RUN LENGTH LIMITED
ARPANET : ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION
NETWORK
ARQ : AUTOMATIC REPEAT REQUEST
ASCII : AMERICAN STANDARD CODE FOR INFORMATION
& INTERCHANGE
ASIC : APPLICATION ON SPECIFIC INTEGRATED
AST : ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL TRANSFER
ATM : ASYCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE
AUI : ATTACHMENT UNIT INTERFACE
AVI : AUDIO-VISUAL INTERLEAVING.
AWT : ABSTRACT WINDOW TOOLKIT

B
BASIC : BEGINNER'S ALL-PURPOSE SYMBOLIC INSTRUCTION
CODE
BBS : BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEM
Bcc : BLIND CARBON COPY
BCD : BINARY CODE DECIMAL
BCPL : BASIC CAMBRIDGE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
BDK : BEAN DEVELOPER KIT
BIOS : BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT SYSTEM
BMP : BIT MAP
BOCs : BELL OPERATING COMPANIES
BPI : BRANCH UNCONDITIONALLY
BPS : BITS PER SECOND
BSA : BRANCH AND SAVE RETURN ADDRESS
BSD : BERKELEY SOFTWARE DISTRIBUTION
BTP : BRANCH TARGET BUTTER

C
CAD : COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN
CAI : COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION
CAL : COMPUTER ASSISTED MANUFACTURING
CAM : COMPUTER AIDED MECHANISM
CCITT : COMMITTEE CONSULTANT IF INTERNATIONAL
TELEPHONICET TELEGRAFIQUE
CCM : COMPUTER GRAPHICS METAFILE
CCW : CHANNEL COMMAND WORD
CD-I : COMPACT DISK - INTERACTIVE
CDPD : CELLULAR DIGITAL PACKET DATA
CD-R : COMPACT DISK-RECORDABLE
CD-ROM : COMPACT DISK-READ ONLY MEMORY
CGA : COLOR GRAPHICS ADAPTER
CGI : COMMON GATEWAY INTERFACE
CISC : COMPLEX INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTER
CLI : COMMAND LINE INTERFACE
CLV : CONSTANT LINEAR VELOCITY
CMOS : COMPLEMENTARY METAL - OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR
CMYK : CYAN.MEGENTA-YELLOW-BLACK
CNC : COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL
COBOL : COMMON BUSINESS-ORIENTED LANGUAGE
COM : COMPUTER OUTPUT ON MICROFILM/MICROFICHE
COMDEX : COMMUNICATION AND DATA PROCESSING
EXPOSITION
CORBA : COMMON OBJECT REQUEST BROKER ARCHITECTURE
CPS : CHARACTERS PER SECOND
CPU : CENTRAL PROCESSING MEMORY
CR : CARRIAGE RETURN
CRC : CYCLIC REDUNDANCY CHECK
CRT : CATHODE RAY TUBE
CS : COVERGENCE SUBLAYER
D
DAC : DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER
DASD : DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE
DAT : DIGITAL AUDIO TAPE
DAT : DIGITAL AUDIO TAPE
DBMS : DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
DBA : DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR
DCA : DOCUMENT CONTROL ARCHITECTURE
DCE : DATA COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT
DCI : DISPLAY CONTROL INTERFACE
DCL : DATA CONTROL LANGUAGE
DDE : DYNAMIC DATA EXCHANGE
DDL : DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE
DDS : DIGITAL DISK STORAGE
DDT : DIGITAL DATA TRANSMISSION
DEC : DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION
DES : DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD
DIANE : DIRECT INFORMATION ACCESS NETWORK FOR
EUROPE
DIB : DEVICE - INDEPENDENT BIT-MAP
DIF : DATA INTERCHANGE FORMAT
DIP : DUAL IN - LINE PACKAGE
DIP : DOCUMENT IMAGE PROCESSING
DIPS : DATA INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM
DIS : DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
DLE : DATA LINK ESCAPE
DLL : DYNAMIC LINK LIBRARIES
DLT : DIGITAL LINEAR TAPE
DMA : DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS
DMI : DESKTOP MANAGEMENT INTERFACE
DML : DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE
DNS : DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM
DNS : DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM
DOD : DROP ON DEMAND
DOL : DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE
DOS : DISK OPERATING SYSTEM
DP : DATA PROCESSING
DPI : DOT PER INCH
DQDB : DISTRIBUTED QUEUE DUAL BUS
(OR)
DENARY NUMBER SYSTEM
DRAM : DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
DSP : DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR
DSR : DATA SET READY
DST : DUAL SCAN TWISTED
DTE : DATA TERMINAL EQUIPMENT
DTL : DIODE - TRANSISTOR LOGIC
DTP : DESK TOP PUBLISHING
DTR : DATA TERMINAL READY
DVD : DIGITAL VERSATILE DISK
DVI : DIGITAL VIDEO INTERACTIVE

E
EBA : EXA BYTE
EBCDIC : EXTENDED BINARY - CODE DECIMAL INTERCHANGE
ECL : EMITTED - COUPLED LOGIC
ECP : EXTENDED CAPACITIES PORT
EDI : ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE
EDI : ELECTRONIC DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION
EDP : ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING
EDSAC : ELECTRONIC DELAY STORAGE AUTOMATIC
COMPUTER
EDVAC : ELECTRONIC DISCRETE VARIABLE AUTOMATIC
COMPUTER
EEMS : ENHANCED EXPANDED MEMORY SPECIFICATION
EEPROME : ELECTRICALLY ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ
ONLY
EFTPOS : ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER AT POINT OF SCALE
EGA : ENHANCED GRAPHICAL ADAPTER
EISA : EXTENDED MEMORY MANAGER ARCHITECTURE
EMI : ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE
EMM : EXPANDED MEMORY MANAGER
EMS : EXPANDED MEMORY SPECIFICATION
ENIAC : ELECTRONIC NUMERICAL INTEGRATOR &
CALCULATOR
EPP : ENHANCED PARALLEL PORT
E-PROME : ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY
MEMORY
EPS : ENCAPSULATED POST SCRIPT
ERNIE : ELECTRONIC RANDOM NUMBER INDICATOR
EQUIPMENT
ESDI : ENHANCED SMALL DEVICE INTERFACE
ESI : EXECUTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEM
F
FAP : FILE ACCESS PERMISSION
FAT : FILE ALLOCATION TABLE
FAX : FACSIMILE TRANSMISSION
FDDI : FIBER -OPTIC DIGITAL DEVICE INTERFACE
FDM : FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
FDQ : FREQUENCY ASKED QUESTIONS
FIFO : FIRST IN FIRST OUT
FORTRAN : FORMULA TRANSLATION
FTP : FILE TRANSMISSION PROTOCOL
G
GDI : GRAPHICAL DEVICE INTERFACE
GENIE : GENERAL ELECTRONIC NETWORK FOR
INFORMATION
GFF : GRAPHIC FILE FORMAT
GIAS : GATEWAY INTERNET ACCESS SERVICE
GIF : GRAPHIC INTERCHANGE FORMAT
GIGO : GARBAGE IN-GARBAGE OUT
GIS : GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM
GPIB : GENERAL PURPOSE INTERFACE BUS
EXCHANGE
GUI : GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

H
HCI : HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION
HCL : HINDUSTAN COMPUTERS LIMITED
HDLC : HIGH LEVEL DATA LINK CONTROL
HDTV : HIGH-DEFINITION TELEVISION
HFS : HIERARCHICAL FILE SYSTEM
HGC : HERCULES GRAPHICS CARD
HMA : HIGH MEMORY AREA
HMM : HIDDEN MARKER MODELS
HPFS : HIGH PERFORMANCE FILE SYSTEM
HP : HEWLETT-PACKARD
HPGL : HEWLETT -PACKARD GRAPHICS LANGUAGE
HPPCL : HEWLETT -PACKARD PRINTER CONTROL
HSB : HUE SATURATION - BRIGHTNESS
HTML : HYPER TEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE
HTTP : HYPER TEXT TRANSPORT PROTOCAL
I
IAB : INTERNET ACTIVATES BOARD
IAB : INTERNET ARCHITECTURE BOARD
IAC : INTER-APPLICATION COMMUNICATION
IAS : IMMEDIATE ACCESS MEMORY
IBM : INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINE
IC : INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
ICR : INTELLIGENT CHARACTER RECOGNITION
IDE : INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT
IDE : INTEGRATED DEVICE ELECTRONICS
IDL : INTERFACE DEFINITION LANGUAGE
ISDN : INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK
IEEE : INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL &ELECTRONICS
ENGINEERS
IETF : INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE
IMTS : IMPROVED MOBILE TELEPHONE SYSTEM
IOP : INPUT OUTPUT PROCESSOR
IP : INSTRUCTION POINTER
IRA : INTERRUPT REQUEST LINES
IPX : INTERNET WORK PACKET EXCHANGE
IRC : INTERNET RELAY CHAT
IRTF : INTERNET RESEARCH TASK FORCE
ISA : INDUSTRY STANDARD ARCHITECTURE
ISABUS : INDUSTRY STANDARD ARCHITECTURE BUS
ISBN : INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER
ISO : INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION
ISZ : INCREMENT AND SKIP IF ZERO
IT : INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
ITTF : INTER NET ENGINEER TASK FORCE
ITU : INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION
IV : INTERACTIVE VIDEO
J
JCL : JOB CONTROL LANGUAGE
JDBC : JAVA DATABASE CONECTIVITY
JDK : JAVA DEVELOPER'S KIT
JNI : JAVA NATIVE INTERFACE
JPEG : JOINT PHOTO GRAPHIC EXPERTS GROUP
JRE : JAVA RUNTIME ENVIRONMENT
JSDK : JAVA SERVLET DEVELOPMENT KIT
JVT : JAVA VIRTUAL MACHINE
K
KB : KILO BYTE
KBPS : KILO-BYTES PER SECOND
KBS : KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM
KIPS : KNOWLEDGE INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM

