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ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1

Semester I 2011

Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of
these in total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.1 – To be submitted 3rd February 2011:

Introduction to History – 50 word answers


1. What are the basic lessons to be learned from knowledge of Architectural History and
how does this develop your skills as an Architect?

2. Why do you think it is important to have a ‘world view’ of Architectural History?

______________________________________________
Stone Architecture and Neo-Lithic –

3. What were the main causes that brought about the change from Stone Age to Neo-
Lithic, stating the differences between the two periods?

4. What were the important differences between the Lascaux Caves and the Terra Mata
in terms of the use of space?

5. Stonehenges was important in terms of its design and construction. List the reasons why
it was important from a design and construction point of view, and how this may be
seen in today’s construction methods.
6. Is this Stone Age or Neo-lithic – which is it and why?
ANSWERS

1. What are the basic lessons to be learned from knowledge of Architectural History
and how does this develop your skills as an Architect?

 Ability to be architecturally analytical and descriptive; giving them an understanding


of the fundamentals of good design through Architectural precedents, developing their
‘critical eye’.
 Basic understanding of the numerous and varying cultural and social factors (art,
aesthetics, engineering & technology, political, secular and non-secular factors) which
inherently shape(d)and influence(d) Architectural Design. This understanding will be
achieved through a chronological lecture presentation and then re-visited with the aid
of the group timeline and written assignments.

2. Why do you think it is important to have a ‘world view’ of Architectural History?

 To understand the History of Architecture from a World perspective and the


importance of historical precedents as an invaluable resource for researching urban
context’s and building typologies.

 To understand the importance of local context and the factors which have shaped each
of these architectural periods; materials, climate, religion, politics etc. In turn this gives
us an understanding of our own African context. We are aware of how colonialism
influences the built environment. We can question what is built around us, and how this
relates to our context and if is this is a true reflection of our culture.

3. What were the main causes that brought about the change from Stone Age to
Neo-Lithic, stating the differences between the two periods?

Change in Climate – end of an ice age


Improvement of Stone tools for construction and hunting.
More advanced attitudes towards organised dwelling patterns.

4. What were the important differences between the Lascaux Caves and the Terra
Mata in terms of the use of space?

Lascaus cave was a space used for the celebration of the Animal , which man relied upon. It
was a naturally formed space.

Terra Mata was a man-made space, for dwelling. Within this we have seen evidence that man
had begun to order the internal space according to the functions of eating, sleeping and
cooking.

5. Stonehenges was important in terms of its design and construction. List the reasons
why it was important from a design and construction point of view, and how this
may be seen in today’s construction methods.

The function of this mapped the path of the sun, during the Solstice and Equniox, with the stones
demarcating the optimum space within which to view this. In addition to this holes around Stone
Henge were used for the burial of the dead.The setting out of enclosed space was within a
circle. At the centre one could view the Summer Solstice sun.
Ability now to work with larger masses of stone Stone was tapered to reduce the mass.Stone
was quarried, transported and lifted into place. Stone lintols were placed between the vertical
uprights. The stone lintols were curved, by hand, to enhance the feeling of enclosure The stone
uprights and lintols used joints to keep them fixed to each other.

6. Is this Stone Age or Neo-lithic – which is it and why?

This example is Neo-lithic, as it shows an organised settlement constructed in stone. Stone Age
was more rudimentary, and generally dwellings where limited to caves, without the
manipulation of materials.

Also Man begun to think about organising space, but also shows that there is consideration
towards a spatial hierarchy, with the presence of streets and internal corridors.
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.2 – To be submitted 10th February 2011:


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of
these in total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

Western Asia – Neolithic and Mesopotamia – SHORT ANSWERS!

1. What is the difference between a Neo-lithic settlement in Europe and Asia?

2. What was the important difference and lesson between Jericho and Khirokitia?

PICTURE QUIZ – What are these?

What it is this
and what is it
for?

What it is this and


why is it
important?

What it is this and


what is it for?
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.2 – Answers


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of
these in total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

1. What is the difference between a Neo-lithic settlement in Europe and Asia?

The difference between a Neo-lithic settlement in Europe in Asia is , that


settlements in Asia made use of the natural resources or protected them. This
was seen in Khirokitia and in the City of Jericho.

2. What was the important difference and lesson between Jericho and Khirokitia?

Jericho’s city was a walled city, created to defend its water source. The internal roads
formed organically, unplanned.

In Khirokitia the settlement was formed along the edges of a raised road, used to
connect to the river.

