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"AMD" redirects here. For other uses, see AMD (disambiguation).

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD; NYSE: AMD) is an American multinational

semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California, that develops computer processors
and related technologies for commercial and consumer markets. Its main products include
microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for
servers, workstations and personal computers, and processor technologies for handheld
devices, digital television, automobiles, game consoles, and other embedded systems
applications. AMD main manufacturing facilities are in Malaysia and Germany (now owned
by GlobalFoundries).

AMD is the second-largest global supplier of microprocessors based on the x86 architecture
and also one of the largest supplier of graphics processing units. It also owns 8.6% of
Spansion, a supplier of non-volatile flash memory.[2] In 2010, AMD ranked twelfth among
semiconductor manufacturers in terms of revenue.[3]

Corporate history

Advanced Micro Devices was founded on May 1, 1969, by a group of former executives from
Fairchild Semiconductor, including Jerry Sanders III, Ed Turney, John Carey, Sven
Simonsen, Jack Gifford and three members from Gifford's team, Frank Botte, Jim Giles, and
Larry Stenger. The company began as a producer of logic chips, then entered the RAM chip
business in 1975. That same year, it introduced a reverse-engineered clone of the Intel 8080
microprocessor. During this period, AMD also designed and produced a series of bit-slice
processor elements (Am2900, Am29116, Am293xx) which were used in various
minicomputer designs.

During this time, AMD attempted to embrace the perceived shift towards RISC with their
own AMD 29K processor, and also attempted to diversify into graphics and audio devices as
well as EPROM memory. It had some success in the mid-1980s with the AMD7910 and
AMD7911 "World Chip" FSK modem, one of the first multistandard devices that covered
both Bell and CCITT tones at up to 1200 baud half duplex or 300/300 full duplex. The AMD
29K survived as an embedded processor and AMD spinoff Spansion continues to make
industry leading flash memory. AMD decided to switch gears and concentrate solely on Intel-
compatible microprocessors and flash memory, placing them in direct competition with Intel
for x86 compatible processors and their flash memory secondary markets.

AMD announced a merger with ATI Technologies on July 24, 2006. AMD paid $4.3 billion
in cash and 58 million shares of its stock for a total of US$5.4 billion. The merger completed
on October 25, 2006[4] and ATI is now part of AMD.

It was reported in December 2006 that AMD, along with its main rival in the graphics
industry Nvidia, received subpoenas from the Justice Department regarding possible antitrust
violations in the graphics card industry, including the act of fixing prices.[5]

In October 2008, AMD announced plans to spin off manufacturing operations in the form of a
multibillion-dollar joint venture with Advanced Technology Investment Co., an investment
company formed by the government of Abu Dhabi. The new venture is called
GlobalFoundries Inc.. This will allow AMD to focus solely on chip design.[6]

Processor market history

IBM PC and the x86 architecture

Main articles: Am286, Am386, Am486, and Am5x86

In February 1982, AMD signed a contract with Intel, becoming a licensed second-source
manufacturer of 8086 and 8088 processors. IBM wanted to use the Intel 8088 in its IBM PC,
but IBM's policy at the time was to require at least two sources for its chips. AMD later
produced the Am286 under the same arrangement, but Intel canceled the agreement in 1986
and refused to convey technical details of the i386 part. AMD challenged Intel's decision to
cancel the agreement and won in arbitration, but Intel disputed this decision. A long legal
dispute followed, ending in 1994 when the Supreme Court of California sided with AMD.
Subsequent legal disputes centered on whether AMD had legal rights to use derivatives of
Intel's microcode. In the face of uncertainty, AMD was forced to develop clean room
designed versions of Intel code.

In 1991, AMD released the Am386, its clone of the Intel 386 processor. It took less than a
year for the company to sell a million units. Later, the Am486 was used by a number of large
original equipment manufacturers, including Compaq, and proved popular. Another Am486-
based product, the Am5x86, continued AMD's success as a low-price alternative. However, as
product cycles shortened in the PC industry, the process of reverse engineering Intel's
products became an ever less viable strategy for AMD.