L
LATA : LOCAL ACCESS AND TRANSPORT AREAS
LAN : LOCAL AREA NETWORK
LC : LOCATION COUNTER
LCD : LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAY
LCP : LINK CONTROL PROTOCOL
LEC : LOCAL EXCHANGE CARRIER
LED : LIGHT EMITTING DIODE
LIFO : LAST IN FIRST OUT
LIPS : LOGIC INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM
LIS : LAND INFORMATION SYSTEM
LPM : LINES PER MINUTE
LRC : LONGITUDINAL REDUNDANCY CHECK
LRC : LONGITUDINAL REDUNDANCY CHARACTERS
LRU : LEAST RECENTLY USED
LSI : LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION
LST : LINEAR SERPENTINE TECHNOLOGY
M
MAN : METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK
MAPI : MICROSOFT APPLICATION PROGRAM INTERFACE
MCA : MICRO CHANNEL ARCHITECTURE
MDF : MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME
MCI : MEDIA CONTROL INTERFACE
MCSD : MICROSOFT CERTIFIED SOLUTIONS DEVELOPER
MCSE : MICROSOFT CERTIFIED SYSTEMS ENGINEER
MDA : MONOCHROME DISPLAY ADAPTER
MICR : MAGNETIC-INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION
MIDI : MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS DIGITAL INTERFACE
MS : MICRO SOFT
MTBF : MEAN TIME BETWEEN FAILURES
MCGA : MULTI-COLOR GRAPHICS ARRAY
MTTR : MEAN TIME TO REPLAY
MFLOPS : MILLIONS OF FLOATING POINT OPERATIONS PER
SECOND
MFM : MODIFIED FREQUENCY MODULATION
MFS : MACINTOSH FILE SYSTEM
MIDI : MUSICAL INTERNET DIGITAL INTERFACE
MIMD : MULTIPLE INSTRUCTION STREAM MULTIPLE DATA
STREAM
MIME : MULTIPURPOSE INTERNET MAIL EXTENSION
MIPS : MILLION OF INSTRUCTIONS PER SECOND
MIS : MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
MMU : MEMORY MANAGEMENT UNIT
MMX : MULTIMEDIA EXTENSIONS
MNP : MICROCOM NETWORKING PROTOCOL
MPEG : MOTION PICTURE EXPERTS GROUP
MPC : MULTIMEDIA PERSONAL COMPUTER
MRI : MULTIPLE INSTRUCTION STREAM SINGLE DATA
STREAM
MSAV : MICROSOFT ANTI VIRUS
MSCDEX : MICROSOFT COMPACT DISK EXTENSIONS
MSD : MICROSOFT DIAGNOSTIC PROGRAM
MTBF : MEAN TIME BETWEEN FAILURE
MUD : MULTIUSER DUNGEON
MV : MILLI VOLT
N
NAK : NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
NASSCOM : NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOFTWARE AND
SERVICE COMPANIES
NCP : NETWORK COMMNUCATION PROTOCOL
NCSA : NATIONAL CENTRE FOR SUPER COMPUTING
APPLICATIONS
NFS : NETWORK FILES CARD
NLQ : NEAR LETTER QUALITY
NLM : NETWARE LOADABLE MODULE
NIST : NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
NTSC : NATIONAL TELEVISION SYSTEM COMMITTEE
NTSC : NATIONAL TELEVISION STANDARD CONNECTION
NSFNET : NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NET WORK

O
OCR : OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION
ODBC : OBJECT DATABASE CONECTIVITY
OEM : ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER
OLE : OBJECT LINKING &EMBEDDING
OMR : OPTICAL MARK RECOGNITION
OOP : OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
ORB : OBJECT REQUEST BROKER
OSF : OPEN SOFTWARE FOUNDATION
OSI : OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION
OTC : OVERSEAS TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
P
PC : PERSONAL COMPUTER
PASCAL : PROGRAM APPLIQUE SELECTION CO-APPLICATION
AUTOMATIC LITERATURE
PAL : PHASE ALTERNATION LINE
PARC : PALO ALTO RESEARCH CENTER
PB : PETA BYTE
PBX : PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE
PC : PROGRAM COUNTER
PCB : PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD
PCI : PERIPHERAL CONNECT INTER PHACE
PCM : PULSE CODE MODULATION
PCMCIA : PC MEMORY CARD INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION
PDA : PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANCE
PDL : PAGE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE
PDN : PUBLIC DATA NETWORK
PDP : PROGRAMMED DATA PROCESSOR
PDS : PUBLIC - DOMAIN SOFTWARE
PES : PROCESSING ELEMENTS
PICS : PLATFORM FOR INTERNET CONTENT SELECTION
PID : PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION DEVICE
PIF : PROGRAM INFORMATION FILE
PIM : PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER
PIN : PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
PIXEL : PICTURE ELEMENT
PLDA : PERSONAL DIGITAL NETWORK
PMD : PASSIVE MATRIX DISPLAY
PMMU : PAGED MEMORY MANAGEMENT UNIT
PMS : PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM
PNG : PORTABLE NETWORK GRAPHICS
PNM : PLUG AND PLAY
POP : POINT OF PRESENCE
POST : POWER ON SELF TEST
POWR : PREDICTIVE OPTICAL WORD RECOGNITION
PPM : PAGES PER MINUTE
PPP : POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCAL
PQK : PHOTO QUALITY KIT
PROLOG : PROGRAMMING LOGIC
PROM : PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY
PSTN : PUBLIC SWITCHED TELEPHONE NETWORK
Q
QBE : QUERY BY EXAMPLE
QIC : QUARTER - INCH CARTRIDGE
R
RAID : REDUNDANT ARRAY OF INDEPENDENT DISCS
RAM : RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
RAMAC : RANDOM ACCESS METHOD OF ACCOUNTING &
CONTROL
RET : RESOLUTION ENHANCEMENT TECHNOLOGY
REXX : RESTRUCTURE EXTENDED EXECUTOR
RFC : REQUEST FOR COMMENTS
RFI : RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE
RIFF : RESOURCE INTERCHANGE FILE FORMAT
RIP : ROUTER INFORMATION PROTOCOL
RISC : REDUCED INSTRUCTION - SET COMPUTER
RLD : RELOCATE & LINKAGE DIRECTORY
RLL : RUN-LENGTH LIMITED
RMI : REMOTE METHOD INVOCATION
ROM : READ ONLY MEMORY
RSI : REPETITIVE STRESS INJURY
RTF : RICH TEXT FORMAT
RTS : REQUEST TO SEND
S
SAA : SYSTEM APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE
SAD : SYSTEM ANALYSIS & DESIGN
SAR : SEGMENTATION AND REASSEMBLY
SAT : SELF ASSERTION TECHNOLOGY
SCSI : SMALL COMPUTER SYSTEM INTERFACE
SDH : SYCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY
SDLC : SYNCHRONOUS DATA LINK CONTROL
SDLC : SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
SQL : STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE
SGML : STANDARD GENERALIZED MARKUP LANGUAGE
SIG : SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP
SIMD : SINGLE INSTRUCTION STREAM--MULTIPLE DATA
STREAM
SIMM : SINGLE IN - LINE MEMORY MODULE
SIP : SINGLE LINE INTERNET PROTOCAL
SISD : SINGLE INSTRUCTION STREAM -- SINGLE DATA
STREAM
SLIP : SERIAL LINE INTERNET PROTOCAL
SMPS : SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY
SMT : SUFFOXE MOUNT TECHNOLOGY
SNMP : SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL
SNS : SYSTEM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
SONET : SYCHRONOUS DIGITAL NETWORK
SP : STACK POINTER
SPA : SOFTWARE PUBLISHER'S ASSOCIATION
SPARC : SCALAR PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE
SPX : SEQUENTIAL PACKET EXCHANGE
SRAM : STATIC RAM
SSI : SMALL-SCALE INTEGRATION
STP : SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY PARK
SYSOP : SYSTEM OPERATOR
T
TAPI : TELEPHONE API
TB : TERRA BYTE
TC : TRANSMISSION CONVERGENCE
TCL TRANSACTION CONTROL LANGUAGE
TCP : TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCAL
TDM : TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
TFT : THIN FILM TRANSISTOR
TIFF : TAGGED IMAGE FILE FORMAT
TIGA : TEXAS INSTRUMENTS GRAPHICS ARCHITECTURE
TIP : TERMINAL INTERFACE PROCESSOR
TLB : TRANSACTION LOOKASIDE BUFFER
TPI : TRACKS PER INCH
TSR : TERMINATE - AND- STAY-RESIDENT PROGRAM
TTL : TRANSISTOR-TRANSISTOR LOGIC
TXD : TRANSMIT DATA
U
UAE : UNRECOVERABLE APPLICATION ERROR
UART : UNIVERSAL ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER
/TRANSMITTER
UDP : USER DATAGRAM PROTOCAL
UMB : UPPER MEMORY BLOCK
UPS : INTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
URL : UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR
USB : UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS
USRT : UNIVERSAL SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER
/TRANSMITTER
UTP : UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR
UUCP : UNIX-TO -UNIX COPY
V
VAP : VALUE ADDED PROCESS
VAR : VALUE ADDED RESELLER
VDM : VIRTUAL DOS MACHINE
VDT : VIDEO DISPLAY TERMINAL
VDU : VISUAL DISPLAY UNIT
VESA : VIDEO ELECTRONICS STANDARDS ASSOCIATION
VGA : VIDEO GRAPHICAL ARRAY
VIRUS : VIRTUAL INFORMATION RESOURCE UNDER SEASE
VLF : VERY LOW FREQUENCY
VLSI : VERY LARGE- SCALE INTEGRATION
VRAM : VIDEO RAM
W
WAIS : WIDE AREA INFORMATION SERVICE
WAN : WIDE AREA NETWORK
WDM : WAVELENGH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
WORM : WRITE ONCE READ MANY
WWW : WORLD WIDE WEB
WYSIWYG : WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET
X
XGA : EXTENDED GRAPHICS ARRAY
XMS : EXTENDED MEMORY SPECIFICATION
XML : EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE
XNS : XERON NETWORK SERVICES
XOFF : TRANSMIT OFF
XON : TRASMIT ON
XOR : EXCLUSIVE-OR
XRP : EXTENDED RESOURCE PLANNING
Y
Y2K : YEAR 2 KILO (YEAR 2000)
YES : YODHAN EDUTAINMENT SERVICE
Z
ZICA : ZED INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER ANIMATION
ZIF : ZERO INSERTION FORCE