The difference is in how the settlements developed out of the siting beside a natural
resource

3. IMAGE SHOWS

a) Ziggurat palace/temple situated at the centre of the city. It was a place of


worship by the city dwellers. High priests or a ruling king resided here
b) This is a man-made canal for the transportation of goods/services close the
central Ziggurat. It also takes water from the River (Euphrates) into the city for
irrigation.
c) This is a perimeter wall protecting the city against invasion.
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.3 – 10 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

ANCIENT EGYPT
What is this below picture showing and what is important about it?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Below are several explanations for Ancient Egypt’s
Monumental structures. Circle which is TRUE or
FALSE

Simple Geometry true false

Egyptians copied Mesopotamia true false

Belief in Sun gods true false

Improved construction true false

Kings and Pharoah rule true false

Allowed far views across the land true false

Order and alignment on axis true false

Name the parts which make


up a New Kingdom Temple in the
picture to the right -

4
1. 3

2.
2
3.

4.
1
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.3 – 10 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

ANCIENT EGYPT
What is this below picture showing and what is important about it?

This picture shows an early attempt of CLERESTOREY lighting where the columns raise the roof line
about the line of the exterior walls, to draw natural light into the space.

Below are several explanations for Ancient Egypt’s Monumental structures. Circle which is TRUE or
FALSE

TRUE
FALSE
TRUE
TRUE
TRUE
FALSE
TRUE

Name the parts which make


up a New Kingdom Temple in the
picture to the right -

1. Sanctuary

2. Hypostile

3. Courtyard

4. Pylon
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.4 – 15 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

ANCIENT GREECE

i. NAME THE MAIN PARTS OF A GREEK TEMPLE ABOVE ( 3 points)

1.

2.

3.

ii Is the picture to the right the Doric or Ionic order?


Tell me why? ( 4 points)

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

Iii – Fill in the names of the parts in the boxes ( 3points)


ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.4 – 15 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

ANCIENT GREECE

ii. NAME THE MAIN PARTS OF A GREEK TEMPLE ABOVE ( 3 points)

1. Column
2. Entablature
3. Pediment

ii Is the picture to the right the Doric or Ionic order?


Tell me why? ( 4 points)

This is Doric as there is no base to the column. Also the capital is standard, unlike Ionic which has a
volute (scroll-like) capital.

Iii – Fill in the names of the parts in the boxes ( 3points)

Capital
Architrave
Cornice
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.5 – 15 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

EARLY ROMAN

i. Why is this picture important to the development of Roman Architecture? (3 points)

__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

ii. Draw three applications that came out of the new use of the arch. Think of the buildings
we looked at last week ( 3 points)

iii. Fill in the blank. What is this space for (2 points)

iv. How was the space in the Basilica achieved?


( 2points)
____________________________________
____________________________________
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.5 – 15 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

EARLY ROMAN

v. Why is this picture important to the development of Roman Architecture? (3 points)

This picture shows the early example of an Arch; the Voussoir Arch. Each stone supports the
next, with the keystone in the centre holding it together.

Roman architecture developed the arch to be created in one fluid form, using concrete.
This single form was used in Roman Architecture and then developed further into
vaulting, spheres and domes

vi. Draw three applications that came out of the new use of the arch. Think of the buildings we
looked at last week ( 3 points)

SEE PAGE 195 of ROMAN NOTES

vii. Fill in the blank. What is this space for (2 points)

This is an Atrium. This was used to bring natural light from overhead into the internal courtyard
of the house

viii. How was the space in the Basilica achieved?


( 2points)

The space of the Basilica was achieved through the development of carpentry and the
development of the trussed rafter. The trussed rafter allowed the space to be free of
intermediate columns
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.6 – 15 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

LATE ROMAN ARCHITECTURE/BYZANTINE AND EARLY CHRISTIAN – AD 100 - 300

1. In the Pantheon we looked and many new architectural terms (4 points) –

Explain what these are -

 Rotunda
 Apse
 Occulus
 Coffering

2. What are we looking at in each of these pictures and WHERE ARE THESE? (3 points)

3. Church architecture during the Early Christian Period explored two very different
architectural ideas. The plans below show this. Please explain the difference (3 points)
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.6 – ANSWERS


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

LATE ROMAN ARCHITECTURE/BYZANTINE AND EARLY CHRISTIAN – AD 100 - 300

4. In the Pantheon we looked and many new architectural terms (4 points) –

Explain what these are -

 Rotunda – Circular space with a domed ceiling.


 Apse – the semi-circular space within a church, or a semi-circular recess within a wall.
 Occulus – the opening, or eye, at the top of a dome permitting light to enter.
 Coffering – recessing decorative panels in the soffit of a ceiling or arch.

