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Muluneh Admass

May 2005

TRITA-LWR.LIC 2028

ISSN 1650-8629

ISRN KTH/LWR/LIC 2028-SE

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

ii

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................................................................................................. V

ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................................................... 1

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................. 1

Turbulence model............................................................................................................................................... 3

Boundary conditions........................................................................................................................................... 4

Model calibration................................................................................................................................................ 8

Grid Independence............................................................................................................................................. 8

Validation........................................................................................................................................................... 9

DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................................... 10

CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................................11

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 24

iii

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

iv

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First I would like to acknoweledge the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency

(SIDA) for providing me the financial assistance to do my research work. Then I would like to

extend my deepest gratitude to my main supervisor Bijan Dargahi, who, with never ending pa-

tience, has shared with me his great scientific knowledge and research experience. Assistant su-

pervisors Klas Cederwal and Bayou Chane deserve special acknoweledgment. Special thanks to

Britt Chow for all her concern and support. Thanks Kirlna for all your sisterly help. I am also

very greatful to Hans Bergh, Aira Saarelainen, Nandita Singh, and other colleagues in the vatten-

byggnad and in the department of Land and Water Resources, KTH. I am indebted to my spiri-

tual father Aba Wolde Meskel, Tin’s family, my family and my friends here in Stockholm and at

home. Finally goes all my available thanks to my wife Tin.

Muluneh Admass

v

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

vi

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

ABSTRACT

The fully integrated 3-D, time dependant, hydrodynamic and sediment transport numerical

model ECOMSED was used to simulate flow and sediment transport in rivers. ECOMSED was

originally developed for large water bodies such as lakes and oceans and solves the primitive

equations of RANS along with a second order turbulence model in an orthogonal curvilinear σ-

coordinate system. The availability of the model as an open FORTRAN source code made modi-

fications and addition of new models possible. A new bed load transport model was implemented

in the code as well as improvements in treatment of river roughness parameterization, bed form

effects, and automatic update of flow depth due to bed evolution. The model was applied to 1-

km long reach of the River Klarälven, Sweden, where it bifurcates into two west and east chan-

nels. The water surface and the flow division in the channels were made in agreement with field

data by spatially varying the roughness. However, the spatial distribution of the bed shear stress

was not realistic. Improvements were made in the bottom boundary condition to represent the

variable effects of bed forms on roughness depending on the flow regime and the flow depth.

The improved model realistically reproduced the flow field as well as the sediment transport

processes in the river Klarälven.

Key words: River model; ECOMSED model; River Klarälven; Bed load transport model

INTRODUCTION

model simulated periodic flow features in

River modelling applications can be grouped river confluences and agreed well with ex-

into 2-D depth-averaged hydrodynamic perimental data. Some recent applications on

models and 3-D models. An evaluation of use of 3-D sediment transport models are:

the extent to which 3-D models improve Gesseler et al. (1999), Holly and Spasojevic

predictive ability compared to 2-D models is (1999), Fang (2000), Rodi (2000), Weiming et

well described by Lane et al. (1999) and al. (2000), Nicholas (2001), and Dargahi

Gessler et al. (1999). They stated that a 3-D (2004). Gesseler et al. (1999) applied the U.S.

model is necessary for predicting sediment Army Corps Engineering code CH3D-SED

erosion and deposition whenever significant to the Deep Draft Navigation project on the

secondary currents exist, such as in river lower Mississippi River. The code predicted

bends, crossings, distributaries, or diversions. the sediment deposition in the river with an

Some recent research works on flow model- accuracy of less 13% in comparison with the

ling are: Weerakoon and Tamai (1989), Olsen observations. Holly and Spasojevic (1999)

and Stokseth (1995), Weiming et al. (1997), applied and verified the CH3D-SED code to

Sinha et al. (1998), Lane et al. (1999), Brad- study water and sediment diversion at the

brook et al. (2000), and Chau and Jiang Old River Control complex on the lower

(2001). Olsen and Stokseth (1995) carried out Mississippi river. Dargahi (2004) predicted

a 3-D simulation of an 80-m long reach of secondary flows and the general flow and

the river Sokna in Norway. The model suc- sediment transport patterns in a river that

cessfully predicted the flow features and the agreed well with field measurements. A brief

results were in good agreement with ob- review of the major developments in 3-D

served data. Sinha et al. (1998) did a compre- modeling and the limitations is also given by

hensive numerical study of the flow through Lane et al. (2002).

a 4-km reach of the Columbia River. They In this paper the fully integrated 3-D, time

succeeded in modelling both rapidly varying dependant, hydrodynamic and sediment

bed topography and the presence of multiple transport numerical model ECOMSED by

islands. The results agreed well with experi- Blumberg and Mellor (1987) is used.

ments and field measurements. In a recent ECOMSED was originally developed for

study, Bradbrook et al. (2000) modelled the large water bodies such as lakes and oceans

flow in a natural river channel confluence

1

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

+ + =0

along with a second order turbulence model ∂x ∂y ∂z

in an orthogonal curvilinear σ-coordinate ∂u

+u

∂u

+v

∂u

+w

∂u

=−

1 ∂p ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ⎞

+ υ ⎜⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟⎟

system. The availability of the model as an ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂x ⎝ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠

open FORTRAN source code made modifi- ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂v 1 ∂p ⎛ ∂ v ∂ v ∂ 2v ⎞

2 2

+u +v +w = − + υ ⎜⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟⎟

cations and addition of new models possible. ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂y ⎝ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠

