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EDITURA ACADEMIEI ROMÂNE


CUPRINS

Prefata ...... Il

1. PRELIMINARII .................................................................................................................. 13
1.1. Impactul automobilului asupra mediului ...................................................................... 13
1.2. Automobilul si încalzirea globala ................................................................................. 15
1.2.1. Bioxidu1 de carbon (C02) ................................................................................. 17
1.2.2. Metanul (CH4) ................................................................................................... 19
1.2.3. Protoxidul de azot - gazul ilariant (NP) ......................................................... 20
1.2A. Non-metan hidrocarburi (NMHC) .................................................................... 20
1.2.5. Oxizii de azot (NOx) .......................................................................................... 20
1.2.6. Hidrocarburi halogenate (CFC si HFC) ........................................................... 20
1.3. Contributia transportului rutier la producerea gazelor cu efect de sera ...................... 21
IA. Masuri de protectie a mediului ..................................................................................... 22

2. AUTOMOBILUL SI REGULAMENTELE DE POLUARE .......................................... 24


2.1. Scurt istoric ................................................................................................................... 24
2.2. Regulamentele privitoare la emisia de NOx la autoturisme ......................................... 27
2.3. Regulamentele privitoare la emisia de particule diesella autoturisme ....................... 28
2A. Regulamentele privitoare la emisia de NOx la autovehiculele grele ........................... 29
2.5. Regulamentele privitoare la emisia de particule diesella autovehiculele grele.......... 29
2.6. Regulamentele europene pentru autoturisme (Euro III si Euro IV) ............................ 30
2.7. Regulamentele europene pentru vehiculele comerciale ............................................... 32
2.8. Alte reglementari. ... ... .......... 33

3. MODERNIZAREA MOTORULUI CU APRINDERE PRIN SCÂNTEIE (MAS)


PENTRU AUTOMOBILE. DIRECTII DE ACTIUNE ................................................... 35
3.1. Randamentul motorului cu aprindere prin scânteie pe automobil............................... 35
3.2. Cerintele de reducere a consumului de combustibil.................................................... 39
3.3. Strategii de reducere a consumului de combustibil..................................................... 42
3A. Solutii tehnice preconizate ............................................................................................ 49
3.5. Procedee moderne de formare a amestecului si de ardere. .......................................... 51
3.5.1. Arderea amestecurilor stratificate ..................................................................... 51
3.5.2. Strategia de functionare a motorului modern cu aprindere prin scânteie ........ 61
3.5.3. Controlul emisiilor din gazele de evacuare ...................................................... 66
3.6. Sistemul injectiei directe de benzina ............................................................................ 72
3.6.1. Formarea amestecului ....................................................................................... 73
3.6.2. Injectia directa de benzina ................................................................................ 74
3.6.3. Injectia de amestec preformat aer-combustibil................................................ 76
3.6A. Sisteme de injectie directa pentru motoarele cu aprindere prin scânteie ........ 78
8 Automobilul modem

3.6.4.1. Sisteme cu amortizarea oscilatiilor presiunii înalte ........................... 78


3.6.4.2. Sisteme cu presiune înalta constanta .................................................. 79
3.6.4.3. Sisteme cu modularea presiunii înalte independenta de turatie ........ 80
3.7. Alternative la procedeul conventional de ardere ......................................................... 81
3.7. I. Autoaprinderea controlata a amestecurilor omogene ....................................... 82
3.7.2. Performantele motorului CSI - Compression and Spark Ignition .................. 86
3.7.3. Strategia de functionare a motorului CSI ......................................................... 89
3.8. Realizari tehnice remarcabile ............ 90
3.8.1. Bosch ................... 90
3.8.2. PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Magneti Marelli, VW, OM, Fiat .................... 96
3.8.3. Mercedes............................................................................................................ 102
3.9. Motoare cu raport de comprimare variabiI................................................................... 104
3.9.1. Motorul Saab ..................................................................................................... 104
3.9.2. Motorul Mayflower e3 ...................................................................................... 112
3.9.3. Motorul FEV cu raport de comprimare variabil............................................... 115
3.9.4. Motorul Toyota cu raport de destindere marit .................................................. 116

