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MayMayMayMay May 2011201120112011 2011
MayMayMayMay May 2011201120112011 2011 SYNTHETIC VISION SESAR Advances · STARLite Vision www.avionicstoday.com

SYNTHETIC VISION

MayMayMayMay May 2011201120112011 2011 SYNTHETIC VISION SESAR Advances · STARLite Vision www.avionicstoday.com

SESAR Advances · STARLite Vision

MayMayMayMay May 2011201120112011 2011 SYNTHETIC VISION SESAR Advances · STARLite Vision www.avionicstoday.com
www.avionicstoday.com
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inside

inside magazine May 2011 • Vol. 35, No. 5   24 www.avionicstoday.com Visit www.avionicstoday.com to

magazine

May 2011 • Vol. 35, No. 5

 
24
24
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www.avionicstoday.com

Visit www.avionicstoday.com to begin a subscription to the digital edition of Avionics.

E-Letters

Review of top developments in the civil and military aircraft electronics industry

   

Industry

 

Webinars

Wheels Up For SESAR  18 www.aviationtoday.com/webinars

 

18

www.aviationtoday.com/webinars

 

With 29 validation projects planned this year, the Single European Sky ATM Research program strives for tangible results to demonstrate progress toward Europe’s vision by George Marsh

 

Global Partnerships in Avionics

Development Engineering

• UAS Civil Airspace Integration: Progress and Challenges

   

military

 
   

• Issues in Air Traffic Management

STARLite Vision24 Northrop Grumman Small Tactical Radar-Lightweight (STARLite) systems provides coali - tion warfighters high-resolution

24

Northrop Grumman Small Tactical Radar-Lightweight (STARLite) systems provides coali- tion warfighters high-resolution imagery from unmanned aircraft systems and aerostats by Frank Colucci

• Business Jet Connections: In-Flight Connectivity Services and Solutions for Business Aircraft

   

product focus

• Airborne RFID: Radio Frequency Identification Takes Off

Synthetic Vision  28 • ADS-B: Progress and Implementation

 

28

• ADS-B: Progress and Implementation

 

Suppliers of synthetic vision systems, highly valued by pilots for safety and situational awareness, strive for operational credits to use synthetic vision as a landing aid by Ed McKenna

 

Online Resources

Aerospace Acronym Guide www.aviationtoday.com/av/acronym/a.html

 

also in this issue

 

Editor’s Note

 

White Papers, Tech Reports www.aviationtoday.com/at/otherdocs/

Aviation Today’s Job Board www.aviationtoday.com/aviationjobs/

UAS Integration

 

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Follow Avionics Magazine on Twitter and Facebook:

 

Ad Index

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Cover: Pilot’s view through the Rockwell Collins Head-Up Guidance System with synthetic vision. Photo courtesy Rockwell Collins.

 
vision. Photo courtesy Rockwell Collins.   The editors welcome articles, engineering and technical

The editors welcome articles, engineering and technical reports, new product information, and other industry news. All editorial inquiries should be directed to Avionics Magazine, 4 Choke Cherry Rd., Second Floor, Rockville, MD 20850–4024; 301-354-1820; fax: 301-340-8741. email: bcarey@accessintel.com. Avionics Magazine (ISSN-1085-9284) is published monthly by Access Intelligence, LLC, 4 Choke Cherry Rd., Second Floor, Rockville, MD 20850. Periodicals Postage Paid at Rockville, MD, and additional mailing offices. Subscriptions: Free to qualified individuals directly involved in the avionics industry. All other subscriptions, U.S.: one year $99; two years $188. Canada: one year $129; two years $228. Foreign: one year $149; two years $278. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Avionics Magazine, P.O. Box 3092, Northbrook, IL 60065-3092. Change of address two to eight weeks notice requested. Send both new and old address, including mailing label to Attn: Avionics Magazine, Customer services, P.O. Box 3092, Northbrook, IL 60065-3092, or call 847-559-7314. Email: AV@omeda.com. Canada Post PM40063731. Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to: Station A, PO Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5 ©2011 by Access Intelligence, LLC Contents may not be reproduced in any form without written permission.

Printed in U.S.A.

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reproduced in any form without written permission. Printed in U.S.A. www.avionicstoday.com May 2011 Avionics Magazine 3

May 2011 Avionics Magazine

3

editor’s note

by Bill Carey

editor’s note by Bill Carey Work is picking up on a number of fronts to open

Work is picking up on a number of fronts to open wider access for unmanned aircraft to the NAS.

4 Avionics Magazine May 2011

unmanned aircraft to the NAS. 4 Avionics Magazine May 2011 UAS Integration W ith FAA expected

UAS Integration

W ith FAA expected to issue a proposed rule this summer that would govern operation of small unmanned aircraft sys-

tems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS), work is picking up on a number of fronts to open even wider access for UAS. Pending budget approval, NASA this year plans to embark on a five-year $157 million UAS Integration in the NAS Project designed to reduce technical barriers and validate concepts and technologies enabling “routine” UAS operations in the airspace system. The agency “will generate data for FAA use in rulemaking through develop- ment, testing and evaluation of UAS tech- nologies in operationally relevant scenarios,” NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr., stated in testimony in March before the Sen- ate Transportation Committee. Industry developments continue to push the envelope of unmanned flight. Northrop Grumman has announced a series of recent achievements, including, in February, the first flight of the tailless X-47B Unmanned Combat Air System demonstrator; and in January, the flight of two unmanned aircraft in close proximity at high altitude to prepare for autonomous aerial refueling in 2012. There have been setbacks, too, as in the April 1 crash of AeroVironment’s hydrogen-pow- ered Global Observer on its ninth test flight. UAS, or what the mainstream media likes to call “drones,” remain mostly a military phe- nomena. But civil government and private- sector interest in using them for missions such as border patrol, aerial photography and firefighting has been building for years. In its most recent aviation industry forecast, released in February, FAA reports that 100 U.S. companies, academic institutions and government organizations are developing 300 UAS designs. The agency projects that 10,000 small UAS will be operating in the next five years; in 10 years the fleet is projected to increase to 25,000 units. “We’re about building a new industry,” said John S. Walker, co-chairman of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems. “The technology is here and this is where the best and brightest of government and industry need to come together to find the tipping point where we go off and do really great things.” Walker was among industry and govern-

ment experts who spoke during the Avionics Magazine webinar, “UAS Civil Airspace Integration: Progress and Challenges.” They described progress on several fronts toward merging manned and unmanned air traffic. Nevertheless, UAS flights in the United States currently are limited to either restrict- ed airspace, or in the NAS by obtaining a certificate of authorization or waiver from FAA, a costly and time-consuming process. FAA in 2008 established an Aviation Rulemaking Committee to recommend how to proceed on regulating small UAS, where the greatest market growth is projected. Those recommendations, describing air vehicles weighing 55 pounds or less and fly- ing no higher than 1,200 feet above ground level, are the basis for the pending Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Adoption of a final rule is anticipated in 2012 or 2013. Work continues on the technical barriers to UAS entry. Andrew Lacher, UAS Integra- tion Lead with MITRE Corp.’s Center for Advanced Aviation System Development, said three key challenges are being addressed:

the integrity of the command and control communications link between the aircraft and ground; maintaining
the integrity of the command and control
communications link between the aircraft
and ground; maintaining safe separation of
UAS through “sense and avoid” technology;
and integrating UAS in the existing air-traffic
control system. “We see these three big chal-
lenge areas as being very complex, involving
significant technical, operational, procedural
as well as policy components to their resolu-
tion,” Lacher said.
John Appleby, program manager with the
Science and Technology Directorate of the
Department of Homeland Security (DHS),
described a UAS modeling and simulation
capability at MIT Lincoln Laboratory in
Lexington, Mass., co-sponsored by DHS,
FAA and the Department of Defense. Flight
testing using surrogate aircraft is planned in
fiscal 2011 or 2012.
RTCA SC-203 plans to issue Minimum
Aviation System Performance Standards for
overall UAS systems in December 2012, fol-
lowed by both Sense-and-Avoid subsystem
and Control and Communication subsystem
MASPS in December 2013, Walker said.
subsystem and Control and Communication subsystem MASPS in December 2013, Walker said. www.avionicstoday.com

www.avionicstoday.com

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6 Avionics Magazine May 2011

jobboardandresumebanktoday. 6 Avionics Magazine May 2011 www.avionicstoday.com EDITORIAL EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Bill Carey

www.avionicstoday.com

6 Avionics Magazine May 2011 www.avionicstoday.com EDITORIAL EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Bill Carey 301-354-1818

EDITORIAL

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Bill Carey

301-354-1818

bcarey@accessintel.com

MANAGING EDITOR

Emily Feliz

301-354-1820

efeliz@accessintel.com

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Frank Alexander, Frank Colucci, Ron Laurenzo, George Marsh, Ed McKenna, James W. Ramsey, Jean-Michel Guhl

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800-325-0156

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industry scan

industry scan BUSINESS/GA iPad2 Flight Test Jeppesen announced in March that it completed rapid decompression testing
industry scan BUSINESS/GA iPad2 Flight Test Jeppesen announced in March that it completed rapid decompression testing

BUSINESS/GA

iPad2 Flight Test Jeppesen announced in March that it completed rapid decompression testing of

an Apple iPad 2 tablet computer. The test was completed to an altitude of 51,000 feet, proving the integrity of the iPad 2 in the event of sudden cabin pres- sure loss, the company said. Last year, Jeppesen completed a simi- lar test of a representative iPad as part of

a program to obtain initial FAA authori-

zation of its Mobile TC charting App. Jeppesen in February announced that NetJets subsidiary Executive Jet Manage- ment had received FAA authorization to use the Mobile TC App for iPad as sole reference for electronic charts, including taxi, takeoff and landing phases. The project included a three-month in-flight evaluation involving 55 pilots, 10 aircraft types and 250 flight segments. It followed established FAA authorization requirements for electronic flight bags (EFB) applicable to an air carrier. The authorized EFB configuration is

a Class 1 portable, kneeboard EFB solu- tion that is secured and viewable during critical phases of flight as defined in FAA Order 8900.1, Jeppesen said. “Because of structural changes in iPad 2, Jeppesen determined that a new (rapid decompression) test was warranted. No anomalies were detected during either iPad testing period,” the company said.

GTN 650, 750 Series Garmin on March 23 unveiled the GTN 650 and 750 series touchscreen multifunc- tion displays for GA aircraft, succeeding the GNS 430W and 530W GPS/Nav/ Comm systems announced in 1998. The GTN 650 and 750 received FAA TSO authorization in March and are STC approved “on a broad model list cover- ing most Part 23 fixed-wing aircraft,” the company announced. The GTN 650 has the same exterior footprint as the GNS 430W, but has a 4.9-inch screen (diagonal) with 53 percent more screen area. The GTN 750 has a 6.9-inch screen (diagonal) with 98 percent more screen area than the GNS 530W, making it possible to view an entire chart via the Garmin FliteCharts and Chart- View applications, the company said. Both units display a higher resolu-

Jeppesen electronic chart subscribers can access instrument charts and air- port diagrams on their Apple
Jeppesen electronic chart subscribers can access instrument charts and air-
port diagrams on their Apple iPad tablets through Jeppesen Mobile TC App.
Photo courtesy Jeppesen

tion picture — 600x266 pixels for the GTN 650; 600x708 pixels for the GTN 750 — with five times more pixels than the GNS 430W and 530W, respectively. They feature “a shallow menu structure, desktop-like menu interface with intui- tive icons, audio and visual feedback, and animation so that pilots know exactly how the systems are responding to their input,” Garmin said. Both display units have a finger anchoring bezel around the side of the display and fingerboard at the bottom of the screen for hand stabilization. The GTN 650 is expected to be avail- able at a suggested retail price of $11,495; the GTN 750 at $16,995, Garmin said.