The first objective of the present study was ∂u ∂w ∂w ∂w 1 ∂p ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ∂ 2w ⎞

+u +v +w =− + υ ⎜⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟⎟ + g

to adapt and improve the ECOMSED model ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂z ⎝ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠

for modeling flow and sediment transport in In which u , v, w are the velocity components

rivers. The second objective was to test the along x, y, z directions respectively, t is

applicability of the improved model to the

time, ρ is the fluid density, p is the pressure,

river Klarälven in the southwest part of Swe-

den. A new bed load transport model is im- υ is the fluid kinematic viscosity and g is the

plemented in the code as well as improve- gravitional force. The flow is assumed in-

ments in treatment of river roughness compressible (constant density) and the

parameterization, bed form effects, and fluid’s coefficient of viscosity is taken con-

automatic update of bed evolution. The stant. It is possible to solve the Navier-Stokes

improved model realistically reproduced the equations by direct numerical simulation (DNS) if

flow field as well as the sediment transport we can resolve all the relevant length scales

processes in the river Klarälven. The secon- which vary from the smallest eddies to scales

dary flows at the river bifurcation and around on the orders of the physical dimensions of

the bends were well reproduced. The results the problem domain. For channel flow the

also agreed well with the previous simulations number of grid points needed to resolve all

by Dargahi (2004). the relevant scales can be estimated from the

expression (Tannehill et al. 1997)

ECOMSED MODEL N DNS = (0.088 Re ) (2)

9/4

h

The ECOMSED model is a fully integrated In which Reh is the Reynolds number based

3-D hydrodynamic, wave and sediment

transport model. It has a free surface and a on the mean channel velocity and channel

height. This approach is limited to flows of

bottom following σ-coordinate system (for simple geometry and very low Reynolds

better representation of irregular bottom number. Another promising approach is

topography) with an orthogonal curvilinear known as large-eddy simulation (LES), in which

grid in the horizontal plane. Here follows a the large-scale structure of the turbulent flow

brief description of the governing equations, is computed directly and only the effects of

boundary conditions, the turbulence model the smallest (subgrid-scale) and more nearly

and the solution algorithms which are related isotropic eddies are modeled. The computa-

to the present study. Details of the model can tional effort required for LES is less than that

be found in Blumberg (2002). of DNS by approximately a factor of 10

using present-day methods. The main thrust

GOVERNING EQUATIONS

of present-day research in computational

The fundamental equations of fluid dynamics fluid dynamics is through the time averaged

are based on the conservation of mass and Navier-Stokes equations also known as the

momentum. Conservation of mass yields the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equa-

continuity equation while conservation of tions. These equations are derived by de-

momentum yields the momentum equation. composing the dependent variables in the

Both equations are widely known by Navier- conservation equations in to time-mean (ob-

Stokes equations. Here follows the Navier- tained over an approximate time interval) and

Stokes equations in the Cartesian coordinate fluctuating components and then time aver-

system ( x, y , z axis). aging the entire equation (Tannehill et al.

1997). Time averaging the equations of mo-

2

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

interpreted as “apparent” stress gradients Turbulence models are used to relate the new

associated with the turbulent motion. correlations that appeared in the RANS equa-

ECOMSED model solves the RANS equa- tions and in the mean sediment concentra-

tions with the hydrostatic assumption and the tion equation with mean values or in other

three-dimensional equation describing the words to close the system of equations. Here

advection and diffusion of sediment particles follows the description of equations used in

given below, ECOMSED to relate the new correlations

∂U ∂V ∂W

+ + =0

(3a-e) with the mean values.

− (w'u ' , w'v ' ) = K M (U , V )

∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ (6a-d)

∂U ∂U ∂U ∂U 1 ∂P ∂z

+U +V +W =− +

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂x

∂ ⎛ ∂U ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂U ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂U ⎞

( ) ⎛ ∂V ∂U ⎞

− u ' u ' , v ' v ' = 2 AM ⎜⎜ , ⎟⎟

⎜υ − u 'u ' ⎟ + ⎜⎜υ − v 'u ' ⎟⎟ + ⎜υ − w 'u ' ⎟ ⎝ ∂y ∂x ⎠

∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ∂y ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ∂z ⎝ ∂z ⎠

⎛ ∂U ∂V ⎞

∂V ∂V ∂V ∂V 1 ∂P − u 'v ' = −v 'u ' = AM ⎜⎜ + ⎟

+U +V +W =− + ⎝ ∂y ∂x ⎟⎠

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂y

∂ ⎛ ∂V

⎜υ

∂x ⎝ ∂x

⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂V

− u 'v ' ⎟ + ⎜⎜υ

⎠ ∂y ⎝ ∂y

⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂V

− v ' v ' ⎟⎟ + ⎜υ

⎠ ∂z ⎝ ∂z

⎞

− w'v ' ⎟

⎠

( ) ⎛

− u 'c ' , v 'c ' , w'c ' = ⎜⎜ AH

⎝

∂C

∂x

, AH

∂C

∂y

, KH

∂C ⎞

⎟

∂z ⎟⎠

∂P

ρg = −

∂z

In which K M is the eddy viscosity, K H is the

∂C ∂UC ∂VC ∂ (W − Ws )C eddy diffusivity, AM is the horizontal viscosity

+ + + =

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z and AH is the horizontal diffusivity. The

∂ ⎛ ∂C ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂C ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂C ⎞ horizontal viscosity AM is calculated accord-