4. DISTRIBUTIA VARIABILA ............................................................................................. 120


4.1. Necesitatea distributiei variabile .................................................................................. 120
4.2. Clasificarea sistemelor de distributie variabila ............................................................ 126
4.3. Sisteme cu varierea continua a fazelor de distributie .................................................. 127
4.4. Sistemul de distributie VarioCam Plus ......................................................................... 129
4.4. I. Varierea înaltimii de ridicare a supapei .............................................................. 130
4.4.2. Varierea fazelor de distributie ............................................................................ 131
4.4.3. Regimurile de functionare .................................................................................. 131
4.5. Sistemul de distributie VTEC - Honda ........................................................................ 132
4.6. Sistemul de distributie MIVEC .................................................................................... 134
4.7. Sistem de distributie cu carne cu contur multidimensional ......................................... 137
4.8. Sistemul de distributie continuu variabila de la Delphi ............................................... 138
4.9. Sistemul de distributie continuu variabila VEL de la Nissan ...................................... 141
4.10. Distributia variabila Valvetronic de la BMW ,.............................. 144
4.11. Distributia electrohidraulica ......................................................................................... 147
4.12. Distributia variabila cu actionarea electromagnetica a supapelor (EMV) .................. 149
4.12.1. Particularitatile constructive si functionale ..................................................... 149
4.12.2. Strategii de control a sarcinii motorului cu distributie EMV.......................... 155
4.12.3. Controlul compozitiei amestecului .................................................................. 155
4.12.4. Controlul miscarii amestecului din cilindru .................................................... 156
4.12.5. Momentul deschiderii supapei de evacuare ..................................................... 158
4.12.6. Pornirea motorului rece echipat cu distributie variabila EMV ....................... 159
4.12.7. Comportarea în faza de încalzire a motorului cu distributie variabila EMV.. 159
4.12.8. Performantele motorului cu distributie variabila EMV................................... 160

5. MODERNIZAREA MOTORULUI DIESEL (MOTORUL CU APRINDERE PRIN


COMPRIMARE - MAC) PENTRU AUTOMOBILE. DIRECTII DE ACTIUNE ...... 164
5.1. Randamentul motorului diesel...................................................................................... 164
5.2. Motoarele diesel pentru autovehicule. Directii de actiune .......................................... 165
5.3. Sisteme de injectie de înalta presiune Bosch ............................................................... 172
5.4. Directii de modernizare a motoarelor diesel pentru automobile ................................. 185
5.5. Realizari tehnice remarcabile ... 187
5.5.1. Sistemul de injectie Common Raii de la Denso ................................................ 187
5.5.2. Sistemul de injectie Common Raii de la Mitsubishi ......................................... 193
5.5.3. Filtrul cu regenerare continua- CRT (ContinuousRegeneration Trap) de la AVL. 201
5.6. Directii de actiune pentru îndeplinirea viitoarelor standarde de poluare .................... 206
Cuprins 9

6. POSIBILITATI DE REDUCERE A MASEI AUTOMOBILULUI "..................... 213


6.1. Potentialul de reducere a masei automobilului ............................................................ 213
6.2. Costul reducerii masei ................................................................................................... 214
6.3. Realizari remarcabile în directia reducerii masei automobilului ................................. 216