Glass Cockpit Garmin on March 29 announced the G2000 glass cockpit suite, designed for high-performance piston aircraft.

Garmin said the system has many of the same features found on the G3000 suite for Part 23 light jets, announced at the 2009 National Business Aviation Association conference, and G5000 for Part 25 business jets, announced at NBAA 2010. Earlier in March, Garmin unveiled the G1000H integrated glass cockpit for Part 27 helicopters. As with the G3000 and G5000, the G2000 uses the GTC 570 vehicle manage- ment system, a 5.7-inch diagonal touch- screen controller, for radio management, weather systems management, synoptics and other systems. The G2000 system will come with high resolution, 12-inch or 14-inch diagonal displays. The system’s landscape oriented multifunction display has multi-pane capability, allowing mul- tiple pages to be viewed on the screen. Garmin said it expects to receive certi- fication of the G2000 this year.

8 Avionics Magazine May 2011

said it expects to receive certi- fication of the G2000 this year. 8 Avionics Magazine May

www.avionicstoday.com

Gulfstream G650 Crash One of five Gulfstream G650 flight-test aircraft crashed April 2 during takeoff performance tests in Roswell, N.M., kill- ing four Gulfstream employees on board, the company announced that day. Immediately following the accident, Gulfstream temporarily suspended flight testing of the remaining four test aircraft. “All other certification and production work on the G650 program continues, and all other activities at the company are proceeding normally,” Gulfstream said. The accident aircraft, Serial Number 6002, first flew in February 2010 and had accumulated 425 hours of flight-test time as of March 31, Gulfstream said. The combined flight-test fleet had accumu- lated 1,570 flight hours. According to a preliminary report issued April 7 by the National Transpor- tation Safety Board (NTSB), the aircraft was performing a takeoff with a simu- lated engine failure to determine takeoff distance requirements at minimum flap setting. The crash occurred at 0934 mountain daylight time at Roswell, N.M., International Air Center (ROW). “Wingtip scrape marks beginning on the runway approximately 5,300 feet from the end of the runway lead toward the final resting spot about 3,800 feet from the first marks on the runway,” NTSB said. “Witnesses close to the scene saw the airplane sliding on the ground with sparks and smoke coming from the bottom of the wing, and described the airplane being fully involved in fire while still moving across the ground. The airplane struck several obstructions and came to rest upright about 200 feet from the base of the airport control tower.” Gulfstream identified the four employ- ees who were aboard the aircraft April 3. Killed were experimental test pilots Kent Crenshaw, 64, and Vivan Ragusa, 51, and technical specialists David McCollum, 47, and Reece Ollenburg, 48. “We mourn the loss of our colleagues and friends and extend our deepest sympathies to their families,” said Gulf- stream President Joe Lombardo. “The Gulfstream team has already rallied to support the people these men left behind, and we know that the local and aviation communities will do the same.” The ultra-long-range, large cabin G650, Gulfstream’s newest jet, first flew on Nov. 25, 2009. Gulfstream said the

aircraft was on track for certification this year, with entry into service in 2012. In a statement issued April 4, Jay L. Johnson, chairman and CEO of Gulf- stream parent company General Dynam- ics, said, “I am confident that as Gulf- stream assists aviation authorities in the accident investigation, the cause of this terrible tragedy will be determined. We

look forward to continuing the rigorous testing required to achieve flight certifica- tion of the aircraft.”

Eclipse Avio FMS Eclipse Aerospace, Inc., March 30 said FAA has issued a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) for the Avio Integrated Flight Management System (IFMS) of

(STC) for the Avio Integrated Flight Management System (IFMS) of www.avionicstoday.com May 2011 Avionics Magazine 9

www.avionicstoday.com

(STC) for the Avio Integrated Flight Management System (IFMS) of www.avionicstoday.com May 2011 Avionics Magazine 9

May 2011 Avionics Magazine

9

industry scan

the Eclipse twin-engine light jet. The IFMS system was developed for the twinjet by Innovative Solutions & Support (IS&S), of Exton, Pa., and is offered by Eclipse Aerospace as part of its “Total Eclipse” package. “Orders for Total Eclipse jets com- plete with the new Avio IFMS are now being taken with delivery time averaging 60 days,” stated Mason Holland, Eclipse Aerospace CEO. The IFMS system incorporates dual WAAS/SBAS Beta-3 GPS receivers, supporting dynamically calculated top of decent guidance and coupled LPV approaches. Flight management data is presented on a 15-inch, high-resolution multifunction display. Data entry is per- formed through integrated bezel pushbut- tons and encoders as well as an externally mounted keyboard, IS&S said. “The Avio IFMS avionics suite is one of the most advanced cockpits available on any aircraft,” said Roman Ptakowski, IS&S president. “The 13 microprocessors in the IS&S displays control all major air- craft systems. Improvements to e-Chart, mapping and satellite weather functional- ity along with FMS precision navigation give the Eclipse Twin-Engine Jet unri- valed performance.”

Honeywell, Aspen MFD Honeywell and Aspen Avionics, Albu- querque, N.M., said they are collaborat- ing to produce a “NextGen-ready” mul- tifunction touchscreen cockpit display for general aviation. The companies have completed a development agreement to bring Honeywell’s Bendix/King KSN 770 multifunction display to the market before the end of 2011. The Bendix/King KSN 770, part of the company’s Apex Edge series, is a 5.7 inch touchscreen display with GPS, com- munication and navigation capabilities. Based on a scalable system architecture and interfaces to most general aviation aircraft, it will be integrated with Aspen’s Evolution Flight Display system. The KSN 770 will have Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) and Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) capabilities. It also will display weather radar, Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS), data link weather, traffic information and charts and maps. “Honeywell and Aspen are deliver- ing a level of technical innovation and

ergonomic functionality previously only available to business jet customers,” said John Uczekaj, Aspen Avionics president and CEO. “The product’s interoperabil- ity, expandable architecture and flexible interface offer a clear alternative to exist- ing systems.”

Goodrich Acquisition Goodrich Corp. has signed an agreement to acquire flight-control actuation sup- plier Microtecnica S.r.l., based in Turin, Italy, for $462 million. The agreement, expected to close in the second quarter, was concluded with SSCP Aero Holdings S.C.A., a company backed by the European private equity firm Stirling Square Capital Partners. The latter firm acquired Microtecnica from Hamilton Sundstrand via management buyout in 2008. Microtecnica supplies flight control actuation systems and components for helicopters, regional and business aircraft and missiles, as well as aircraft thermal and environmental control systems. The company employs 700 people at facili- ties in Turin, Luserna San Giovanni and Brugherio, Italy, and Bristol, U.K. Sales this year are expected to be $220 million. Microtecnica will become part of the Goodrich Actuation Systems business. “This acquisition supports our busi- ness model and fits with our strategy by increasing Goodrich’s exposure to three growth markets: commercial and military helicopters, commercial regional, busi- ness and general aviation aircraft and missile actuation,” said Marshall Larsen, Goodrich chairman, president and CEO.

said Marshall Larsen, Goodrich chairman, president and CEO. CoMMerCiAl Smoke Warning The National Transportation Safety

CoMMerCiAl

Smoke Warning The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) was investigating the cause of an apparent electrical incident April 4 aboard a United Airlines Airbus A320, leading to the emergency evacua- tion of 109 passengers and crew. United Airlines Flight 497 left Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport around 7:25 a.m. CDT and returned 20 minutes later, “due to electri- cal difficulties and smoke in the cock- pit,” according to an NTSB advisory issued that day. Upon landing, the crew described a loss of anti-skid braking and nose-wheel steering and exited the run-

10 Avionics Magazine May 2011

steering and exited the run- 10 Avionics Magazine May 2011 www.avionicstoday.com way 2,000 feet from the

www.avionicstoday.com

way 2,000 feet from the approach thresh- old, NTSB said. The safety board issued an investiga- tion update April 7. In interviews, “the crew indicated that, at about 4,000 feet, the airplane’s electronic centralized aircraft monitoring (ECAM) system provided an autothrottle-related message, then an avionics smoke warning message, accompanied by instructions to land. Despite receiving this message, neither crew member recalled smelling smoke or fumes during the flight.” The captain used the electronic check- list for the avionics smoke warning indica- tion, which included shutting down some of the aircraft’s electrical system. The first officer’s display screens went blank, the ECAM messages disappeared, the cock- pit to cabin intercom stopped functioning and the air-driven emergency generator deployed. The captain was able to use the air- speed, altimeter and attitude indicators on his primary flight display during the return to the airport. After landing, the aircraft’s forward right slide did not properly inflate during the emergency evacuation. Investigators later found the aspirator that inflates the slide partially blocked, NTSB said. The cockpit voice recorder captured about 7 minutes and 30 seconds of the flight, NTSB said. The flight data record- er contained 25 hours of data and cap- tured about 18 minutes of data relevant to the flight. Both the CVR and FDR stopped recording prior to landing. Airbus technical advisors and the French Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses were taking part in the investigation with other parties, NTSB said.

747-8 intercontinental The Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental completed its first flight March 20, departing Paine Field in Everett, Wash., for a four-hour, 25 minutes flight, landing at Boeing Field in Seattle. The first flight of the newest member of the 747 family marked the beginning of a 600-hour flight test program. The aircraft reached a cruising altitude of 19,000 feet and speed of 250 knots. Boeing says the 747-8 Intercontinental will have the lowest seat-mile cost of any large airliner, with 12 percent lower costs than its predecessor, the 747-400. The aircraft provides 16 percent better fuel economy, 16 percent less carbon emis-

sions per passenger and generates a 30 percent smaller noise footprint than the

747-400.

The 747-8 Intercontinental applies interior features of the 787 Dreamliner, including a new curved, upswept architec- ture, providing a greater feeling of space and comfort, while adding more room for personal belongings, Boeing said. First delivery of the 747-8 Interconti- nental is scheduled for the fourth quarter this year. Thirty-three aircraft have been ordered by launch customer Lufthansa as well as Korean Air and VIP customers. Air China has agreed to order five 747-8s, pending government approval.

LiveTV Agreement JetBlue Airways subsidiary LiveTV signed a letter of intent with Continen- tal Airlines in March to provide ViaSat Ka-band service for live television and in-flight Internet access. LiveTV said it expects to install the new service on Continental’s fleet of 200 Boeing 737s and 757s beginning in 2012. The first Continental aircraft is expected to launch the service following JetBlue’s introduction of the ViaSat-1 broadband network for the first time in commercial aviation, also in 2012. ViaSat and JetBlue signed an agreement in Sep- tember 2010 for the provision of in-flight broadband access and other services on JetBlue’s fleet of 160 aircraft.

As planned, the Continental instal- lation would provide passengers with 95 channels of live television programming and airborne Internet access provided by ViaSat.

Canadian North 737 The Esterline CMC Electronics ‘Integ- riFlight’ GPS landing system has been certified for GPS Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) approach operations on a Boeing 737-300 operated by Canadian North Airlines. CMC Electronics said the stand- alone, “ILS look-alike” system involves installation of dual CMA-5024 WAAS GPS receivers in conjunction with dual CMA-5025 control panels, providing “a highly economic approach” to retrofitting aircraft with LPV capability. Logic-Air Aviation Services of Mira- bel was responsible for development and installation of the system and holds the Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) issued by ACS-NAI, a Transport Canada approved Design Approval Organization. ACS-NAI,based in Winnipeg, provided engineering and certification support, including STC data and documentation. The CMA-5025 control panel was designed and produced by Air Data Inc., of Montreal in partnership with CMC. “The addition of LPV capability to our aircraft permits us to provide signifi- cantly improved schedule reliability for

our scheduled and charter clients, given the absence of traditional ground-based approach aids at many of the remote Canadian destinations we serve,” stated Chris Drossos, Canadian North 737-300 project pilot.