⎜Γ − u 'c ' ⎟ + ⎜⎜ Γ − v 'c ' ⎟⎟ + ⎜ Γ − w 'c ' ⎟

∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ∂y ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ∂z ⎝ ∂z ⎠

ing to Smagorinsky (1963)

In which U , V , W are mean velocity compo- 1

2

⎤2 (7)

AM = c∆2 ⎢⎜ i + ⎟ ⎥

2 ⎢⎜⎝ ∂x j ∂xi ⎟ ⎥

( x is the main flow direction, y is the stream ⎣ ⎠ ⎦

wise direction, z is vertical to the bed) while In which c = 0.01, ∆2 = ∆x∆y, and Einstein

u ' , v ' , w ' are the corresponding fluctuating convention is used. ∆x and ∆y are the grid

velocity components, C is the mean sediment spacing in the x and y directions respectively.

concentration and c ' is the flactuating com- The horizontal diffusivity AH is usually set

ponent, Γ is sediment diffusivity and Ws is the equal to AM . K M and K H are obtained by ap-

settling velocity of sediment particles. The pealing to a second order turbulence closure

new correlations that appeared in the above scheme developed by Mellor and Yamada

equations are related with the mean values (1982) which characterizes the turbulence by

using turbulence models. The settling velocity equations for the turbulence kinetic energy,

of sediment particles is calculated from the 1 2 , and turbulence macroscale, l , accord-

q

effective diameter of the suspended sediment 2

using the semi-empirical formulation of ing to,

Cheng (1997) ∂q 2

+U

∂q 2

+V

∂q 2

+W

∂q 2 ∂ ⎛

= ⎜⎜ K q

∂q 2 ⎞

⎟+

(8a,b)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ⎝ ∂z ⎟⎠

υ

[

(25 + 1.2 D 2 )0.5 − 5 ] (4)

1 .5

W = ⎡⎛ ∂U ⎞ 2

⎛ ∂V ⎞ ⎤ 2q

2 3

∂ ⎛

+ ⎜⎜ AH

∂q 2 ⎞ ∂ ⎛

⎟ + ⎜ AH

∂q 2 ⎞

⎟⎟

s * 2 K M ⎢⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎥−

D50

⎣⎢⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎦⎥ B1 l ∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎟⎠ ∂y ⎜⎝ ∂y ⎠

⎡ ( s − 1) g ⎤ (5) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1/ 3

∂ q 2l ∂ q 2l ∂ q 2l ∂ q 2l ∂ ⎛ ∂ q 2l ⎞

D* = ⎢ ⎥⎦ D50 +U +V +W = ⎜⎜ K q ⎟+

⎣ υ

2

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ⎝ ∂z ⎟⎠

⎡⎛ ∂U ⎞ 2 ⎛ ∂V ⎞ 2 ⎤ q 3 ~ ∂ ⎛ ∂q 2l ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂q 2l ⎞

In which D50 is particle diameter for 50% lE1 K M ⎢⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎥ − W + ⎜⎜ AH ⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜ AH

∂y ⎟⎠

⎟

⎣⎢⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎦⎥ B1 ∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ∂y ⎝

finer of bed material, D* is the dimensionless

In which A1 , A2 , B1 , B2 , E1 , E 2 , S q are empirical

grain size and s is specific density.

constants. The wall proximity function, W~ , is

defined as

3

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

~ ⎛ l ⎞

2

(9) In which U bt , Vbt , Wbt are the velocity compo-

W = 1 + E2 ⎜ ⎟

⎝ κL ⎠ nents at the bottom, E − D is the sediment

1

=

1

+

1 (10) flux at the water sediment interface which is

L η−z H +z calculated using the van Rijn (1984a) proce-

In which κ is the von Karman constant, η is dure and uτb is the bottom friction velocity

the water surface elevation and H is the associated with the bottom frictional

water depth. While details of the closure stress (τ bx ,τ by ) . In ECOMSED the bottom

module are rather involved, it is possible to stress is determined by matching velocities

reduce prescription of the mixing coefficients with the logarithmic law of the wall.

to the following expressions,

τ b = ρC D Vb Vb (14)

K =

lq (11a-c)

M

B1

1/ 3

With the value of the drag coefficient CD

⎛ 6A ⎞ given by

K H = lqA2 ⎜⎜1 − 1 ⎟⎟ −2

⎝ B2 ⎠ ⎡ 1 ⎛ H + zb ⎞⎤

C D = ⎢ ln⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ (15)

K q = lqS q

⎣κ ⎝ zo ⎠⎦

Empirical constants A1 , A2 , B1 , B2 , E1 , E2 , S q are In which zb and Vb are the grid point and

0.92, 0.74, 16.6, 10.1, 1.8, 1.33, 0.2 respectively (Mel- corresponding resultant horizontal velocity in

lor and Yamada 1982). the grid point nearest to the bottom. The

parameter z0 depends on the local bottom

Boundary conditions

roughness.

The boundary conditions are specified as

surface, bottom and open boundaries. Open lateral boundary: Two types of open

boundaries exist, inflow and outflow. The

Free surface: The boundary conditions at the normal component of velocity is specified

free surface, z = η ( x, y, t ) , are while a free slip condition is used for the

ρK M ⎜

⎛ ∂U ∂V ⎞

, ⎟ = (τ ox ,τ oy )

(12a-e) tangential component at inflow boundaries.