7. UTILIZAREA OPTIMA A ENERGIEI DISPONIBILE PE AUTOMOBIL , 222


7.1. Distributia energiei disponibile pe automobil.............................................................. 222
7.2. Directii de actiune pentru reducerea consumului de energie la automobile ............... 223
7.3. Sisteme de propulsie hibride ......................................................................................... 230
7.3.1. Transmisii hibride serie ...................................................................................... 233
7.3.2. Transmisii hibride paralele ................................................................................. 234
7.4. Transmisia hibrida paralela cu stocarea cinetica a energiei de frânare ....................... 237 ,
7.5. Transmisia hibrida autarhica ......................................................................................... 244
7.6. Transmisii hibride mixte ............................................................................................... 250
7.6.1. Transmisia hibrida de la Toyota ......................................................................... 250
7.6.2. Transmisia hibrida Honda .................................................................................. 257
7.6.3. Alte transmisii hibride ,.............................................................. 259
7.6.4. Transmisia hibrida i2-CVT.................................................................................. 259

8. OPINII REFERITOARE LA NOILE TEHNOLOGII PENTRU AUTOMOBILE ...... 263

BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................... 271


CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................... 277
PREFATA

În cei peste 100 de ani de existenta, automobilul s-a dezvoltat si perfectionat


continuu fara, însa, sa se produca transformari fundamentale ale solutiilor tehnice
utilizate înca din primele decenii ale aparitiei sale.
Restrictiile extrem de severe impuse si cele pe cale de a fi adoptate în primul
deceniu al noului mileniu, referitoare la protectia mediului si conservarea resurselor
minerale, pe de oparte, si reducerea costurilor si cresterea performantelor si aplacerii
de a conduce, pe de alta parte, conduc la transformari esentiale ale automobilului atât
în conceptia subansamblurilor acestuia cât si, mai ales, în strategia de control si
conducere ale acestora. Este mai actual ca niciodata dictonul potrivit caruia "pentru
a imita mersul omul a inventat roata, care nu seamana deloc cu piciorul".
În primii ani ai noului mileniu si-a facut aparitia pe piata automobilul cu
sistemul electronic de control care contine 20 de microprocesoare. Este iminenta
lansarea automobilului cu sistem electronic de comanda si control cu 30 de
microprocesoare. Din punct de vedere al complexitatii, sistemul de control al acestor
automobile este mai complicat decât al avionului comercial " Airbus A 310".
Se constata, de asemenea, ca visul inginerilor de unificare a principiilor de
functionare ale motoarelor cu ardere interna, cu aprindere prin scânteie si diesel,
este mai aproape ca niciodata. Se apreciaza ca principiul autoaprinderii controlate
a amestecurilor omogene (pe benzina sau diesel) constituie principala solutie tehnica
pentru urmatorii 60 - 80 de ani.
În aceasta lucrare sunt prezenta te rezultate recente ale cercetarilor privitoare
la procedeele de formare si de ardere a amestecului în motoarele cu aprindere prin
scânteie si diesel, la realizarea unor sisteme de alimentare cu combustibil de mare
performanta, la realizarea unor distributii variabile originale exceptionale, precum
si la adoptarea unor strategii adecvate de utilizare a energiei disponibile pe automobil,
prin utilizarea a cel putin doua surse de putere. Puterea necesara la roata, pentru
învingerea rezistentelor la înaintare, se asigura simultan de la cele doua surse sau
separat de la una dintre ele, în functie de necesitatile de tractiune si de conditiile
impuse referitoare la consumul de energie primara, protectia mediului si confort.
Lucrarea se adreseaza specialistilor implicati în cercetarea, proiectarea,
constructia si exploatarea automobilelor moderne si constituie un material de studiu
extrem de util studentilor din învatamântul superior tehnic.
12 Automobilul modern

Doresc sa-mi exprim recunostinta fata de colegul meu Marius Bataus pentru
sprijinul competent acordat la tehnoredactarea acestei lucrari si, totodata, le
multumesc studentilor nostri Laurentiu Antoniu Cancel si Florin Daniel Dragne
pentru contributia lor la prelucrarea ilustratiei grafice a acestei lucrari.
De asemenea, îmi exprim gratitudinea fata de bunii mei prieteni si fosti studenti
Marius Pitigoi, Paul Badea, Viorel Niculescu si Valeriu Huidan, al caror binevenit
sprijin a facut posibila publicarea acestei carti.

Iunie, 2003 Mircea Oprean


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