Sunteți pe pagina 1din 584

ANNUAL REPORT

2 0 1 0
This report is primarily an account of the ICRC’s work in the field and
its activities to promote international humanitarian law. Mention
is made of some of the negotiations entered into with a view to
bringing protection and assistance to the victims of international and
non-international armed conflicts and other situations of violence.
Other negotiations are not mentioned, since the ICRC feels that any
publicity would not be in the interests of the victims. Thus, this report
cannot be regarded as covering all the institution’s efforts worldwide
to come to the aid of the victims of conflict.

Moreover, the length of the text devoted to a given country or situation


is not necessarily proportional to the magnitude of the problems
observed and tackled by the institution. Indeed, there are cases which
are a source of grave humanitarian concern but on which the ICRC
is not in a position to report because it has been denied permission
to take action. By the same token, the description of operations in
which the ICRC has great freedom of action takes up considerable
space, regardless of the scale of the problems involved.

The maps in this report are for illustrative purposes only and do not
express an opinion on the part of the ICRC.

All figures in this report are in Swiss francs (CHF). In 2010, the
average exchange rate was CHF 1.0380 to USD 1, and CHF 1.3785
to EUR 1.

International Committee of the Red Cross


19, avenue de la Paix
1202 Geneva, Switzerland
T + 41 22 734 60 01 F + 41 22 733 20 57
E-mail: shop@icrc.org icrc.org
© ICRC, May 2011
ANNUAL REPORT
2 0 1 0

1
CONTENTS
Abbreviations and definitions · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4
Communication and information management · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 79
Message from the president · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 6 Public communication · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 80
Corporate communication · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 81
ICRC management framework and descriptions of programmes · · · · · · · · · · 8 Archives and information management· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 82
ICRC corporate management framework· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 9 Information systems· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 83
Programme descriptions· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 12
ICRC field structure· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 18 Human resources · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 85
Contributions · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 20 Meeting ongoing challenges and requirements · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 85
Description of the accounting model · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 21 Training · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 86
Internal control system · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 22 Administrative management and control procedures · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 86
Internal audit· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 23 Consolidating the recruitment base · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 87
External audit · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 23 Staff health · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 87

Annex 1 the ICRC’s operational approach to result-based Financial resources and logistics· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 88
management: improving humanitarian action· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 24 Finance and administration · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 88
Managing ICRC operations: the cycle and the results· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 24 Funding · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 89
Result-based management in ICRC programmes · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 29 Logistics · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 92
Result-based management and standard reporting to donors · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 32

Annex 2 the ICRC’s operational approach to women and girls · · · · · · · · · · · 35 OPERATIONS · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 95


Background and approach · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 35
Women and girls in ICRC programmes, by target population · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 36 The ICRC around the world · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 96

Annex 3 the ICRC’s operational approach to children· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 41 Operational highlights · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 98


Children in war· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 41 Conflict environments and challenges for humanitarian action · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 98
Protection under international law · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 41 Operations: review, approach and thematic challenges· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 99
The ICRC’s multidisciplinary approach· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 42 Africa · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 99
Children in ICRC programmes, by target population· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 43 Asia · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 100
Europe and the Americas · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 100
Annex 4 the ICRC’s operational approach to displacement · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 48 Middle East and North Africa · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 101
Displacement and the displaced · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 48
The “all victims” approach · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 49 ICRC operations in 2010: a few facts, figures and results · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 102
The multidisciplinary approach · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 50
Relations with the Movement and humanitarian coordination · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 50 User guide: layout of delegation sections · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 107
Displacement in ICRC programmes, by target population · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 51

AFRICA · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 108
HEADQUARTERS · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 57
Introduction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 110
ICRC governing and controlling bodies · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 58
Meetings and decisions of the governing bodies · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 58 Delegations
Missions · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 59 Burundi · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 112
Central African Republic · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 117
Directorate· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 60 Chad · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 123
Congo, Democratic Republic of the · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 129
Office of the director-general· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 62 Eritrea · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 136
Leading the directorate · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 62 Ethiopia · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 141
Managing the ICRC’s performance· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 63 African Union· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 146
Developing partnerships · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 64 Guinea · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 149
Positioning the ICRC in external debates · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 64 Liberia· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 155
Health and ethics · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 64 Nigeria · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 160
Rwanda· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 165
Operations· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 65 Somalia · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 170
Central tracing agency and protection · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 66 Sudan · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 176
Assistance· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 67 Uganda · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 182

International law and cooperation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 71 Regional delegations


International humanitarian law· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 71 Abidjan· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 188
Integration and promotion of the law· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 73 Dakar · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 195
Reaching out to decision-makers and opinion-formers · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 74 Harare· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 202
Dialogue with armed, security and police forces, and other weapon bearers· · · · 75 Nairobi · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 208
Multilateral diplomacy, policy and humanitarian action · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 76 Niamey · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 214
Movement coordination and cooperation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 77 Pretoria· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 221
Movement policy · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 78 Yaoundé · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 226

2
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

ASIA AND THE PACIFIC· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 232 Consolidated Statement of Financial Position · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 492
Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income and Expenditure· · · · · · · · · · 493
Introduction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 234 Consolidated Cash-flow Statement· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 494
Consolidated Statement of Changes in Reserves · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 495
Delegations Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 496
Afghanistan · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 236 Ernst & Young letter · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 521
Myanmar · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 243
Nepal· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·248 Financial and statistical tables· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 523
Pakistan · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 254 A. Income and expenditure related to the 2010 Emergency and
Philippines · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 261 Headquarters Appeals · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 524
Sri Lanka · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 268 B. Income and expenditure by delegation related to
the 2010 Emergency Appeals · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 526
Regional delegations C. Contributions in 2010 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 530
Bangkok · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 274 D. Contributions in kind, in services and to integrated
Beijing· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 281 projects (IPs) 2010 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 536
Jakarta· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 286 E. Comparative balance sheet and statement of income and
Kuala Lumpur· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 291 expenditure for the last five years · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 538
New Dehli · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 295 F. Assistance items figures · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 538
Suva· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 302
Funds and foundations · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 545
Foundation for the International Committee of the Red Cross · · · · · · · · · · · · · 546
EUROPE AND THE AMERICAS · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 308 Augusta Fund · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 548
Clare Benedict Fund · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 549
Introduction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 310 Florence Nightingale Medal Fund · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 550
Jean Pictet Fund · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 551
Delegations Maurice de Madre French Fund · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 552
Armenia · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 313 Omar el Mukhtar Fund· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 553
Azerbaijan · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 318 Paul Reuter Fund · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 554
Georgia · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 324 ICRC Special Fund for the Disabled· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 555

Regional delegations
Moscow · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 330 ANNEXES · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 559
Tashkent· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 336
Western Balkans· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 343 Organizational chart · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 560

Ankara · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 349 ICRC decision-making structures · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 561


Brussels· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 352
International Tracing Service· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 356 ICRC strategy 2007–2010· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 563
London · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 359 The ICRC: committed to meeting new challenges through action· · · · · · · · · · · 563
Paris· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 362 2007–2010 Strategy · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 564

Delegations ICRC strategy 2011–2014· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 566


Colombia · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 365
Haiti · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 371 International advisers · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 569
Advisers for the period 2008–2011 (7th group) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 569
Regional delegations
Brasilia · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 377 The ICRC and the International Red Cross
Caracas · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 383 and Red Crescent Movement · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 570
Lima · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 387
Mexico City · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 393 Legal bases · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 571
Washington · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 399 Universal acceptance of the Geneva Conventions
and their Additional Protocols· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 571
New York· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 403
States party to the Geneva Conventions and
their Additional Protocols · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 572
MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 408

Introduction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 410

Delegations
Algeria · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 412
Egypt · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·417
Iran, Islamic Republic of · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 421
Iraq · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 426
Israel and the Occupied Territories · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 433
Jordan · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 440
Lebanon · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 445
Syrian Arab Republic · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 451
Yemen· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 456

Regional delegations
Kuwait · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 462
Tunis· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·467

MAIN FIGURES AND INDICATORS · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 475

Protection figures and indicators · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 476


Assistance figures and indicators · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 481

FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 489

The financial year 2010· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 490