⎝ ∂z ∂z ⎠ Turbulence kienetic energy and the macro-

q 2 = B1 uτs

2/3 2

scale quantity ( q 2l ) are calculated with suffi-

q 2l = 0

cient accuracy at the boundaries by neglecting

the advection in comparison with other terms

∂η ∂η ∂η

W =U +V + in their respecttive equations. The sediment

∂x ∂y ∂t

concentration data at the inlet is specified,

∂C

KH =0 whereas at outflow boundaries the mixed

∂z

boundary condition is used. The clamped

In which (τ ox ,τ oy ) is the surface wind stress boundary condition in ECOMSED allows

vector with the surface friction velocity, uτs , assigning observed water level along the open

being the magnitude of the vector. boundary grids.

Bottom boundary: The boundary conditions at NUMERICAL METHODS

bottom boundary, z = H ( x, y ) , are

The governing equations and boundary con-

⎛ ∂U ∂V ⎞

ρK M ⎜ , ⎟ = (τ bx ,τ by ) (13a-e) ditions are transformed in to a vertical σ -

⎝ ∂z ∂z ⎠

layer and an orthogonal curvilinear horizontal

q 2 = B1 uτb

2/3 2

( ξ1ξ 2 ) coordinate system. The σ - transforma-

q 2l = 0 tion is given by

∂H ∂H z −η

Wbt = −U bt

∂x

− Vbt

∂y σ= (16)

H +η

∂C

KH =E−D In which η is the water surface elevation.

∂z

The vertically and horizontally transformed

set of equations is approximated by a finite

4

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

difference scheme using a spatially staggered ing aspects in the model the river Klarälven

grid. The leap frog scheme with the Cou- was used as a case study. Realistic and com-

rant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL) computational parable results with field measurements and

stability condition and a weak filter to re- with previous simulations using other models

move solution splitting at even and odd time were obtained after the following improve-

steps is employed for time differencing. ments and modifications were made.

Three options (upwind difference, central

difference and Multidimensional Positive The bottom boundary condition

Definite Advection Transport Algorithm) are The bottom boundary condition used in

available for spatial differencing. The hydro- ECOMSED as given in equations (14) and

dynamic module (ECOM) is 3-D with a split (15) is the generalization of the logarithmic

external-internal mode algorithm; the exter- law which assumes the same roughness in the

nal mode explicitly solves the depth inte- whole computational domain. However, in

grated equations with short time steps to rivers roughness which is composed of skin

resolve fast moving waves and to determine friction due to bed grains and drag form due

the water surface elevation. The internal to bed forms varies spatially and temporally

mode uses the computed water surface eleva- depending on the local flow depth and the

tion and implicitly solves the vertical struc- local flow regime. The bottom boundary

ture of the flow with a shorter time step. The condition was reformulated as follows to

internal mode then updates some of the directly represent the spatial and temporal

variables of the external mode for the next variation of the bottom roughness. Starting

time step to begin. At regular intervals speci- from the general equation of the logarithmic

fied by the user the sediment transport mod- universal velocity distribution (Schlichting

ule (SED) which uses the same numerical 1968)

grid, structure and computational framework Vb 1 ⎛ ( H + z b )u* ⎞ (17)

as the hydrodynamic model simulates sedi- = ln⎜ ⎟ + B − ∆B

u* κ ⎝ υ ⎠

ment resuspension, transport and deposition

of cohesive and non-cohesive sediments In which B = 5.45 , κ = 0.41 and ∆B , the rough-

using the previously computed hydrodynamic ness induced velocity deficit is a function of

variables. the equivalent roughness height k s . Denoting

k s u* / υ by k s+ and using the interpolation for-

MODIFICATIONS AND mula by Cebeci and Bradshaw (1977)

IMPROVEMENTS ⎧

⎪ 0 k s+ < 2.25

The application of ECOMSED to rivers can ⎪

⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎤

{ [ ]}

∆B = ⎨ ⎢ B − 8.5 + ln k s+ ⎥ sin 0.4258 ln k s+ − 0.811 2.25 ≤ k s+ ≤ 90

be improved by considering some of the ⎪ ⎣ κ ⎦

⎪

specific features of river hydraulics that dif- ⎪

⎩

B − 8. 5 +

1

κ

ln k +

s k s+ > 90

ness, spatial variations of flow depth, and bed

Using equation (17) and (18) the roughness

load transport. In rivers, significant variations

in channel and river bed roughness are parameter z 0 in equation (15) becomes

found. Furthermore, the formation of bed υ

forms directly affects the resistance to flow as z0 = ( B − ∆B ) κ

(19)

u* e

well as the distribution of bed shear stresses.

The other aspect is the spatial variation of the Equation (19) allows specifying spatially and

flow depth that affects the velocity distribu- temporally variable roughness depending on

tion and the boundary layer characteristics. the velocity deficit ∆B which is a function of

In ECOMSED model a constant roughness the local equivalent sand roughness and the

value is used. The effect of bed form rough- local shear Reynolds number as shown in

ness which depends on the local flow regime equation (18). Available empirical formulas

is not considered. The bed load transport is were used to compute the equivalent sand

also not modeled. To implement the forgo- roughness of bed grains and bed forms as

5

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

⎝ βH ⎠ ⎠

⎟⎟ ⎟⎟

z0 = e ⎝

(22)

locating the last grid in the narrow range of u*

the logarithmic region in highly variable river For a given set of σ - layers equation (22)

bed topography. This can be described as needs a minimum depth to be set so that the

follows. The logarithmic law defined by equa- first grid off the bed surface lies above z0 in

tion (17) is valid approximately in the

the whole computational domain.