K5, K6, Athlon, Duron, and Sempron

Main articles: AMD K5, AMD K6, Athlon, Duron, and Sempron

AMD's first in-house x86 processor was the K5 which was launched in 1996.[7] The "K" was a
reference to Kryptonite, which from comic book lore, was the only substance (radioactive
pieces of his home planet) which could harm Superman, a clear reference to Intel, which
dominated in the market at the time, as "Superman". [8] The numeral "5" refers to the fifth
processor generation, which Intel introduced as Pentium because the US Trademark and
Patent Office ruled that mere numbers could not be trademarked.

In 1996, AMD purchased NexGen specifically for the rights to their Nx series of x86-
compatible processors. AMD gave the NexGen design team their own building, left them
alone, and gave them time and money to rework the Nx686. The result was the K6 processor,
introduced in 1997. Although the K6 was based on Socket 7, variants such as K6-2/450 were
faster than Intel's Pentium II (sixth generation processor).

The K7 was AMD's seventh generation x86 processor, making its debut on June 23, 1999,
under the brand name Athlon. Unlike previous AMD processors, it could not be used on the
same motherboards as Intels' due to licensing issues surrounding Intel's Slot 1 connector, and
instead used a Slot A connector, referenced to the Alpha processor bus. The Duron was a
lower cost and limited version of the Athlon (64KB instead of 256KB L2 cache) in a 462-pin
socketed PGA(socket A) or soldered directly on to the motherboard. Sempron was released as
a lower cost Athlon XP replacing Duron in the socket A PGA era and since migrated upward
to all new sockets up to AM3.

On October 9, 2001 the Athlon XP was released, followed by the Athlon XP with 512KB L2
Cache on February 10, 2003.[9]

[edit] Athlon 64, Opteron and Phenom

Main articles: Athlon 64, Opteron, and Phenom (processor)

The K8 was a major revision of the K7 architecture, with the most notable features being the
addition of a 64-bit extension to the x86 instruction set (officially called AMD64), the
incorporation of an on-chip memory controller, and the implementation of an extremely high
performance point-to-point interconnect called HyperTransport, as part of the Direct Connect
Architecture. The technology was initially launched as the Opteron server-oriented processor.
Shortly thereafter it was incorporated into a product for desktop PCs, branded Athlon 64.

AMD released the first dual core Opteron, an x86-based server CPU, on April 21, 2005.[12]
The first desktop-based dual core processor family—the Athlon 64 X2—came a month later.
In early May 2007, AMD had abandoned the string "64" in its dual-core desktop product
branding, becoming Athlon X2, downplaying the significance of 64-bit computing in its
processors while upcoming updates involved some of the improvements to the
microarchitecture, and a shift of target market from mainstream desktop systems to value
dual-core desktop systems. AMD has also started to release dual-core Sempron processors in
early 2008 exclusively in China, branded as Sempron 2000 series, with lower HyperTransport
speed and smaller L2 cache, thus the firm completes its dual-core product portfolio for each
market segment.

The latest AMD microprocessor architecture, known as K10, became the successor to the K8
microarchitecture. The first processors released on this architecture were introduced on
September 10, 2007 consisting of nine quad-core Third Generation Opteron processors. This
was followed by the Phenom processor for desktop. K10 processors came in dual-core, triple-
core,[14] and quad-core versions with all cores on a single die. A new platform codename
"Spider" was released utilising the new Phenom processor as well as an R770 GPU and a 790
GX/FX chipset from the AMD 700 chipset series. This was built at 65nm, and hence
uncompetitive with Intel who already progressed to the smaller and more power efficient
45nm node.

In January 2009 AMD released a new processor line dubbed Phenom II, a refresh of the
original Phenom built using the 45 nm process. Along with this came a new platform
codename "Dragon" which utilised a new Phenom II processor, an ATI R770 GPU from the
R700 GPU family, as well as a 790 GX/FX chipset from the AMD 700 chipset series. This
came in a dual-core, triple-core and quad-core variants, all using the same die with cores
disabled for the triple-core and dual-core versions. This resolved issues that the original
Phenom had including low clock speed, a small L3 cache and a Cool'n'Quiet bug that
decreased performance. This was price and performance competitive with Intel's mid to high
range Core 2 Quads. The processor also enhanced the Phenom's memory controller, allowing
it to use DDR3 in a new native socket AM3, while maintaining backwards compatibility with
AM2+, the socket used for the Phenom, and allowing the use of the DDR2 memory that was
used with the platform. In 2010 a new Phenom II hexa-core (6 core) processor codenamed
"Thuban" was released. This is a totally new die based on the hexa-core "Istanbul" Opteron
processor. It also includes AMD's "turbo core" technology which allows the processor to
automatically switch from 6 cores to 3 faster cores when more pure speed is needed. This is
part of AMD's Enthusiast platform codenamed ”Leo" utilising a new Phenom II processor, a
new chipset from the AMD 800 chipset series and an ATI "Cypress" GPU from the Evergreen
(GPU family) GPU series.