Consolidated financial statements of the ICRC 2010 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 491

3
ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS

A Additional Protocol I Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949,


and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts
(Protocol I), 8 June 1977
Additional Protocol II Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949,
and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts
(Protocol II), 8 June 1977
Additional Protocol III Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949,
and Relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem (Protocol III),
8 December 2005
1977 Additional Protocols Additional Protocols I and II
African Union Convention Convention for the Prevention of Internal Displacement and the Protection of and
on IDPs Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, 23 October 2009
AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome
B Biological Weapons Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling
Convention of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction,
10 April 1972
C CHF Swiss francs
Chemical Weapons Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use
Convention of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, 13 January 1993
Convention on Certain Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons
Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects,
10 October 1980
Convention on Enforced International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance,
Disappearance 20 December 2006
F Fundamental Principles Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent
Movement: humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service,
unity, universality
G 1949 Geneva Conventions Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in
Armed Forces in the Field, 12 August 1949

Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and
Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 12 August 1949

Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 12 August 1949

Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War,


12 August 1949
H Hague Convention on Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict,
Cultural Property 14 May 1954
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
I ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross, founded in 1863
IDPs internally displaced people

4
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

I International Federation The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, founded in 1919,
works on the basis of the Fundamental Principles, carrying out relief operations in aid
of the victims of natural disasters, health emergencies, and poverty brought about by
socio-economic crises, and refugees; it combines this with development work to strengthen
the capacities of its member National Societies.
IHL international humanitarian law
IOM International Organization for Migration
K KCHF thousand Swiss francs
M Mine Ban Convention Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer
of Anti-personnel Mines and on their Destruction, 18 September 1997
Movement The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement comprises the ICRC,
the International Federation and the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
These are all independent bodies. Each has its own status and exercises no authority
over the others.
N National Society The National Red Cross or Red Crescent Societies embody the Movement’s work and
Fundamental Principles in about 180 countries. They act as auxiliaries to the public authorities
of their own countries in the humanitarian field and provide a range of services, including
disaster relief and health and social programmes. In times of conflict, National Societies assist
the affected civilian population and, where appropriate, support the army medical services.
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NGO non-governmental organization
O OCHA United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Optional Protocol to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement
Convention on the Rights of children in armed conflict, 25 May 2000
of the Child
P POWs prisoners of war
R Restoring Family In November 2007, the Movement’s Council of Delegates adopted the Restoring Family
Links Strategy for Links Strategy for the Movement. The strategy, which covers a ten-year period, aims
the Movement to strengthen the Movement’s family-links network by enhancing the capacity of its
components to respond to the needs of those without news of family members owing
to armed conflict, other situations of violence, natural disasters or other circumstances,
such as migration.
RCMs Red Cross messages
Rome Statute Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 17 July 1998
S Safer Access approach An approach developed by the ICRC to help National Societies better their response to
the needs of conflict victims while enhancing the safety of their workers.
San Remo The International Institute of Humanitarian Law, in San Remo, Italy, is a non-governmental
organization set up in 1970 to spread knowledge and promote the development of IHL.
It specializes in organizing courses on IHL for military personnel from around the world.
Seville Agreement The 1997 Seville Agreement and its 2005 Supplementary Measures provide a framework
and its Supplementary for effective cooperation and partnership between the members of the International
Measures Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
Study on customary A 5,000-page text that is the outcome of eight years of research by ICRC legal staff and
international other experts who reviewed State practice in 47 countries and consulted international
humanitarian law sources such as the United Nations and international tribunals.
U UN United Nations
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNHCR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
W WFP World Food Programme
WHO World Health Organization

5
MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT
it participated in the Movement’s emergency relief operation, distrib-
uting food, shelter materials and other essential items, and support-
ing medical facilities. It then paid particular attention to restoring
family links and visiting detainees, given its expertise in these areas.

In Pakistan, the ICRC was already catering for the needs of nearly
200,000 people displaced by armed violence when disaster struck
in July. Together with the Pakistani Red Crescent Society, it pro-
vided food, clean water and medical aid for up to 1.4 million people,
mainly in areas affected by both devastating floods and violence.

The ICRC’s operations in Pakistan were its biggest in 2010, with


a significant budget extension in response to the floods. These
Thierry Gassmann/ICRC

were followed by operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia,


Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Israel and
the occupied territories, Colombia, Mali/Niger and Kyrgyzstan.
A total of six budget extensions were required throughout the year,
increasing the initial field budget of CHF 983.2 million by another
CHF 160.3 million.

The year was marked by the continuation of prolonged armed con- The ICRC’s rapid deployment response mechanism was trig-
flicts and several natural disasters of huge magnitude, the impact gered by large-scale needs in Haiti and Kyrgyzstan. In Kyrgyzstan,
of which was even more devastating because of other factors such immediately after violent inter-ethnic clashes erupted in the south
as armed conflict or other types of violence, extreme poverty in June, the ICRC massively increased its existing operations to
and environmental problems. Haiti and Pakistan were the most respond to the needs of wounded, sick and particularly vulnerable
dramatic examples. Millions of people were affected by the January people, such as those displaced and those whose homes had been
earthquake in Haiti. Not only were hundreds of thousands of men, destroyed. It also worked to gain access to all persons detained, in
women and children killed, and many more made homeless, but particular those arrested in connection with the violence, and to
countless livelihoods were also shattered in what was already a coun- help families find out what had happened to missing relatives. The
try crushed by poverty and prone to political disturbances, internal year 2010 once again proved access capacity and rapid deployment
violence and natural disasters. Recovery was made all the more dif- to be significant ICRC assets.
ficult when, later in the year, Haiti was further hit by floods and then
a cholera epidemic. In Pakistan, where hundreds of thousands of Medical and health-related activities continued to be a fundamen-
people were already displaced by fighting, the flooding that began in tal feature of ICRC operations in 2010, benefiting some 5.2 million
July in the north-west eventually spread to around one third of the people around the world. To give just two examples: the number
country, causing immeasurable destruction and suffering. of war casualties treated in the ICRC-supported Mirwais regional
hospital in Afghanistan’s Kandahar province hit record highs
In both of these very different contexts, where the overwhelming during the year, and much larger numbers of patients required
scale of humanitarian needs put an effective, coordinated overall treatment for other sorts of injuries or disease contracted as
response severely to the test, the ICRC based its action on a thorough an indirect result of the conflict. The ICRC also opened its
analysis of the situation and how best to address the needs using seventh limb-fitting centre in the country, in Helmand province.
its specific capacity and expertise. It had been working in Haiti for In Somalia, the number of war-wounded patients in ICRC-
16 years when the earthquake struck. In the immediate aftermath, supported hospitals in Mogadishu also increased sharply.

6
The ICRC’s predominant role in particularly challenging contexts environment; and protection of IDPs. The ICRC subsequently
of armed conflict once again confirmed the value of independent, began a series of consultations with selected States, in order to gain
neutral and impartial humanitarian action. Yet the risks inherent in valuable feedback and reaction to its proposals. These consultations
discharging that role remained ever-present. While one ICRC staff are scheduled to end in March 2011. The ICRC’s governing body
member who had been kidnapped by armed men in Western Darfur will then decide how to proceed in view of the 31st International
in October 2009 was finally released in March 2010, humanitarian Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent later in the year.
operations in the region remained seriously constrained. In April,
eight ICRC employees were captured by an armed group in eastern Positive news in the domain of IHL came with the entry into force of
DRC. Thankfully they were freed, unharmed, one week later. the Convention on Cluster Munitions in August, which thus became
legally binding on the 30 States that had ratified it. The ICRC played
In 2010, well over half of the ICRC’s overall budget was allocated an important role in the process that led to the Convention’s adop-
to assistance programmes, the majority of which were in Africa. tion, and will continue to promote its comprehensive implementa-
This was partly owing to a large-scale emergency relief operation tion and universal adoption. Moreover, in the light of the positive
in northern Mali and Niger, benefiting some 300,000 people suf- political developments on the global stage to reduce and eventually
fering from drought in regions experiencing significant insecurity eliminate nuclear weapons, I made a public appeal to States in April
and various forms of violence. to ensure that these weapons are never used again.