SOME POPULAR EXTENSIONS


FILE NAME
EXTENSION CREATOR DESCRIPTION
_AD MANY MULTIMEDIA AUDIO FILE
_AU MANY MULTIMEDIA AUDIO FILE
_IM MANY MULTIMEDIA IMAGE FILE
!IM MANY MULTIMEDIA IMAGE FILE
ARC PKARC COMPRESSED FILE
ASC MANY ASCII TEXT FILE
ASM ASSEMBLERS ASSEMBLY LANGAGE
SOURCE
BAK MANY BACKUP FILE
BAS BASIC BASIC PROGRAM
BAT MANY DOS BATCH FILE
BIN MANY BINARY FILE
CAP VENTURA PUBLISHERS CAPTION
CDR COREL DRAW GRAPHICS FILE
CFG MANY CONFIGURATION FILE
CGM MANY GRAPHICS FILE
CHK CHKDSK RECOVERED FILE
CHP VENTURA PUBLISHERS CHAPTER FILE
CIF VENTURA PUBLISHERS CHAPTER INFORMATION
FILE
CMD MANY OS/2 BATCH FILE
COM DOS COMMAND FILE
DAT MANY DATA FILE
DB PARADOX DATABASE FILE
DBF DBASE DATABASE FILE
DBT DBASE DATABASE TEXT FILE
DIB MANY DEVICE INDEPENDENT
BITMAP
DIF MANY DATA INTERCHANGE
FORMAT FILE
DLL MANY DYNAMIC LINK LIBRARY
DOC MANY DOCUMENT
DRV MANY DEVICE DRIVER
DRW MICROGRAFX GRAPHICS FILE
DXF AUTOCAD GRAPHICS FILE
DWG AUTOCAD DRAWING FILE
EPS MANY ENCAPSULATED
POSTSCRIPT FILE
EXE MANY EXECUTABLE PROGRAM
FLC AUTODESK ANIMATOR ANIMATION FILE
FLI AUTODESK ANIMATOR ANIMATION FILE
FMT MANY SCREEN FORMAT
FNT MANY FONT FILE
FON MANY FONT FILE
FRM DBASE REPORT FORM FILE
GEM MANY GRAPHICS FILE
GIF MANY COMPUSERVE GRAPHICS
FILE
GRF MICROGRAFX GRAPHICS FILE
GRP WINDOWS GROUP DEFINITION FILE
HLP WINDOWS HELP FILE
ICO WINDOWS ICON FILE
IMG MANY HIGH-RESOLUTION
SCANNED IMAGE FILE
INF WINDOWS INFORMATION FILE
INI WINDOWS INITILIZATION FILE
JPG MANY JPEG IMAGE FILE
LBL DBASE LABEL DESCRIPTION
MDB ACCESS DATABASE FILE
ME MANY READ.ME TEXT FILE
MET MANY METAFILE FORMAT
MID MANY STANDARD MIDI FILE
MPG MANY MPEG VEDIO FILE
MSG MANY MESSAGE FILE
NDX DBASE INDEX FILE
OVL MANY PROGRAM OVERLAY FILE
PCX MANY GRAPHICS FILE
PIC MANY PICTURE FILE
PIF WINDOWS PROGRAM INFORMATION
FILE
PM PAGE MAKER PAGE LAYOUT FILE
PM3 PAGE MAKER PAGE LAYOUT FILE
PRD MS WORD PRINTER DEFINITION FILE
PRG DBASE PROCEDURE OR PROGRAM
PRN MANY FILE PRINTED TO DISK
PRS WORD PERFECT PRINTER FILE
PS POST SCRIT PAGE DESCRIPTION FILE
RLE WINDOWS RUNLENGTH ENCODED
COMPRESSED
BMP MANY BITMAP FILE
RTF MANY RICH TEXT FORMAT FILE
SCR DBASE SCREEN LAYOUT FILE
SLD AUTO CAD SLIDE FORMAT FILE
STY MANY STYLE SHEET FILE
SYS DOS AND OS/2 SYSTEM FILE
TGA MANY IMAGE FILE FORMAT
TIF MANY TAG IMAGE FILE FORMAT
TMP MANY TEMPORARY FILE
TTF TRUE TYPE FONT FILE
TXT MANY TEXT FILE
VGR VENTURA PUBLISHER CHAPTER FILE
VID MANY MULTIMEDIA IMAGE FILE
VOC MANY SOUND FILE
VUE DBASE RELATIONAL VIEW
WAV MANY SOUND FILE
WK1 LOTUS 123 SPREAD SHEET FILE
WKS LOTUS 123 & MS WORKS SPREAD SHEET FILE
WMF MANY WINDOWS META FILE
WPS MS WORKS WINDOWS PROCESSOR FILE
WRI WINDOWS WINDOWS WRITE FILE
XLC EXCEL CHART FILE
XLS EXCEL SPREAD SHEET FILE
ZIP PKZIP COMPRESSED FILE
$$$ MANY TEMPORARY FILE
~CO MANY TEMPORARY FILE

INTERNET
Definitions :

1. Networks of Network
2. Networks of Super highway
3. A global interconnected network of computer networks
4. A set of computer networks, made up of a large number of smaller networks,
using different networking protocols.

The Internet was originally established to meet the research needs of the U.S.
Defense industry, but it was grown into huge global network serving universities,
academic researchers, commercial interests, and government agencies ..etc. The
internet uses TCP/IP protocols, and many of the internet hosts runt he Unix
operating system.
Internetworking is the ability to connect two or more separate networks so that
they appear to individual users as a single network, or virtual network. The
underlying technology is dependent upon the hardware and operating systems.
The basic components of the internet are same devices described in
communications line and routers. An internet server installation can be as simple
as the one shown in a Unix based computer with some terminals and a router
connected to leased line. The internet server can hold database that perform many
different functions.
The internet is not, as many people think, about computer. It’s about people,
communication and information sharing. It’s way of overcoming physical
boundaries, like distance, to allow minds to meet. Of course, without computers
and computer networks none of this can happen. The formal definition of the
internet is an international computer network, the core of this network consists of
computers permanently linked through high speed connections.
After connecting the internet, when we want to access a website it is very
necessary to open a browser. Browser is an application program used to explore
the internet resources. A browser lets you wander from node to node without
concern for the technical details of the links between the nodes or the specific
methods used to access them, and presents the information in the form of text,
graphics, sounds, or videos as a document on the screen.
We have a no. of browsers available for accessing the internet easily & also
quickly. Some of them are given below…

1. Internet Explorer
2. Netscape Navigator
3. Opera
4. Mosaic

SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE INTERNET

Service Category & Domain name

e-Mail username@server.name
WWW http://www.server.name
FTP ftp://ftp.server.name
Telnet telnet://server.name
Gopher Gopher://gopher.server.name

e-mail : Electronic mail or e-mail is a method of sending text or


information from one computer to another. We can send the messages
across the world with in seconds. We can send e-mail over 150 countries
from the Internet.

USENET newsgroups : Larger public discussion groups that focus on a


specific subject. Posts and threads in USENET newsgroups are accessed
with a newsreader.

World Wide Wed : A Hypertext-based system used for finding and


accessing Internet Resources, the World Wide Web is one of the fastest
growing and most exciting of all the Internet applications.
Ftp : A client/server application used to transfer files to and from
Internet host computers. ftp is also the name of the file transfer protocol
used to accomplish this task.

telnet : a client/server application used to login to Internet computers


and run applications. A version of this program is called tn3270 is used to
access IBM rather than Unix Internet host computers.

Gopher : A modern menu-based system used to browse Internet


resources that hides the underlying mechanical aspects of the Internet.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF DOMAIN NAMES

.edu --- Educational site


.com --- Commercial
.gov --- Government
.net --- Internet Gate way or Administrative Host
.org --- Organizations
.co --- Company
.mil --- Military sites
.ac --- Academic

Every country has its own distinct code. Some codes are given below

in --- India
au --- Australia
nl --- Netherlands
ca --- Canada
no --- Norway
de --- Germany
sse --- Sweden
fr --- France
uk --- United Kingdom
jp --- Japan

SOME IMPORTANT WEB SITES ARE GIVEN BELOW


FREE E-MAIL SITES
1. yahoo.com
2. rediffmail.com
3. 123india.com
4. go4i.com
5. hotmail.com
6. coolmail.com
7. mail.com
8. lovemail.com
9. joymail.com
10. mailmetoday.com

SOME CHATTING SITES


1. yahoo chat
2. irc chat
3. mirc chat
4. sify chat
5. msn chat

SOME MESSENGER SERVICES


1. yahoo messenger
2. msn messenger
3. rediffbol

SOME SEARCH ENGINES


UNIVERSAL INDIA BASED

1. google.com 1. 123india.com
2. altavista.com 2. khoj.com
3. amazon.com 3. indiainfo.com
4. yahoo.com 4. locateindia.com
5. lycos.com 5. hindustan.net
6. webcrawler.com
7. excite.com
8. sufoseek.com
9. megallan.com
10. opentext.com
SOME DOWNLOAD SITES
1. download.com
2. shareware.com
3. tucows.com
4. softseek.com
5. cnet.com
6. amazaon.com

SOME EXCELLENT E-GREETING SITES


1. e-greetings.com
2. 123india.com
3. yahoo.com
4. passionup.com
5. hollmark.com

SOME DEVOTIONAL SITES


1. tirumala.org
2. siddhivinayaka.com
3. saibabaofshirdi.com

SOME UNIVERSITY SITES


1. nagarjunauniversity.com
2. jntu.ac.in
3. drbaou.ac.in
4. aou.ac.in
5. iitm.ac.in
6.

