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Experiment no.

Acid, Bases and Salts
Butial, John Rex
Dizon, Dan Ronsley
Manlapaz, Patrick Evandel
Vicedo, Viviene Neriz
Group no. 7, Chem 14.1, WEGI, Mr. Ralph Julius L. Mendoza
March 18, 2009



The base buret was washed thoroughly

Experimental with soap and water and was rinsed with 3 mL
portions of the standard base, 0.1 M NaOH. The
buret was filled with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide, NaOH
1. Electrolytes and the air space was removed at the tip. Zero
reading was set and the buret was clamped into the
Five drops of 0.1 M solutions of NaOH, iron stand.
NH4Cl, HC2H3O2, NaCl, C2H5OH, C12H12O11, HCl, 10 mL aliquot of the unknown acid was
NH4OH, HOAc + NaOH, HCl + NaOH, NH4OH + transferred into an Erlenmeyer flask. 50 mL of
HCl and distilled water was placed in separate test distilled water and 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein was
tubes and was tested using the following indicators: added. The acid was titrated with the standard base
litmus paper, phenolphthalein and congo red. Color until the appearance of the first appearance of a
was taken note of and the substances were permanent light pink coloration. The final reading
classified into acids, bases and salts. was recorded and three trials were conducted.
The pH oh each substance was obtained Finally, the molarity of the unknown acid solution
using a pH paper. was calculated.
Equal volumes, specifically 1 ml of 1 M HCl
and 1 M NaOH was mixed in a test tube. Indicators
were used to test the mixture. This procedure was Results
repeated by using 1 M acetic acid in place of HCl.
I. Electrolytes
2. Conductivity Test
II. Preparation of 1 M NaOH using NaOH pellets
The conductivity of the above solution was
tested using the conductivity apparatus. Calculations:

3. Preparation of 1 M NaOH using NaOH pellets 1 M NaOH = Xg NaOH

40g NaOH
The weight of NaOH needed to prepare 100g x 1 mL x 1 L
100.00 mL of 1 M NaOH was calculated. The 1g 100 mL
calculated amount of pellets was weighed in a
watch glass and was dissolved in 50 mL water. 0.1 = x
4. Preparation of 0.1 M NaOH from available
concentration of NaOH x = 4g NaOH Pellets

The volume of NaOH from available III. Preparation of 0.1 M NaOH from available
concentration needed to prepare 100 mL of 0.1 M concentration of NaOH
NaOH was determined. The measured volume to
from procedure A was dilute to 100.00 mL distilled Calculations:
water in a volumetric flask.
(1 M)(x) = (0.1 M NaOH final) (100 mL NaOH + H20
5. Titration of an Acid with a Base Final)
x= 10 mL NaOH initial Since color change often accompanies chemical
change, you might suspect that a chemical reaction
IV. Titration of an Acid with a base is responsible for indicator action. This indeed is the
TRIAL case.
No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 NO.5
Volume 6.3 6.3 6.6 6.8 6.6 Indicators are weak acids or bases with differently
of 0.10 colored acid and base forms.
Volume 10 10 10 10 10 The indicator reaction is pH dependent because it
of mL mL mL mL mL involves either the release or capture of hydrogen
unknown ions:
Molarity 0.663 0.068 0.066 0.068 0.066 HIn H+ + In-
unknown where "HIn" and "In" stand for the indicator
acid molecule with and without an attached hydrogen
solution ion.