Overall, the ICRC distributed food to over 4.9 million people In 2010, the ICRC’s governing bodies appointed a new Directorate
around the world in 2010, mainly IDPs and residents, and essential for a four-year term. It also adopted a new four-year institutional
household and hygiene items to over 4.7 million people, while over strategy for 2011–2014. In fact, many of the ICRC’s activities in 2010
3.2 million people benefited from sustainable food production as described above effectively presaged key objectives of the new
programmes or micro-economic initiatives. ICRC water, sanitation strategy: namely, to reinforce the ICRC’s scope of action, including
and construction activities helped some 10 million people. in situations of violence other than armed conflicts, organized
armed violence in particular, and in situations of early recovery, to
The ICRC also visited 500,928 detainees in 2010, 30,674 of whom exercise leadership in key domains (not least in the clarification and
were monitored individually, in 1,783 places of detention. The development of IHL), and to better develop strategic partnerships.
aim of such visits is to ensure respect for the life and dignity of
the detainees and to prevent torture, ill-treatment or abuse. It is On this last point, the ICRC’s partnerships with National Societies
also to ensure that conditions of detention are decent and that are of key importance. Strong operational partnerships already exist
detainees have the possibility of exchanging news with their with National Societies in often challenging contexts – Afghanistan,
families, as required by IHL. Colombia, the DRC, Israel and the occupied territories, Pakistan,
the Philippines, Somalia and Yemen, to name just a few. The ICRC
In working to ensure the best possible legal protection for victims is committed to further strengthening and diversifying partnerships
of armed conflicts, the ICRC carried forward its two-year study on inside and outside the Movement, which will however remain the
the current state of IHL. I presented the main findings of this study privileged framework. The overall aim is, of course, to enhance the
to the Permanent Missions in Geneva, Switzerland, in September speed, quality and relevance of humanitarian response – with the
2010. While the study confirms that IHL remains on the whole a needs of affected populations firmly at the centre.
suitable framework for regulating the conduct of parties to armed
conflicts, it also identifies four priority areas in which IHL should
be strengthened to offer better protection to the victims, in con-
texts of non-international armed conflicts in particular: protec-
tion of persons deprived of liberty; implementation of IHL and Jakob Kellenberger
reparations for victims of violations; protection of the natural President

7
ICRC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK
AND DESCRIPTIONS OF PROGRAMMES

General · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 17
Overheads· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 18
Contingency· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 18

ICRC field structure · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 18


Regional breakdown · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 18
Operations worldwide · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 19
Virginie Louis/ICRC

Contributions · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 20
Levels of earmarking· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 20
Contributions in kind· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 21
Contributions in services · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 21

Description of the accounting model · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 21


Overview· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 21
ICRC corporate management framework· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 9 Cost type accounting · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 21
Institutional strategy· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 9 Conclusion · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 22
Key success factors/areas of risk · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 9
Comprehensive analysis and multidisciplinary and Internal control system · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 22
complementary approaches · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 10
Modes of action· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 10 Internal audit· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 23
Levels of intervention · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 10
Result-based management· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 10 External audit · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 23
Target populations in field operations· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 11
Annexes
Programme descriptions · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 12 The ICRC’s operational approach to result-based
Protection· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 12 management: improving humanitarian action · · · · · · · · · · 24
Assistance · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 14 The ICRC’s operational approach to women and girls· · · · · · · · 35
Prevention · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 14 The ICRC’s operational approach to children · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 41
Cooperation with National Societies · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 16 The ICRC’s operational approach to internal displacement · · · 48

8
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

ICRC CORPORATE The ICRC’s key success factors/areas of risk are defined as follows:
MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK
. relevance: the relevance of the ICRC’s response refers to
INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGY meeting the most pressing needs of people affected by armed
conflict and other situations of violence in an evidence-based,
According to the ICRC mission statement, the overall humani- result-oriented and timely manner, and using the ICRC’s
tarian mission of the institution, as an “impartial, neutral and traditional modes of action (support, substitution, persuasion,
independent organization” rooted in IHL, is “to protect the lives mobilization, denunciation)
and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and to provide . organization and processes: organization and processes
them with assistance”. The ICRC is part of the International Red pertains to the structure of the ICRC and its decision-
Cross and Red Crescent Movement. making, working, and information management processes.
It includes the management models, structures, procedures
On this basis, the ICRC’s four-year strategy is made available and rules that govern the work of its staff and contribute
publicly and in the ICRC’s yearly Headquarters Appeal. It assesses to the ICRC’s reputation as a professional, effective and
opportunities and challenges in the environment in question, efficient organization
analyses the most important stakeholders, and defines the organi- . human resources capacity and mobility: the capacities
zation’s desired positioning, the scope of its action, and its ambi- and mobility of the ICRC’s human resources refers to the
tions. It sets strategic orientations and fields of activity for fulfilling organization’s values, policies and methods for managing its
the ICRC’s humanitarian mission – to protect lives and the dignity staff. It also refers to the willingness and readiness of staff
of victims of armed conflict and other situations of violence and members to serve better the ICRC and people affected by
to provide them with assistance. It clearly states the values and armed conflict and other situations of violence
principles guiding the ICRC’s action and attitudes. . access: access to victims refers to reaching people affected
by armed conflict and other situations of violence in order
to assess their situation, to deliver aid and to document
KEY SUCCESS FACTORS/AREAS OF RISK allegations of abuse or violations of IHL and relevant
applicable law committed by parties to the conflict.
The ICRC’s six key success factors/areas of risk, which belong The ICRC’s access to those in need depends greatly on its
to the institutional risk management framework, are the elements reputation and on acceptance of the organization by parties
critical to the organization and its work. They are: to the conflict and by key decision-makers
. reputation/acceptance: the ICRC’s reputation refers to
. three factors related mainly to “the ICRC’s own capacity the way in which the organization is perceived by parties
to act” (internal key success factors/areas of risk): relevance to the conflict and by other key stakeholders. Acceptance
(of response), organization and processes and human of the organization involves parties to the conflict and other
resources capacity and mobility key stakeholders recognizing and accepting the neutral,
. three factors related mainly to the “external environment” impartial, and independent nature of the ICRC and its
(external key success factors/areas of risk): access (to victims), specific mandate under IHL and the Statutes of the Movement
reputation/acceptance and positioning to protect and assist those affected by armed conflict and
other situations of violence. The ICRC’s reputation and the
In each area, the ICRC can encounter risks and opportunities; extent to which the organization is accepted directly influence
by influencing these areas, the ICRC can reduce its vulnerability its ability to gain access to victims and to attract qualified
to the risks and take better advantage of the opportunities, thus staff and funding
improving its response to the needs of people affected by armed . positioning: ICRC positioning refers to the position of the
conflict and other situations of violence and positioning itself as a ICRC within the field of humanitarian response (in terms of
main player in this respect. purpose, complementarity, benchmarking, etc.), its perceived
added value for the people affected by armed conflict and
The ICRC’s key success factors/areas of risk constitute a com- other situations of violence, and donors’ perception of the
mon reading grid for analysis in yearly and other reviews by organization’s relevance, effectiveness and efficiency
the Directorate. Such reviews include the results achieved, an
assessment of risks, and the definition or updating of manage-
ment objectives and action plans to mitigate the main risks and
reinforce the key success factors. This aims to ensure efficient
management of the organization according to available resources
and priorities and thus preserve the ICRC’s reputation and enable
it to continue to demonstrate its added value. Annual reviews are
submitted to the ICRC Assembly.