NEWS PAPER SITES


1. hindugrouponnet.com (or) thehindu.co.in
2. eenadu.org
3. vaartha.com
EMPLOYEMENT SITES
1. naukari.com
2. jobsearch.com
3. jobseek.com

ONLINE BUSINESS SITES


1. wilsonweb.com
2. bizweb.com
3. att.com/business
4. sabonline.com
5. dbisna.com/dbis/sbs/

ANTI-PORNO SITES
1. cyberpatrol.com
2. netnanny.com
3. surfwatch.com
4. cybersitter.com

BANK SITES
1. ktkbank.com Karnataka Bank site
2. utimf.com Uti Bank site
3. statebankofindia.com State Bank of India site
(or) sbi.co.in
4. karvy.com Karur Vysya Bank site
5. vijayabank.com Vjaya Bank Site, Viajyawada
6. canbankindia.com Canara Bank site

General Sites
1. licindia.com Life Insurance Corporation of India Site
2. irctc.co.in Railway reservation site
Glossary
Access : process of retrieving data from files. May be direct ,random,
sequential,
indexed sequential, indexed sequential or Serial.

Accumulator : This is a special register where the result of operations


executed by CPU
are stored.

ADA : This is a high level language developed for the US Department


of Defense
during the 1970s.ADA is a structured language and was named
after Augusta
Ada, a 19th Century mathematician.

Adapter cards : Another term for adapter boards.

Address : The number by which the CPU identifies a particulars location


in memory.

Address Bus : Carry address numbers identifying each byte location in the
computer memory.

AI : Artificial Intelligence, Discipline concerned with using


computers to perform
operations which require intelligence when carried out by
humans, eg. Learning
and decision making .

ALGOL : ALGOrithmic Language. An early (1960) high level


programming language
designed for efficient expression and control of arithmetic and
logical processes.

ALU : Arithmetic and Logic unit. That part of the CPU that performs data
processing
functions on input

Analogue comuputer : A computer that operates on continuous physical


variable. Used mainly
in scientific and industrial applications (compare digital
computer).

Analogue signal : An electrical signal that varies smoothly and


continuously in amplitude
and time, in contrast with a digital signal, which is
characterized by
discrete states.

Application programs: programs that perform specific functions such as word


processing,
communications, data base management, spreadsheet
calculations or
other user defined tasks.

ASCII : American standard code for information interchange. This standard


spicifies a
seven bit code for each of the 96 displayed characters and 32
non – displayed
control characters defined for use on data processing and
processing and data
communication.

Assembler : A program that translates assembly language instructions into


their binbary
machine language equivalents. An assimbler functions as a
compiler for
assembly language.

Assembly Language : A symbolic language designed to permit the use of


mnemonic codes,
rather than machine language, when writing a
program. Assembly
languages are said to be hardware dependent or machine
dependent: that
is, each type or model of computer has a unique
assembly language.
There is uaually a one-to-one correspondence between
the mnemonic
instructions of the assembly language and the binary
instructions of the
computer’s machine code.

Backing up : Making back up copies of files to prevent the loss of their


contents in the event
that the originals are damaged or lost.

Bar code : A series of thick and thin black lines printed on many consumer
products so that
they can be indentified by check-out machines (bar code
readers). A unique bar
code is assigned to each product by a national bar codes are
sometimes referred
to as Universal Product Codes.

Batch File : A collection of commands that are grouped together under one
file name. When
the file is run the commands are executed (usually
sequentially)to provide the
desired result. Batch files are frequently used to cut down on
the number of key-
strokes required to achieve a particular (and often repetitive)
task.
BASIC: Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. A popular high –
level
computer language invented at Dartmouth college for
educational purposes. Its
ease of learning and use has led to its widespread employment,
partcularly on
microcomputers. There are many versions of BASIC and their
compatibility
varies considerably.

Batch processing: A mode of processing in which many similar items


accumulated over time are
handled in a single run. No interaction between the user and the
program is
possible once batch processing has begun.

Baud rate : In telecommunications , the approximate numbers of


information bits
transmitted per second.

Bi-derectional printer:A printer that prints from right to left as well as from left to
right.

Binary numbers system: A number system using only two digits, 1 and 0, to
represent a number
as compared with the ten digits of the more familiar
decimal number
system. Used in computers because it corresponds to the
on and off
states of electrical switches.

Bit : Abbreviation for Binary digit. The smallest unit of information


used in a
computer: a bit can have a value of either 1or 0.

Booting : From bootstrap the procedure of starting up a computer.


Booting or booting up,
refers to the process whereby the operating system is loaded
from an auxiliary
storage device (such as a disk) into the computers internal
memory.

Bubble Memory: A form of static memory which uses impregnated garnet as the
storage medium. See also Static Memory.

Buffer : A portion of memory that temporarily stores data being


transferred between the
computer and a peripheral device. Buffers compensate for
differences between
the rate of transmission and the rate of processing.

Bug : An error in software or in the design of hardware. Named after


a moth that short
circuits ENIAC,one of the earliest electronic computers.

Bus : Circuitry within a computer which carries signals between the


parts of the
system.

Byte : A string of bits (eight in most computers) which together


represent a number or
character.

C : Programming language developed for use with UNIX


Combines features of
high level and low level languages and is particularly popular
with professional
programmers.

Cache : Additional memory which may be inserted between the CPU


and the memory
proper. Cache memory facilities access to the main memory.

CAD : computer Aided Design. Use of computer technology to assist


in the design of a
product , particularly in wngineering and architecture.
Cell : A single coordinate location within the grid , or matrix, that
constitutes the basic
Format of a spreadsheet.

CPU : Central processing Unit. The module within a computer that


actually performs
all the data operations specified by the programming . Micro
computers
genarally have a signal CPU chip (or microprocessor ). Within
the CPU are
elements that serve to fetch, interpret, and carry out program
instructions, areas
for temporary storage, and components for controlling and
synchronizing these
operations.

Character : One of the letters, numbers, or symbols processed by a


computer.

Chip : A small rectangle of semiconductor material that bears one or


more
miniaturized circuits, which are produced by photoetching
microscopic
components into the material. This unit is then mounted in a
package (or
case)bearing electrical connections to become the completed
integrated circuit.
By extension, this final product is also commonly referred to
as a chip.

COBOL : Common business Oriented Language. A high-level data


processing language
developed in the 1960s for business applications . It was
intended to be
completely machine independent (i.e.., to allow the use of
nearly identical
programs on any computer),a goal not fully realized COBOL
statements are
much like English language statements.

COM : Computer output on Microform. Output transferred directly to


microfilm or
microfiche , usually for archive purposes.

Compiation : one of the two principle means of translating programs written


in high-level
language into machine language instructions that can be
directly executed by
the processor compilation entails translating a complete
program before any
excretion. This contrasts with interpretation, in which each
instruction is
translated when it is to be executed.

Compiler : A machine language program that performs compilation.

Computer conferencing: Telecommunication between several participants In a


network.
Exchanging information and messages between
multiple parties via
telecommunications provides an alternative to telephone
conferencing
and actual meetings between people.

Computer language : A language in which computer programs are written.


And it is language
a computer can understand.

Control bus : carries signals from the CPU to control the operations
of the computer.

CRT : Cathode Ray Tube The “picture tube” that generates


and directs the
electron streams that form the images on televison sets
and computer
display screens. By extension, CRT commonly refers to
the entire
display unit.

CU : Control Unit. That part of the CPU that controls the movement
of information
between the ALU and the memory.

Cursor : A bright rectangle or underline on the computer display that


marks the position
at which a character can be entered or changed

Clipboard : Part of a software application that allows the user to make


notes, often unrelated,
whilst using another package. Clipboards usually produce
ASCII text files and
can store graphics files.

Command : An instruction given to the CPU either by a software


application, for example, a
database package initiating the creating of a new file, or
directly by the
computer operator via the operating system. For example, on a
VAX machine
the command DIR lists the currently available files. In either
case the command
(if it is valid) will be converted to machine code and acted upon
by the CPU.

Comment : A brief line of commentary embedded into a computer


program. Comments aim
to provide a “road-map” through a program, enabling
programmers, including
the original writer, to follow the overall logic of the program.
Since comments
occupy a line of code it is best to be brief, rather than verbose
in commentary.
The following lines of code, froma program written in BASIC,
demonstrate the
use of comments (comments are preceded by an apostrophe),

Compile-Time : The time during which source code is compiled into an object
file. This may
include linking the main body of a program to its modules,
library routines etc.
An error occurring during the compilation process is called a
compile-time error.
For example, a compile-time error will occur if the compiler is
unable to locate a
particular library routine. See also Compiler, Compiler
Directive, Linker, Object
File.

