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The management process comprises of various stages which can be termed as

functions of management can be elaborated as planning, organising, staffing,
directing and controlling. All the functions of management are primary in nature
albeit there are various numerous functions performed by the managers like
forecasting, budgeting, reporting, representation and innovation (Everard, 2008)

Management can be defined as “Management consists in guiding human and

physical resources into dynamic, hard hitting organisation unit that attains its
objectives to the satisfaction of those served and with a high degree of morale
and work” Chester I. Bernard

Understand principles and practices: (Managerial Behaviour)

The burning angst and furore against the bureaucratic authority mainly stems
from the fact, that there has been some sort of exploitation. The plummeting
spiral downfall of motivation results due to ‘lack of facility’, ‘pressure of work’
and ‘reduction in available funds.’ From this, it is clearly evident that, the
supervisors are the victims of exploitation in the ground of financial parity which
doesn’t meet the amount of work load they are putting.

Behaviour Management is responsible for positive outcome of the business and

to maintain interaction with all the aspects of the business. The foremost priority
of managerial behaviour are to create a ambience of mutual understanding
among the employee, to protect the laws and rules of the company, to set
boundaries for the members to achieve their goal successfully and finally the
managerial behaviour is essential to maintain accordance in working area.

Leaning Outcomes 1

1.1 Management styles can be defined as “the approach and advances initiated
by enterprise management to the supervision and control of the operational
productivity, task performance and work behaviour of subordinates” Styles of
management vary according to the degree of management which can be
comprehended in terms of direct oversight of subordinates and helpful behaviour
by managers and supervisors (Sakthvel, 2005)

The comparison between two styles of management can be described as:-

a) External Environmental factors of management styles

This factor comprises of technology, the persisting nature of the expectations of

external stakeholder, the nature of market, technology, customer services or
client requirements and the level of need for output quality and reliability
(Sakthvel, 2005)

b) Internal factors of management styles

This factor comprises of the size and scale of organisation, the span of control
and hierarchy, capability, capacity and competence of employer and employee
categories occupational state and level in the hierarchy and degree to which
organisation structure is massive (Sakthvel, 2005)

1.2 Armstrong (1990) leadership in terms of getting things done through people.
The leadership aspect in the organisation and management exists due to the
availability of more than one person in the task, task for higher goal
achievement strategy, and when managerial functions are to be carried
smoothly (Tony, 2004) The success of Organisation and every firm depends upon
the quality of leadership. The characteristics of leadership can be classified as:-

1. Leadership implies the emergence of followers: - The amount of followers

signifies the impact of the leader and the quality of leadership. It is the foremost
requirement in management to maintain the proper leadership quality in order to
achieve the desired results (Tony, 2004)

2. Leadership applies an unequal distribution of authority among leaders and

group members: - Proper leadership enables the smooth functioning of the
enterprise. The correct amount of work is distributed by the leader according to
the authorities in organisation (Tony, 2004)

3. Leadership involves a community of Interest between the employer and

employee: - The main objective and perspective of the leader is to maintain a
formal accord between the employer and employee in order for a smooth
functioning of the Organisation (Tony, 2004)

1.3 A proper understanding of the information is important feature of

communication in business. In other words communication is not merely the
transmission of information from one person to another but also correct
interpretation and understanding of the Information (Tripathi, 2008) Taking
business into consideration two process of Communication can be identified:-

1. Formal Communication: - Basically the organisation comprises majorly of the

Formal communication which runs through a channel of work related matters. All
decisions, instructions, orders are communicated to the subordinates through
this channel. There are four areas in business where formal communication
exists which are upward channel of management, downward channel of
management and channel between department and organisations (Tripathi,

2. Informal Organisation: - Informal Communication is not generally used in the

business. Only two areas comprises of Informal communication in business which
are –work related areas and people related areas. One of the functions of
Informal communication in organisation is known as the “grapevine” (Tripathi,
Herzberg and aspects of Supervisor’s performance (Task 1)

Herzberg’s dual theory of motivation can be found in best forms here. Growth,
promotion, and work itself are the main motivating factor that drives a worker. In
this case, the growth is shunned. The work pressure is high and recognition is
low. Hygiene factors which are cyclical in nature, leads to a syndrome- ‘’ what
have you done for me’’ recently. Here, the grievances are on the same line
though. They are unrest about the lack of facility. Pay benefit is a hygiene factor,
which keeps a worker happy, here it is disrupted.

The problem of mistrust between the staff and senior management is a major
concern though. In Herzberg’s hygiene theory, relation with the co-worker is an
important aspect in keeping high motivation. Here, there is mistrust amongst the
co-workers. The cause however is known. Hygiene factors operate
independently. Here, the co-workers are dissatisfied with the work environment.