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ICRC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK AND DESCRIPTIONS OF PROGRAMMES

COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY MODES OF ACTION


AND COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES
The modes of action used by the ICRC are the following:
The ICRC endeavours to respond to the humanitarian needs
arising from today’s complex armed conflicts and other situa- . persuasion: confidential representations addressed to the
tions of violence in the most timely, humane and professional way authorities and aimed at convincing them to enhance respect
possible. Each situation requires thorough analysis, a sensitive for IHL and/or other fundamental rules protecting persons
but objective assessment of the needs and human suffering, in situations of violence and to take measures which improve
and the design and implementation of specific and efficient the circumstances of people affected by such situations
humanitarian responses. . mobilization: activities aimed at prevailing on third parties
to influence the behaviour or actions of the authorities, to
Today more than ever, situations have to be considered holisti- support them, or to provide services to people in need directly
cally, in a way that integrates local, regional and global elements . denunciation (resorted to by the ICRC only in exceptional
and takes into account the broad range of problems and needs of circumstances and under strict conditions): public
the populations the ICRC wants to help. Therefore, for any action declarations regarding violations of IHL or other fundamental
to be undertaken, a comprehensive analysis is carried out: of the rules protecting persons in situations of violence committed
situation, the actors present, the stakes and the dynamics. This by specific actors, for the purpose of bringing a halt to such
enables the ICRC to identify the people adversely affected and violations or preventing their recurrence
their needs. An effective response requires a clear understanding . support: activities aimed at providing assistance to the
of the cause of the problems and a good knowledge of local facili- authorities so that they are better able to carry out their
ties, their capabilities and their potential. The ICRC endeavours to functions and fulfil their responsibilities
obtain an overall perspective of an issue of humanitarian concern . substitution: activities to provide services to people in need
by looking at all aspects of the problem and all possible responses. directly, often in place of authorities who are not able or not
It is also important that the ICRC ensures the coherence of its willing to do so
activities in the medium and long term.
The modes of action used by the ICRC depend on the situation,
The ICRC’s mission is a dynamic that combines the defence of indi- the problems encountered and the objectives to be achieved. They
vidual rights, through respect by the authorities and other actors of aim to make the relevant actors aware of and fulfil their respon-
their obligations, with a response to needs, through neutral, impar- sibilities. The ICRC does not limit itself to any one of them; on
tial and independent action. As described in the ICRC’s mission the contrary, it combines them, striking a balance between them
statement, the organization combines four approaches in its overall either simultaneously or consecutively.
strategy after analysing a situation in order to, directly or indirectly,
in the short, medium or long term, ensure respect for the lives,
dignity, and physical and mental well-being of victims of armed LEVELS OF INTERVENTION
conflict and other situations of violence. Such action seeks to pre-
vent (prevention), eradicate the cause of (protection) and alleviate The activities carried out under the ICRC’s programmes are
(assistance) human suffering in armed conflict or other situations conducted at the following complementary levels to reach
of violence and strengthen the Movement, as a network (coopera- common objectives in aid of the affected populations:
tion). Promotion of the adoption of and respect for legal norms,
confidential representations in the event that obligations are not . preventing or alleviating the immediate effects of an
fulfilled or laws are violated, delivery of relief aid, communication emerging or established pattern of abuse or problem
campaigns and the training of first-aid volunteers are all part of a (responsive action)
coherent humanitarian mission. Effective monitoring and critical . restoring dignified living conditions through rehabilitation,
evaluation, drawing on lessons learnt from past experience, are also restitution and reparation (remedial action)
crucial to this process, as is coordination with the numerous actors . fostering a social, cultural, institutional and legal
present on the increasingly complex humanitarian scene. environment conducive to respect for IHL and/or other
fundamental rules protecting persons in situations of
To carry out comprehensive analysis, set objectives and define and violence (environment-building action)
implement plans of action, the ICRC works with a dynamic network
of multidisciplinary teams composed of specialists and general
staff who are led and coordinated by competent management with RESULT-BASED MANAGEMENT
clear policies and priorities. The implementation of the ICRC
mission is characterized by the strategic use of various modes of At least once a year, on the basis of an analysis of the given situa-
action at different levels of intervention, at the headquarters the tion and of the humanitarian issues, the ICRC defines objectives
delivery of various services and in its field operations a focus on with plans of action and indicators for the coming year for each
different target populations associated with a diverse range of context in which it operates. The plans of action and indicators
activities requiring varied skills and expertise (programmes). describe how the ICRC aims to work towards the objectives in

10
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

question. Changes in situations and humanitarian issues may ensure that they are respected and protected and to alleviate
require objectives, plans of action and indicators to be revised the suffering caused by the situation, in accordance with the
during the year. Objectives and plans of action and indicators provisions of IHL and internationally accepted standards. The
are organized according to target populations and list activities ICRC distinguishes between three different groups of people:
according to programme (see descriptions below). The account-
ing system is structured accordingly (see description below). . civilians:
all people who do not or no longer take a direct part in
ICRC Appeals provide donors with information about these hostilities or violence but whose physical or mental integrity
objectives, their plans of action and indicators and the corre- and dignity are either threatened or affected during an armed
sponding budget. conflict or another situation of violence
. people deprived of their freedom:
The ICRC also produces an Annual Report, which provides infor- all individuals deprived of their freedom in connection with
mation – descriptive, quantitative and financial – regarding those an armed conflict or another situation of violence, such as
objectives and plans of action and indicators. prisoners of war, civilian internees and security detainees
. the wounded and sick:
Whenever possible the reporting is result-oriented. It includes a people – civilians or weapon bearers – injured or suffering
description of the products and services resulting from processes from disease or otherwise in need of medical assistance or care
that use a combination of resources, and their effect or results at in an armed conflict or another situation of violence
output, outcome or impact level.
2) Then there are influential individuals or institutions that,
The ICRC works according to the following definitions of because of their roles and functions, may directly or indirectly
the terminology used, adopted on the basis of a common under- take action to curb, avoid or put an end to violations of IHL
standing in existing literature: or other fundamental rules protecting persons in situations of
violence, and protect or aid those affected when humanitarian
. input: human, technical, material and financial resources problems arise. The ICRC endeavours to persuade them to take
and logistical means that enable a person/organization to action, in the manner most conducive to promoting full respect
do something for those fundamental rules and to ensuring that the people
. activity: any action or process through which inputs are in need receive protection and assistance. This second broad
combined to generate goods and services (outputs) category comprises the following:
. output: the products, goods and services that people receive
as a result of ICRC activities and that are expected to lead to . the authorities:
the achievement of outcomes political decision-makers (civil, administrative or legislative
. outcome: short- and medium-term authorities, whether official or unofficial)
• short-term outcome: the likely, or achieved, short-term . armed forces and other weapon bearers:
effects of the output that are expected to lead to the armed, police and security forces, and all State and non-State
achievement of medium-term outcome actors involved in armed violence
• medium-term outcome: the likely, or achieved, medium- . civil society:
term (1–5 year) effects of the short-term outcome that are the public at large, representatives of civil society or other
expected to contribute to the impact actors exerting influence, such as the media, associations of
. impact: primary and secondary long-term effects to which various kinds, NGOs, religious authorities or opinion-makers,
interventions contribute, positively or negatively, directly or economic entities, young people, university students and
indirectly, intended or unintended. The ICRC, as any other academic institutions
actor, is likely only to contribute to an impact. Many factors will . the Movement:
come into play: some man-made, others occurring naturally besides the ICRC, the Movement comprises the National
Societies and their International Federation. There is a
National Society in almost every country in the world,
TARGET POPULATIONS IN FIELD OPERATIONS carrying out humanitarian services for the benefit of the
community. For the ICRC, the existence of a local partner in
In setting its field objectives, the ICRC has drawn up a standard each country is a valuable asset and one of the distinguishing
list of seven target groups, divided into two broad categories. features of cooperation within the Movement
These are defined as follows:
Particular concerns
1) Affected populations/persons are individuals or segments of The ICRC devotes particular attention to certain individual
the population suffering the direct and/or indirect effects of characteristics and situations which further increase vulnerability.
a confirmed or emerging situation of armed conflict or vio- As the civilian population becomes increasingly caught up in
lence, who do not or no longer take a direct part in the hostili- armed conflicts, specific problems may engender or exacerbate
ties or violence. The aim of ICRC action for such people is to vulnerability among women, children, the elderly or minorities.