SJU Board Chairman Matthias Ruete, director general of the European Commission’s Mobility and Transport Directorate-General, was appointed chairman of the SESAR Joint Undertaking (SJU) Administrative Board. The SJU is the public-private partner- ship formed in 2007 to manage the Devel- opment phase of the Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program. Eurocontrol and the European Commis- sion are founding members. Ruete succeeds Daniel Calleja Crespo, who had chaired the SESAR JU govern- ing body since its establishment in 2007. Bo Redeborn, principal director ATM at Eurocontrol, remains deputy chairman of the board. Matthew Baldwin, recently appointed director of the EC’s Air Trans- port Directorate, has been designated as Ruete’s alternate. “Daniel Calleja has been an outstand- ing chairman of the SESAR JU’s Admin- istrative Board. As much as we regret to see him leave, we’re also looking forward to working closely together with Mr. Ruete in the future. I am fully confident

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May 2011 Avionics Magazine

11

industry scan

that our cooperation will be as success- ful in this next, very decisive phase of the SESAR work program,” stated Patrick Ky, SESAR JU executive director.

Onboard Surveillance The Lufthansa Technik Innovation busi- ness unit introduced the “aerosight” on-

board camera surveillance system at the Aircraft Interiors Expo 2011 exhibition in Hamburg, Germany. The company said aerosight is an Internet Protocol (IP) based camera sys- tem with an integrated local area network (LAN) connection that can be connected

to pilots’ electronic flight bags (EFBs)

and other network-capable displays or laptops. The system does not require any additional routers, control units or dis- plays in the cockpit. The system uses EFBs to display the camera images and can simultaneously control up to 16 cameras located by the cockpit entrance, in the passenger cabin and in the cargo bay. It switches automat- ically between a color visual display for daytime viewing and an infrared-based night vision mode. Lufthansa Technik said it developed aerosight for an undisclosed commercial airline and has started installing the sys- tem in the customer aircraft.

started installing the sys- tem in the customer aircraft. MILITARY F-35 Flight Tests Lockheed Martin reported

MILITARY

F-35 Flight Tests Lockheed Martin reported “considerable

flight test progress” of the F-35 Lightning

II during the first quarter 2011, with the

program conducting 199 test flights ver- sus a plan of 142 flights. The test program remained ahead of plan despite the grounding of some test fleet aircraft for four to 15 days as offi- cials investigated the cause of a dual gen- erator/starter failure that occurred during a flight March 9. Each of the three F-35 variants – con- ventional takeoff and landing (CTOL), carrier and short takeoff/vertical landing (VTOL) – exceeded planned test flights. The STOVL variant performed 61 verti- cal landings compared with 10 vertical

landings during 2010. Two production-model aircraft, des- ignated AF-6 and AF-7, flew for the first time in preparation for delivery to the U.S. Air Force this year. From the start of flight testing in December 2006 through March 31 this

year, F-35s had flown 753 times, includ- ing production-model flights, Lockheed Martin said April 4.

Maintenance Terminals General Dynamics Information Technol- ogy was awarded a contract from the U.S. Air Force, initially for $3 million, to pro- vide ruggedized laptops in support of the F-22A Integrated Maintenance Informa- tion System (IMIS) program. The three-year, indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity contract potentially is worth $23 million if all options are exer- cised, General Dynamics said. The company will purchase, deliver and integrate ruggedized laptops that will be used as Portable Maintenance Aids with F-22As. The mobile computing devices are used for technical data dis- plays, diagnostic fault isolation, material management, maintenance documenta- tion, health monitoring, prognostics and upload/download of operational data. General Dynamics will install each laptop with required software, perform functionality tests and integrate required systems in support of the IMIS program. In addition, the company will main- tain an inventory control database to track equipment shipping and returns and maintain detailed records, to include warranty information. The majority of work will be per- formed in Bossier City, La., supporting seven Air Force bases: Tyndall AFB, Fla.; Langley AFB, Va.; Elmendorf AFB, Alaska; Hickam AFB, Hawaii; Sheppard AFB, Texas; and Nellis AFB, Nev.

Hellfire II Romeo The U.S. Army Joint Attack Munition Systems (JAMS) Project Office and Lockheed Martin March 28 announced the successful firing of an AGM114R

Hellfire II missile with a live warhead in a sixth proof-of-principle test. The flight test at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., demonstrated the missile’s enhanced software capability and performance in

a “military-operations-in-urban-terrain”

scenario. The multipurpose warhead design enables the missile, with a designa- tor spot laser, to seek out and defeat hard, soft and enclosed targets. The initial fielding of the Hellfire II Romeo version

is scheduled for late 2012.

The Romeo version combines capabili- ties of four previous Hellfire II variants into one multipurpose missile, accord- ing to Ken Musculus, Lockheed Martin

12 Avionics Magazine May 2011

Musculus, Lockheed Martin 12 Avionics Magazine May 2011 www.avionicstoday.com director of Air-to-Ground Missile Sys-

www.avionicstoday.com

director of Air-to-Ground Missile Sys- tems. New design features include a three- axis inertial measurement unit, which enables properly equipped launch plat- forms to engage targets to the side and behind them without having to maneuver the aircraft into position. The missile can be launched from high or low altitudes due to its enhanced guidance system and improved naviga- tion capabilities, optimizing the missile’s impact angle for enhanced lethality, Lockheed Martin said. The Hellfire II Romeo version inte- grates with all Hellfire II-compatible platforms, including the Apache, Kiowa Warrior, Cobra, Seahawk and Tiger helicopters, and can be launched autono- mously or with remote designation.

T/R Module Standard Northrop Grumman said it has set a new standard for its gallium nitride-based high-power transmit/receive (T/R) mod- ules, reliably operating them for more than 180 days during continuous high- power testing. The tests prove that the next gen- eration of active electronically scanned arrays (AESA) is capable of reliable oper- ation while producing much greater radar sensitivity, at higher efficiency and lower cost, Northrop Grumman said April 12. In an evaluation conducted by the company’s Advanced Concepts and Tech- nology Division, the T/R modules were tested by using high-stressing operational long-pulse waveforms, which operated on the modules nonstop for six months. The waveforms were designed to simulate elec- tronic activities of actual radar functions in a relevant environment. “By successfully employing the latest advances in high-power semiconduc- tor technology in a functioning T/R module, we have demonstrated the great performance and reliability of our design approach,” said Steve McCoy, vice presi- dent of the Advanced Concepts unit. “This new level of maturity also sup-

ports technology readiness for the next generation of Northrop Grumman’s high performance, low-cost AESA radars, and opportunities for cost reduction and per- formance upgrades to our current AESA product line,” he said.

Elbit Acquisition Elbit Systems Ltd., on March 30 said it completed the acquisition of remaining shares of Elisra Electronic Systems held

by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) sub- sidiary Elta Systems. Elisra, a supplier of electronic warfare solutions based in Bene Beraq, Israel, now is a wholly owned sub- sidiary of Elbit Systems. Elbit announced in late February that it had reached agreement to acquire the remaining 30 percent of Elisra shares held by IAI Elta for $67.5 million. Elbit already owned 70 percent of Elisra. Component units of Elisra include Tadiran Electronic Systems Ltd., and Tadiran Spectralink Ltd.

Electronic Systems Ltd., and Tadiran Spectralink Ltd. UNMANNED SYSTEMS Global Observer ‘Mishap’ AeroVironment

UNMANNED SYSTEMS

Global Observer ‘Mishap’ AeroVironment said its Global Observer high-altitude, long-endurance unmanned aircraft system (UAS) experienced a “mishap” April 1 while undergoing flight- test envelope expansion at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. The company reported no injuries or property damage. An investigation board will be con- vened to determine the cause of the mis- hap, which was not described in detail. The first of two aircraft developed under a Joint Capability Technology Demonstration was performing its ninth test flight. The mishap occurred at 2:30 a.m. PDT, about 18 hours into the flight, AeroVironment said. The hybrid-electric powered aircraft first flew Aug. 5, 2010. Following the completion of an initial flight-test phase in October, AeroVironment said its pro- gram team installed a hydrogen-fueled generator and liquid hydrogen fuel tanks. The Global Observer is designed for “stratospheric, persistent” surveillance, flying at an altitude of 55,000 to 65,000 feet for 5 to 7 days. Communications and sensor payloads on the aircraft will cover an area up to 600 miles in diameter, equivalent to more than 280,000 square miles, AeroVironment said. “Flight testing an innovative new solution like Global Observer involves pushing the frontiers of technology and convention,” said Tim Conver, AeroVi- ronment chairman and CEO. “Risk is a component of every flight-test program, and the learning that results from a mis- hap enables us to improve system reliabil- ity and performance.” AeroVironment, Monrovia, Calif., in September 2007 was awarded a con- tract to develop and demonstrate Global Observer as a JCTD program. Six U.S.

government agencies have provided $140 million in funding for the program.

UAS Training Center L-3 Link Simulation & Training, based in Arlington, Texas, and the University of North Dakota have signed agreements to jointly establish an unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) training center at Grand Forks Air Force Base, N.D. The UAS Training Center, expected to

begin operations in June, will offer MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper training opportunities to UND students pursuing

a bachelor’s degree in aeronautics with

a major in unmanned aircraft systems

operations. The training center also is

expected to provide UAS pilot and sen- sors training to U.S. government agencies. L-3 Link will supply the training cen- ter’s high-fidelity simulator and logistics support as well as sensor operator course development and training. The Predator and Reaper training system integrates ground control station hardware, simulation software and high- fidelity, correlated databases in creating

a fully immersive training environment.

Unmanned aircraft and sensor perfor- mance are modeled to support complex, real-world mission scenarios. Simulation scenarios including “a robust urban environment” will be inte- grated with visualizations of moving vehicles and people, accurate terrain and various weather conditions. “L-3 Link is very proud to partner with the University of North Dakota in establishing the first non-military UAS educational institution in the U.S. to pro- vide Predator and Reaper aircrew train- ing,” said L-3 Link President Leonard Genna.

Relative Navigation Northrop Grumman April 7 said its Rel- ative Navigation system exceeded accu- racy requirements during recent flight tests for the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) program. The objectives of the AAR program are to demonstrate critical technology to enable refueling of unmanned aircraft and develop tools to support airworthi- ness certification for integration with the existing Air Force tanker fleet. The Relative Navigation software, hosted in a Northrop Grumman LN-251 GPS/inertial navigation system (INS) was tested in a Learjet surrogate aircraft oper-

ating with a modified refueling tanker. The test also used a modified Rockwell Collins 24-channel GPS receiver with enhanced tracking integrated with the LN-251 chassis. A series of eight flight tests demon- strated the Relative Navigation software “produces consistent and predictable real- time accuracy performance across data link drops and varying time delays, close proximity and mid-range vehicle separa- tions,” Northrop Grumman said. The flight tests were conducted in collaboration with the Air Force Flight

Test Center’s Test Operations Combined

Test Force, the 190th Air Refueling Wing of the Kansas Air National Guard and Calspan Corp.

Indra ‘Pelican’ Indra, of Spain, said its Pelican rotary- wing unmanned aircraft system received a Special Airworthiness Certificate from the country’s State Aviation Safety Agency to perform integration, test and demonstration flights. The certificate is the first awarded

in Spain for a rotary-wing UAS, and “implies that the Pelican system complies with quality and security standards simi- lar to those of manned aircraft and that the operation is fully safe under the flight conditions defined” by the safety agency, Indra said April 11. Indra said the UAS is expected to enter service in 2012. Capable of carrying a variety of payloads up to 50 kilograms, the Pelican can fly more than six hours with electro- optical payload and is equipped with a gas or jet propellant 5 engine for naval purposes. The Pelican system is based on the APID60 platform, developed by CybAero, of Linköping, Sweden.

platform, developed by CybAero, of Linköping, Sweden. CONTRACTS ➤ Rockwell Collins signed a mainte- nance

CONTRACTS

Rockwell Collins signed a mainte-

nance agreement with L-3 Communica- tions to provide avionics support for the

U.S. Air Force MC-12W Project Liberty aircraft, a modified Super King Air 350 used for intelligence, surveillance and reconaissance. Rockwell Collins will maintain 37 MC-12Ws equipped with its Pro Line 21 integrated display system.