Computer Aided Design: The use of a computer and specialised (usually very
expensive) software
to generate two and three dimensional drawings. Given
that images on a
computer screen can be changed and manipulated much
more easily than
those on paper, the use of CAD technique is a major
break-through in
design processes.

Computer Aided Instruction:The use of a computer as a training tool. Many


interactive programs have
been developed for this purpose.CAI provides a
comfortable training
environment where each participant (trainee) can pace
themselvs and
takes time out to check references or to repeat
particular sections of the
training program. Abbreviation CAI. Also known as
CBT, Computer
Based Training.

Computer Aided Manufacturing:The use of a computer and specialised (usually very


expensive)
software to assist in many manufacturing processes, not
only the
physical processes involved but also in planning,
scheduling, tooling etc.
Abbreviation CAM.

Computer Architecture : The way in which a computer is configured in


terms of disk
drives, primary memory , data connections etc.
It does not, in
general, refer to the physical attributes of the
computer.

Computer Network : Several computers connected together for the purpose


of sharing data
and/or software/hardware resources. See also Local
Area Network,
Topology, Wide Area Network.
Concurrent processing: The processing of more than one task at any one time
by using time
division techniques.

Daisy wheel printer : The primary type of letter-quality printer. It forms


characters on paper
when one of the type-bearing spokes of the daisy wheel
strikes an inked
ribbon.

Data : Raw material / unorganized facts which is input to a process to


priduce
meaningful information.

Data base : A structured collection of information consisting of one or


more files of related
information.

DBMS : Data Base Management System Software for creating


maintaining and
employing data bases.

Data bus : The set of parallel wires over which information is transmitted
back and forth
between the CPU, memory and peripheral devices.

Data communications: The transfer of computer encoded information via


electrical
transmissions media, usually the telephone network.

Data encryption : Restricting access to data by translating them into a


code readable only
by the intended recipient(s).

Database Administator: A person and/or software application that manages a


database for an
organisation.

Database Management System:A collection of software applications that allow the


computer user to
set-up, maintain and manipulate a database.
Management tasks may
include controlling access to the database, or sections
of it, extracting
data selectively from different parts of the data base,
financial and
statistical analysis. Usually abbreviated to DBMS.

Database Query Language: A command and/or programming language, forming an


integral part of a
database package. A query language allows the user to
extract and
manipulate data from the database based on user
defined criteria.

Data Dictionary : These are used in Systems Analysis, program and


database design. A
data dictonary, also called MetaData (data about
data)lists all the
attributes of the data that is to constitute the data fields
of a database.
The fallowing is an example of data dictionary entries.

Data Entry : The process of entering data into a computer. Traditionally this
has been a
manual process, performed by computer operators but much of
this work is now
automated. For example, stock control in many large shops is
now achieved by
direct data entry from cash register transcations. Similarly,
bank account records
are updated by transactions conducted by members of the
public through
automatic teller machines(ATMs).

Data Integrity : This refers to the reliability of any particular data. For
example,data on the
world’s climate from 500 years ago would be very sketchy, and
unsuitable for
in-depth analysis. In another example, the data collected during
a vehicle count
on Sydney Harbour Bridge may be of doubtful integrity if it is
known that one
of the recorders had an intermittent fault.

Data processing: The manipulation of data to produce usable information (a


finished product)for
example, the processing of time sheet informationn to produce
a list of payroll
bank transfers. Abbriviation DP.

Device Driver : A software utility program used to enhance or change the defult
settings of a
computer, particularly with reference to how memory is
managed. Also a utility
program that describes the protocol for accessing a particular
part of computer
hardware.
Digital Data Service: A communications network operated by common carriers (for
example,
Telecom Australia), which offers high speed transmission of
digital data, mostly
to and from computers and peripherals such as remote
sensors,telemetry devices
etc. abbreviation DDS. The DDS network is sometimes
reffered to as DDN
(Dedicated Data Network).

Digital Transmission: A transmission method in which data is transmitted in binary


form (0 and 1)
rather than in analog form. Digital Transmission is only
parcticable over short
distances (for example, with a Local Area Network). See also
Analog
Transmission, Binary Numbering, Local Area Network.

Disk controller : The electronic circuitry that is the interface between a


disk drive and the
CPU. This is often an integral part of the motherboard
buy may also be a
separate circuit board.

Disk Failure : A failure of a hard or floppy disk drive and/or the disk itself.
As these are
electro-mechanical devices, it is to be expected that all disks
and disk drives will
ultimately fail. The mean time between failure (MTBF) of a
hard disk is
estimated at 20000 hours. See also Head Crash, Mean Time
Between Failure,
POH.

DIF : Data Interchange Format. A data file format developed by


software Arts to make
files produced by one program (e.g.a data base
manager)function as input files
for another program (such as a spreadsheet or a word
processor).

Data structure : The structure of relationships among files in a data base and
among data items
within each file.

Data validation : Measures taken to ensure that data fielda confirm to


desired
specifications. Fields may be checked for inappropriate
characters or for
deviation from specified lengths or values.
Debugging : The correction of program errors or bugs

Digital computer: A computer that operates on discrete quantities, usually


represented by the use
of two separate electrical states. (Computer analogue
computer).

Digital signal : An electromagnetic wave or electrical impulse that has discrete


current / voltage
states, as compared with the continuous current /voltage range
of analog signals.

Direct access : The access mode used in most data base management systems.
In this method ,
records can be retrieved directly and indivedually according to
their unique
record record numbers. Also called random access.

Disk : (Also called diskette or floppy disk) A medium for mass


storage made or a thin
plastic disc with a hole in the center. The surface has a
magnetic coating which
stores data much as magnetic tape does , but access time is
much faster.

Disk access : The procedure of sending information to or retrieving it from a


disk.

Disk drive : A device that turns storage disks at high speed while reading
data from them or
writing data onto them via a read / write head mounted on a
movable arm.

Display : The screen on which computer data are viewed .

Display adapter: An adapter board that electronically links the computer to a


display screen and
determines its capabilities (degree of resolution, color vs.
monochrome, graphics
vs.no graphics).

DOS : Disk Operating System, an operating system designed to


employ disks as the
main secondary storage medium.

Dot matrix printer: A printer that produces charaters made up of arrays of dots.
Such printers are
faster and less expensive than letter quality printers.
Download : To transfer data from a host systems (usually, a large
computer)to a remote
system(usually, a smaller computer)

DTP : Desk Top Publishing.

Duplex : Simultaneous two-way transmission of data (also referred to as


full duplex).

Dynamic memory: Another term for volatile memory(RAM)

Ethernet : A Local Area Network (LAN) implementation protocol


developed by Xerox
corporation, Digital Equipment Corporation and Intel. Ethernet
is one of the
most popular LAN implemintations and several industry
standards (for example,
IEEE 802.3) are based on it.

Expanded Memory: On an IBM and IBM compatible PC, this is memory that is
accessible via a
16KB “window” within the first 1MB of RAM. Expanded
memory is therefore
accessed in 16KB “pages” and requirs sophisticated memort
management. The
industry standard for this is the LIMEMS(Lotus-intel-Microsoft
Expanded
memory Specification).

Echo : In telecommunication, the return by the receiving device of the


sender’s
message back to the sender’s terminal to verify the
transmission’s accurate
reception.

Electronic mail: computer-based message systems that are used primarily for the
automatic
tranfer of information from one person to another. Usually
these systems are
password protected, so that only the intended recipient(s)of a
message can
receive it.

Electronic spreadsheet: Software designed to facilitate the creation and updating


of models,
analyess, and reports, usually for a business application.
It can be
visualized as a large chart on which the relationship of
items can be
defined by formulas so that recalculation of the entire
sheet is possible
when any value is changed.

Filter : A software command that either extracts data items from a


database in a
particular order and/or extracts only certain data items from the
database. The
first case is sometimes referred to as indexing, the second case
as querying.

Field : In a data base management system a subdivision of a record in


which a single
data item is stored.

File : A collection of related data items on a disk. A file is accessed


by a unique name
given to it by the user.

File Allocation Table: A data file, on a floppy disk or hard disk, detailing the location
of each file that
has been written on to the disk. This enables the operating
system to locate and
read or update each file whenever necessary. The File
Allocation Table
(abbreviation FAT) is stored in duplicate because of the
possibility of bad
sectors making the FAT unreadable and the disk therefore
useless.

Firmware : Program burned (permanently copied)into ROM.

FORTRAN : FORmula TRANslation. An early high-level computer


language desingned for
scientific and engineering applications.

Function keys : Special command keys that execute word processing operations
when pressed ,
thus saving the operator the time involved in repeatedly typing
delete, insert file
and the like. These keys may be fixed in function and labeled
FILE,HELP,
INSERT and so forth or they may be variable in function and
labeled by a
special code, as they are on the IBM PC.
Full Duplex : A transmission mode in which both ends can send and receive
data at the same
time. A telephone conversation is Full Duplex.
GUI : Abbreviation for Graphical User Interface. This is an adjunct to
a computer
operating system which provides an enhanced environment for
the computer
user. Since a GUI uses graphics based (pixel based) images,
rather than text
based images, it provides for on-screen integraction of several
different software
applications

Hacker : A person who gains illegal entry to computer memory, primary


or secondary,
and either alters the data or uses the data for personal
advantage. Hackers are
increasingly being detected and charged with trespass,
malicious damage or
theft of data.

Half duplex : A mode of data communication in which transmission is


possible in only one
direction at a time.

Hard copy : A generic term used to describe any from of computer output
that produces a
permanent record for example, on paper, transparency,
microfiche etc.See also
Soft Copy.

Hard disk : A mass storage device used on many microcomputer systems.


It consists of a
rigid substrate (of aluminum or a ceramic material) that is
magnetically coated.
Hard disks are physically larger than floppy disks,hold more
data , and handle it
more quickly.