The Magny Cours and Lisbon server parts will be released in 2010. [dated info] The Magny Cours
part will come in 8 to 12 cores and the Lisbon part will come in 4 and 6 core parts. Magny
Cours is focused on performance while the Lisbon part is focused on high performance per
watt. Magny Cours is an MCM (Multi-Chip Module) with two hexa-core "Istanbul" Opteron
parts. This will use a new G34 socket for dual and quad socket processors and thus will be
marketed as Opteron 61xx series processors. Lisbon uses C32 socket certified for dual socket
use or single socket use only and thus will be marketed as Opteron 41xx processors. Both will
be built on a 45 nm SOI process.


Main articles: AMD Fusion, Bulldozer (processor), and Bobcat (processor)

After the merger between AMD and ATI, an initiative codenamed Fusion was announced that
will merge a CPU and GPU on some of their entry level chips, including a minimum 16 lane
PCI Express link to accommodate external PCI Express peripherals, thereby eliminating the
requirement of a northbridge chip completely from the motherboard. The initiative will see
some of the processing originally done on the CPU (e.g. Floating Point Unit operations)
moved to the GPU, which is better optimized for calculations such as Floating Point Unit
calculations. This is referred to by AMD as an Accelerated Processing Unit (APU).[15] AMD
will move to a modular design methodology named "M-SPACE", where two new processor
cores, codenamed "Bulldozer" and "Bobcat" will be released; Bulldozer is slated for the 2011
timeframe, whereas Bobcat is expected in Q4 2010.[16]

While very little preliminary information exists even in AMD's Technology Analyst Day
2007, both cores are to be built from the ground up. The Bulldozer core focused on 10 watt to
100 watt products, with optimizations for performance-per-watt ratios and HPC applications
and includes newly announced XOP, FMA4 and CVT16 instructions,[17] while the Bobcat core
will focus on 1 watt to 10 watt products, given that the core is a simplified x86 core to reduce
power draw. Both of the cores will be able to incorporate full DirectX compatible GPU
core(s) under the Fusion label, or as standalone products as a general purpose CPU.

Llano is to be the second APU released,[16] targeted at the mainstream market.[15] This will
incorporate a CPU and GPU on the same die, as well as the Northbridge functions, and
labeled on AMD's new timeline as using socket "AM3r2" with DDR3 memory. This will,
however, not be based on the new bulldozer core and will in fact be similar to the current
Phenom II "Deneb" processor serving as AMD's high-end processor until the release of the
new 32 nm parts.

Bulldozer is revealed to be organized in modules, each consisting of two integer cores capable
of processing integers and one floating point unit (FPU). Each module will be seen by the OS
as two cores and all of AMD's new 2011, 32 nm high-end desktop and server parts will be
built on the Bulldozer microarchitecture, including Zambezi and Orochi for the desktop and
Interlagos and Valencia for the server market.

Other platforms and technologies

AMD chipsets

See also: Comparison of AMD chipsets

Before the launch of Athlon 64 processors in 2003, AMD designed chipsets for their
processors spanning the K6 and K7 processor generations. The chipsets include the AMD-
640, AMD-751 and the AMD-761 chipsets. The situation changed in 2003 with the release of
Athlon 64 processors, and AMD chose not to further design its own chipsets for its desktop
processors while opening the desktop platform to allow other firms to design chipsets. This is
the "Open Platform ATI, VIA and SiS developing their own chipset for Athlon 64 processors
and later Athlon 64 X2 and Athlon 64 FX processors, including the Quad FX platform chipset
from Nvidia.