AeroVironment in April received a

$14.8 million order under an existing con- tract with the U.S. Army to supply digital

retrofit kits for the Raven UAS.

with the U.S. Army to supply digital retrofit kits for the Raven UAS. www.avionicstoday.com May 2011

www.avionicstoday.com

with the U.S. Army to supply digital retrofit kits for the Raven UAS. www.avionicstoday.com May 2011

May 2011 Avionics Magazine

13

people

Monte Belger Metron Aviation, of Dulles, Va., appointed Monte Belger vice president of Industry Relations. Belger most recently served as vice president of transportation system solutions for Lockheed Martin. Belger worked for more than 30 years for the FAA, last serving as the agency’s acting administrator. He previously held the title of acting deputy administrator

from 1997 to 2002. Belger also was associate administrator for Air Traffic Services, responsible for day-to-day operations of the nation’s airspace system, and supervised FAA’s modernization plan, including all major development and acquisition programs.

including all major development and acquisition programs. Monte Belger Tonka Hufford Aero Dynamix Inc., of Euless,

Monte Belger

Tonka Hufford Aero Dynamix Inc., of Euless, Texas, a developer of helicopter light modifications for night-vision goggle operations, named Tonka Hufford operations manager for project development. Hufford most recently was president of RSG Aviation. He has a background in aircraft completions, manufacturing, operations and marketing, with more than 20 years of aviation experience. He has held a variety of management positions in the industry, and served as vice president of operations for MD Helicopters just prior to joining RSG Aviation.

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ATA Appointments The Air Transport Association of America (ATA) named Ste- ven Lott as vice president, Communications. Lott joined the ATA from the International Air Transport Association (IATA), where he served as head of communica- tions for North America for the past four years. In that role, he helped establish a presence in the United States and particularly in Washington, D.C., for IATA, which represents 230 U.S. and international airlines. In this new role, Lott will help drive communications strat- egy and work closely with the ATA government affairs and policy teams to advocate for the airline industry in Washington and around the world. He will report to Jean Medina, who was named senior vice president of Communications in January. ATA also named Christopher C. Brown vice president of legislative and regulatory policy. Brown brings more than 15 years of experience in aviation policy and government affairs to his new position, where he will focus on outreach to key stake- holders to advance policy and legislative issues. Brown joined ATA from Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, where he was senior counsel of the Government and Regulatory Affairs Practice Group and served as senior congressional affairs advisor to the firm’s client, United Airlines. Prior to joining the firm of Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, Brown spent two years with the FAA, where he was assistant administrator and deputy assistant administrator for Govern- ment and Industry Affairs.

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Paul Jonas Wichita State University’s National Institute for Aviation Research hired Paul Jonas as director of Environmental Test Labs and Special Programs. Jonas, formerly of Hawker Beech- craft Corp., succeeds interim director John Laffen. As director of the Environmental Test Labs, Jonas oversees operations of the labs, which create simulated environments for the research and testing of equipment and components for aircraft, automotive, medical and other industries to determine their susceptibility to temperature, altitude, humidity, shock, vibration and environmental and electrical effects. The labs can test for compliance with FAA technical stan- dard orders using RTCA DO-160 certification and to military standards and specifications.

Col. Michael Williamson U.S. Army Col. Michael E. Williamson was named joint pro- gram executive officer of the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) executive office based in San Diego. He succeeds Acting JPEO Howard Pace, Jr. The JTRS program is developing a family of interoperable, modular, software-defined radios for handheld, ground mobile, airborne and maritime applications. As JPEO, Williamson will provide direction and guidance for the development, acquisition, testing, product improvement and fielding of JTRS capabilities. Prior to assuming his new role, Williamson served as deputy program manager, Program Executive Office, Integration. His

previous experience includes serving as the director of Systems Integration within the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology and as a Future Combat System project manager.

Cedric Gautier Cedric Gautier, president and CEO of EADS Group subsidiary EADS Sogerma, was named program manager of the A400M military transport, effective April 1. He succeeds Rafael Tentor, who becomes head of Airbus Military aircraft programs. Gautier will oversee the A400M through certification, deliv- ery and entry into service with launch customers. Airbus Military plans to produce 2.5 aircraft per month by the end of 2015. The company in March said it had received orders for 174 aircraft from eight customers.

John DiStasio Crane Aerospace & Electronics, Beverly, Mass., announced the appointment of John P. DiStasio as senior director of business development for Microwave Solutions for the company’s Elec- tronics Group. He will lead the business development team at sites including Beverly, Chandler, Ariz., West Caldwell, N.J., and San Jose, Costa Rica. DiStasio joined Crane from Cobham-M/A-COM Inc., where he was director of field sales. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from Northeastern University. Microwave Solutions provides RF and microwave products for radar, electronic warfare, missiles and other systems.

for radar, electronic warfare, missiles and other systems. www.avionicstoday.com May 2011 Avionics Magazine 15
for radar, electronic warfare, missiles and other systems. www.avionicstoday.com May 2011 Avionics Magazine 15
calendar
calendar
May Unmanned Systems North America, Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, D.C. Visit www.auvsi.org. 2-5
May
Unmanned Systems North America, Walter E. Washington Convention
Center, Washington, D.C. Visit www.auvsi.org.
2-5 16th Annual International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Wright
State University and Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. Visit
www.wright.edu/isap.
16-21 MAKS 2011 International Aviation & Space Salon, Zhukovsky,
Moscow Region, Russia. Visit www.aviasalon.com.
September
10-12 Integrated Communications Navigation and Surveillance (ICNS)
Conference,Westin Washington Dulles Airport, Dulles,Va. Visit http://i-cns.org.
17-19 European Business Aviation Convention and Exhibition (EBACE),
Geneva PALEXPO and Geneva International Airport, Geneva, Switzerland.
Visit www.ebace.aero.
11-15 Airline Passenger Experience Association (APEX) Conference &
Exhibition, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle. Visit http://apex.aero.
12-15 Autotestcon 2011, Baltimore Convention Center, Baltimore.
Visit http://autotestcon.com.
17-19 Air Traffic Control Association/FAA/NASA Technical Symposium,
Resorts Hotel and Casino, Atlantic City, N.J. For information, contact ATCA at
703-299-2430 or visit www.atca.org/techsymposium.
October
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3-5 Air Traffic Control Association (ATCA) Annual Conference &
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Md. Contact ATCA, phone 703-299-2430 or visit www.atca.org.
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10-12 National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) Annual Meeting &
Convention, Las Vegas. Contact NBAA, phone 202-783-9000 or visit
www.nbaa.com.
20-26 Paris Air Show, Le Bourget, Paris. Visit www.paris-air-show.com.
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July
phone 703-841-4300 or visit www.ausa.org.
20-23 Airborne Law Enforcement Association (ALEA) Annual Conference
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Industry

Graphic courtesy SESAR JU
Graphic courtesy SESAR JU

European Iris program, depicted above, by 2020 will support air-traffic management through air-ground datalink communications.

Wheels Up For SESAR

With 29 validation projects planned this year, the Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program strives for timely, tangible results

By George Marsh

I n Europe, the future shape of air-

traffic management (ATM) is becom-

ing visible today. All over the extended

continent, aircraft operators are seeing

temporal, financial and environmental

benefits from trials of controlled descent approaches, 4D trajectories, datalink communications, precision navigation, enhanced surveillance and other new pro-

cedures and technologies.

This progress is a result of Europe’s Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program and shows that, to coin a phrase, SESAR is now airborne and climbing. After a four-year Defini- tion phase during which a Master Plan was created, the program’s Development phase commenced in 2009 and is well under way. Officials of the SESAR Joint Under- taking (SJU), the public/private part- nership that is managing this second of three phases, are clear that SESAR, one

18 Avionics Magazine May 2011

are clear that SESAR, one 18 Avionics Magazine May 2011 www.avionicstoday.com of Europe’s most ambitious research

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of Europe’s most ambitious research and development programs, is yielding tangible results. A basketful of benefits will, they say, become available to aviation stakeholders from now on and particu- larly during the program’s third and final phase, Implementation, which will suc- ceed the Development phase from 2016. The Development phase is the techno- logical and operational pillar of SESAR, intended to carry out all further R&D activity required to field an ATM system worthy of the 21st century. A collabora-

tive partnership was formed to lead it in order to achieve maximum “buy-in” from stakeholders, including the various Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs), aircraft operators, aircraft manufactur- ers, the military, government agencies and supplier companies. The SJU is coordinating nearly 300 projects within 16 work packages that form the overall R&D commitment. According to Peter Hotham, SJU chief of Technology and Innovation, 85 percent of the work has been allocated to organiza- tions best equipped to carry it out. As a result, some 2,050 experts were working on the program at this writing, a num- ber expected to rise. Of 110 companies involved, several are based in the United States, including Boeing, Lockheed Mar- tin, Honeywell, ACSS and Rockwell Col- lins. The entire R&D effort is being under-

taken in close collaboration with FAA to ensure interoperability with the equivalent NextGen program in the United States. Much of the present SESAR phase is concerned with validating a new concept of operations (ConOps) that will under- pin European ATM transformation. This concept, formulated as part of the earlier Definition phase, requires progress in three key areas:

1. A move to time-based operations,

largely realizable with current technology, along with better communication between ground and airborne equipment.

2. Introduction of trajectory-based

operations based on aircraft trajectories in four dimensions (three spatial plus time). These would extend gate to gate.

3. Implementation of an “intranet of

the air,” an over-arching communications layer enabling all parties in the air and on the ground to share ATM data. This System Wide Information Management (SWIM) system will enable wide situ- ational awareness. Michael Standar, SJU chief of Air Traffic Management, says a combination of these approaches will bring early bene- fits to air transport. He notes in particular that delivery of the 4D trajectory and the ability of all aviation stakeholders to share relevant information are crucial. Patrick Ky, SJU executive director, emphasizes the importance of early ben- efits, pointing out that there is “low hang- ing fruit” that can be harvested, much of it through the use of existing equipment. Early achievements will, Ky argues, sharp- en stakeholders’ desire for further ATM improvements and hence their willing- ness to make the necessary investments in

equipment, operations and training. “SESAR has been, is and always will be about delivering results that can be implemented easily,” Ky stated. “By the end of 2011 we will have the first program deliverables validated in an operational environment, with benefits for airlines, controllers, passengers and the environment.”