Hardware : The physical tangible components of a computer system.

Head Crash : A term used to describe the collision of a read/write head with a
disk platter.
This is mostly a problem on hard disks as the separation of
reas/write head and
platter is often less that 20 microns. A head crash can occur if
the disk is subject
to violent shock whilst in motion or if a foreigh particle gets
wedged under the
head. See also Hard Disk, Read /Write Head.
Hertz : A unit of frequency named for German physicist Heinrich
Hertz, one hertz(Hz)
equals one cycle per second.

High-level language: Problem oriented programming language employing English –


like command
structure , examples include ALGOL,BASIC and COBOL.

Hybrid computer : A combination of analog and digital computer and are


mostly used for
machines or process control in industry / plants.

Index file : In data base management systems, an auxiliary file that


identifies the records in
a main data file by record number or primary key field and in
the order in which
they will be retrieved.

Indexed sequential access: Means of direct access to storage in which address of a


record is
identified by reference to an index of key fields.
Sequential processing of
such records is possible.

Information : Output from a system which has been processed to give it


meaning (compare
data).

Input : The entry of data a computer for processing.

IC : Integrated circuit. A miniatuer circuit on a single


semiconductor chip. Also, the
functionally ready chip after it has been mounted in its
packages.

Integrated programs: Software that combines the capabileties of word processors,


spreadsheets, and
graphics programs. Some integrated programs for instance,
split the screen into
collection of releated records is called a file)

Input device : Any hardware,such as a keyboard, scanner, digitiser, barcode


reader , light-pen,
mouse, ATM, remote sensing equipment etc, that generates
computer
compatible input. See also peripheral Device.

Installation : The process of setting up hardware and/or software for use by


a particular
organisation or on a particular computer system. Software is
increasingly set-up
by running a special install program.

Instruction : A command that is recognised by the CPU (processor).


Commands are usually
generated by a single step in a computer program, often several
instructions may
be generated per line of code. Each processor has its own
instruction set and
these may not necessarily be compatible with other processors.

Interrupt : An instruction to the CPU. This instruction suspends the


current task in favour
of a new task. The previous task is resumed when the CPU
becomes free again.

ISO : abbreviation for international Standards organisation, an


agency of the United
Nations. The ISO is actively invovled in negotiating world-
wide standards in
many aspects of industry, technology and commerce. Several
facets of the
computer industry are covered by ISO standards.

Registers : Pro windows and allow the operator to work with a word
processing document
and a spreadsheet simultaneously.

Interface : Technically, the boundary or connecting surface between two


devices. In
practice the term is often applied to the connecting pieces of
hardware
themselves.

Interpreter : Software which translates a program in a high-level language


into machine code
one at a time during execution of that program(compare
compiler).

I/O channels : Hardware devices for connecting a computer to peripheral


devices or to other
computers.

I/O devices : Input/out put devices, generally the same as peripherals.


Hardware that transmits
data to the system unit and/or receives processed data for
storage, display,
printing, or remote transmission. Keyboard, disk drives,
modems, display
moniters, and printers are all I/O devices.

I/O interface : An adapter (card)that performs the electronic functions


required to connect an
I/O device (for peripheral)to the system.

I/Oports : An alternate term for I/O channels.

Jumper : A temporary wire linking two or more hardware connections.


Jumpers are
usually flexible wires, often with simple connectors at each end
are often used
for faultfinding or for introducing optional facilities, for
example different clock
speeds, to computers. The word jumper, like many others in
computer jargon is
borrowed from the communications industry. See also Hard
Wiring.

Keyboard : An input device that bears a typewriter like array of letter,


number, symbol and
function keys.

Kilobyte : One thousand bytes. More precisely,210 or 1024 bytes.


Abbreviated K or KB.

Language processors: The general term for interpreters and compilers. Language
processors are
programs that allow a particular high-level language to be
implemented on a
given computer.

LSI : Large Scale Integration The fabrication of a major subsystem


or its functional
equivalent on a single chip. LSI devices hold the equivalent of
thousands of
transistors.

Letter-quality printer: A printer that produces solid characters like those produced by
a typewriter.

LAN : Local Area Network. A network of data processing equipment


residing ina small
locale, uauslly, the same room or building. Such a network
usually has its own
interconnecting writing links. (compare WAN).

Low level language: Programming language structured to match the operation of a


computer ,
eg.assembly language or machine code (compare high-level
language).

Land information system: A computer system (hardware and software) which is


used to analyse
land management information, for example, the
distribution of natural
resources, land usage patterns, property ownership,
reteable values etc. A
Land Information System (abbreviation LIS) is not
necessarily an on-line
system. It draws data from external, primary and
secondary, sources and
its tasks may include cartography, statistics and
databases.

Linker : A software application that links object files, library routines,


procedures and
variables into a form ready for execution as a program. Some
compilers are also
linkers, they take source code and produce an executable file,
bypassing a
separate linking process.

Liquid Crystal Display: This is a type of monitor which uses an alternative to


cathode ray
technology and is particularly useful where power
supplies are limited
(for example, in portable computers). A Liquid Crystal
Display
(abbreviation LCD) uses aromatic hydrocarbons, for
example, quinones,
which polarize when a voltage is applied to them.this
enables the
quinones to either pass or block light. Background
lighting falling on a
LCD screen is normally reflected, however where the
quinones allow
light to pass through, the image of the appropriate
character is formed.
LCD technology depends on background (ambient)
lighting, in the
absence of this the LCD display is useless. Many
manufacturers have
overcome this by providing “background” lighting (also
known as
“back-lit” screens).

Logical Drive : Part of a physical storage medium (for example, a hard disk)
that has been
separated by the operating system into distinct storage
locations. The hard disk
may have a stroage capacity of 42MB, but for operational
reasons (users
preference or operating system restrictions) it may be necessary
to divide the
42MB into two. “logical drives”. Under MS_DOS the two
locations may be
designated as the C and D drives. In this case the C and D
drives share a
common physical storage medium.

Low Level Format : The basic installing of a hard disk, usually only
performed once in the
lifetime of a hard disk. A low level format is also
known as a pre-format
and can be performed by many disk management
utilities.

Machine language : The binary code into which high-level language or


assembly language
instructions must be translated before a computer can
actually perform
them. In general, each CPU has its own machine
language.

Mail merge : A feature of some word processors that facilitates the insertion
of sequential
items such as addresses in a mailing list into copies of standard
letters, reports,
and the like.

Mainframe : The largest class of computers, such machines can occupy an


entire room and
have very large data-handling capacities. They are far more
costly than
microcomputers or minicomputers.

Master file : In data base management systems, a file of master records,


which contain the
principal information on their subjects.

Megabyte : One million bytes. More precisely 210 or 1048,576 bytes.


Abbreviated M or MB.

Memory : The part or parts of a computer where data or program


instructions are stored in
a binary number form for later use. Also know as storage.
Computer systems
generally have internal read only memory (ROM)and Random
Access Memory
(RAM)chips,which can be accessed very quickly, and mass
storage devices
(casettes, magnetic disks)external to the CPU that are accessed
at much slower
speeds.

MICR : Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. The use of characters


printed with
magnetic ink permitting them to be read directly by an
appropriate input device.

Microprocessor: The CPUof a microcomputer, usually contained in a single


chip.

Micro computer: The smallest and least expensive computers. The distinction
between micros and
minis are fading as micro computers become more powerful.

Mini computer: A computer Intermedicate in physical size and data-handling


capacity between
microcompters and mainframes.

MIS : Management Information System.

Modem : MOdulator/DEModulator. The device that permits data


communication over
telephone lines. A modem converts information in digital form
into analog
frequencies for transmission and reverse the process when
receiving data.

Monitor : The computer display screen.

Mouse : Mouse is a pointing device. Positions the cursor on a menu


choice by the
appropriate movement of the mouse and with a click of the
button, the system
can be notified of the choice.

Mother board : Another term for system board.

MS-DOS : An operating system (developed by Microsoft)widely used in


microcomputers.

Multiplexing : In telecommunications, the simultaneous transmission of


severas information
streams over one channel.
Multitasking : The simultaneous performance of several tasks by one
computer (for instance,
printing out one file while inputting data into another).

Mean Time Between failure: A measure of the elapsed time between equipment
failures, usually
quoted in the number of operational hours. For
example, the Mean Time
Between Failure (abbreviation MTBF) of a hard disk
may be 20000
hours.

Multiplexor : A communications device which combines the signals (data)


from many
different ,ususlly unrelated, sources for transmission purpose.
At the receiving
end another multiplexor separates the individual signals.
Multiplexors provide a
convenient means of maximissing the rate of usage of a
communications
channel and are used extensively in all areas of
communications.

Near Letter Quality: High resolution output from a printer. Many printers have low
and high
resolution settings on their control panels. In low resolution
settings the print
characters are not precisely formed, however for a draft copy
this is usually
acceptable and saves ink and time. High resoultion settings are
often labelled
NLQ, an abbreviation for “Near Letter Quality”. Low
resolution settings are
often labelled “Draft”.

Network : A system of computers interconnected by transmission


channels.

Object code : Program in machine code capable of being understood and


executed by the
computer. Produced by translating a program from source code
using a
compiler.

OCR : Optical character Recognition. The use of characters printed in


a spocific type-
face allowing them to be read directly by an approprite input
device.
OEM : Original Equipment, manufacturer. A somewhat misleading
term for a company
that buys complete or semi-complete components for resale in
its own system
configurations. Few or none of these components may have
been manufactured
by the OEM.

On-line : Device in direct communication with the CPU.

On-line processing: processing each transaction immediately as it occurs.

Operating system : The integrated set of programs that supervises a


computer’s hardware
and logical resources. Operating systems perfrom
device handling,
storage assignment, file handling debugging,
input/output,machine
accounting, compilation, and the scheduling of
processing. A set of
utility programs is often including with an operating
system.