range 40υ ≤ (H + z b ) ≤ 0.2δ where δ is the

u*

Equivalent sand roughness

thickness of the boundary layer. Since

ECOMSED uses the same number of verti- Equivalent sand roughness is composed of

cal grids, the validity of the logarithmic law grain, saltation and bed form roughness. The

requires the depth, ( H + z b ) , which is half component of roughness due to saltation and

bed forms depends on the local flow depth

depth of the last σ - layer to be located within

and local flow regime. As a result, the equiva-

the logarithmic region throughout the whole

lent sand roughness in rivers varies both in

computational domain. In rivers as there are

space and time. The problem is how to de-

high spatial and temporal variations in flow

lineate the areas where the bed forms are

depth and flow regime satisfying the validity

contributing to the resistance and where they

limits everywhere in the computational do-

are not. Generally the van Rijn’s (1984b)

main is difficult if not impossible. One possi-

procedure can be used to identify the local

ble approach is to use a universal velocity

bed forms and the corresponding equivalent

distribution law which is valid for the whole

sand roughness depending on the dimen-

flow depth. The validity of the logarithmic

sionless grain size and transport stage pa-

region can be extended to the whole flow

rameter. In this study the average observed

depth by using the velocity defect law (Coles

energy gradient and the critical shear velocity

1956), given by equation (20).

for the average bed grain size of the river

Vb 1 ⎛ (H + z b )u* ⎞ Π ⎛ H + zb ⎞ (20) were used to compute the ‘critical’ flow

= ln ⎜ + B − ∆B +

⎟ ⎜f ⎟

u* κ ⎝ υ ⎠ κ ⎝ δ ⎠ depth below and above which we have only

In which Π is the profile parameter grain roughness. A polynomial fit was then

and f ( H + z b ) is the wake function. The used to smooth out the spatial z 0 distribu-

δ tion of the neighboring cells around the

boundary layer thickness can be computed ‘critical’ flow depth. The grain roughness was

from equation (21) for known values of free taken as 3D90 . Wiberg and Rubin (1985) sug-

stream velocity, U ∞ and the distance

gested the saltation roughness in terms of

l (Schlichting 1968).

−1

z 0 value to be approximately 0.1 cm. Field

⎛U l ⎞ 5 (21) studies showed that the river bed for the test

δ = 0.37l ⎜ ∞ ⎟

⎝ υ ⎠ case of this study is composed of three di-

For rivers equation (21) is difficult to evaluate mensional ripples and the equivalent bed

as the velocity profiles could be skewed due roughness due to ripples was calculated ac-

to 3-D effects and the flow field may contain cording to Grant and Madsen (1982)

many flow separated regions. For practical ∆2

k s = 27.7 (23)

applications the boundary layer thickness can λ

be assumed to be related to the flow depth, In which ∆ is bed form height and λ is bed

i.e., δ = β H . A new expression for z 0 can be form length.

obtained from equation (20) for the wake law

with an empirical fit to the wake function Shear stress partitioning

given by Cebeci & Bradshaw (1977) The other modification made was shear

stress partitioning (in areas where bed form is

contributing to flow resistance) to extract the

6

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

q b* = 0.053[( s − 1) g ] D50 (28)

0.5 1.5

sediment transport. The effective shear ve- D*

0.3

'

locity, u * , for the lower flow regime (ripples Ls = 3D50 D* T 0.9

0.6

(29)

and dunes) was calculated by using the flow

resistance relationship by Engelund and Substituting equation (27) in equation (28)

Hansen (Yang 1996). produces an elliptic equation. First order

0 .5

upwind scheme discretization of the resulting

⎛ u*

4

⎞ (24) equation produces a tri-diagonal matrix

u* = ⎜⎜ 0.06 g ( s − 1) D50 + 0.4 ⎟

'

implicit procedure of Stone (1968). The bed

The transport stage parameter, T which is

evolution was evaluated using the leap-frog

used for the computation of suspended and

method using equation (27). The depth of the

bed load was calculated using this effective

water was then adjusted according to the

shear velocity (van Rijn 1984a and van Rijn

changes in the bed so that the flow field can

1984b)

respond to the new situation.

T=

(u ) − (u

*

' 2

*,crbed )

2

(25)

(u *,crbed) 2 MODEL APPLICATION

In which u*,crbed is the critical bed shear ve- The improved model was applied to a test

case, the river Klarälven.

locity which depends on the local shear Rey-

nolds number and was calculated using the Model description and model boundary

Shields curve for initiation of motion. The

The river Klarälven enters Sweden in the

critical shear velocity was also corrected for

north of the county of Värmland. Its course

the bottom and side slopes according to

in Värmland is south down to the river

Chien (1999).

mouth on lake Vänern at the city of Karlstad

Bed load transport and bed evolution where it bifurcates into an east and west

channels. Vänern is the largest freshwater

In rivers the contribution of bed load trans- lake in Sweden. The course of the river is a

port to the total load can be significant. Thus sequence of regular meanders that are unique

a realistic modeling of sediment transport with respect to size and regularity. A one

would require the inclusion of the bed load kilometre long reach of the river was mod-

transport. This was done by including the elled that extends 0.5 km upstream of the

bed load in the sediment mass-balance equa- bifurcation (Figure 1). To insure uniform

tion for the bed evolution. inlet boundary conditions, the upper limit of

∂z b ∂α bξ1 qb ∂α bξ 2 qb (26) the reach was placed in a straight river sec-

(1 − p ) +E−D+ + =0

∂t ∂ξ1 ∂ξ 2 tion. The river topography was measured in

In which q b is the actual bed load transport, April 2004 at 11312 points scattered along

the river reach. The mean measurement

p is the porosity of the bed material, α bξ1 and resolution ranges from 2 m to 6 m. The flow