Release 2011 This first set of deliverables, dubbed SESAR Release 2011 and previewed at

the ATC Global conference in Amster- dam in March, will provide early value for stakeholders. Through simulations, pro- totyping and shadow mode or live flight trials, SESAR participants will perform 29 validation exercises across Europe. A number have already taken place. One notable achievement, for instance, concerns an airborne safety net feature that Airbus has developed but required both validation and a justifying busi- ness case. Essentially, the new capability

is the automation of avoidance actions

following TCAS resolution advisories whereby the avoidance maneuver is flown automatically rather than by the pilot. This addresses those situations in which pilots have ignored advisories because

they thought they conflicted with ATC instructions or for other reasons, or have reacted too late. A team led by French air navigation services provider DSNA and

including experts from Airbus, consul- tancy Egis Avia, Eurocontrol and NATS in the United Kingdom has conducted the validation and is working on business case

development. Another deliverable will be a fully validated “remote tower” concept under which small local airports can be moni- tored remotely and their traffic controlled

from a single, larger air-traffic control cen- ter, avoiding the need to provide and man

a control facility at each airport. SESAR

member NORACON, a consortium of eight ANSPs, performs ATC services at Angelholm Airport, Sweden, from a remote site with a remote tower prototype. This is being used to demonstrate the practicality of the Distant Aerodrome Control Service. NATS is carrying out new approach procedures at Southampton Airport, U.K., using satellite technology. The aim

is to reduce the number of disruptions due

to poor weather, to make approach opera- tions more cost effective and to enhance safety overall. Yet another task for Release 2011 is the

verification of Controlled Time of Arrival procedures in support of initial 4D capa- bilities. Prototype datalink and other equipment will allow air-traffic controllers and pilots to share the same information. Eurocontrol, LFV of Sweden and Airbus are using flight trials to validate the pro- cedures. Commenting on achievements planned for this year, SJU’s Hotham says, “The scope of these validation activities covers the provision of test tools and equip- ment prototypes so that we get as close to the market with these developments as possible. Release 2011 will undoubtedly provide a valuable set of capabilities, some of which will be fully industrialized and ready to deploy.” By 2012, about halfway through the Development phase, the SJU intends to have met a number of concrete targets, including the performance of 10,000 flights, 500 of them military; the establish- ment of SWIM on a pilot basis; initial 4D trajectory verification; testing of 80

percent of SESAR projects in a real-life environment; and operation of the first remote control towers. Data exchange will continue to be developed to improve coordination between flight profiles and movements of aircraft on the ground. Activities at air- ports will contribute to improved surface management and runway utilization. In terminal airspaces, there will be a focus on advanced Continuous Descent Approach- es and Continuous Climb Departures, aimed at further ATM efficiency increases and reduced environmental impact. Such actions will demonstrate that SESAR is no “pie in the sky” concept and that Europe is on the way to converting its ATM vision into reality. One good omen for stakeholder acceptance of the ATM revolution now under way is the widespread interest being

shown in trials currently in progress under the Atlantic Interoperability Initiative to Reduce Emissions (AIRE). This series of flight trials and demonstrations, aimed at reducing CO2 emissions for surface, terminal and oceanic flight operations, is managed by the SJU for Europe in collaboration with FAA for the United States. In 2009 some 1,150 “green” flights were undertaken, and so promising were the results that the program recently has

been expanded. In particular, the SJU has selected 18 projects involving 40 airline, airport, ANSP and industry partners. These partners will collaborate on operations between city pairs as well

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partners will collaborate on operations between city pairs as well www.avionicstoday.com May 2011 Avionics Magazine 19

May 2011 Avionics Magazine

19

Photo courtesy SESAR JU
Photo courtesy SESAR JU

Patrick Ky, SESAR JU executive director, emphasizes importance of early benefits.

as transatlantic and, to this end, new partners have come on board from such additional locations as Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Canada, Morocco, the Netherlands, the U.K. and Switzerland. Ky emphasizes the benefits of the highly collaborative approach being taken. “AIRE 2 will demonstrate that green flight operations can be applied everywhere immediately when partners agree to work together with a common goal,” he said. “This is not the future, this is SESAR’s reality.” Several transatlantic green flights are to be operated by the Airbus A380 super- jumbo. Seven projects involve integrated gate-to-gate operations, a number of these being supported by FAA and NAV Cana- da as well as European partners. Some validation projects are being conducted in Europe’s most congested airspaces and at the busiest airports. For example, improvements in terminal operations are the focus of trials involving Lufthansa and Germanwings arrivals at Dusseldorf and Cologne, an area of par- ticularly dense traffic. Certain projects will focus on vertical and speed optimization, while partners who have already partici- pated during the last couple of years will expand on results achieved by bringing green procedures into routine use. AIRE is also building the first blocks of the SESAR ConOps by testing 4D trajectory- based operations and SESAR’s concept of performance-based navigation. Four enroute/oceanic projects cover

five new locations (Portugal, Canada, Morocco, the U.K. and U.S.) and aim, inter alia, to offer shortened flight paths for heavy long-range aircraft crossing the flight information regions of Lisbon and Casablanca. A “Greener airports opera- tions under adverse conditions” project taking place in France is studying situa- tions caused by bad weather or other fac- tors constraining runway use.

Airport Capacity Clearly, improving airspace capacity is of little use if airport capacity remains a choke point. That is why, in 2009, opera- tors of six of Europe’s most capacity- constrained airports came together in a consortium to develop procedures aimed at expanding airport capacity while also reducing emissions and noise. The six participants in the SESAR European Airports Consortium (SEAC) — Aeroports de Paris, Schiphol Ned- erland BV, BAA Ltd. (UK), Flughafen Munchen GmbH (Germany), Flughafen Zurich AG and Fraport AG (Switzer- land) — also provide representation for Europe’s many smaller airports (the continent has some 1,500 airports) via a dialogue with Europe’s Airports Council International and through the consor- tium’s own membership in the SJU. Addi- tionally, there is close collaboration with the NORACON consortium (Norway and Sweden) and with AENA in Spain. SEAC is devising procedural improve- ments within SESAR Work Package 6, Airport Operations, and considering how

20 Avionics Magazine May 2011

and considering how 20 Avionics Magazine May 2011 www.avionicstoday.com to improve airport infrastructures. In

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to improve airport infrastructures. In

terms of the latter, all players realize that simply adding new runways, even where this is not ruled out on grounds of finance

or public objections, is not the whole

answer and recognize that facilitating traf- fic movements on the airport surface will

be an important contributor. SEAC is also

working to integrate new airport proce- dures with AIRE gate-to-gate initiatives. Enabling airports to collaborate

more closely with each other will require improved communications between them.

A broadband system, which will integrate

with the SWIM intranet, will be based on L-band line-of-sight terrestrial communi-

cations and on satellite communications. Whether the latter is via a dedicated or commercial satellite constellation has yet

to be decided.

As an example of the industrial involvement that is central to SESAR, a team led by Spain’s Indra is developing a microwave-based airport surface datalink,

a prototype of which is expected to be ready by the end of this year (Work Pack- age 15.2.7). Improved communications and shared traffic awareness will enable airports to operate more collaboratively and engage

in Airport Collaborative Decision Mak-

ing (A-CDM). Over the last two years, the A-CDM program has made great progress, with more than 20 airports so far actively implementing it. By the end of

this year, 10 of those airports are expected

to have completed the implementation.

Further roll-out of the program will con- tinue with ACI Europe, Eurocontrol and the Civil Air Navigation Services Organi- zation (CANSO) all actively encouraging new participants. As Eurocontrol Director Gen- eral David McMillan has commented, “A-CDM is a fine illustration of the way performance improvements can often be achieved without major capital expen- diture. But it depends on partnership

— working together — and is based on

an integrated approach with information being shared across different players. It emphasizes the network nature of ATM where an apparently local decision can have implications right across Europe. And of course it is focused on airports, which are right at the heart of the need to increase capacity.”

Eurocontrol, the pan-European air traffic control authority which led the SESAR Definition phase, may, with the present phase, have ceded SESAR leader- ship to the SJU, but it remains pivotal, not least as a key member of the SJU. It

is actively leading a number of the work packages while also participating in oth- ers. One area of focus, for instance, is information management (WP 8) and information architecture (WP 14). Accordingly, Eurocontrol is involved in designing SWIM and other informa- tion sharing technologies such as the Pan- European Network Service (PENS). It is helping to refine target concept elements through work packages for En-Route, Approach and Terminal operations, (WPs 4,5 and 10); airport ATC (WPs 6 and 12); and network information management (WP 13). It leads R&D transversal activi- ties (such aspects as safety, security and environment, WP 16) and Master Plan Maintenance (WP C) as the plan evolves in line with SESAR progress. Eurocontrol is actively involved with new communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) technologies, both on the aircraft and in terms of non-avionic systems. Its purview includes 4D trajec- tory management functions, aircraft sepa- ration assurance, approach functionalities and surface movement operations. WP 9 activities embrace aircraft systems sup- porting initial 4D trajectory operations — air traffic situational awareness (ATSAW), airborne separation assistance system

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(ASAS), sequencing and merging — and eventual full 4D with self-separation and free routing. It is contributing to develop- ment of the future GNSS-based naviga- tion infrastructure and enhancement of ground surveillance systems in support of Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Broadcast (ADS-B). Crucial to all these activities and central to the SESAR philosophy is the conviction that evolution must be led by performance requirements rather than, as seems to have happened in the past, by technology. Part of the function of SESAR is to select technologies that best meet carefully researched and formulated performance requirements.

A small team based at the Eurocon-

trol Experimental Center in Bretigny, France, is managing long-term, innovative research under WP E. Supported by the SESAR Scientific Committee, it marshals research networks of academic and indus- trial players to explore new ideas for the long term and potentially useful innova-

tions that might be of benefit in the short term. Forward-looking project themes range from higher levels of ATM automa- tion to mastering complex systems safely.

A noteworthy member of the Scien-

tific Committee that supports the team

is Frank de Winne, a European Space Agency astronaut who was the first Euro- pean to have a spell in command of the International Space Station. He supports the SJU in defining research themes and is particularly interested in finding simple solutions for complex situations.

On schedule? Will the 2016 target date for comple- tion of the SESAR Development phase be met? Our soundings suggest that, although there have been delays in the program and the air transport recession has reduced its apparent urgency, the date could still be met — just. Paul Ravenhill, technical director at

Helios, an ATM consultancy in the U.K., argues that now all research activities are being well coordinated, there is strong and focused momentum so that results will come faster than hitherto. Ravenhill points out the need for ATM improvement is still urgent, commenting, “SESAR was designed when air transport was booming. Currently, we are in a down cycle, but in a few years the industry may be on the up again and ATM limitations will once again threaten to constrain

growth. I know it’s hard for an industry that is hurting to take the message on

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board at the moment, but we need to invest for the future.” Ravenhill concedes that marshalling the funding needed to secure full ATM transformation in the next, Implemen- tation, phase will be a big challenge if present economic conditions persist. To overcome this, innovative financing mod- els may be needed. An example is the pro- posal recently made by an ITT-led team in the United States, for helping aircraft operators equip for NextGen. The general idea is that aircraft operators might be enabled to lease the necessary avionics initially, gaining full ownership through stage payments made as the FAA meets specified milestones for ATM improve- ment. Similar creative ideas are being dis- cussed for Europe also. Along with his role at Helios, whose consultancy services contribute to SESAR, Ravenhill leads the secretariat of the Industry Consultation Body (ICB), a forum through which industry players provide advice to the European Commis- sion on the legal framework for SESAR. “The ICB continues to do a sterling job,” he said. “Over the last couple of years it has formulated a series of views on the implementing rules that will be part of the new regulatory framework required for future performance-based ATM.” This makes the point that, in a large pan-European venture like ATM renewal, agreed rules within an overall body of leg- islation are as vital as technological and operational improvements in ensuring a satisfactory outcome. Helios is also help- ing ANSPs move away from an airspace model predicated on national boundaries, along with multiple air-traffic control centers, to a more rational infrastructure of cross-national Functional Airspace Blocks (FABs) and eventually fewer cen- ters. FABs are central to the Single Euro- pean Sky legislation and go hand-in-hand with SESAR by providing bigger blocks of airspace in which the new technologies can work. Realizing early benefits, as much as possible with existing equipment, is vital but it is inescapable that SESAR can- not fully deliver on its promise without major investment in avionics. Airbus, for instance, does not see the full benefits being delivered until around 2025 when a new generation of “smart” aircraft will be replacing today’s wide and narrow bodies, and ground facilities should have evolved to match. Before that time, there will need to be considerable retrofit to enable existing aircraft to thrive in the new ATM

environment. Airbus recently formed a subsidiary, ProSky, to develop ATM equipment and help move the SESAR project forward. European officials also desire faster progress. EU Transport Commissioner Siim Kallas, for one, wants a higher pri- ority accorded to the Single European Sky. Ulrich Schulte-Strathaus, secretary general of the Association of European Airlines, agreed when he told a high-level meeting that the present inefficient ATM

system is costing airlines $4.2 billion and that flying indirect routings creates 16 mil- lion tonnes of avoidable CO2 emissions. Perhaps the recent achievements of SESAR, culminating in the present-year release of validation projects, with anoth- er to follow in 2012, will help convince skeptics that real progress is being made, that SESAR is already delivering, and that given continued stakeholder commitment there is much more to come.