11
ICRC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK AND DESCRIPTIONS OF PROGRAMMES

As warring parties fight for territorial control, more and more There is a need to continuously heighten awareness of the tragic
civilians are displaced. Forced displacement could aim to weaken fate of people missing as a result of armed conflict and other
enemy forces by targeting communities considered to be supportive situations of violence and to seek ways of alleviating the anguish
of them, or to facilitate appropriation of property or access natural suffered by their families. In the wake of the International Conference of
resources. Internally displaced people are those compelled to flee Governmental and Non-Governmental Experts on the missing and
their homes, leaving most of their personal belongings behind, their families, convened by the ICRC in Geneva in February 2003,
often to resettle in over-populated areas in conditions of extreme and the pledge made at the 28th International Conference of
poverty, without gainful employment and seldom having the the Red Cross and Red Crescent in December 2003, operational
benefit of services such as a clean water supply, sewage systems, guidelines have been established to prevent disappearances and to
health care or education. respond to the needs and suffering of the families left behind. They
continue to be implemented on the ground by the relevant ICRC
Children are not spared in armed conflict; they not only delegations worldwide with the recommendations pertaining to
represent a large segment of the population but are also more human remains and forensic sciences, which include: opera-
vulnerable than adults. They should benefit both from the general tional support to ICRC field operations on all matters related to
protection guaranteed by law as people not taking a direct part in human remains and the forensic sciences; training and advice on
hostilities and from specific protection as a particularly vulner- best practices in the forensic sciences as they relate to the search
able group (children are covered by 25 articles in the 1949 Geneva for the missing, including in natural disasters; spreading knowl-
Conventions and their 1977 Additional Protocols). Yet children edge of and promoting those best practices; development of tools,
are a major beneficiary of the ICRC’s prevention, protection and including for the collection and management of information,
assistance programmes worldwide. They are often the powerless guidelines, manuals and publications to empower investigations
witnesses of atrocities committed against their relatives. Many of into cases of missing persons; carrying out forensic case-work in
them are killed, wounded or imprisoned, torn from their families, ICRC operational contexts that require it. Moreover, the ICRC
forcibly recruited into combat, compelled to flee or left without continues to heighten concern about the issue of missing persons
even an identity. and their relatives among governments, NGOs, UN agencies and
relevant segments of civil society and to emphasize the importance
Women and girls mostly experience armed conflict as civilians, of addressing and ultimately resolving the issue.
and as such are often exposed to acts of violence. Such acts include
death or injury from indiscriminate attacks and mine explosions, As the ICRC aims to provide a comprehensive response to all
but also direct assaults. Sexual violence, including rape, is wide- populations affected by armed conflict or violence, neither its
spread and often used as a method of warfare against the civilian programmes (protection, assistance, prevention and coopera-
population, with women and girls as the main victims. In addition, tion with National Societies) nor their corresponding budgets
the loss of male relatives and deprivation of access to the basic are designed in such a way as to cater solely to one or another
means of survival and health care make women and girls vulnerable. of the specific groups described above. Donors wishing to help
It is therefore imperative to understand in which way, owing the ICRC manage contributions to its programmes in the most
to their status and role in a given context, women and girls are efficient way possible are referred to the proposed criteria for
affected by a situation of violence and how best humanitarian levels of earmarking set out in the “Contributions” section of
programmes can contribute to alleviating their plight. this chapter available in the Emergency Appeals, Overview of
Operations and Annual Report published each year.
Too often in armed conflicts people fall victim to the effects
of weapon contamination. The ICRC, together with National
Societies, implements activities aimed at reducing the impact of PROGRAMME DESCRIPTIONS
weapon contamination on communities living in contaminated
areas. The response provided is adapted to each situation and PROTECTION
can comprise a range of activities, across all ICRC programmes.
This involves: providing policy guidance and technical support on In order to preserve the lives, security, dignity and physical and
weapon contamination issues to National Societies and represent- mental well-being of people adversely affected by armed conflict
ing the Movement internationally on these matters; working with and other situations of violence, the ICRC has adopted a protec-
protection, economic security and water and habitat programmes tion approach that aims to ensure that the authorities and other
to ensure that weapon contamination as a potential source of vul- players involved fulfil their obligations and uphold the rights of
nerability is included in assessments and programme planning; individuals protected by law. It also tries to prevent and/or put
supporting the capacity building of the National Societies and an end to actual or probable violations of IHL and other bodies of
their integration into national mine-action capability; deploying law protecting people in such situations. The protection approach
a rapid response capacity to ICRC delegations in emergencies focuses both on the causes or circumstances of violations, target-
where weapon contamination poses a threat to the ICRC and/or ing those responsible and those who can influence them, and on
the population; contributing to the development of international the consequences of the violations.
mine-action policy, methodologies and systems.

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ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

Protection programmes cover all activities designed to ensure . delegates must be able to hold private interviews with
protection of the victims of armed conflicts and other situations the detainees of their choice
of violence. The beneficiaries are resident and displaced civilians, . delegates must be able to repeat their visits
people deprived of their freedom (in particular prisoners of war, . detainees falling within the ICRC’s mandate must be notified
security detainees, internees and other vulnerable people), people individually to the ICRC, and the ICRC must be able to draw
separated from their relatives because of conflict, violence or other up lists of their names
circumstances, such as natural disasters or migration, and missing
people and their families. Respect for civilians
Protection activities for the civilian population are intended to
As a neutral and independent humanitarian organization, the ensure that individuals and groups not or no longer taking a direct
ICRC seeks to ensure that all the parties to a conflict and all part in hostilities are fully respected and protected, in accordance
authorities provide individuals and groups with the full respect with IHL or other fundamental rules protecting persons in situa-
and protection that are due to them under IHL and other tions of violence. This involves in particular:
fundamental rules protecting persons in situations of violence.
In response to violations of these rules, the ICRC endeavours, as . engaging in dialogue with the relevant parties at all levels
much as possible through constructive and confidential dialogue, to discuss humanitarian issues and to remind them of their
to encourage the authorities concerned to take corrective action legal obligations
and to prevent any recurrence. Delegations monitor the situation . monitoring individuals and communities who are particularly
and the treatment of the civilian population and people deprived vulnerable and/or exposed to serious risks of abuse, reducing
of their freedom, discuss their findings with the authorities their exposure to those risks and reinforcing their own
concerned, recommend measures and conduct follow-up activities. protection mechanisms

Respect for people deprived of their freedom Restoring family links


The objective of the ICRC’s activities for people deprived of their These activities aim to restore or maintain contact between
freedom is purely humanitarian, namely to ensure that their members of families, including people deprived of their freedom,
physical and mental integrity is fully respected and that their con- who have been separated by an armed conflict, another situation of
ditions of detention are in line with IHL and/or internationally violence or in relation to a natural disaster, with a view to relieving
recognized standards. As circumstances dictate, the ICRC strives their mental anguish. This involves in particular:
to prevent forced disappearances or extrajudicial executions,
ill-treatment and failure to respect fundamental judicial guaran- . forwarding family news (through various means, such as
tees, and, whenever necessary, takes action to improve conditions RCMs, radio broadcasts, the telephone and the Internet)
of detention. This involves in particular: via the worldwide Red Cross and Red Crescent network
(National Societies and ICRC delegations)
. negotiating with the authorities to obtain access to people . tracing persons separated from their families, in particular
deprived of their freedom wherever they may be held, unaccompanied and separated children, including demobilized
in accordance with procedures that guarantee the effectiveness child soldiers
and consistency of ICRC action . collecting information on detentions, disappearances
. visiting all detainees, assessing their conditions of detention and deaths, collecting tracing requests from the families
and identifying any shortcomings and humanitarian needs of missing people and submitting them to the relevant
. monitoring individual detainees (for specific protection, authorities for clarification
medical or other purposes) . organizing repatriations and family reunifications
. maintaining family links (such as facilitating family visits . facilitating family visits to detainees or across front lines
or forwarding RCMs) . issuing ICRC travel documents for people who, owing to a
. under specific conditions, providing material and medical conflict, do not or no longer have identity papers and are
relief supplies to detainees or engaging in cooperation on about to be repatriated or resettled in a third country
specific projects with the detaining authorities
. fostering a confidential and meaningful dialogue with Missing persons
the authorities at all levels regarding any problems of a Activities for missing persons are intended to shed light on the
humanitarian nature that may arise fate and/or whereabouts of people who are unaccounted for as a
consequence of an armed conflict or other situation of violence,
Visits to places of detention are carried out by the ICRC in accord- and thereby respond to the suffering caused to their relatives by
ance with strict conditions: the uncertainty surrounding their fate. This involves promoting
and supporting mechanisms to help clarify the fate of missing
. delegates must be provided with full and unimpeded access persons, including the collection and management of information
to all detainees falling within the ICRC’s mandate and to all and the recovery and identification of human remains, facilitat-
places where they are held ing dialogue between the authorities and the families of missing
people, and responding to the latter’s needs.