Object file : Lines of code that are to be linked into machine code, or into a
standalone
executable file. See also compiler, Executable File, Linker.

Object Oriented Programming: A programming technique that concentrates on the


data (object) that is
to be processed rather than the means of processing.
Object Oriented
Programming (abbreviation OOP) has become more
widely used in
recent years as in many cases it offers the optimum
solution to many
programming tasks.

Operations Research : The development of, and research into, mathematical


models for various
business and scientific applications. Operations
Research is usually
computer based. Abbreviation OR.

Orphan : A term used in typesetting and word processing. An orphan is


a small part of a
paragraph that appears as the first line at the top of a new page.
The portion left
behind is a “window”.
Output Device : A generic name for any hardware device that will accept data
output from a
computer. Examples include printers,monitors, disks etc.

Pagination : In word processing, the procedure of specifying the number of


lines to be
included on each page of text.

Parallel Interface: A hardware connector through which data are received and/or
transmitted
several bits at a time.

Parallel transmission: The simultaneous electronic transmission of all the bits in a


byte.r detection
schemes. Inaccurate reception of one of a character’seven bits
will always be
detected.

Pascal : A high-level programming language named after 17th century


French
mathematician and philosopher Blaise pascal.
Peripheral : Any device ina computer system that is external to the CPU
and main memory
but is controlled by the computer to some extent.
Printers,modems, keyboards
and terminals are all peripherals.

Pixel : Short for PICture Element. One of the dots that make up the
image on a
computer display.

Plotter : A peripheral output device that draws letters, graph lines and
other linear
images.

Pointer : In data base management a stroge location that holds the


address of another data
item or structure.

Program : A complete sequence of instructions encoded and ordered so as


to direct a
computer in the performance of a desired task.

Prolog : High-level programming language.

PROM : programmable Read Only Memory. ROM chips that can be


programmed by the
user.
Protocols : In data communications the set of conventions that defines the
format of
messages sent and received.

Parallel Port : An electrical connector that provides for parallel transmission


of data.

Parallel Processing: A computer design philosophy that allows a processing task to


be split into
modules that can be processed in parallel, rather than
sequentially, thereby
gaining valuable processing time. The high clock speeds of
present day
microprocessors has meant a vast increase in processing
speeds, however many
designers are now looking at alternative hardware/software set-
ups to gain even
more speed. Parallel processing offers vast gains.

Parameter : A variable or qualifying instruction passed from one program


module, procedure
or sub-routine to another. See also Argument.

Parity Checking : This technique is used to detect errors that may occur
during data
communications and internal data transfers. Parity
checking involves
adding an extra bit to each byte of binary coded
information in
order to make the total number of ones in the byte odd
or even. In “even
parity” the number of ones is kept even, regardless of
the coded
information(ASCII character), whereas it is kept odd in
“odd parity”. At
the receiving end the parity is checked for conformity to
the agreed
pattern, even or odd parity, and any discrepancies
attributed to line
problems. An error message may be produced or a
request generated for
a repeat trasmission.

Partition : A part of a secondary storage device (for example hard disk)


that is reserved for
a paricular purpose, either because of user preference or
because of operating
system restrictions.
Port : Any conector on a computer that provides for data exchange to
or from a
peripheral device or data communications line. For example, a
serial port
provides for serial transmission of data, possibly to a modem, a
parallel port
provides for parallel transmission, possibly to a printer.

Postscript : A powerful printer command language developed by Adobe


Systems (USA).
Postcript is used extensively on laser printers and provides very
accurate control
of the print image.

Primary Data : This is data that is acquired from its original source. Examples
of primary data
include rainfall data gathered by the Bureau of Meteorology;
demographic
statistics gathered by the Australian Bureau of Statistics;
production data from a
vehicle manufacturer.

Primary Memory : This is computer memory (RAM) that is directly


associated with the
CPU. It is usually volatile, that is, it does not retain
memory capability
without power. On a byte for dollar basis primary
memory is expensive
in comparison to secondary memory. See also RAM,
Secondary
Memory.

Printed Circuit Board : A generic name for any circuit board that has its
circuitry “printed”on
the surface of the board. Printing is achieved by a
photo-chemical
process and lends itself to automated manufacturing.
Most, if not all,
modern electronic circuit are designed to be
manufactured using printed
circuit methods. Printing may be on one or both sides of
the circuit
board, and in some cases may run horizontally through
the core of the
board. The board is generally made of fibreglass which
is used for its
ease of manufature, strength and electrical resistance.

Processor : A generic name for any processor or micro processor.


Processor provide the
fandamental control structure for any computer. The processor
recognises
commands, received in machine code, and generates the
necessary machine code
in response to the instruction. The instruction may be a simple
task such as
getting data from memory or a series of extensive calculations.
The name
“central Processing Unit(CPU) is sometimes used
interchangeably with
“processor”, however a CPU contains more than just a
processor. The name
microprocessor is sometimes applied to small, 8-bit or less,
processor, however
microprocessor is more correctly applied to any “processor on a
chip” such as
the Intel 80286, Motorola 68000 etc.

Prompt : An on-screen character used to indicate that the computer is


ready to receive the
next command, sometimes called a “system prompt”. Prompts
very from one
operating system to another and according to user perferences.
They often use
an alphabetic character in combination with a graphics
character. With some
operating systems the prompt may be used to indicate the
current directory,
where applicable or the time. On many operating systems.

Pseudo-Code : A mixure of English and computer language statements used to


provide
preliminary program design.

Punched Card : Stiff paper cards which have a series of pre-perforated tabs
which can be
removed to form a pattern recognisable by an electro-
mechanical card reader.
The card reader converts each pattern into machine code for use
by the
processor. Card readers are infrequently used today as the cards
are prone to
user error, easily destroyed and generally not re-usable. As well
the card readers
themselves, being largely mechanical, were often the sourse of
computer
breakdowns.

Query language: An English like language including in some data base


management systems to
facilitate searching for user defined information.

Qwerty keyboard: A keyboard with the standed layout of alphabetical numerical


and punctuation
keys. The name derives from the order of the keys in the top
alphabetical row of
a standard typewriter keyboard.

RAM : Random Access Memory. Memory that allows the user direct
access to any
storage location. Information can than be written into these
locations or read out
of them.RAM is said to be volatile and tempory.

Ramdom access: A mode of data access where by data or blocks of data can be
read directly and
in any desired order as from a disk or a ROM chip. This makes
ir unnecessary to
read all the way from the beginning of a file or block of data to
obtain the
desired record.

Real –time : System in which processing is almost simultaneous with input,


so that the
computer provides picture of events as they occur
(eg.manufacturing process
control system or airline booking system)

Record : In data base management a group of related data fields that is


treated as a unit.
(A vides storage internal to the CPU.

Resolution : The amount of information that can be shown on a visual


display. Measured in
Lines or pixels.

RISC : Reduced Instruction Set Computer with a processor designed to


execute simple
instruction extremely fast.

ROM : Read Only Memory. Memory in which data are stored


permanently or
semipermanently. Such memory is said to be non-volatile as it
is unaffected
when power is turned off.

Relational Database: A type of database, in fact the most common type, in which the
data is organised
in rows and columns so that the relationship of any data item to
any data field
and/or other data items can easily be determined. See also
Database, Filed,
Hierarchical Database, Network Database, Record.

Search : A word processing function that locates the occurrences of a


given phrase, work
or character string within a document and displays them on the
screen.

Semiconductor: A material whose conductivity in midway between that of an


insulator and that
of a metal. It can be affected in predictable ways by the
introduction of certain
inpurities. Semiconductor materials commonly used in
electronics include
germentum silicon, silicon carbide and lead sulfide.

Sequintial access: In data base management systems the retrieval of information


from a file by
reading from the beginning to the end or until the desired
record is found. New
information is always appended to the end of a sequential
access file, whose size
is said to be dynamic.

Simplex : Data transmission system which works in one direction only.

Software: The general term for computer programs that govern the operation of a
computer
system and make the hardware run.

Source code : Program instructions in their original high-level language form.


A compiler or
interpreter translates these instructions into the machine
language object code
that can be executed by the computer’s micro processor.

SPIN : Special Interest Network A network extending across city state


or region. SPINs
commonly consist of micro computers and in-expensive
terminals connected by
telephone lines.

Spread sheet : A program designed to facilitate the creation and updating of


models analyses
and reports; uaually for a business application. It can be
visualized as a large
chart in which the relationships of items are defined by
formulas so that
recalculation of the entire sheet is possible when any value is
changed.

Storage : Another term for memory.

Synchronous transmission :A mode of data communication in which each set of


bits making up a
character is transmitted in a strictly timed rhythm. In
this transmission
mode, a timing marker signals the beginning of the data
and the time of
each succeeding character’s transmission is unvarying.

Systems software : Programs that perform the basic tasks required for the
system’s operation
than specific user defined tasks. Systems software
includes operating
systems, assemblers,I/O operating systems, text editors,
and other utility
programs.

Scanner : A peripheral device that converts a printed image into digital


information
suitable for input to a computer. Some scanners, the more
expensive models,
will convert text into an ASCII file, others treat text as a
graphic. A flat-bed
scanner uses a falt surface, similar to that found in a
photocopier, whereas a
drum scanner requires the image, which is usually paper, to be
fed into a series
of rollers.

Soft Copy : Any computer output that does not produce a permanent or
visual record.
Examples includes output to a monitor, to RAM or to a disk or
tape. Origin of
name, “soft” implies easily changed.

Software package: An item of commercial software sold with support material, for
example, written
and on-screen documentation, as well as access to specialist
advisers(and
possibly initial training).

