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Report No.

00-03

Research Report Tribhuwan University


Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science
Department of Soil Science & Agri-Engineering
Chitwan, Nepal

Management of Organic Manures for Sustained Yield of Rice Wheat System in Chitwan
Valley, Nepal

Conducted by: Prashanta Raut, Kundan Dhakal, Raghunath Subedi

Location: Rampur-6, Chitwan

Collaborators: Ramananda Yadav, Department of Soil Science and Agri-Engineering, IAAS

Research Objective: To analyze the effect of organic manure application in the yield of local
varieties of rice and wheat in Chitwan Valley.

Abstract:

Due to increased intensity of rice-wheat cropping system the emerging deficiencies of iron (Fe),
zinc (Zn), sulfur (S), and manganese (Mn) have become critical in Chitwan valley of Nepal. In an
experiment carried out on loamy sand at Rampur-6, Chitwan, the crop yields and soil properties
were studied during a one year cycle. After analyzing the yield response of local varieties of rice
and wheat to application of organic fertilizers, it has been found out that these deficiencies can
be managed by soil fertility restoration practices, including application of organic manure.

Introduction:

The Terai and Inner Terai regions of Nepal are often considered as the bread basket of the
country due to the fertile land and the production amount of rice and wheat of these areas.
Chitwan is a fertile valley which lies in the Inner Terai region of Nepal. The economy of
Chitwan Valley relies heavily on agriculture. The main reasons for the huge production of rice
and wheat in this area is the suitability of climate for rice and wheat crop and the traditional
nutrient management system employed by the farmers of this area.

In the initial years of rice-wheat cropping system, nitrogen (N) remains the king pin for
increasing crop yields. A small starter dose of N helps the crop to meet its requirements for all
macro- and micronutrients from already existing pool of nutrients in the soil. Then, gradually
the inherent pool of nutrients exhausts and response to phosphorus (P) or potassium (K)
increases considerably due to depletion of readily available forms of these nutrients. (Meelu et al.
1979; Biswas et al. 1987; Nambiar and Abrol 1989; Nand Ram 1992). Under progressively
increasing the intensity of cropping, the emerging deficiencies of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), sulfur (S),
and manganese (Mn) becomes critical. (Rekhi, R.S. et al 2000)

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Report No. 00-03

Research Report Tribhuwan University


Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science
Department of Soil Science & Agri-Engineering
Chitwan, Nepal

To sustain high crop yields without deterioration of soil fertility, it is important to add optimal
combination of FYM and Compost manures in the cropping system. In this study, effects of
Compost and FYM on crop yields and soil properties of 4 plots of Rampur-6, Chitwan were
evaluated during a crop cycle.

Materials and Methods:

At the start of the experiment, the field soil had pH 7.5 and 0.18% Organic Carbon. The manure
treatments comprised: control (no fertilizer), application of recommended dose of Compost,
application of recommended dose of FYM and application of Compost with FYM. The
recommended dose of compost for 1 ha is 400 kg per ha in sandy loam soil for rice and 200 kg
per ha for wheat. FYM was applied at the rate of 10 ton per ha for rice and 12 ton per ha for
wheat. In T4 half the recommended doses of Compost and FYM were applied.

Rice was transplanted in the plant geometry of 15 cm × 20 cm in the second fortnight of June.
After rice harvest in the third week of October, wheat was sown in the first fortnight of
November. The crop was harvested in the third week of April for grain yield.

T1 = Control T2 = Compost
T3 = FYM T4 = Compost and FYM

The yields of rice and wheat along with the data on plant height, no. of tillers and test weight for
each treatment were recorded and analyzed. Soil pH and Organic Carbon Content of the soil was
measured after wheat harvest.

Result and Discussion:

The following tables reveal the recorded grain yield, test weight, plant height and no. of tillers of
four different treatments for rice and wheat. Rice and wheat gave highly significant response to
combination of compost and FYM compared to other treatments. A comparison of rice yield for
different treatments with that of control shows a mean increase of 19.8 %, 23.96 % and 37.83 %
respectively (Figure no. 1). While comparison of wheat yield for different treatments with that of
control shows a mean increase of 32.79 %, 38.28 % and 40.91 % (Figure no. 2) Soil pH
measurement after wheat harvest showed that the pH was increased from 7.5 to 8.1 and Organic
Carbon content also increased from 0.18 % to 0.76 %

Under the current practice of cultivation in rice-wheat system, the farmers do not use chemical
fertilizers. So, use of organic manures including compost and FYM can bring about significant
improvement in the yield of rice and wheat in a sustainable manner.

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Report No. 00-03

Research Report Tribhuwan University


Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science
Department of Soil Science & Agri-Engineering
Chitwan, Nepal

Table 1. Grain yield, grain moisture, test wt. and plant populations of rice from various
treatments across four locations

Treatment Grain Yield No. of Tillers Test Wt. (gm) Plant Height (cm)
(tons/ha)
Control 4.039 32 23.38 56.42
Compost 4.893 46 24.55 55.45
FYM 5.007 37 25.90 57.12
Compost + FYM (1:1) 5.567 49 26.78 56.98

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2
Yield per ha

1 Compost
FYM
0.8
Compost + FYM
0.6

0.4

0.2

Figure 1. Yield Response of Rice to Organic Manure Application in


Rice-Wheat system at Rampur-6, Chitwan

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Report No. 00-03

Research Report Tribhuwan University


Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science
Department of Soil Science & Agri-Engineering
Chitwan, Nepal

Table 1. Grain yield, grain moisture, test wt. and plant populations of wheat from various
treatments across four locations

Treatment Grain Yield No. of Tillers Test Wt. (gm) Plant Height (cm)
(tons/ha)
Control 3.568 24 40.73 41.66
Compost 4.738 26 37.46 44.45
FYM 4.934 21 40.37 40.25
Compost + FYM (1:1) 5.028 24 45.92 42.56

1.6

1.4

1.2
Yield per ha

1
Compost
0.8
FYM
0.6 Compost + FYM
0.4

0.2

Figure 1. Yield Response Wheat to Organic Manure Application in


Rice-Wheat system at Rampur-6, Chitwan

Conclusion:

On the basis of observations and results discussed above, a combination of compost and FYM
application in the current system of farming seems to increase the production of rice by 37.83 %
and that of wheat by 40.91 %. Application of organic manures can sustain the yield in a long
term by improving soil acidity and Organic Carbon Content.

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Report No. 00-03

Research Report Tribhuwan University


Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science
Department of Soil Science & Agri-Engineering
Chitwan, Nepal

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supply systems. Indian J. Agron., 47: 20-25.

Rekhi, R.S., Benbi, D.K. and Singh, Bhajan. 2000. Effect of Fertilizers and Organic Manures on
Crop Yields and Soil Properties

Swarup, A. and N.P.S. Yaduvanshi. 2000. Effect of Integrated nutrient management on soil
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Nevens, F. and D. Reheul. 2003. The application of vegetable, fruit and garden waste (VFG)
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Muneshwar, S., V.P. Singh, K.S. Reddy and M. Singh. 2001. Effect of integrated use of fertilizer
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Dixit, K.G. and B.R. Gupta. 2000. Effect of Farmyard manure, chemical and Biofertilizers on
yield and quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and soil properties. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 48: 773-
780.

Jagadeeswari, P.V. and K. Kumaraswamy. 2000. Long-term effects of manure-fertilizer


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Kolay, A.K. 2000. Basic Concepts of Soil Science. 2nd Ed. New-Age International Publisher,
New Delhi. 256 p.