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 VI - Part 3 Annex A Calculation of the Overflow Line Chapter 6 GL 2008 Page A–1

Annex A

Calculation of the Overflow Line

 1. Formula characters 3. Δp = loss of pressure [Pa] Calculation of the pressure losses in the overflow line The calculation of the pressure losses in the overflow λ = coefficient of pipe friction 1 [-] line is made in consideration of the following parame- L = length of the straight pipe [m] ters: d i = inside pipe diameter [m] − maximum allowable viscosity of the fuel oil at d a = outside pipe diameter [m] bunkering d gl = equivalent pipe diameter [m] − density 3 of the fuel oil related to the temperature w velocity of flow [m/s] = at bunkering

ρ density [kg/m³]

ς resistance coefficient 2 [-]

=

=

A =

=

=

g =

Re =

=

ν =

=

=

s

c

Re kr

U

A d

V

h geod

=

=

geodetic height [m] volume flow [m³/s]

cross section of pipe [m²]

cross section of pipe running full

wetted circumference [m]

acceleration due to gravity [m/s²]

Reynolds number [-]

critical Reynolds number (2320)

kinematic viscosity [m²/s]

correction factor [-] thickness of pipe [mm]

Δs = tolerances of wall thickness [mm]

2. Calculation of the overflow line

The overflow line is to be so designed that the dy- namic and static pressure losses due to flow through the line with the topping-up rate will not exceed the design pressure of the storage tanks.

This means that

Δp ges = Δp dyn + Δp stat < design pressure

––––––––––––––

1 In the systems handled in these Guidelines laminar flow (Re < Re kr ) can be assumed

2 The Zeta values needed for the calculation are to be taken from recognized standards or publications

3.1 Calculation of the dynamical pressure losses

The loss of pressure in a pipeline results from the resistance behaviour of the straight pipe lengths and their fittings for changes in direction, cross section and flow as well as from their components (valves, sight glasses) and can be determined as follows:

Δp =

Δp =

λ⋅

ς⋅

L

ρ

d

i

2

ρ

2

2

w

2

w

 for straight pipe length (1) for the fittings (2)

From formulae (1) and (2) results the dynamical pres- sure loss of a pipe section, since:

Δp dyn =

Σ

⎡⎛

⎢⎜

⎢⎝

λ

L

ρ

d

n

n

2

+ Σς

w

n

2

(3)

λ ⋅

L

d

= resistance coefficient for the straight pipe

n

n length of inside diameters d 1 … d

Σς n = sum of the individual resistance coeffi- cients for fittings and components in pipe sections of flow rate w 1 ….w n

3.2 Correction factor and equivalent diameter

The allowable tolerances for pipes given in the stan- dards are to be taken into consideration by means of a correction factor.

This can be approximately calculated as follows:

––––––––––––––

3

In the calculation the density is given with minimum 1000 [kg/m 3 ]

 Chapter 6 Annex A Calculation of the Overflow Line VI - Part 3 Page A–2 GL 2008

c

=

1

1

Δ

−⋅ s

d

a

s

d

i

1

⎥ ⎦

5

(4)

Equation (4) put in equation (3), results in:

Δp dyn =

Σ

⎡⎛

⎢⎜

⎢⎝

λ⋅

L

ρ

d

n

2

+Σς

nn

c

w

n

2

(5)

Where c n are the correction values for d 1 ….d n pipe diameters.

Equation (1) also applies to non-circular cross sections if instead of the inside diameter d i the equivalent di- ameter d gl is put in:

d gl

=

4

A

d

U

(6)

3.2.1 Pressure losses for pipes connected in par- allel

If two or more overflow pipe lines are lead from a storage tank to the collecting manifold, the following applies:

same pressure loss:

Δp dyn = const.

single volume flows add up to the total volume flow

V

=

V 1

+

V 2

+

…. V n

The solution of the individual equations (3) can only

be found by iteration, since λ = f(Re) and Re = f(w).

3.2.2 Pressure losses for pipes connected in se- ries

Analogous to 2.2.1 the pressure losses for the individ- ual pipes are to be determined according to equation

(3).

The pressure loss of all pipes results from the sum of all individual pressure losses:

Δp dyn =

Δp dyn1

+

Δp dyn2 + …… Δp dynn

4. Calculation of statical pressure losses

The statical pressure loss results from the geodetic heights of the overflow pipelines, measured between tank top and overflow summit (peak) of the pipes. This is to be determined as follows:

(7)

Δp stat = h geod g ⋅ ρ