5. What are we looking at in each of these pictures and WHERE ARE THESE? (3 points)

Aztec temples - Mexico


Roofs of Chinese dwelling - China
Bhuddist Sanctuary - India

6. Church architecture during the Early Christian Period explored two very different
architectural ideas. The plans below show this. Please explain the difference (3 points)

Church architecture focused on the how the architecture would capture the imagination of the
congregation in two ways; by looking vertically towards the heavens or by focusing the
attention towards the altar, in a horizontal direction.

This was done by either; a centrally planned church where the space was contained with a
circular, square or octagonal space where the emphasis was on a verticality through a dome
of cross vaulted space OR this by horizontally displaced plan, with a long nave crossed by
transepts with the altar at the opposite end.
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.7 – 15 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

1. Fill in the blanks below (4 points) –

2. Name the THREE COMPONENTS


WHICH DEFINED GOTHIC
ARCHITECTURE and give a short
description of each (6 points)

a)

b)

c)
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.7 – 15 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

1. Fill in the blanks below (4 points) –

1. Nave 2.Aisle. 5. Transept 7. Apse

2. Name the THREE COMPONENTS


WHICH DEFINED GOTHIC
ARCHITECTURE and give a short
description of each (6 points)

a) The pointed Arch -

The pointed arch was much more stable and flexible when it came to cross vaulting, with bays
of different sizes, than the normal Roman curved Arch.

The pointed arch gave a greater verticality to the general appearance to the architecture in
the windows and cross vaulting.

b) Ribbed Vault

Structural ribs were introduced to stiffen up the crossing bays. This allowed them to
take greater loads and achieve greater heights.

Also the ribs broke down the structural bay into sections, allowing it to be constructed
in segments.

This became more elaborate in Late Gothic with the adding of more and more ribs into
cross vaults, becoming highly decorative.

c) The Flying Buttress

With Gothic buildings getting higher and higher, more structure was required to
take the vertical loads/forces. However this would have required thicker walls,
reducing the ability to place windows in it. Gothic architecture used external
buttresses on the exterior of the building to free up the walls. It is called ‘ flying’ as
it is detached from the main building.
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.8 – 15 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

RENAISSANCE AND BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE

1. Gothic Architecture is identified by its pointed arches,


Flying buttresses and ribbed vaulting. Renaissance
Architecture had other ideas – what were these?
(3 points)

2. Inspired by the Pantheon, the dome at


Florence Cathedral was much larger made possible
through innovative construction techniques.

Explain these techniques using this image (4 points) –

3. Which of these is RENAISSANCE and which is BAROQUE? ( 1 points)

4. What are the major differences between RENAISSANCE and which is BAROQUE? ( 2 points)
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.9 – ANSWERS


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

RENAISSANCE AND BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE

1. Gothic Architecture is identified by its pointed arches,


Flying buttresses and ribbed vaulting. Renaissance
Architecture had other ideas – what were these?
(3 points)

The architecture of the Renaissance period looked at the classical architecture of Greek and
Roman Architecture. But its was not a simple repetition of these classical styles, but a critical
re-working and re-invention of them. This was based on mathematical order and proportion

2. Inspired by the Pantheon, the dome at


Florence Cathedral was much larger made possible
through innovative construction techniques.

Explain these techniques using this image (4 points) –

 Double shelled dome


 Composed of 8 sides, with 8 half arched beams
 Horizontal members tied the beams together
 They horizontal members/beams were tied to the half-arches as it was constructed in sections
 A ring beam at the top and bottom, in oak, tied the whole structure together.

3. Which of these is RENAISSANCE and which is BAROQUE? ( 1 points)

LEFT IMAGE – Baroque RIGHT IMAGE - Renaissance

4. What are the major differences between RENAISSANCE and which is BAROQUE? ( 2 points)

Renaissance was focused on a re-working of classical forms , based on order and proportion. Pure
forms of the rectangle and circle were used.

Baroque manipulated classical forms for in plan, elevation and in its decorative detail, breaking free
from the rigidity of the renaissance style. In doing so the architecture was much more dynamic and
fluid.
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.9 – 15 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

NEO-CLASSSICAL AND VICTORIAN/INDUSTRIAL ARCHITECTURE

1. The building below is by LEDOUX. It is NEO-CLASSICAL (3 Points). Explain what


NEO_CLASSICAL means and make reference to the below picture – how is it NEO-CLASSICAL?

2. The development of Steel/Iron in Architecture, allowed buildings to achieved greater


heights and greater spans ( 4 points).