The initiative went further with the release of Opteron server processors as AMD stopped the
design of server chipsets in 2004 after releasing the AMD-8111 chipset, and again opened the
server platform for firms to develop chipsets for Opteron processors. As of today, Nvidia and
Broadcom are the sole designing firms of server chipsets for Opteron processors.

As the company completed the acquisition of ATI Technologies in 2006, the firm gained the
ATI design team for chipsets which previously designed the Radeon Xpress 200 and the
Radeon Xpress 3200 chipsets. AMD then renamed the chipsets for AMD processors under
AMD branding (for instance, the CrossFire Xpress 3200 chipset was renamed as AMD 580X
CrossFire chipset). In February 2007, AMD announced the first AMD-branded chipset since
2004 with the release of the AMD 690G chipset (previously under the development codename
RS690), targeted at mainstream IGP computing. It was the industry's first to implement a
HDMI 1.2 port on motherboards, shipping for more than a million units. While ATI had
aimed at releasing an Intel IGP chipset, the plan was scrapped and the inventories of Radeon
Xpress 1250 (codenamed RS600, sold under ATI brand) was sold to two OEMs, Abit and
ASRock. Although AMD states the firm will still produce Intel chipsets, Intel had not granted
the license of 1333 MHz FSB to ATI.

On November 15, 2007, AMD announced a new chipset series portfolio, the AMD 7-Series
chipsets, covering from enthusiast multi-graphics segment to value IGP segment, to replace
the AMD 480/570/580 chipsets and AMD 690 series chipsets, marking AMD's first enthusiast
multi-graphics chipset. Discrete graphics chipsets were launched on November 15, 2007 as
part of the codenamed Spider desktop platform, and IGP chipsets were launched at a later
time in Spring 2008 as part of the codenamed Cartwheel platform.

AMD will also return to the server chipsets market with the next-generation AMD 800S series
server chipsets, scheduled to be released in 2009 timeframe.

AMD Live!
Main article: AMD Live!

AMD LIVE! is a platform marketing initiative focusing the consumer electronics segment,
with a recently announced Active TV initiative for streaming Internet videos from web video
services such as YouTube, into AMD Live! PC as well as connected digital TVs, together
with a scheme for an ecosystem of certified peripherals for the ease of customers to identify
peripherals for AMD Live! systems for digital home experience, called "AMD Live! Ready".

AMD Quad FX platform

Main article: AMD Quad FX platform

The AMD Quad FX platform, being an extreme enthusiast platform, allows two processors to
connect through HyperTransport, which is a similar setup to dual-processor (2P) servers,
excluding the use of buffered memory/registered memory DIMM modules, and a server
motherboard, the current setup includes two Athlon 64 FX-70 series processors and a special
motherboard. AMD pushed the platform for the surging demands for what AMD calls
"megatasking" for true enthusiasts,[19] the ability to do more tasks on a single system. The
platform refreshes with the introduction of Phenom FX processors and the next-generation
RD790 chipset, codenamed "FASN8".

Commercial platform

The first AMD server/workstation platform after ATI acquisition is scheduled to be released
on 2009 timeframe. Codenamed Fiorano, AMD's first multi-processor server platform after
ATI acquisition consists of AMD SR5690 + SP5100 server chipsets, supporting 45 nm,
codenamed Shanghai Socket F+ processors and registered DDR2 memory. Future update
include the Maranello platform supporting 45 nm, codenamed Istanbul, Socket G34
processors with DDR3 memory. On single-processor platform, the codenamed Catalunya
platform consists of codenamed Suzuka 45 nm quad-core processor with AMD SR5580 +
SP5100 chipset and DDR3 support.[20]

AMD's x86 virtualization extension to the 64-bit x86 architecture is named AMD
Virtualization, also known by the abbreviation AMD-V, and is sometimes referred to by the
code name "Pacifica". AMD processors using Socket AM2, Socket S1, and Socket F include
AMD Virtualization support. AMD Virtualization is also supported by release two (8200,
2200 and 1200 series) of the Opteron processors. The third generation (8300 and 2300 series)
of Opteron processors will see an update in virtualization technology, specifically the Rapid
Virtualization Indexing (also known by the development name Nested Page Tables),
alongside the Tagged TLB and Device Exclusion Vector (DEV).