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military

Photo courtesy U.S. Army
Photo courtesy U.S. Army

A Quick Reaction Capability 1 Grey Eagle with Lynx 30 radar taxis before surveillance mission at Camp Taji north of Baghdad, Iraq

STARLite Vision

Small Tactical Radar-Lightweight (STARLite) gives warfighters high- resolution imagery from unmanned aircraft systems and aerostats

By Frank Colucci

M iniaturized Active Electronically-Scanned Array (AESA) radar gives the U.S. Army a wide- area, near-all-weather

surveillance sensor for the Grey Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) and the tethered aerostat Persistent Threat Detection System (PTDS). The Northrop Grumman STARLite was to deploy to Afghanistan aboard the PTDS in the first quarter of this year and will go to war on the Hellfire-armed Grey Eagle UAS in early 2012. Both platforms will downlink high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery and Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) data to United States joint- service and allied military forces.

“This is an interoperable radar,” explained Phil Owen, lead engineer for UAS payloads at the Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) at Redstone Arsenal, Ala. “It is using exclusively Open NATO standards. Any other exploiter out in the field can utilize this data without special software. That makes a huge difference in exploitation.” The Ku-band radar works in strip mode to image a large area along a pro- grammed path or in spot mode to take a close look at specific targets. Actual per- formance numbers for the new sensor are undisclosed, but the Army credits STAR- Lite with greater than 40 kilometer range and better than 0.3 meter resolution. In addition, a GMTI mode is required to track vehicles moving from about 10 to 70 km/h on a digital map. A Dismounted

24 Avionics Magazine May 2011

a digital map. A Dismounted 24 Avionics Magazine May 2011 www.avionicstoday.com Moving Target Indicator (DMTI) intro-

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Moving Target Indicator (DMTI) intro- duced on the PTDS uncovers enemies on foot, and DMTI software will become part of the baseline radar on the Grey Eagle as well. Every production Grey Eagle will carry the Northrop Grumman AN/ ZPY-1 radar and Raytheon AN/AAS-53 Common Sensor Payload. (Avionics, August 2008, page 24.) The radar covers a wide area and cues the electro-optical sensor to identify or laser-designate tar- gets with two clicks at the operator’s sta- tion. “It’s a very Open Architecture-type of system, very warfighter-friendly,” said Joe Parsley, UAS and rotary wing systems senior manager at Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES). “Without STARLite, you could be searching all day, if you had good weather.”

Courtesy Northrop Grumman

Courtesy Northrop Grumman

Company Effort The 63-pound STARLite came from a company-funded effort at NGES. The Baltimore radar house had previously de- veloped the 165-pound AN/ZPQ-1 Tacti- cal Endurance Synthetic Aperture Radar (TESAR). The single-channel TESAR with electronically scanned receiver array was the first UAS sensor with SAR and GMTI functionality and deployed to Bosnia in 1995 on the Air Force RQ-1A Predator. STARLite has two channels to provide greater GMTI accuracy, and it benefits from later commercial-off-the- shelf electronics. “Certainly, it’s much lighter weight and lower power, which allows it to be used on a wide array of platforms,” noted system engineering lead Mike Mazzoni, with the Army Program Manager, Robot- ics and Unmanned Sensors (PM RUS) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. PM RUS, under the Program Execu- tive Officer, Intelligence, Electronic Warfare and Sensors (PEO IEW&S), is the Army sponsor for STARLite and the General Atomics Lynx II Block 30 multi- mode radar now in Quick Reaction Capa- bility (QRC) units in Afghanistan and Iraq. The QRC radar weighs about 80 pounds and was developed under a 2004 System Development and Demonstration contract to equip the Extended Range Multi-Purpose (ERMP) UAS, later Sky Warrior and now Grey Eagle. Northrop Grumman targeted the Army market and began STARLite devel- opment around 2005. The company won a best-value competition in April 2008 and delivered the first two production sets in February 2010. The new radar had no commonality with TESAR, but leverag- ing AESA production processes and facilities enabled Northrop Grumman to evolve a low-risk solution through several test versions. “The production system is a lot

The Ku-band STARLIte radar Strip mode paints a large area along a programmed path.

The STARLite Spot mode generates high-resolution imagery of specific targets.

smaller,” said Parsley. “We took the obso- lescence issues and addressed those. Tech- nology enabled us to downsize.” The current STARLite fills just 1.1 cubic feet with four line replaceable units (LRUs) — radar electronics, antenna assembly, INS/GPS and power supply — and draws only 600 watts. Built-In Test routines isolate faults down to the LRU and make STARLite compatible with a two-level field-and-depot maintenance scheme. Responsive AESA radars with arrays of individual transmitter/receiver mod- ules provide innovative search-and-track functions and enhanced reliability by eliminating mechanical sweep. However, like TESAR, STARLite uses a single array of modules electronically scanned only in elevation. Azimuth still depends on a mechanical gimbal for a 360-degree

field of regard. “If we did not have the gimbal, we’d had to have multiple faces on the array for more weight, complexity and cost,” noted Parsley. The STARLite contract awarded in 2008 bought more than 70 radars. Northrop Grumman at this writing had delivered more than 30 systems, including seven to General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) for integra- tion on the MQ-1C. The GA-ASI radar already on the Grey Eagle has an inertial measurement unit and GPS receiver and can take inputs from the aircraft naviga- tion system via Mil-Std-1553 databus, Ethernet or RS422 bus. The Grey Eagle architecture also has an on-board Ether- net connected to the data link and treats the radar as a node on the network. STARLite has a Northrop Grum- man LN-251 digital INS/GPS navigator

www.avionicstoday.com

STARLite has a Northrop Grum- man LN-251 digital INS/GPS navigator www.avionicstoday.com May 2011 Avionics Magazine 25

May 2011 Avionics Magazine

25

Courtesy Northrop Grumman

Photo courtesy Lockheed Martin
Photo courtesy Lockheed Martin

The Persistent Threat Detection System is a tethered aerostat and sensor integration architecture used to disseminate threat data to operational forces. With STARLite radar and Dismounted Target Indication, it will help counter insurgents planting IEDs.

to integrate with air vehicle systems. It requires no Tactical Common Data Link changes and needs no more bandwidth allocation than the current radar. PM RUS and Northrop Grumman also made a special effort to make the new radar readily compatible with the Army One System Ground Control Station and other exploitation equipment. “I consider us kind of ground-station agnostic,” said Parsley. “It doesn’t matter; as long as there’s a Windows-based system, we can roll right into that system.” The Army and contractor worked to optimize the STARLite operator inter- face. “We actually had the users involved with development of the ground control application,” said STARLite Lead Engineer Joe Deroba, with the Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engi- neering Center (CERDEC) at

Aberdeen Proving Ground. “They were able to comment on the design and ease-of-use.” Feedback from users, for exam- ple, ultimately enabled operators to input targets in military grid coor- dinates as well as latitude and lon- gitude. “Simple things like that are important to operators,” said Deroba.

“An engineer who’s used to lat-long might not realize it.” The Army plans to field 13 Grey Eagle-equipped companies, each with 12 aircraft, mobile and portable ground control stations, and ground data termi- nals. The service already has 37 mobile, relocatable PTDS aerostats with multi- mission payloads integrated with the Army command information architecture by Lockheed Martin Mission Systems & Sensors (MS2) in Owego, N.Y. Not all PTDS aerostats will have STARLite. The two platforms emphasize dif- ferent radar modes. At altitudes greater than 25,000 feet and speeds to 150 knots,

Grey Eagle SAR uses aircraft motion to image large areas. The PTDS is fixed by a 5,000-foot fiberoptic tether and uses GMTI and DMTI to combat insurgents placing improvised explosive devices. “We’re all about GMTI right now,” noted Phil Owen at AMCOM. The baseline radar integrated into the PTDS and Grey Eagle is meanwhile

undergoing product improvements. “We are in the process of qualifying the extended range antenna,” said Northrop Grumman’s Parsley. “It would almost double the range in some cases.” Northrop Grumman is independently testing a littoral maritime capability for STARLite on the company’s Twin Otter, based in the Baltimore area. Though the Army cancelled its XM-157 Fire Scout unmanned helicopter program, the Navy has deployed the ship-launched MQ-8B Fire Scout to Central Command and may need a lightweight radar. There is no requirement to inte- grate the STARLite radar on the RQ-7B Shadow brigade-level UAS, but Northrop Grumman expects to fly an AN/ZPY-1(V)2 radar in

but Northrop Grumman expects to fly an AN/ZPY-1(V)2 radar in STARLite radar occupies 1.1 cubic feet

STARLite radar occupies 1.1 cubic feet and weighs 63 pounds, compatible with a range of platforms

June with a weight of just 45 to 50 pounds. The lighter STARLite

26 Avionics Magazine May 2011

June with a weight of just 45 to 50 pounds. The lighter STARLite 26 Avionics Magazine

www.avionicstoday.com

Photo courtesy General Atomics Aeronautical Systems

General Atomics Aeronautical Systems MQ-1C Grey Eagle is the Army’s division- level UAS, and in full production will be equipped with Northrop Grumman STARLite radar, Raytheon Common Sensor Payload and Lockheed Martin Hellfire missiles. Other payloads can ride in the third bay or on underwing pods.

trades a standalone power supply for a card in the electronics LRU and switches to a lighter IMU. It nevertheless promises range equal to the baseline system today. “There is not a specific program that has identified it,” said Parsley. “We’re getting a lot of interest from the smaller UAVs and other platforms of interest because of its smaller size and weight.” CERDEC at Aberdeen Proving Ground now has a STARLite Systems Integration Laboratory to augment the current radar modes and introduce new ones. Phil Owen at AMCOM acknowl- edged, “We’re looking at options to get a little bit of ground penetration with it. Another thing we’re looking at is to expand the GMTI capabilities to cover a larger area.”

to expand the GMTI capabilities to cover a larger area.” Powered by Aviation Professionals Network has
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27

product focus

Photo courtesy Honeywell
Photo courtesy Honeywell

Honeywell ‘SmartView’ Synthetic Vision System, offered on Gulfstream and Dassault jets, on approach to Scottsdale, Ariz., Airport.