Spooling : A technique often used in a busy work environment to control


the flow of work
to a limited supply of printers.
Swapping : A memory management technique used where the program or
data file is large
and there is a limited amount of RAM. Programs, program
segments and/or data
are swapped into and out of RAM from secondary storage as
and when required,
preferably just before being required.

Task : An instruction, or set of instructions, given to a computer via a


batch file or a
program.

Touch Screen : A computer screen which allows the user to select the
item(task) they want by
touching the screen at the appropriate spot. See also Dialog
Box, Menu.

Terminal : Hardware which allows a user to interface with a computer to


input data and to
get the results as output.

Time-sharing : The concurrent use of one processor by several users.

Transaction file: In data base management systems a file containing information


about every
transaction that the records have under gone.

Transistor : A solid state device that replaced vacuum tubes in some early
computers. A
transistor consists of a single crystal of semiconducting
material to which at
least three wires are attached as leads.

Turnaround document: Document output from a system subjected to a clerical


process and then
used as an input document,probably utilising MICR or
OCR, (eg.a
payment counterfoil attached to a bill).

Truth Table : A matrix of varying input events and the corresponding output
events. Often
used to show how a particular device will respond to particular
inputs, that is,
which outputs will be generated by which inputs. Examples of
truth tables can
be found under the entries for AND Gate, Full Adder, Half
Adder, NAND Gate,
NOR Gate, OR Gate, XOR Gate.
TSR : Abbreviation for Terminate and Stay Resident, a phrase applied
to many
computer programs.TSR programs will run through to
completion and then
remain in RAM untill the computer is turned off or re-set, or a
specificcommand
is given to clear that particular part of RAM,this usually
requires machine
specific knowledge of the hardware and programming
experience. TSRs
sometimes suffer from memory clashes when two TSRs,
written by two
different programmers/software developers, may be directed to
occupy the same
portions of RAM, creating much confusion!.

UNIX : An operating system developed for general use by Bell Labs for
mini-and
microcomputers.

Update : To change the contents of a data file in order to incroporate all


of the least
amendments, deletions, changes, additions etc.

Upgrade : To modify hardware/software in order to eliminate bugs.

Uploading : The opposite of “downloading”.

User-friendly : Capable of immediate, straight-forward use, especially by


people unfamiliar
with computer technology or with the item in question. The
term is applied to
computer hardware, manuals and other accessories.

User memory : Internal computer memory that the user files with data, RAM
chips provide the
facilities for user memory in most systems.

Utilities, utility programs: Specialized programs designed to perform routine tasks


such as editing,
debugging and so on.

Utility : A generic name for miscellaneous software applications and


utilities. This
includes disk managers, operating system adjuncts, file
retrieval and handling
programs.

Virus : A software program that affects the integrity of the operating


system and/or data
files. Virus programs have originated in several different
countries, with the
authors being unknown. Viruses are usually capable of
reproducing themselves
and can spread rapidly throughout an organisation’s computer
system. A virus
may be introduced intentionally, for example, by a disgruntled
employee, or
unintentionally, for example, by taking infected disks from one
computer to
another. Fortunately “vaccine” software in now widely
available and some
measure of control can be achieved.

Voice Recognition: A comparatively new technology that enables computer


hardware/software to
recognise human speech.

Volatile memory: Memory whose contents are erased when the power is turned
off. User memory
is volatile, as opposed to preprogrammed RAM(Read Only
Memory), whose
contents are said tobe volatile.

WAN : Wide Area Network. Network of computers linked over long


distances by
telecommunications network (Compare LAN).

Windows and orphans: Single lines from a paragraph that are printed alone at
the top or bottom
of a page. They are undesirable in all forms of printing.

Word processor: A system designed for text composition, document preparation,


filling, editing,
printing and the creation of mailing lists. A microcomputer can
function as a
word processor if it is equipped with the appropriate software
and supplemental
storage. Usually in the form of floppy disks (This term is also
often used to refer
to a word processing software package).

Wide Area Network : A computer network whose participants are separated


by large distances.
A typical Wide Area Network (abbreviation WAN)
would cross state
borders and have computers in Perth, Adelaide,
Brisbane, Townsville
and sydney. A less disperded WAN may have
computers in each
provincial town of a large state such as New South
Wales. Even smaller
WANs may be restricted to metropolitan areas. The
distinction between
a WAN and a LAN(Local Area Network) is not clear.

Wild card : A character inserted into an operating system command that is


interpreted as
having several meanings.wild card are useful productivity tools
but can create
havoc if an erroneous command is given.

Winchester Disk: a particular type of hard disk technology which uses a high
uses a high density
of data stroage tracks and a very low flying read/write head,
requiring a closely
controlled operating environment.winchester technology was
developed by IBM
and first introduced in1973. A winchester disk is hermetically
sealed and
mositure, an essential method of operation since the separation
between
reas/write head and platter is about 20 microns.

Write protection : A technique used to prevent accidental or international


alteration/deletion of important data and/or programs,
for example, the
operating system. Write protection can be provided by
hardware, for
example, by write protect notches on a floppy disk, or
by software (use
of passwords and read-only status). Hard disks can
usually only be write
protected by alternation of the control circuitry.

SOME GENERAL QUESTIONS & ANSWER

1. What is a program?

Ans. A program is a list of detailed instructions

2. What does a computer do without programs?

Ans. Computers are only dumb machines. They cannot think; they can only execute
your orders within the programs that you write. Without programs, computers are
worthless
3. What is a computer bug?

Ans. A program mistake is called a bug. When you correct a mistake, you debug the
program

4. What is an editor?

Ans. An editor lets you easily type and change programs.

5. What is a compiler?

Ans. A compiler converts your program to low-level machine instructions.

6. What is code?

Ans. A program is also known as code.

7. What is an error?

Ans. A syntax error is usually a typing error.

8. What is a keyword?

A keyword is a C++ language command.

9. What is an operator?

An operator is a special character that performs a specific function, such as Multiply.

10. What does I/O mean?

Ans. I/O stands for input/output and refers to data flowing to and from your PC.

11. What does workbench stand for and what is the workbench?

Ans. The workbench includes a menu bar across the top of the screen with menus
such as File, Edit, and so on.

12. What is a menu?

Ans. A menu is a list of operations displaying things you can do.

15. What is a whitespace?

Ans. Whitespace consists of the blank lines and indentations you add to code.

16. What is a variable?

Ans. A variable is a named value that holds data that can be changed.
17. What is a constant?

Ans. A constant is a value that cannot be changed but can be named. Using const, you
can define variables whose values never change.

18. What is a Literal?

Ans. A literal is an actual constant value stated in the program. Literals are text
representations in the program that do not change. They are used as values by the
program.

19. What is data processing?

Ans. Data processing (DP) is simply the processing of data into meaningful
information.

20. What is a local variable?

Ans. A local variable is a variable that belongs to the function with which it is
declared.

21. What is a global variable?

Ans. A global variable is a variable that you define outside any function, which can
be seen and used by all following functions.

22. What is meant by scientific notation?

Ans. Scientific notation is a shortcut method for representing extremely large or small
values.

23. What is meant by delimiter?

Ans. A delimiter is a character used to signal or enclose data.

24. What is meant by Null zero?

Ans. The first entry in the ASCII table is called the null zero.

25. What is a Bit?

Ans. A bit is an on or off switch inside your computer represented by 1s and 0s.

26. What does the Escape sequence represents?

Ans. An escape sequence represents special control characters.

27. What is meant by Contiguous?


Contiguous means that each item is next to each other with no space in between.

28. What is meant by overloaded operator?

Ans. An overloaded operator performs more than one operation depending on how
you use it.

29. What the unary operator operates?

Ans. A unary operator operates on a single value.

30. What is meant by Hierarchy?

Ans. Hierarchy is another name for operator precedence.

31. What is the nest operator?

Ans. To nest operations means to put one calculation inside another.

32. What is a debugger?

Ans. A debugger is a special tool that allows you to look at variables as your code
executes step by step.

33. What is compound assignment operator?

Ans. The compound operators are sometimes called compound assignment operators.

34. What is a data-driven program?

Ans. A data-driven program is a program whose data dictates the order of execution.

35. What is the use of relational operators?

Ans. A relational operator tests data values against one another.

36. What is meant by pseudocode?

Ans. Pseudocode is a written description of a program in plain speech, not in Visual


C++ code.

37. What is meant by keyword?

Ans. A keyword is a command's trigger word, such as if or return.

38. What is a logical operator?

Ans. A logical operator extends the action of relational if tests.


39. What is the role of input validation?

Ans. Input validation ensures that the user entered an appropriate value.

40. Which logical operator works on a single relational value?

Ans. NOT is a logical operator works on a single value.

41. What is meant by Truncate?

Ans. To truncate means to cut off or eliminate part of a number, such as the decimal
portion.

42. How a ternary operator works?

Ans. A ternary operator works on three values (called operands).

43. Define loop?

Ans. A loop is a program's repeated execution of the same set of instructions.

44. Define infinite loop?

Ans. An infinite loop never stops executing.

45. What is meant by iteration?

Ans. An iteration is one cycle through the body of a loop.

46. What is a control variable?

Ans. A control variable is a variable controlled and changed automatically by the for
loop.

47. What is Branching?

Ans. A branch occurs when one section of a program triggers the execution of a
different section.

48. What is Structured programming?

Ans. A structured program is a modular program that contains one function for each
task the program does.

49. Define Recursion?

Ans. Recursion occurs when one function calls itself or when two functions call each
other.
50. Define Prototype?

Ans. A prototype models a function's definition.

51. What is the difference between parameter & arguments?

Ans. The values you pass are called arguments and the receiving variables are called
the parameters of the function.

52. Passing by copy means?

Ans. Passing by value is sometimes called passing by copy.