13
ICRC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK AND DESCRIPTIONS OF PROGRAMMES

ASSISTANCE Health services


Health-related activities are designed to ensure that the
The aim of assistance is to preserve life and/or restore the dignity of health needs of people in armed conflict or other situations of
individuals or communities adversely affected by an armed conflict violence are met according to defined minimum packages of health
or other situation of violence. Assistance activities address the con- services/care. Curative and preventative health interventions
sequences of violations of IHL or other fundamental rules protect- remain at the heart of ICRC projects; saving lives and alleviating
ing people in situations of violence. They may also tackle the causes suffering are the central objectives of health assistance.
and circumstances of such violations by reducing risk exposure.
Such assistance can entail support to local or regional health ser-
Assistance programmes are designed to preserve or restore vices and when necessary substituting for them on a temporary
acceptable living conditions for people affected by armed con- basis. ICRC health interventions involve:
flict or other situations of violence, to enable them to maintain
an adequate standard of living in their respective social and . either implementing activities directly, supporting existing
cultural context until their basic needs are met by the authorities structures/organizations, or mobilizing others in order to
or through their own means. The beneficiaries are primarily resi- carry out first aid, war surgery or health care delivery in
dent or displaced civilians, vulnerable groups such as minorities conflict situations. Activities include primary health care,
and the families of people who are unaccounted for, the sick and mental health and hospital-related activities such as
the wounded (both military and civilian) and people deprived of emergency surgery, paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology
their freedom. and hospital management
. ensuring that detainees have access to basic health care
Economic security . negotiating with the authorities in order to guarantee safe
Economic security programmes are designed to ensure that house- access to quality health care for the affected population and a
holds and communities have access to the services and resources safe working environment for medical personnel
required to meet their essential economic needs, as defined by
their physical condition and social and cultural environment. In Physical rehabilitation
practice, this translates into three different types of intervention: Physical rehabilitation is an integral part of the process needed
to ensure the full participation and inclusion in society of people
. relief interventions: to protect lives and livelihoods by with disabilities. It involves providing disabled people with assis-
providing people in need with the goods and/or services tive devices, such as prostheses, orthoses, walking aids and wheel-
essential for their survival when they can no longer obtain chairs, together with the therapy that will enable them to make
them through their own means the fullest use of those devices. Physical rehabilitation must also
. production interventions: to protect or enhance a household’s include activities aimed at maintaining, adjusting, repairing and
or community’s asset base – its means of production – so that renewing the devices as needed.
it can maintain or recover its livelihood
. structural interventions: to protect livelihoods by influencing ICRC physical rehabilitation assistance is designed to strengthen
processes, institutions and policies that have a direct impact the overall physical rehabilitation services of a given country. It
on a target population’s capacity to maintain its livelihood aims to improve the accessibility of services and their quality, and
over time (such as agricultural or livestock services) to develop national capacities to ensure their long-term viability.
ICRC physical rehabilitation projects aim to allow the physically
Water and habitat disabled to participate fully in society, both during and after the
Water and habitat programmes are designed to ensure access to period of assistance.
water and to a safe living environment.
Although its focus is physical rehabilitation, the ICRC Physical
In situations of acute crisis, infrastructure may have been damaged Rehabilitation Programme recognizes the need to develop projects
by fighting and basic services may not work or be inaccessible. in cooperation with others so as to ensure that beneficiaries have
People may be forced to leave their homes to look for water in a access to other services in the rehabilitation chain.
hostile environment. By monitoring the situation and implement-
ing projects when and where necessary, in both urban and rural
contexts, the ICRC ensures access to water and safe environmental PREVENTION
sanitation conditions, and promotes basic health care by taking
emergency action and supporting existing facilities. The aim of prevention is to foster an environment that is con-
ducive to respect for the lives and dignity of those who may be
In emerging crises, chronic crises and post-crisis situations, the affected by an armed conflict or other situation of violence, and
priority is to support and strengthen existing structures through that is favourable to the work of the ICRC. The approach has a
initiatives taken in conjunction with the authorities and/or medium- to long-term outlook and aims to prevent suffering by
through specific programmes that meet the needs of the popula- influencing those who have a direct or indirect impact on the fate
tion in a viable, sustainable manner. of people affected by such situations, and/or who can influence the

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ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

ICRC’s ability to gain access to these people and operate efficiently Communication
in their favour. In particular, the prevention approach involves The following complementary communication approaches
communicating, developing and clarifying IHL and promoting constitute a key component of preventive action and facilitate
the implementation of IHL and other relevant bodies of law, and ICRC access to the victims of armed conflict and other situations
promoting acceptance of the ICRC’s work. of violence:

Implementation of IHL . public communication which aims to inform and mobilize key
Implementation activities aim to promote the universal ratifi- stakeholders on priority humanitarian issues and to promote
cation of IHL treaties and the adoption by States of legislative, greater understanding of and support for IHL and the work
administrative and practical measures and mechanisms to give of the ICRC
effect to these instruments at national level. It is also important to . processes to scan the humanitarian environment at
ensure that proposals to develop domestic laws do not undermine global, regional and local level with a view to identifying,
existing IHL norms. Implementation activities also aim to foster understanding and addressing perceptions and issues having
compliance with IHL during armed conflicts and to ensure that an impact on the ICRC’s ability to operate
national authorities, international organizations, the armed forces . developing and implementing approaches for influencing
and other bearers of weapons correctly understand the law appli- the attitudes and actions of political authorities and
cable in such situations. This involves in particular: weapon bearers
. developing communication approaches and tools to mobilize
. promoting IHL treaties among the relevant authorities by key target groups – such as leaders and opinion-makers – in
making representations to governments, providing training favour of respect for IHL and acceptance of ICRC action on
in IHL and drafting technical documents and guidelines to behalf of victims of armed conflict
further national implementation . supporting the implementation of the youth education
. providing technical advice and support for the implementation programme – Exploring Humanitarian Law – to help young
of IHL, undertaking studies and carrying out technical people embrace humanitarian principles and the social and
assessments of the compatibility of national legislation with legal norms intended to protect life and human dignity
this body of law . reinforcing links with academic circles to consolidate a
. promoting the creation of national IHL committees and network of IHL experts and developing partnerships with
supporting existing ones institutes and research centres specializing in IHL
. translating existing IHL texts and materials into . responding to public information requests on humanitarian
different languages norms, issues and action in situations of armed conflict
. encouraging and helping authorities to integrate IHL into . producing – and translating into a range of languages – print,
the doctrine, education and training of national armed audio-visual and web-based communication materials to
forces (international human rights law in the case of police support and communicate the ICRC’s activities
and security forces), and into the training and education
programmes for future leaders and opinion-makers in Weapons issues and mine action
universities and schools The ICRC pays particular attention to promoting measures to
prohibit the use of weapons that have indiscriminate effects or
Development and clarification of IHL cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering. This includes
These activities aim to promote the adoption of new treaties and promoting the application of existing IHL norms on the use of
instruments or to promote the clarification of IHL concepts in weapons and the development, when appropriate, of additional
order to make the law more effective and to respond to needs aris- norms in response to the field realities witnessed by the ICRC or
ing as a result of technological progress and the changing nature of the emergence of new technology.
armed conflict. At the same time, the ICRC analyses the develop-
ment of customary international humanitarian law by assessing The ICRC, working closely with National Societies, also implements
State practice. This involves in particular: preventive mine-action activities in situations where mines, cluster
munitions and explosive remnants of war represent a danger to
. taking part in meetings of experts and diplomatic conferences the population. These programmes are adapted to each individual
held to develop new treaties or other legal instruments situation and can comprise a range of activities that seek to define
. monitoring new developments, carrying out studies, the problem, facilitate a flexible and effective response and take into
producing articles and guidance documents, organizing account the activities of others in this field.
meetings of experts and drafting proposals
. promoting acceptance by governments and other key
stakeholders of the ICRC’s position regarding the development
and clarification of IHL

15
ICRC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK AND DESCRIPTIONS OF PROGRAMMES

This involves in particular: . promoting operational partnerships with National Societies in