Learning Outcomes 2

This dissatisfaction is manifold as discussed earlier. However, a key point is, the
staffs regarded the supervisors as a level of management poor at managing their
sections. They have failed to maintain a certain level of performance standard
and ignore work practices. Again, this can be referred back to Herzberg’s theory
of motivation. Company policy and administration is very important in keeping
workers happy. Here, the blame has been put on the supervisors regarding their
work ethics, performance standard. Such incendiary statements caused dissent
and revulsion. The supervisors countered each and every allegation with crassly

They feel, the position in the company (recognition) was unsure in the beginning.
Even the administration was held loose, with no clear line of authority, command
and responsibility. This has hampered in taking strong decisions. The people are
made unhappy by unhealthy environment. The supervisors argued, they were
left unrecognised (not bothering about recognitions), funding shortages (growth),
unrealistic targets (poor administration and company policy), no job descriptions
and lack of facility (achievement and promotion).

A key hygiene factor as mentioned by Herzberg was Job security. The supervisors
claimed that there is no job security in the work place. Financial cutbacks and
changes in service lead to the rumours of substantial cutbacks in staffs. The
problem of supervision is also noticeable. The younger trainers are trained hard,
to replace the supervisors. They are given technological benefits.

This clearly edifies why there is a cut-price and low salary for the supervisors.
Moreover, as Herzberg said personal growth is necessary for high motivation, is
lacking here. Coupled with the fact, there is a poor working condition prevailing
in the company. The problem faced by the supervisors and their grievances
against the authority clearly goes line in line with Herzberg’s theory of
Potential Prospective Manager review (Task 2)

The Manager here must need to address few problems. He should not this fact,
that there is a certain level of exploitation going on. Whether, the staffs are right
or the supervisors are in their protests- there are few ways to check and handle

In this situation, the important aspect is finance. The manager should look in to
the matter that Why there is a reduction in wage? This clearly states us, that
regarding distribution of wage is not a ground level problem; it is a problem of
administration and the company policy.

While trying to address it, he must look, at the cause of reduction of wage. The
manager will find, that pay benefit has been hampered due to the reason, that
younger trainers are getting to do the jobs of the supervisors and as a result
there is a massive pay-cut, even few are shown exit doors. There is unrest about
the job. This must be addressed.

Secondly, while addressing this issue, subsequently the manager should look
into another important aspect, that why the younger trainers are trained so hard
so that they can do a supervisor job? That means, there are some administrative

This is a micro-problem. Simply because, the supervisors demanded, there is a

lack of facility, they were neglected and there is no growth. However, on the
contrary, younger trainers are getting good trainings with good software. This
must be a concern. That means, the staffs doesn’t want extra people in the
company or they want to reduce the wage of the supervisors. The problem here,
is, in doing so, they have neglected the supervisors. Had they been trained
properly, given proper injunction, they would have also performed.

These are the factors which might influence the manager’s decision. Apart from
man-management, poor conditions of the working place should also be taken
into account. The fragile infrastructure and the beurocratic organisation are
equally responsible for the present problem that needs addressing.

Learning Outcome 3

Analysis of managerial skills within a business and services

Managerial post comes with the great level of responsibilities first of all it is
essential to know all the aspects of business in which it persists. There are many
functions and operations to be performed with the high responsibilities of the
managers as panning, controlling, organising, staffing and directing. After the
performance of the compulsory functions of the management it is foremost task
of the manager to maintain proper communication with all the channels of
business states in order for a smooth functioning of the business
According to the scenario of the business and keeping Herzberg theory of
motivation in mind it is important to keep in the business policies and
advantages of the employers. In this situation, the important aspect is finance.
The manager should look in to the matter that Why there is a reduction in wage?
This clearly states us, that regarding distribution of wage is not a ground level
problem; it is a problem of administration and the company policy. Therefore
manager should work for the welfare of the masses and the organisation rather
thinking and working for the individual.

Managerial and personal skills play a vital role in the career development, it
astute the manager and makes him aware about the business policies and the
environment of the organisation. Various qualities develop within the manager
due course of the management like leadership, communication, motivational and
aim oriented all the above qualities are very helpful in enlarging individuals
career opportunities and built a strong curriculum vitae for career development

Career and personal development needs can be supported by the characteristics

of a good manager. All the nature and essential feature of a good manager are
the requirement in the future to develop and enhance the productivity for a firm
in all forms.

Everard. (2008). Business principles and management. england: Cengage.

Sakthvel, M. (2005). Management principle and practices. new delhi:

International pvt. ltd.

Tony, M. (2004). Principles of management, 3rd edition. England: Ashgate


Tripathi, P. R. (2008). principles of management. New Delhi: Mc grew hill