α bξ 2 are the direction cosines in the or- discharges at the inlet and the two outlets

thogonal curvilinear coordinates ξ1 and defined by east and west channels were

measured. Point velocity measurements were

ξ 2 respectively. A formulation for the bed also taken at the inlet at 10 m intervals across

deformation (Rodi 2000) was used. the stream and at 0.5 m intervals in the verti-

∂z b cal direction. To define the inlet boundary

(1 − p ) =

1

(qb − qb * ) (27)

conditions, the velocities along a vertical at

∂t Ls

each station were fitted to the wake law ve-

The equilibrium bed load transport, qb* and

locity distribution to obtain the bed shear

the non-equilibrium adaptation length for velocity. A continuous distribution of the bed

bed load transport, Ls were calculated accord- shear velocity across the stream was obtained

ing to van Rijn (1984a) by fitting a curve to the bed shear velocities

7

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

calculated for each station. The velocity at the water division and the water surface

different σ -layers for each computational profile. The normalized error in the com-

inlet grid was then computed using the wake puted flow division was with in 0.8 % (West

law velocity distribution with the shear veloc- channel) and 0.6 % (east channel) while the

ity at the same grid. The observed water normalized error in the water surface varied

levels at the outlet of the east and west chan- with in 0.14 % in the deep areas to 3 % in the

nels were specified. River bottom above the shallow areas.

observed water surface was considered as dry

or inactive cell. Flow depths less than 0.2 m Grid Independence

were considered as 0.2 m to avoid instabilities A grid dependency study was carried out to

due to sediment deposition. At the inlet and minimize numerical errors due to coarse

outlet boundaries equilibrium bed load was discretization. In the horizontal direction the

assumed while zero suspended sediment number of grids was dictated by the available

concentration was used at the inlet boundary resolution of the bottom topography. Five

as sediment load data was not available. vertical layers were taken to start with. By

spatially varying the roughness the normal-

Grid generation ized error in the water surface profile was

The numerical model was built using the made to lie within 0.2 to 5 % and the flow

interpolated bottom topography (Figure 1). division was 0.6 % in the west channel and

The horizontal orthogonal curvilinear grid 0.4 % in the east channel. The number of

was generated by CCHE2D mesh generator grids in the vertical direction was increased

using the Poisson scheme with smoothness from 5 to 7. By using the same roughness

and orthogonality of 91 and 95 %, respec- distribution used for 5 layers the normalized

tively. The average grid spacing in the com- error in the water surface profile was within

putational domain was about 6.0 m. The grid 0.17 to 4 % and the flow division was 0.66 %

spacing around the bifurcation and around in the west channel and 0.48 % in the east

the bends was made finer with an average channel. There was no significant change in

spacing of 2.0 m. the water surface profile and flow division.

However, the change in the shear stress was

Solution algorithm very significant (the normalized change be-

In this study, data for discharge hydrograph tween the shear stress fields of 5 and 7 layers

was not available and the flow simulation was was about 10 % and greater). When the

done for an observed steady flow of 285 number of grids was increased to 9 the nor-

m3/s which lasted for 2 hours. The model malized shear stress change between 7 and 9

was run with time steps of 0.2 seconds for layers was less than 3%. The results are

the internal mode and 0.02 seconds for the summarized in Table 1. Thus, the resolution

external mode with a ramping of 10000 steps. 126x48x9 is sufficient to obtain reliable nu-

The model was restarted and run for extra merical results.

steps until steady state flow field was ob-

tained. The sediment transport was then Table 1. Table showing the change in the

activated and the model was run for 2 hours. normalized errors and shear stress as the

number of vertical layers is increased.

Model calibration

Lay- Normalized Normalized Normalized

The model was calibrated for a discharge of ers error in error in flow change in

285 m3/s using the measured water surface water [%] bottom shear

surface [%] stress

profiles and discharge division between the West East

two river channels. The percentage of the 5 0.2 – 5.0 0.6 0.4

discharge into west and east channels were

7 0.17 - 4.0 0.66 0.48 >= 10 %

42% and 58%, respectively. Model calibration

9 0.23 – 5.3 0.58 0.42 <= 3 %

was done for a grid number of 126x48x9 by

spatially varying the roughness to satisfy both

8

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

Sensitivity analysis was made to check how the local increase in water surface elevation is

far simulation results were sensitive to bed shown. The model also predicted the trans-

roughness used for calibration. The water verse water-surface slope at the river bend in

surface difference between the inlet and the agreement with the physics of the helicoidal

outlet was found to vary approximately line- secondary flows. The water surface su-

arly with the roughness while the flow divi- perelevation depths between the outside

sion in the east and west channel was found bank and inside bank ranged between 5 to 8

not sensitive to changes in roughness. Suc- mm in the east channel bend and from 3 to 9

cessively increasing the roughness from a mm in the west channel bend. They were

z 0 value of 1 cm to 2 cm and to 3 cm pro- comparable to approximate values of 7 mm

(East channel) and 8 mm (west channel)

duced an average water surface gradient of computed using lppen and Drinker (1962)

0.007 %, 0.01% and 0.013%, respectively. method.