AMD also promotes the "AMD I/O Virtualization Technology" (also known as IOMMU) for
I/O virtualization.[21] The AMD IOMMU specification has been updated to version 1.2.[22] The
specification describes the use of a HyperTransport architecture.

AMD's commercial initiatives include the following:

• AMD Trinity, provides support for virtualization, security and management. Key
features include AMD-V technology, codenamed Presidio trusted computing platform
technology, I/O Virtualization and Open Management Partition.[23]
• AMD Raiden, future clients similar to the Jack PC[24] to be connected through network
to a blade server for central management, to reduce client form factor sizes with AMD
Trinity features.
• Torrenza, coprocessors support through interconnects such as HyperTransport, and
PCI Express (though more focus was at HyperTransport enabled coprocessors), also
opening processor socket architecture to other manufacturers, Sun and IBM are among
the supporting consortium, with rumoured POWER7 processors would be socket-
compatible to future Opteron processors. The move made rival Intel responded with
the open of Front Side Bus (FSB) architecture as well as Geneseo,[25] a collaboration
project with IBM for coprocessors connected through PCI Express.
• Various certified systems programs and platforms: AMD Commercial Stable Image
Platform (CSIP), together with AMD Validated Server program, AMD True Server
Solutions, AMD Thermally Tested Barebones Platforms and AMD Validated Server
Program, providing certified systems for business from AMD.

Desktop platforms

Starting in 2007, AMD, following Intel, began using codenames for its desktop platforms
such as Spider or Dragon. The platforms, unlike Intel's approach, will refresh every year,
putting focus on platform specialization. The platform includes components as AMD
processors, chipsets, ATI graphics and other features, but continued to the open platform
approach, and welcome components from other vendors such as VIA, SiS, and Nvidia, as well
as wireless product vendors.

Updates to the platform includes the implementation of IOMMU I/O Virtualization with 45
nm generation of processors, and the AMD 800 chipset series in 2009.[26]

Embedded systems

Main articles: Alchemy (processor) and Geode (processor)

In February 2002, AMD acquired Alchemy Semiconductor for its Alchemy line of MIPS
processors for the hand-held and portable media player markets. On June 13, 2006, AMD
officially announced that the line was to be transferred to Raza Microelectronics, Inc., a
designer of MIPS processors for embedded applications.[27]

In August 2003, AMD also purchased the Geode business which was originally the Cyrix
MediaGX from National Semiconductor to augment its existing line of embedded x86
processor products. During the second quarter of 2004, it launched new low-power Geode NX
processors based on the K7 Thoroughbred architecture with speeds of fanless processors 667
MHz and 1 GHz, and 1.4 GHz processor with fan, of TDP 25 W. This technology is used in a
variety of embedded systems (Casino slot machines and customer kiosks for instance), several
UMPC designs in Asia markets, as well as the OLPC XO-1 computer, an inexpensive laptop
computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world.

For the past couple of years AMD has been introducing 64-bit processors into its embedded
product line starting with the AMD Opteron processor. Leveraging the high throughput
enabled through HyperTransport and the Direct Connect Architecture these server class
processors have been targeted at high end telecom and storage applications. In 2006 AMD
added the AMD Athlon, AMD Turion and Mobile AMD Sempron processors to its embedded
product line. Leveraging the same 64-bit instruction set and Direct Connect Architecture as
the AMD Opteron but at lower power levels, these processors were well suited to a variety of
traditional embedded applications. Throughout 2007 and into 2008 AMD has continued to
add both single-core Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors and dual-core
AMD Athlon X2 and AMD Turion processors to its embedded product line and now offers
embedded 64-bit solutions starting with 8W TDP Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon
processors for fan-less designs up to multi-processor systems leveraging multi-core AMD
Opteron processors all supporting longer than standard availability.[28]

In April 2007, AMD announced the release of the M690T integrated graphics chipset for
embedded designs. This enabled AMD to offer complete processor and chipset solutions
targeted at embedded applications requiring high performance 3D and video such as emerging
digital signage, kiosk and Point of Sale applications. The M690T was followed by the M690E
specifically for embedded applications which removed the TV output, which required
Macrovision licensing for OEMs, and enabled native support for dual TMDS outputs,
enabling dual independent DVI interfaces.