Synthetic Vision

Suppliers of synthetic vision systems, valued by pilots for both safety and situational awareness, strive for operational credits for the technology

By Ed McKenna

T he key argument for synthetic

vision systems (SVS) has always

been safety. The technology,

which delivers real-time, color

3-D imagery of the terrain out-

side the aircraft to the pilot, is broadly praised for boosting pilot situational awareness, driving SVS sales for corpo- rate and general aviation aircraft and helicopters. Some vendors now are eyeing even

bigger returns, seeing a place for SVS in the cockpits of at least some air-transport category aircraft. There is little argument about whether SVS can boost pilot performance, espe- cially during IFR approaches. Regardless of the weather or time of day, pilots can use SVS to see surrounding terrain and airports up to 40 miles away. A big part of the pilot’s job is gather- ing data “from the airspeed indicator, altimeter, course deviation indicator, maps, charts, ground speed … and build-

28 Avionics Magazine May 2011

ground speed … and build- 28 Avionics Magazine May 2011 www.avionicstoday.com ing a mental picture of

www.avionicstoday.com

ing a mental picture of what is happen- ing,” said Ben Kowalski, director of aviation OEM Sales with Garmin Inter- national. “Synthetic vision builds that mental picture,” and saves the pilot “an enormous amount of mental legwork,” he said. Gordon Pratt, vice president of busi- ness development with Cobham Avion- ics, agreed. SVS technology reduces the pilot’s workload and headaches by “mak- ing every flight like VFR,” he said. This capability alone is boosting sales,

especially to corporate and general avia- tion aircraft manufacturers for new or soon-to-be introduced platforms, and catalyzing competition among providers including Cobham, Honeywell, Rockwell Collins, Universal Avionics, Avidyne Corp., and Garmin. For example, Rockwell Collins SVS systems will be part of Bombardier’s Global Vision cockpit for the Global 5000 and Global Express XRS aircraft as part of the company’s Pro Line Fusion avionics suite. Those aircraft will be certi- fied this year with “synthetic capability on the head-down displays and synthetic and enhanced vision on the head-up dis- plays,” said Bob Ellis, Rockwell Collins director of product and systems market- ing for commercial systems. Honeywell’s SmartView SVS already is available as an upgrade for Primus Epic-equipped Gulfstream jets and is installed on more than 170 aircraft. “We are certifying on four or five other types of aircraft, and developing (a version) for helicopter and transport and regional air- craft,” said Chad Cundiff, Honeywell vice president of Crew Interface Products. Garmin is providing its Synthetic Vision Technology capability with the G1000 avionics suite for Embraer Phe- nom 100s and 300s and Cessna Citation Mustangs, said Kowalski. However, “there is interest, but less pull right now from the retrofit corporate jet market,” said Matt Carrico, senior engineering manager of advanced con- cepts for commercial systems with Rock- well Collins. The resistance is partly due

Photo courtesy Rockwell Collins
Photo courtesy Rockwell Collins

Runway shows on Rockwell Collins Head-Up Guidance System with synthetic vision

to the fact that operators can “get situa- tion awareness, but not operation aware- ness credit for synthetic vision.” The question of operational credit is not only holding up retrofit sales but also the potential for using SVS technology on air transport aircraft. A lot of airlines are “interested in the technology, but in the airline world today, it has got to buy its way on” (the aircraft), said Cundiff. Gaining the go-ahead to reduce deci- sion height for some ILS approaches can translate into tangible returns for operators by eliminating weather delays or flight cancellations. “We have some data that shows, for instance, that at most airports in the U.S. there are about 150 to 200 hours a year when weather is too

low for landing. If we could lower the decision height by even 50 feet, (those air- ports) would be able to stay open,” Cun- diff said. “This doesn’t apply to airports that are CAT III autoland, but it does apply at Chicago Midway and San Diego (International Airport) and a lot of the regional airports.” For now, the question of operational credit is being considered by RTCA Spe- cial Committee 213, jointly with Eurocae WG-79, which has been tasked by FAA with developing minimum aviation sys- tem performance standards (MASPS) for synthetic vision and the range of Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS), Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and Combined Vision Systems (CVS). The issues specifically related to the

Photo courtesy Cobham Avionics
Photo courtesy Cobham Avionics

Cobham Avionics IDU-680 large-format display in triple configuration with synthetic vision primary flight display, HITS navigation

www.avionicstoday.com

with synthetic vision primary flight display, HITS navigation www.avionicstoday.com May 2011 Avionics Magazine 29

May 2011 Avionics Magazine

29

SVS case are being addressed in a draft document, RTCA DO-315B. At this point “the system referred to in (that document) is proposed to be used on an SA (straight-in approach) CAT I ILS approach,” said FAA. Beyond that, the specific features and architecture remain “hypothetical” since “actual SVS designs being developed to achieve instrument approach credit are unique in many pro- prietary ways.” Despite these differences, FAA stressed that it is still “useful to describe one concept and system architecture as a basis for minimum standards, from which the actual systems being developed may vary and show equivalence.” The agency also said it “has not established a sched- ule for implementing operational credit for SVS.” In its initial work, “FAA at least hint- ed that they would be receptive to looking at providing credit down to (a decision height of) 150 feet for a suitable system,” said Carrico. The current minimum is 200 feet for a CAT I ILS approach. In the meantime, SVS vendors are developing systems to bolster their cur- rent positions and prepare themselves for a future market. Rockwell Collins believes its decision to put SVS on the head-up display might give it a leg up in the battle for approval for operational credit. “We believe with HUD, we can get credit to go below 150 feet,” said Carrico. “There is significant advantage in having a natural transition from IMC (instrument meteorological conditions), where you see a synthetic representa- tion of world, to the conformal visual representation as you come through the obscuration layer,” said Ellis. Studies done years ago with NASA showed “that the transition phase, if it is mechanized in

a wholly heads-up environment, is a much more natural way to fly.” The Rockwell Collins SVS system includes other features “that the pilots really like,” said Ellis. For example, “we draw a dome feature over the intended landing airport that is visible when you are 20 to 30 miles away,” he said. “As you get closer to it, the dome starts to fade out, and you see the runway outline.” Like the other vendors, Honeywell deploys its SmartView SVS head-down on the primary flight display. “With HD displays, we’ve got a deep color palette (with) texturing and shading,” said Cun- diff. “We can display a lot of information including HUD symbology. But when the pilots go out the window, we want them to be flying the aircraft with reference to what they are seeing out the window, so on a HUD you give them (just) the flight path marker, acceleration chevron, and speed and altitude tapes.” At the heart of SmartView is Hon- eywell’s Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS), which has chalked up more 800 million flight hours since it was introduced 15 years ago to combat controlled flight into terrain and approach accidents. “We know of 50 accidents that have been ‘saved’” by the EGPWS system, Cundiff said. In the quest for operational credit or competitive advantage, vendors are exploring the use of SVS and EVS in tan- dem, incorporating infrared images of the external situation. Honeywell and Gulf- stream have been awarded a $1.2 million contract from NASA to test Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for the NextGen flight environment. The tests will investigate using Honeywell’s SVS as low as 100 feet above threshold and then transitioning to Gulfstream’s EVS, devel- oped by Kollsman Inc., of Merrimack,

Garmin G1000 displays with Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT), an option for OEM or retrofit on
Garmin G1000 displays with Synthetic
Vision Technology (SVT), an option for
OEM or retrofit on business jets.
Photo courtesy Garmin International

30 Avionics Magazine May 2011

Garmin International 30 Avionics Magazine May 2011 www.avionicstoday.com N.H., and using it to land. “With

www.avionicstoday.com

N.H., and using it to land. “With our initial systems, we are allowing the pilot to choose a synthetic or enhanced vision scene or nothing,” said Rockwell Collins’ Carrico. “They may choose to stick with the EVS scene; if not they can switch to SVS (and use it) as low as the certification approvals will allow.” FAA contends that “each of these components are potential sources of error and failure modes.” However, “the use of enhanced vision to augment the SVS presentation offers the benefit of an inde- pendent ‘picture’ of the forward view of the runway that can serve to validate the correctness of the SVS picture.” On a more practical level, the key to Garmin’s approach to the market is scalability, said Kowalski. The company offers systems that can be used on a variety of platforms from light sport and turbine aircraft through the Phenom 300 business jet. Depending on the platform, the systems could have different sized screens, fewer features and different price points, he said. Garmin sells its G1000, G3000 and G5000 avionics suites to OEMs who pur- sue their own approaches when it comes to synthetic vision. “A lot of them, like Embraer and Cessna, sell it as an option on their aircraft,” said Kowalski. For other manufacturers, like Cirrus Aircraft, it is a standard safety feature. The SVT capability comes pre- installed on Garmin’s G600 avionics retrofit package, and is available as an add-on for the G500. And Garmin is now offering a helicopter version of its retrofit suite. Garmin will not be alone in the heli- copter market, however. Honeywell is developing a helicopter SVS system, and Cobham has already carved out a healthy niche in the market — tallying late last year, for example, a contract to provide the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Depart- ment its Synthetic Vision Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) for the department’s fleet of 14 Eurocopter AS 350 B2 helicopters. The Cobham Synthetic Vision EFIS has been approved for about 740 fixed- wing and rotorcraft models, including many Bell helicopter models, the Euro- copter AS 350 and King Air, Citation 501, Cessna single and twin, Piper single and twin, Piaggio Avanti and Pilatus PC-12 fixed-wing aircraft models. Helicopters offer somewhat different challenges from fixed-wing aircraft. “The lower you fly as a rule, the ter- rain is an issue,” said Pratt. However, the

EFIS product is essentially “the same for helicopter and fixed- wing aircraft,” he said. The Cobham system includes Highway in the Sky (HITS) navi- gation “which is a tunnel in space that traces your intended route from your flight management system,” and a hover vector that allows the pilot to determine his hover performance,” Pratt said. Now on software version 8, Cobham has added new features to the system, some of them derived from pilot feedback. “They come up with very clever and creative ways to use the system,” said Pratt. For example, “customers asked us to do a mark-

to-target for our hover vector.” They “wanted to be able to essentially drop a biscuit on the Earth, and then hover relative to that biscuit.” The company accommodated pilots by introducing a waypoint in the system to designate or mark on a target. “The pilot can just push a button on one of his control sticks, put a symbol on the map and then hover relative to that symbol,” Pratt said. This feature would allow a law enforcement operator over a suspected

Photo courtesy Universal Avionics
Photo courtesy Universal Avionics

Universal Avionics EFI-890R with Vision-1 Synthetic Vision

crime scene to maintain a very precise location at 1,000 feet and keep the cam- eras pointed in a certain direction while supporting assets on the ground. It is also used for search and rescue missions. Other SVS vendors report equally pro- ductive relationships with pilots who use or test their systems. At Honeywell, “they are very much part of the design team,” said Cundiff. Pilot suggestions “drove us to integrate a lot of the heads-up display

information on to” the Smart- View system. “We have more pilot eyeballs on the synthetic vision HMI (human-machine interface) than almost anything else we have done over the past decade,” said Rockwell Collins’ Carrico. “They have been key mem- bers of our development team throughout, going all the way back to the original studies with NASA pilots. And, more recent- ly, customer technical pilots and FAA and Transport Canada pilots have been partners with us throughout the development pro- gram for Global Express.”

Next month: Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs)

Avionics Magazine’s Product Focus is a monthly feature that examines some of the latest trends in different market segments of the avionics industry. It does not represent a comprehensive survey of all companies and products in these segments. Avionics Product Focus Editor Ed McKenna can be contacted at emckenna@accessintel.com

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May 2011 Avionics Magazine

31

new products

Cabin Management Android Application

Flight Display Systems, based in Alpharetta, Ga., introduced and installed an Android software application for
Flight Display Systems, based in Alpharetta, Ga., introduced and installed an
Android software application for use with its Select Cabin Management System
(CMS). The application allows passengers to control all cabin functions from their
mobile phone or tablet computer.
The 7-inch Android-powered tablet controls cabin functions including lighting,
window shades, Blu-ray player, movie library and Moving Map. The wireless sys-
tem operates via Bluetooth for full control anywhere inside the aircraft cabin.
The launch customer for Flight Display Systems’ Android CMS software is an
unnamed operator of a Gulfstream III business jet. Visit www.FlightDisplay.com.

PTFE Cable W.L. Gore & Associates, of Landenberg, Pa., introduced High Flex Flat Cables for the aerospace industry using polytetra- fluoroethylene (PTFE) technology. Low coefficient of friction and “excel- lent” tear resistance enable the cables to maintain good signal integrity, accord- ing to Gore. The flexible material also allows the flat cables to be stacked on top of each other without needing dividers and shelves, reducing the overall size and weight of the cable system. Visit www.gore.com.

Technical Publications Avidyne Corp., based in Lincoln, Mass., formed a partnership with Aircraft Technical Publishers (ATP), of Brisbane Calif., to provide single-source, digital, avionics technical publications of Avi- dyne products for ATP customers. Visit www.avidyne.com.