However, the bottom shear stress was found

to be very sensitive to the change in the The velocity vectors closely followed the bed

roughness. A similar increment of roughness topography. A general flow diversion from

the main channel to the east channel was

from a z 0 value of 1 cm to 2 cm produced a

detected that explains the large portion of the

spatial bottom shear stress variation of up to total flow entering the east channel. The flow

40 %. field showed horizontal secondary flows

following the river banks at locations where

Validation the river topography forces flow separations

A comprehensive validation of the model to occur. The examination of the velocity

would require extensive field data on water vectors and velocity contours in different

surface profiles, velocity profiles, secondary horizontal planes showed that the flow sepa-

flow structures and flow circulation regions. ration regions had a complex 3D form that

For the purpose of this study only limited extended from the water surface to the river

data were available at two different discharge bed. The velocity vectors upstream of the

values of 285 m3/s and 136 m3/s. The model bifurcation also showed a significant varia-

was validated with the field data for 136 m3/s tion with the depth. The surface velocity

by using the roughness distribution obtained vectors (Figure 4) showed no secondary

during calibration for 285 m3/s. In compari- flows apart from flow line convergence due

son with field data, the normalized error in to the local increased in the depth. However,

the observed water surface profile varied from the fourth sigma layer downwards large

from 0.11 % to 1.33 %. The normalized error flow recirculation regions appeared (Figures 5

in the flow division was 2.44 % for the west and 6).

channel and 1.56 % for the east channel. The general patterns of the secondary flows

Regarding the flow field, stream lines as well in the vertical directions were predicted by

as the local flow circulation region upstream the model. Few examples are given in Fig-

of the river bifurcation agreed well with the ures 7(a-d) where the velocity vectors, veloc-

field observations (Figure 2). The predicted ity contours and the interpolated secondary

secondary flow fields also showed a general flows are shown. The velocity contours for

agreement with the previous simulations different layers are given in figures 8(a-h) to

done by Dargahi (2004). show the general pattern of velocity variation

in the vertical direction. The bed shear

Flow field

stresses were computed as total as well as

The flow field in the river was successfully effective stresses, Figures 9 and 10 showing

simulated by the model that included the the two cases, respectively. The distributions

water surface profiles, velocities, secondary of shear stresses are similar for both cases

flows, and bed shear stresses. Figure 3 shows although the magnitudes of total shear

the contour lines of the water surface pro- stresses are about four times higher than the

9

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

effective shear stresses. As the bed shear computed water surface gradient was lower

stress is the primary agent for sediment than the observed one by a factor of 0.5. This

transport, the difference in magnitude is indicated the presence of significant contri-

important. The results emphasis the need of bution of resistance from bed forms which

choosing an appropriate distribution for was in agreement with the observed three

sediment transport computations. In com- dimensional ripples in the field. Moreover,

parison with west channel, the shear stresses the bottom shear stress was highly sensitive

are higher in the east channel as well as in the to the change in roughness height than the

deep main channel that conveys a larger water surface as discussed in the sensitivity

portion of the flow into the east channel. The analysis section. Realistic representation of

lower shear stress regions correspond to the roughness is needed as the bottom shear

area with little sediment transport activities. stress is the main parameter which drives

sediment transport. Two problems appeared

Sediment transport when taking the bed form roughness in to

The general pattern of bed changes after 2- account. The first problem was related to the

hours is shown in Figure 11. The figure higher shear velocities and the sigma levels.

shows the contour lines expressed in the Locating the last sigma layer in the logarith-

units of millimeter (erosion in negative sign). mic region was not possible due to high bed

The main features are the formation of a shear velocity and high flow depth variation.

sandbank at the entrance to the east channel The high bed shear velocity required the

and the division of the main channel into two depth to the first grid off the surface to be

regions of erosion and deposition. The model very small for the shear Reynolds number to

predicted the classical erosion patterns ob- satisfy the validity range. Due to the sigma

served in the river bends. The maximum transformation the depth of the last sigma

erosion depth was -46.7 mm, which occurred layer is directly proportional to the total

in the east channel near the concave curve. A depth of the flow. Locating the last grid in

similar trend was found in the west channel the logarithmic range in deep areas produced

bend although the maximum erosion was -20 a situation where the last grid is below the

mm. The high values correspond to the re- roughness height in shallow areas. Hence, the

gions of high effective bed shear stresses. depth in the shallow areas needed to be set to

Figures 12(a-d) compare the predict bed level a certain depth so that the last grid stays

changes at 3 representative river cross sec- above the roughness height everywhere in

tions. For the ease of comparison the verti- the computational domain. As the number of

cal scale corresponding to the model values vertical grids were increased to obtain a nu-

are exaggerated. The division of river into merically error free grid (checking grid inde-

distinct regions of deposition and erosion are pendence) the minimum depth to be set

well illustrated by these figures. needed higher values which resulted in exces-

sive modification of the topography. High

DISCUSSION roughness values which produced unrealistic

shear stress distribution were required to

Flow field: The direct application of the

compensate for the lowering of the river bed.