Average Molarity of unknown acid solution: The two forms of the indicator molecule have
0.0662 noticeably different colors. For example,
phenolphthalein has a clear HIn form and a red-
Calculations: violet In form. When there are equal amounts of HIn
and In, the solution looks pink/cloudy. Adding a
MA = MBVB drop of acid adds H+ ions which react with the In-
VA ions to form HIn, and the solution becomes more
clear. Adding a drop of base converts HIn to In, and
MA = (0.1) (0.0063) the solution becomes more pink/red violet.
Litmus paper
Litmus is a weak acid. It has a seriously
Acid is a substance that produces H+ (aq) ions complicated molecule which we will simplify to HLit.
in aqueous solutions. Strong acids ionize The "H" is the proton which can be given away to
completely or almost completely in dilute something else. The "Lit" is the rest of the weak
aqueous solutions; weak acids ionize only acid molecule.
There will be an equilibrium established when this
Base is a substance that produces OH- (aq) ions acid dissolves in water. Taking the simplified
in aqueous solutions. Strong bases are soluble version of this equilibrium:
in water and are dissociated completely. Weak
bases ionize only slowly.

Salt is a compound that contains a cation other

than H+ and an anion other than OH- or O2-. The un-ionised litmus is red, whereas the ion is

Aqueous solution of both acids and base Now use Le Chatelier's Principle to work out what
conduct electricity because they are would happen if you added hydroxide ions or some
ionized/dissociated completely. more hydrogen ions to this equilibrium.

Adding hydroxide ions:

The indicators used were litmus paper, pH
paper, phenolphthalein, and congo red.

Indicators are weak acids or bases with differently

colored acid and base forms.
Type: HIn + H2O In- + H3O+
pK: 9.5
Approximate pH range for color change: 8.0-9.8
Color of acid form: clear
Color of base form: red-violet
Adding hydrogen ions:

Congo Red

Approximate pH range for color change: 3.0-5.0

Color of acid form: blue
If the concentrations of HLit and Lit - are equal: Color of base form: red

At some point during the movement of the position

of equilibrium, the concentrations of the two colors
will become equal. The colour you see will be a
mixture of the two.

For part A electrolytes, the different reagents were

tested using the following instruments:
phenolphthalein, congo red, pH paper, litmus paper
The reason for the inverted commas around and conductivity apparatus. Through these
"neutral" is that there is no reason why the two indicators, properties like acidity, conductivity, the
concentrations should become equal at pH 7. strength and weakness of acid/ base and the
For litmus, it so happens that the 50 / 50 colour electrolyte property were obtained.
does occur at close to pH 7 - that's why litmus is
commonly used to test for acids and alkalis. As For 0.1 M sodium hydroxide, the red litmus paper
you will see below, that isn't true for other turned blue, and the blue litmus paper turned red,
indicators. indicating that the reagent is basic. Its pH is 14, and
through the conductivity apparatus, it was identified
Phenolphthalein that it is a strong

Electrolytes are compounds that ionize or dissociate
Phenolphthalein is another commonly used into their constituent ions to produce aqueous
indicator for titrations, and is another weak acid. solutions that conduct an electric current.

Strong electrolytes are ionized or dissociated

completely or very nearly completely, in dilute
In this case, the weak acid is colorless and its ion is aqueous solutions. Strong electrolytes include
bright pink. Adding extra hydrogen ions shifts the strong acids, strong bases and strong salts.
position of equilibrium to the left, and turns the
indicator colorless. Adding hydroxide ions removes Weak electrolytes conduct electricity poorly in dilute
the hydrogen ions from the equilibrium which tips to aqueous solutions.
the right to replace them - turning the indicator pink.
Non-electrolytes exist as molecules in aqueous
solutions, and such solutions do not conduct electric

Electric current is carried through aqueous solution

by the movement of ions. The strength of an
electrolyte depends on the number of ions in
solution and also on the charges of these ions.


a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It

is defined as the cologarithm of the activity of
dissolved hydrogen ions (H+). Hydrogen ion activity
coefficients cannot be measured experimentally, so
they are based on theoretical calculations. The pH
scale is not an absolute scale; it is relative to a set
of standard solutions whose pH is established by
international agreement.

Guide Questions & Answers

Conclusion and Recommendations


I hereby certify that I have given substantial

contributions to this report.

Butial, John Rex

Dizon, Dan Ronsley

Manlapaz, Patrick Evandel

Vicedo, Viviene Neriz