their own countries and with those working internationally in
. making representations to governments and other order to respond to the needs of people affected by conflicts or
weapon bearers other situations of violence
. providing an IHL perspective on weapons issues in national . promoting dialogue and coordination and having regular
and international fora communication on issues of common concern with National
. holding meetings of military, legal, technical and foreign Societies and the International Federation Secretariat
affairs experts to consider, inter alia, issues relating to
emerging weapons technology and the impact in humanitarian The sections below describe these activities, distinguishing
terms of the use of certain weapons between cooperation with a National Society working in its own
. promoting the full and faithful implementation of treaties country and cooperation between the ICRC and National Societies
such as the Mine Ban Convention, the Convention on Certain working internationally. The final section discusses overall
Conventional Weapons and the Convention on Cluster Movement coordination in the field.
Munitions, and providing IHL perspectives in meetings on
relevant arms treaties Building the response capacity of National Societies
. providing policy guidance and technical support on mines and in their own countries
other arms issues to National Societies and representing the The ICRC provides expertise in certain areas to all National
Movement internationally on these matters Societies in order to strengthen their capacity to conduct activities
. attending meetings with key mine-action organizations domestically in accordance with their own priorities and plans.
that contribute to the development of mine-action policy, These areas include:
methodologies and systems
. planning and implementing preventive mine-action activities, . promoting IHL and spreading knowledge of the Movement’s
often in cooperation with National Societies, to limit the principles, ideals and activities among both internal and
physical, social and economic impact of mines, cluster external target groups
munitions and explosive remnants of war . preparing for and providing health care and relief services in
. deploying a mine-action rapid response team to situations of conflict and internal strife
provide technical support to ICRC delegations working . restoring family links through the worldwide Red Cross/Red
in emergencies where mines, cluster munitions and Crescent tracing network according to the Restoring Family
explosive remnants of war pose a threat to the ICRC and/or Links Strategy for the Movement and its corresponding
the population implementation plan
. developing activities to prevent the risks of weapon
contamination
COOPERATION WITH NATIONAL SOCIETIES . supporting National Societies in relevant legal matters,
such as drawing up or amending statutes, recognizing or
The aim of cooperation is to increase the operational capabilities reconstituting a National Society, and preparing for the
of National Societies, above all in countries affected or likely to be Movement’s statutory meetings
affected by armed conflict or other situations of violence. It fur-
ther aims to increase the ICRC’s ability to interact with National The National Society remains responsible for designing, manag-
Societies and work in partnership with them. The cooperation ing, implementing and monitoring all the activities it carries out.
approach aims to optimize the Movement’s humanitarian work The ICRC facilitates the implementation of planned activities by:
by making the best use of complementary mandates and skills in
operational matters such as protection, assistance and preven- . providing National Societies with technical expertise
tion. It involves drawing up and implementing the policies of the . making available material and financial assistance in order
Movement that are adopted during its statutory meetings and to help National Societies to fulfil their humanitarian role
strengthening the capacities of National Societies, helping them to in armed conflict and other situations of violence
adhere at all times to the Fundamental Principles. . mobilizing support from sister National Societies and
retaining a monitoring and support role with respect to
The ICRC shares its expertise with National Societies working the achievement of agreed objectives
in their own countries and with those working internationally. . seconding ICRC delegates to National Societies so that
It does this by: they can provide support for executive and managerial
responsibilities in areas agreed with the National Society
. strengthening both the National Societies’ capacity
to take action and provide appropriate services in times Whatever form the ICRC’s support takes, it is offered in the spirit
of armed conflict and other situations of violence in their of a mutually beneficial partnership. In this regard, the ICRC
own country and the ICRC’s action and operational aims to enhance preparedness and response by optimizing com-
capacity through its interaction and partnership with plementarity and strengthening the global Movement network.
National Societies Written agreements between the ICRC and each National Society

16
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

ensure that the objectives are clear to each partner and that the not part of the ICRC’s objectives, but is under the ICRC’s leader-
working relationship is based on a common understanding of ship and coordination in conformity with the Seville Agreement.
respective roles and responsibilities. The ICRC provides capacity-
building support in close consultation and coordination with In the future, the ICRC will further invest in the development of
the International Federation, as activities are carried out with a partnerships with National Societies that have recently expanded
long-term perspective and are part of each National Society’s their international work.
development process.
Coordination within the Movement
Operational partnerships with National Societies In a given context today, all the types of cooperation outlined
in their own countries above may occur simultaneously. They have to be carefully organ-
The ICRC and National Societies in their own countries often ized, coordinated and managed in order to achieve their respec-
join forces and choose to implement activities together for the tive objectives. More broadly, the resources made available to the
benefit of people affected by conflict or internal strife. Activities Movement must be coordinated and managed in ways that ensure
selected for joint implementation are those which best fit within maximum benefit is derived for the beneficiaries.
the National Society’s own plan, preserve its ability to function
as an independent institution and contribute to further strength- The ICRC is responsible for promoting and directing the contri-
ening its operational capacity. The National Society’s autonomy bution and involvement of other Movement components in inter-
in managing such activities may vary, and is contingent on its national relief operations in countries affected by armed conflict
operational capacity and conditions on the ground. and other situations of violence and their direct consequences.
It assumes the role of “lead agency” for the Movement opera-
In its institutional strategy, the ICRC identifies operational tion in accordance with the Movement’s Statutes and the Seville
partnerships with National Societies in their own countries as a Agreement, and in consultation with the National Society of the
priority that seeks not only to enhance the ICRC’s own ability country concerned.
to partner with National Societies, but also to build the National
Societies’ capacity to conduct their own operations. In such situations, coordination mechanisms are established that
cover all the Red Cross and Red Crescent institutions active on
Written agreements formalize the operational partnership and the ground.
specify the objectives to be achieved, respective roles and responsi-
bilities, and corresponding plans of action and budgets. Financial, When the ICRC assumes the role of lead agency, it implements its
administrative and reporting procedures form an integral part of own activities while also taking responsibility for coordinating the
such agreements. response of other Movement components. It is currently work-
ing to improve its practice as lead agency, by working with the
This form of cooperation ensures that partnerships with National National Society of the country as its natural “primary partner”.
Societies have an added value for the beneficiaries, the ICRC and Country-level memoranda of understanding defining the roles
the National Society. and responsibilities of each Movement component in emergency
and normal situations, during periods of conflict, transition and
Operational partnerships with National Societies peace, have been developed in a number of contexts and have
working internationally proven effective in preparing the ground for well coordinated
Many National Societies have the resources and willingness Movement action.
to work internationally together with the ICRC, and contribute
in cash, in kind or by providing personnel and operational In cooperation with other Movement partners, the ICRC has
management. This section focuses on how this kind of operational dedicated further resources to learning from the experience of
partnership functions and on the form of projects implemented coordinating the Movement’s humanitarian response in a number
in the field. of contexts. Revised operational guidelines to enhance coordina-
tion are under development.
In order to make its operational partnerships with National Societies
working internationally more effective, and in line with its
Cooperation Policy of May 2003, the ICRC developed and tested GENERAL
between 2004 and 2006 new forms of partnership and manage-
ment procedures that aim to bring added value to the Movement’s This programme covers all activities related to the functioning
overall humanitarian response. The first – Integrated Partnerships – of ICRC delegations, but which cannot be allocated to another
has been designed for situations where a project carried out by a programme, such as management, internal control and certain
National Society working internationally forms an integral part of strategic negotiations.
the ICRC’s own objectives, and the National Society is integrated
into the ICRC’s operational management framework. The second
– Coordinated Activities – has been designed for contexts where
work carried out by a National Society working internationally is

17
ICRC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK AND DESCRIPTIONS OF PROGRAMMES

OVERHEADS Many delegations cover only one country. Others cover several
countries and are called “regional delegations”. Certain delega-
The budget and expenditure for each operation comprises a 6.5% tions are tending more and more to provide regional services for
overhead charge on cash and services as a contribution to the costs their respective regions, such as the Cairo delegation in terms of
of headquarters support for operations in the field. This support communication, Amman in terms of logistics and Colombo as a
is for services essential to an operation’s success, such as human training provider.
resources, finance, logistics, information technology and other
support as described in the Headquarters Appeal for the same The ICRC’s presence in the field can also take the form of a
year. The contribution covers approximately 30% of the actual mission or other form of representation adapted to the particulari-
cost of support provided by headquarters to field operations. ties of the context or the specific functions assigned to the ICRC
staff on the ground.

CONTINGENCY Regional breakdown


Delegations are grouped by geographic regions covering the
The overall amount of the Emergency Appeals includes a budget- following geographical entities:
ary reserve of 5% of the total field budget (including overheads).
The reserve enables the ICRC to meet unforeseen needs arising . Africa
from the intensification of armed conflicts or other situations of . Asia and the Pacific
violence where the total expenditure for its work does not justify a . Europe and the Americas
Budget Extension or Special Appeal. . Middle East

There are 9 regions in all:


ICRC FIELD STRUCTURE
. Africa
The ICRC has developed a broad network of delegations around • Eastern Africa
the world. The ultimate purpose of such a network is to enable the • The Great Lakes and Southern Africa
ICRC to fulfil its mandate for people affected by armed conflict or • Northern and Western Africa
other situations of violence, by responding in a timely, efficient . Asia and the Pacific
and adequate manner to the resulting humanitarian needs. • East Asia, South-East Asia and the Pacific
• South Asia
ICRC delegations adapt to the specific needs of the contexts . Europe and the Americas
in which they are active and endeavour to develop the most • Eastern Europe and Central Asia
appropriate and effective strategies. They also act as early-warning • Latin America and the Caribbean
systems with regard to political violence or nascent armed • North America, Western, Central and South-Eastern Europe
conflicts and their potential consequences in humanitarian terms. . Middle East
• Near and Middle East
In ongoing or emerging situations of armed conflict or violence,
the delegations focus on operational activities such as protection, At headquarters, a head of region is in charge of the manage-
assistance, cooperation and preventive action at the responsive ment of and support for field operations in each region. The
and remedial levels, for the direct benefit of victims – civilians, head of region answers to the director of Operations and is
people deprived of their freedom and the wounded and sick. also in charge of a regional multidisciplinary team representing
headquarters services such as Protection, Assistance, Logistics,
In other situations, the delegations focus primarily on environ- Law, Communication, Cooperation within the Movement,
ment-building preventive action, cooperation with National Humanitarian Diplomacy, External Resources, Human Resources
Societies and humanitarian diplomacy, while remaining poised to and Finance and Logistics, which are involved as needed. The aim
become more operational should the need arise. is to enhance relations between headquarters and field delega-
tions, and to better coordinate and focus the support provided by
these various services.