ECOMSED model with no modifications

The remedy to the first problem was to use

caused a number of difficulties that produced

the wake law which is applicable for the

unrealistic results both in comparison with

whole depth and to set a certain minimum

field data and observations and the physics of

depth which will not affect the bed topogra-

the flow. It was not possible to calibrate the

phy so that the last grid will be above the

model with a constant roughness value to

roughness height in the whole computational

produce the measured flow division and the

domain. The second problem was related to

right water surface profile. The right water

the spatial distribution of roughness due to

division was produced by modifying the

bed forms. Specification of bed form rough-

model to allow specification of spatially vari-

ness in the whole computational domain

able grain roughness. However, the average

10

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

resulted in higher shear stresses in shallow total shear stress was used. For the bed evo-

areas. This needed delineation of areas where lution, using the non-equilibrium bed load

the bed form is contributing to the roughness transport in the sediment mass balance equa-

and where the bed form is not contributing tion produced a smooth solution than di-

to the roughness. The observed average rectly using the bed load transport computed

water surface gradient and critical shear ve- with empirical formulas which assume local

locity for the average bed grain size was used equilibrium.

to determine the ‘critical’ depth above which

the ripples are contributing to the total CONCLUSION

roughness. By doing so, a discontinuity in The study has led to a number of improve-

roughness distribution was introduced. A ments that should increase the applicability of

polynomial function was fitted to the rough- ECOMSED model to rivers. These are

ness distribution in the neighboring cells

around the ‘critical’ flow depth to smooth the • Treatment of river roughness param-

discontinuity. This procedure gave a realistic eterization.

bed shear stress distribution. • Bed form effects on the spatial and

Secondary flows: The secondary flows in the temporal roughness distribution

river cross-sections consisted of multiple • Bed shear stress partitioning.

counter-rotating spiral motions (Figures 7a- • Addition of bed load transport

c). The spiral motions (helical cells) are model.

shown by circles with rotation direction • Automatic update of bed evolution.

indicated by arrow. The number of cells The improved model was successfully ap-

increases as the river bifurcation region is plied to simulate flow and sediment transport

approached. The increase is partly due to the in the 1-km long reach of the River

anisotropic distribution of wall shear stresses Klarälven. The model reproduced secondary

and the unequal approach velocity. In com- flows at different locations in the river bank,

parison with the other regions of the flow, at the bifurcation and around the bends. The

the bifurcation sections had a greater spatial study also confirmed the existence of multi-

variation implying an increase in secondary ply helical motions in the river. The erosion -

flow cells. The general patterns agree with sedimentation patterns simulated were also

Dargahi’s (2004) finding, although he reports realistic. The model predicted the growth of a

a higher number of cells especially in the large sandbank at the river bifurcation and at

river bends. The difference between the the entrance to the east river channel. With

present results and his results can be ex- time, the predicted sandbank can cause a

plained partly by a higher grid resolution, and serious flood problem in combination with

partly by his use of different turbulence high flow periods.

model. The improved ECOMSED model is a valu-

Sediment transport: ECOMSED considers only able tool to deal with river engineering prob-

suspended sediment transport as the contri- lems. The advantages of the model are its

bution of bed load movement in large water flexibility and the possibilities for modifica-

bodies such as lakes and oceans is insignifi- tions or adding new models. The use of

cant. However, the bed load contribution can ECOMSED model can eliminate the need of

be considerable in the case of rivers. The bed expensive CFD commercial codes that have

load concentration in this study exceeded the two main disadvantages. Firstly, they are not

suspended load concentration by a factor of primary developed for rivers, and secondly a

10. The importance of shear partitioning can “black box” approach does not make their

also be seen from the figures 9 and 10. As effective use possible.

shown in figure 9 the total shear stress ex-

ceeds the effective shear stress by a factor of

4 times in some areas. As a result the erosion

deposition pattern was exaggerated when the

11

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

I=1

Inlet I = 38 I = 128

East

I = 82

I = 76 I = 112

y

West

x

Figure 1. Model boundary, river bed elevation and horizontal orthogonal curvilinear grids

(x, y and legend in meters).

Figure 2. Simulated velocity vectors and observed tracer path lines used for model valida-

tion (x, y in meters).

12

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

Figure 3. Simulated water surface profile showing a local increase at the bifurcation due to

stagnation, and superelevations at the bends (x, y in meters).

0.5 m/s

y

Figure 4. Surface velocity vectors at bifurcation showing no recirculation but showing flow

convergence (x, y in meters).

13

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

0.5 m/s

y

x

Figure 5. Velocity vectors at bifurcation (at the fourth sigma layer from the surface). Sec-

ondary flows appeared at this level (x, y in meters).

0.5 m/s

y

Figure 6. Velocity vectors at the bifurcation (at the river bed). The intensity of secondary

flows increased from the fourth sigma layer to the bottom (x, y in meters).

14

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

1 m/s 1 m/s

x

a) Section 38

1 m/s

x

b) Section 76

15

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

1 m/s

x c) Section 82

1 m/s

x

d) Section 112

Figure 7. Vertical secondary flows showing velocity vectors, velocity contours (m/s) and

interpolated vortices at section 38, 76, 82 and 112 (x, y in meters).

16

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

x

b) Layer 2

17

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

c) Layer 3

d) Layer 4

18

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

e) Layer 5

f) Layer 6

19

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

g) Layer 7

x

h) Layer 8

Figure 8. Velocity contours in m/s for different layers showing the vertical variation of the

horizontal velocity in the whole computational domain.

20

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

x

Figure 10. Effective shear stress distribution in N/m2 (x, y in meters).

21

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

x

Figure 11. Predicted bed level changes after 2 hours in mm (-ve shows erosion while

+ indicates the contour line for which the value is specified. x, y in meters).

x

a) Section 38

x

b) Section 76

22

3-D Numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers

x

c) Section 82

x

d) Section 112

Figure 12. Predicted bed level changes at section 38, 76, 82 and 112 after 2 hours simula-

tion (x, y in meters, the predicted values are exaggerated, Original bed level, Pre-

dicted bed level).

23

Muluneh Admass TRITA LWR.LIC 2028

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25

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