European Office DAC International, of Austin, Texas, has opened a European General Aviation office in Germany. The Germany office is managed by

Klaus H. Eichel and supported by Man- agers of Sales GA Europe Wolfgang Schwarzer and Sabine Eichel and Sup- port Engineer Achim Baier. Visit www.dacint.com.

Cold-Applied Splice Tyco Electronics, of Harrisburg, Pa., introduced a cold-applied splice, which provides both wire termination and environmental sealing in a single step. Sealing is provided without the need for adhesives, tapes, grommets or other methods traditionally used in aerospace and defense applications. Because no heat is needed, the splice can be applied in potentially hazardous places such as in fueled aircraft, according to the company. The immersible splice prevents water from entering even under permanent pressure or weight. The splice uses a non- flowing gel to provide sealing without mess. The metal splice is tin-plated cop- per with a transparent polyvinylidene fluoride sleeve and color-coded thermo- plastic end caps. Splices are available in three color- coded sizes for 26 AWG to 12 AWG wire with silver or copper-plate conductors.

32 Avionics Magazine May 2011

or copper-plate conductors. 32 Avionics Magazine May 2011 www.avionicstoday.com They are rated for operation from

www.avionicstoday.com

They are rated for operation from -65°C to +150°C. They meet requirements of SAE-AMS-DTL-23053/8 for insulation sleeve and the current draft of SAE- AS81824/12 (modified for 150°C) crimp splices. Visit www.tycoelectronics.com.

Component Support The Avianca-TACA group awarded Bar- field, a Sabena Technics company based in Miami, a 10-year support contract to provide component support for its fleet of 60 Airbus A320s. The agreement includes the group’s four airlines: Avianca, TACA, Aerogal and Ocean Air. In addition, Barfield is setting up repair capabilities in Bogota, Colombia, to better support Grupo Avianca-TACA’s airlines as well as operators in South America. Visit www.barfieldinc.com

Distributor Agreement Beaver Aerospace & Defense, of Livonia, Mich., appointed Satair, of Copenhagen, Demark, as a full-line distributor of its FAA-approved commercial aircraft products. Beaver Aerospace & Defense manufactures actuation systems and com- ponents for the aerospace and defense industries. Visit www.beaver-online.com.

Training System Baltic Aviation Academy in Vilnius, Lithuania, will use computer-based pilot training systems from CPaT, based in The Woodlands, Texas. The academy said it will introduce CPaT’s library of Flight Training com- puter-based training (CBT/WBT) course- ware and Specialty programs, and Learn- ing Management System (LMS), into its training curriculums. CPaT’s LMS provides real-time access to learning analytics and reports in order to track the student’s learning process. Baltic Aviation Academy offers 34 training programs, including type rating training courses for Boeing 737 Classic, Boeing 737 NG, Boeing 757, Boeing 767, Saab 340/2000, Airbus A320, ATR 42-72, Embraer 135/145, Bombardier CRJ 100/200 and Bombardier CRJ 700/900, as well as initial pilot training school (FTO) courses. Visit www.balticaa.com.

Voice, Data Services Members of the oneworld airline alli-

ance –– British Airways, Iberia, Finnair and Malév Hungarian Airlines –– have selected SITA to provide voice and data services across their combined fleet of more than 450 aircraft, including the VHF data link mandated by EU Single Sky regulations for air traffic control (ATC) communications. The five-year agreement will take the airlines past the EU deadline of February 2015, which requires all aircraft flying in Europe, and all EU Air Navigation Ser- vice providers, to be equipped for ATC data link capability. In addition to the SITA VHF data services, the airlines will be able to use satellite services including Inmarsat Clas- sic, SwiftBroadband and Iridium, for operational and passenger use. British Airways, Iberia and Malév have renewed their existing SITA VHF Data Link services agreement. Finnair will be switching VHF and satellite com- munications to SITA while Iberia will switch to SITA for its satellite communi- cations. Visit www.sita.aero.

Software-Defined Radio Elbit Systems, based in Haifa, Israel, launched its latest software-defined airborne radio –– the Tadiran SDR- 7200AR. Specifically designed for airborne platforms, the radio system harnesses the power of its distinctive automatic routing and relay capabilities to offer extended range, while offering video, voice and data simultaneously at a high data rate, according to Elbit. The Tadiran SDR-7200AR is com- pliant with Software Communications Architecture SCA version 2.2.2. It sup- ports multiple frequency bands, including VHF, UHF, L-Band, S-Band and SAT- COM. Visit www.elbitsystems.com.

CMMI Certification The ARINC engineering team renewed its Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) certification. ARINC’s GLOBALinkSM Engineer- ing group was recertified for the Capabil- ity Maturity Model Integration Level 3 rating. The CMMI Level 3 award follows an assessment of the GLOBALink Engi- neering group’s process integration and improvement. ARINC said the assessment was con- ducted on three key projects developed

by the GLOBALink Engineering team — an ACARS turn-key replacement system, ARINC’s ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network) router and ARINC’s central ACARS message processor. Visit www.arinc.com.

Flight Monitoring

message processor. Visit www.arinc.com. Flight Monitoring Alakai Technologies, Hopkinton, Mass., was awarded FAA

Alakai Technologies, Hopkinton, Mass., was awarded FAA supplemental type cer- tification for installation of its digital Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) system and wireless Internet units on Eurocopter AS350 and EC130 helicopters. According to the company, AS350 operators can now achieve comprehensive airline-style FDM (also known as Flight Operational Quality Assurance) pro- grams at a fraction of the cost. Alakai’s on-board and backend algorithms turn raw data into objec- tive, actionable recommendations and decisions. The system works with older round-dial as well as the latest glass cock- pit aircraft, according to the company. Visit www.alakai1.com.

MRO Contract Delta Air Lines’ maintenance division, Delta TechOps, has entered an exclusive maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) partnership with GOL Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes S.A. As part of the five-year agreement, which includes an additional five-year option, Delta TechOps will pro- vide engine overhauls for a minimum of 50 percent of GOL’s CFM56-7 engines and maintenance services for various parts and components on GOL’s fleet of Boeing 737NGs. Delta TechOps also will provide con- sulting services related to maintenance workflow planning, materials and facility optimization, and tooling support and will assist GOL with its efforts to secure FAA Part 145 Repair Station Certifica-

tion. In addition, GOL will assist Delta with some line maintenance services for Delta aircraft with extended ground time in Brazil. Visit deltatechops.com.

Galley Support The Greek division of Scandinavian Avi- onics (SA), based in Billund, Denmark, is offering sales, certification, installation and repair of aircraft galley equipment, including ovens, coffee makers, water boilers and beverage makers. SA Greece stocks and supplies a range of aircraft galley rotables, expendables and consumables for sale, exchange and loan. Also, repair services are offered from a one-of repair to full support contract for an entire fleet, the company said. Certification services for any galley equipment solution in any type of aircraft can be carried out from the Scandinavian Avionics headquarters in Billund via the SA Part-21 design department, the com- pany said. The new capability also allows SA Greece to provide full installation of gal- ley equipment at its own hangar facilities in Greece or at the customer’s preferred location. Visit www.scanav.com.

Software Emulator AdaCore, of New York City, released GNATemulator, a flexible emulator system for testing embedded software applications. The system allows software developers to compile code directly for their target architecture and run it on their host platform, through an approach that translates from the target object code to native instructions on the host. This avoids the inconvenience and cost of managing an actual board, while offering an efficient testing environment compat- ible with the final hardware. The GNATemulator cannot be used for all aspects of testing, but does provide an efficient, cost-effective way of execut- ing the target code very early and very broadly in the development and verifica- tion process, according to AdaCore. Visit www.adacore.com.

Paris Headquarters Rockwell Collins opened a new Paris headquarters for Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The office is led by Bruno Rambaud, vice president and managing director. Visit www.rockwellcollins.com.

vice president and managing director. Visit www.rockwellcollins.com. www.avionicstoday.com May 2011 Avionics Magazine 33

www.avionicstoday.com

vice president and managing director. Visit www.rockwellcollins.com. www.avionicstoday.com May 2011 Avionics Magazine 33

May 2011 Avionics Magazine

33

perspectives

by Fredrik Barcheus

Do developers have the appropriate tools to understand the operational context of automated systems?

34 Avionics Magazine May 2011

ATM Automation

A s traffic levels in civil aviation con- tinue to increase, the possibility of keeping up with capacity in Air Traf- fic Management (ATM) by simply

applying “more of the same” is faltering. The antidote, automation, is frequently cited as yet another source of accidents. The Human Fac- tors Research group at KTH, the Royal Insti- tute of Technology in Stockholm, is one of the many actors that try to combat the draw- backs of badly implemented automation. Whereas earlier increases in air traffic could be mitigated by redesigning the ATM sectors and increasing the number of air traf- fic controllers, this is no longer the case. Con- sequently, further work must be undertaken in the area of automation in order to cope with increases in traffic intensity. From the viewpoint of a human operator, automation can decrease the continuously developing understanding of system behavior, or Situation Awareness. This in turn can cre- ate situations where automation together with other system components, e.g. humans, per- forms in a counter-productive manner. The Human Factors Engineering group at KTH has performed research in the area of aviation during the past decades and currently works on modeling large, highly automated systems in order to develop indicators for safety assessment. The main rationale is to be able to maintain the trend of increasing sys- tem integration while diminishing safety risks and their associated costs, ultimately progress- ing sustainable aviation. Whereas small decoupled systems are fairly easy to model, large socio-technical sys- tems are very hard since the number of tightly coupled interactions between components in the system is large as well as being non- linear in their nature. This characteristic not only makes the systems hard to analyze but the consequence of non-nominal operations tends to snowball and cause large costs. The main driver of creating larger inte- grated systems is basically to gain economic advantage, but if larger systems create suf- ficiently large consequences, this argument becomes obsolete. Currently, we do not pos- sess sufficiently good tools and methodologies to assess large systems in near real-time in order to prevent large break-downs. Attempts have been done to create incident reporting systems in order to elicit data, some of them very good, but still there is a haphazard appli-

of them very good, but still there is a haphazard appli- www.avionicstoday.com cation of Human Factors

www.avionicstoday.com

cation of Human Factors in many domains. As a response to this, the European Com- mission funded the HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems) in which KTH was a partner. The project ventured on a system-wide integration in the aviation sector, from flight-deck tech- nology through operations to maintenance. One of the major achievements in the HILAS project was the inter-company sharing of potentially competitive information to obtain industry-wide benefits. In order to overcome at least some of the most cost inefficient causes, Europe has since the 1990’s taken steps toward a more harmonized ATM structure. The latest such step is the SESAR program, which is often compared to the NextGen initiative in the U.S. Responding to emerging trends of higher automation and complexity, SESAR supports the Higher Automation Levels In ATM (www. hala-sesar.net) and Complex World (com- plexworld.innaxis.org) research networks, of which KTH is taking an active part. Does criticism of automation imply that we should avoid automation altogether? No, of course we shouldn’t. But we should retain an awareness of the potential consequences in order to make informed decisions. Automa- tion may to some extent remove humans from the “sharp end” of operations, but the imple- mentation of automation tends to emphasize human intervention in the development phase. That redistribution would arguably make a rationale for increased research regarding the effects of decision making in early stages of development. Do developers have appropriate tools to understand the operational context of the automated system, especially in event- driven operations where some scenarios can only be assessed post-hoc? In the evolving highly automated ATM system comprising a broader diversity of aircraft, broader diversity of equipage in avi- onics and communications, broader diversity of agents (human or autonomous), the main question posed by the KTH Human Factors Research group is how to model the impact of automation in order to increase the safety and cost efficiency of aviation.

to increase the safety and cost efficiency of aviation. Fredrik Barchéus, MSc PhD, is a member

Fredrik Barchéus, MSc PhD, is a member of the Human Factors Research group of KTH, the Royal Institute of Technology in Stock- holm. He can be reached at barcheus@kth.se

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