Flash technology

Main article: Spansion

While less visible to the general public than its CPU business, AMD is also a global leader in
flash memory. In 1993, AMD established a 50-50 partnership with Fujitsu called FASL, and
merged into a new company called FASL LLC in 2003. The joint venture firm went public
under ticker symbol SPSN in December 2005, with AMD shares drop to 37%.

AMD no longer directly participates in the Flash memory devices market now as AMD
entered into a non-competition agreement, as of December 21, 2005, with Fujitsu and
Spansion, pursuant to which it agreed not to directly or indirectly engage in a business that
manufactures or supplies standalone semiconductor devices (including single chip, multiple
chip or system devices) containing only Flash memory.[29]

Mobile platforms

AMD started a platform in 2003 aimed at mobile computing, but, with fewer advertisements
and promotional schemes, very little was known about the platform. The platform used
mobile Athlon 64 or mobile Sempron processors.

As part of the "Better by design" initiative, the open mobile platform, announced February
2007 with announcement of general availability in May 2007, comes together with 65 nm
fabrication process Turion 64 X2, and consists of three major components: an AMD
processor, graphics from either Nvidia or ATI Technologies which also includes integrated
graphics (IGP), and wireless connectivity solutions from Atheros, Broadcom, Marvell,
Qualcomm or Realtek.
The Puma platform and Turion Ultra processor was released on June 4, 2008. In the future,
AMD plans quad-core processors with 3D graphics capabilities (Fusion) to be launched in
2011 as the Sabine/Fusion platform.

Other initiatives

• 50x15, digital inclusion, with targeted 50% of world population to be connected

through Internet via affordable computers by the year of 2015.
• The Green Grid,[30] founded by AMD together with other founders, such as IBM, Sun
and Microsoft, to seek lower power consumption for grids. Intel was notably absent
from the consortium when it was founded, and finally joined in early 2007.[31]
• Codenamed SIMFIRE interoperability testing tool for the Desktop and mobile
Architecture for System Hardware (DASH) open architecture.


• Extensions for software parallelism (xSP), aimed at speeding up programs to enable

multi-threaded and multi-core processing, announced in Technology Analyst Day
2007. One of the initiatives being discussed since August 2007 is the Light Weight
Profiling (LWP), providing internal hardware monitor with runtimes, to observe
information about executing process and help the re-design of software to be
optimized with multi-core and even multi-threaded programs. Another one is the
extension of Streaming SIMD Extension (SSE) instruction set, the SSE5.

• AMD contributes to open source projects, including working with Sun Microsystems
to enhance OpenSolaris and Sun xVM on the AMD platform.[32] AMD also maintains
its own Open64 compiler distribution and contributes its changes back to the

• In 2008, AMD released the low-level programming specifications for its GPUs, and
works with the X.Org Foundation to develop drivers for AMD graphics cards.[34][35]

• AMD has also taken an active part in developing coreboot, and open source projects
aimed at replacing the proprietary BIOS firmware.

• Other AMD open source projects include the AMD Performance Library and the
AMD Core Math Library.

Technologies from ATI

After the takeover of ATI, AMD restructured some of the product lineups from both
companies. Some products were being rebranded under the AMD brand, including the
Imageon for mobile phones and handheld devices, the Xilleon for consumer electronics
(digital TV sets), ATI Xpress chipsets (to AMD chipsets) for AMD processors platform and
GPGPU computing line-up FireStream, previously known as AMD Stream Processor. Some
others retained the use of ATI branding, including the Radeon line of graphics, and chipsets
for Intel processors.

Production and fabrication

Main article: GlobalFoundries

Ever since the spinoff of AMD's fabrication plants in early 2009, GlobalFoundries has been
responsible for producing AMD's processors.