Give me FOUR REASONS why steel was used. EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER

3. Below are two images of buildings from DIFFERENT PERIODS. What architectural
IDEAS do they have in common? ( 3 points)
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.9 – ANSWERS

1. The building below is by LEDOUX. It is NEO-CLASSICAL (3 Points). Explain what


NEO_CLASSICAL means and make reference to the below picture – how is it NEO-
CLASSICAL?

Neo-classical means ‘new classical’, meaning a re-using of classical Greek and Roman
architecture.

Neo-classical architecture was a reponse to the ornamentation of Baroque which was


regarded as too superficial. There was a return to the honest use of the classical
elements,( columns, entablatures and pediments) For example, the column was used
again as a supporting, structural element, unlike Renaissance which expressed columns
as pilasters which were not structural, but decorative. ( 3 points)

In Neo-classical architecture is characterised by its use of the classical temple elements;


column, entablature and pediment. This is often forms the main façade. The main
building is usually a re-interpretation of classical ideas ; arches, domes, rotunda’s and
colonnades as seen in Ledoux’s work. ( EXTRA)

.
2. The development of Steel/Iron in Architecture, allowed buildings to achieved greater
heights and greater spans ( 4 points).

Give me FOUR REASONS why steel was used. EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER

 Iron/Steel elements were easily fabricated. Mass produced.


 Iron/Steel was easily repeated and could be quickly stacked (vertically
modular)
 Iron was cheaper and lighter than stone or masonry. Easier to build with
 Possible to achieve spans wider than before. ( 4 POINTS)

 Allowed for flexible ground plans (less load bearing internal walls) – open
planning suited to office space.
 Steel construction was more slender, and this allowed for larger internal floor
areas than using masonry/stone – ideal for limited space within a tight urban
site, suited to large cities.
 Led to the development of Reinforced concrete. ( EXTRA)

3. Below are two images of buildings from DIFFERENT PERIODS. What architectural
IDEAS do they have in common? ( 3 points)

The architectural idea that these two images have in common is the idea to reduce the solid
mass of the building, reducing the size of the structure, incorporating glass to maximise light. (
3 POINTS)

This can be called ‘ Gothic Materialization’, where gothic architecture aimed to reduce the
heaviness of the walls in its Architecture. The walls of Victorian/Industrial age structures such as
‘Crystal Palace’ the walls are transparent , almost invisible. (EXTRA)
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.10 – 15 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

ARTS AND CRAFTS /ART NOUVEAU

1. The Arts and Crafts movement was a response to Industrialism – why? ( 2 points)

2. Is this STRUCTURAL RATIONALISM or CLASSICISM – explain the difference ( 2 points)


?

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

3. Art Nouveau embraces Gothic and Baroque, but the


work of Gaudi and Mackintosh are more than decoration,
why? ( 6 points) NAME THE BUILDINGS BELOW.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
ARC 3122 – HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Semester I 2011

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT No.10 – 15 MINUTES


Written assignment is composed of written answers and visual quizzes. There will be 10 of these in
total and they comprise of 20% of your final mark.

NAME:
YEAR:

ARTS AND CRAFTS /ART NOUVEAU

1. The Arts and Crafts movement was a response to Industrialism – why? ( 2 points)

Industrialisation affected the mass fabrication of building elements i.e steel trusses, windows,
doors etc. This led to a modular, repetitive attitude towards construction.

The Arts & Crafts movement believed that this ‘mass production’ led to deprecation of
quality of the architecture. They felt it limited the creativity of architecture as an art
form leading a colder, sterile less humane type of building.

2. Is this STRUCTURAL RATIONALISM or CLASSICISM – explain the difference ( 2 points)


?

This is Classicism, chracterised by its use of Baroque motifs.

‘Classicism’ is defined by its reference to Classical forms, relating back to Greek and Roman
Architecture

Structural Rationalism was defined by a driect relationship between both the programme and
the construction methods . This theory ( By Viollet le Duc) freed architecture from being bound
to historicism, where ideas where borrowed from before the past and re-used.

3. Art Nouveau embraces Gothic and Baroque, but the work of Gaudi and Mackintosh
are more than decoration, why? ( 6 points) NAME THE BUILDINGS BELOW.

The work of both Gaudi and Mackintosh was more than just elaborate decoration, or surface
ornament; what Late Gothic and Baroque employed.

Both of these Architects used structure and decoration to work together, allowing new forms of
Architectural expression to be created.

These buildings are;

Glasgow School of Art in Scotland and Sagrada Famila in Barcelona.