GlobalFoundries' main microprocessor manufacturing facilities are located in Dresden,

Germany. Additionally, highly integrated microprocessors are manufactured in Taiwan made
by third-party manufacturers under strict license from AMD. Between 2003 and 2005, they
constructed a second manufacturing plant (300 mm 90 nm process SOI) in the same complex
in order to increase the number of chips they can produce, thus becoming more competitive
with Intel. The new plant has been named "Fab 36", in recognition of AMD's 36 years of
operation, and reached full production in mid-2007. Fab 36 has been renamed to Fab 1 during
the spinoff of AMD's manufacturing business during the creation of GlobalFoundries. In July
2007, AMD announced that they completed the conversion of Fab 1 Module 1 from 90 nm to
65 nm. They then shifted their focus to the 45 nm conversion.[36]

Corporate affairs

AMD utilizes strategic industry partnerships to further its business interests as well as to
tackle Intel's dominance and resources.

A partnership between AMD and Alpha Processor Inc. developed HyperTransport, a point-to-
point interconnect standard which was turned over to an industry standards body for
finalization. It is now used in modern AMD processor compatible motherboards.

AMD also formed a strategic partnership with IBM, under which AMD gained silicon on
insulator (SOI) manufacturing technology, and detailed advice on 90 nm implementation, the
partnership was announced by AMD to be extended to 2011 for 32 nm and 22 nm fabrication
related technologies.[37] Further, AMD is loosely partnered with end-user companies such as
HP, Compaq, ASUS, Alienware, Acer, Evesham Technology, Dell and several others to
facilitate processor distribution and sales.

On May 18, 2006, Dell announced that it would roll out new servers based on AMD's Opteron
chips by years end, thus ending an exclusive relationship with Intel. Dell also began offering
AMD Athlon X2 chips in their desktop line-up in September 2006.

AMD is also a sponsor of the Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro F1 Team since 2002 and the
Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team since 2004, in 2009 AMD also became the jersey
sponsor of the USL expansion team Austin Aztex FC.

Litigation with Intel

See also: AMD v. Intel

AMD has a long history of litigation with former partner and x86 creator Intel.[38][39][40]
• In 1986 Intel broke an agreement it had with AMD to allow them to produce Intel's
micro-chips for IBM; AMD filed for arbitration in 1987 and the arbitrator decided in
AMD's favor in 1992. Intel disputed this, and the case ended up in the Supreme Court
of California. In 1994, that court upheld the arbitrator's decision and awarded damages
for breach of contract.
• In 1990, Intel brought a copyright infringement action alleging illegal use of its 287
microcode. The case ended in 1994 with a jury finding for AMD and its right to use
Intel's microcode in its microprocessors through the 486 generation.
• In 1997, Intel filed suit against AMD and Cyrix Corp. for misuse of the term MMX.
AMD and Intel settled, with AMD acknowledging MMX as a trademark owned by
Intel, and with Intel granting AMD rights to market the AMD K6 MMX processor.
• In 2005, following an investigation, the Japan Federal Trade Commission found Intel
guilty on a number of violations. On June 27, 2005, AMD won an antitrust suit against
Intel in Japan, and on the same day, AMD filed a broad antitrust complaint against
Intel in the U.S. Federal District Court in Delaware. The complaint alleges systematic
use of secret rebates, special discounts, threats, and other means used by Intel to lock
AMD processors out of the global market. Since the start of this action, the court has
issued subpoenas to major computer manufacturers including Acer, Dell, Lenovo, HP
and Toshiba.
• In November 2009, Intel agreed to pay AMD $1.25bn and renew a five-year patent
cross-licensing agreement as part of a deal to settle all outstanding legal disputes
between them.[41]

Events and publications

Although AMD frequently refuses to provide information about upcoming products and
plans, it does hold annual Analyst Days to reveal and explain key future technologies, and to
present official technology roadmaps. The event held in mid-year is referred to as
"Technology Analyst Day", with its main focus on upcoming technologies and trends. The
end-of-year event is referred to as "Financial Analyst Day" and focuses on the financial
performance of the company through the previous year.[42]

In addition to these events, AMD also publishes printed media. Publications include the AMD
Accelerate and the discontinued AMDEdge. The AMD Accelerate magazine, originally
published through Ziff Davis Media, focuses on SME and business applications, while AMD
Edge focused on overall technologies from AMD. Since Ziff Davis Media filed for Chapter
11 bankruptcy protection, the AMD Accelerate magazine has been published through IDG.
AMD also has electronic newsletters to promote its server-oriented Opteron processors and
related business solutions.