18
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

OPERATIONS WORLDWIDE

MIDDLE EAST
AFRICA ASIA AND THE PACIFIC EUROPE AND THE AMERICAS AND NORTH
AFRICA
North
The Great East Asia, America,
Eastern Latin America Middle East
Lakes and Western and South-East Western,
Eastern Africa South Asia Europe and and the and North
Southern Central Africa Asia and the Central and
Central Asia Caribbean Africa
Africa Pacific South-Eastern
Europe

EUROPE
CHAD BURUNDI ALGERIA MYANMAR AFGHANISTAN ARMENIA COLOMBIA EGYPT
(REGIONAL)

CENTRAL
WASHINGTON IRAN, ISLAMIC
ERITREA AFRICAN GUINEA PHILIPPINES BANGLADESH AZERBAIJAN HAITI
(REGIONAL) REPUBLIC OF
REPUBLIC

CONGO,
WESTERN
DEMOCRATIC BANGKOK BRASILIA
ETHIOPIA LIBERIA NEPAL GEORGIA BALKANS IRAQ
REPUBLIC (REGIONAL) (REGIONAL)
(REGIONAL)
OF THE

ISRAEL AND
BEIJING CARACAS
SOMALIA RWANDA NIGERIA PAKISTAN KYRGYZSTAN ANKARA THE OCCUPIED
(REGIONAL) (REGIONAL)
TERRITORIES

ANTANANARIVO ABIDJAN JAKARTA MOSCOW LIMA


SUDAN SRI LANKA BRUSSELS JORDAN
(REGIONAL) (REGIONAL) (REGIONAL) (REGIONAL) (REGIONAL)

INTERNATIONAL
HARARE DAKAR KUALA LUMPUR NEW DELHI TASHKENT MEXICO CITY
UGANDA TRACING LEBANON
(REGIONAL) (REGIONAL) (REGIONAL) (REGIONAL) (REGIONAL) (REGIONAL)
SERVICE

NAIROBI PRETORIA NIAMEY SUVA SYRIAN ARAB


LONDON
(REGIONAL) (REGIONAL) (REGIONAL) (REGIONAL) REPUBLIC

AFRICAN YAOUNDÉ TUNIS


NEW YORK YEMEN
UNION (REGIONAL) (REGIONAL)

KUWAIT
PARIS
(REGIONAL)

DELEGATIONS AND MISSIONS IN MORE THAN 80 COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD


As at 01.01.2011

19
ICRC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK AND DESCRIPTIONS OF PROGRAMMES

CONTRIBUTIONS . contributions which seek to support only a specific


category of beneficiary (e.g. an ethnic or religious minority,
LEVELS OF EARMARKING a specific age group or a specific gender)
. contributions which seek to support only a specific
“Earmarking” is the practice whereby donors require that their sub-region of a country
funds be attributed to the ICRC in general, the Headquarters . visibility requirements which impinge on the security
or Emergency Appeals, or within the Emergency Appeal to a of beneficiaries or ICRC staff
particular region, country or programme, or for the purchase
of specific goods. Experience has shown that the ICRC’s opera- Earmarking is one of the issues raised in the Donor Support Group
tional flexibility decreases in direct proportion to the degree of (DSG), a discussion forum made up of governments contributing
earmarking demanded by donors, to the detriment of the people over CHF 10 million annually to the ICRC’s Appeals. The DSG
that the ICRC is trying to help. Coming to terms with specific has successfully assisted the ICRC in its efforts to decrease the
earmarking and reporting requirements generates an additional levels of earmarking on contributions and to improve its standard
administrative workload, both in the field and at headquar- reporting system. In addition, the majority of DSG members have
ters. Existing standard reporting procedures have to be dupli- accepted that the ICRC’s standard reporting meets the reporting
cated to meet individual requests, specific reporting, audit and requirements related to their donations. The ICRC continues to
evaluation requirements. try to encourage donors to ease their constraints, while main-
taining its commitment to use funds as efficiently as possible.
The ICRC has formulated guidelines to ensure greater uniform- In 2001, the ICRC adapted its standard reporting system to its
ity and coherence in managing earmarked funds. These standards internal annual planning exercise (known in-house as the PfR,
are designed to maximize the ICRC’s effectiveness in the field, or Planning for Results). This commitment to improve report-
by limiting the number of financing and reporting constraints. ing to donors has been further reinforced through, for instance,
The guidelines include rules on contributions which cannot be external audits and enhanced internal planning, monitoring and
accepted on principle. These include: evaluation procedures.
. contributions which are in contradiction with the Movement’s
Fundamental Principles

The table below shows the overall framework agreed with donors for the earmarking level of cash contributions to the ICRC:

Level of earmarking Range/restrictions Example

overall ICRC Any ICRC activities


None
ICRC field or headquarters budget ICRC operations worldwide or headquarters activities
Region one of the four geographical entities ICRC operations in Africa
Programme one of the four programmes ICRC prevention worldwide
one of the four programmes for one ICRC protection activities in Asia and
Programme/region
of the four geographical entities the Pacific
Operation one of the operational delegations ICRC activities in Colombia

Contributions that lead to double or over-financing (e.g. two


different donors wishing to fund the same programme in the same
country) cannot be accepted as this would run counter to recog-
nized audit standards. The ICRC can make exceptions in accepting
earmarking to programme or sub-programme level for a specific
operation when standard reporting requirements are agreed.

Earmarking guidelines not only seek increased uniformity and


coherence in managing contributions, but also establish a correla-
tion between earmarking and reporting. Indeed, greater flexibil-
ity on the donor side regarding narrative and financial reporting
enables the ICRC to manage tighter earmarking more effectively.

20
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

CONTRIBUTIONS IN KIND modules is stored within the main module, the general ledger,
and incorporated into a balance sheet and a profit-and-loss
Contributions in kind refer to assistance provided in the form statement. As financial accounting does not provide information
of food, non-food items or specific goods needed for the ICRC’s about the origin of and the reason for costs, it does not in itself
assistance activities. The customary procedure for the acquisition serve to assess results. In other words, it does not provide the
of contributions in kind is as follows: the ICRC makes a request for information needed for reporting purposes. This task is performed
specific goods needed for a particular field operation; that request by cost accounting.
is matched by a specific donor offer of goods. Once the offer has
been accepted, the goods are delivered by the donor directly to the Cost or analytical accounting system
ICRC’s local or regional warehouses. The cost accounting system allocates all costs in two different
ways: to the cost centre, which explains the origin of the costs,
and to the cost units, which indicate the reason for or the objec-
CONTRIBUTIONS IN SERVICES tive of the costs. Thus it not only explains the type and origin
of costs (e.g. salary, purchase, communications, etc.), but also
Contributions in services refer to support given to the ICRC in the creates a link between the internal service supplier (operations,
form of logistics or staff on loan. The heading “in services” in the management, warehouse, logistics, administration, etc.) and
regional budget table indicates the portion of the budget that the beneficiary, thereby providing reliable and meaningful infor-
the ICRC estimates will be covered by this sort of contribution. mation for both internal and external performance assessment
and reporting.

DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOUNTING MODEL


COST TYPE ACCOUNTING
The accounting model draws a clear distinction between finan-
cial accounting and cost accounting. Cost accounting enhances Financial accounting and cost categories
the information available for internal management and reporting The accounting model comprises three dimensions (e.g. in
to donors. Financial accounting illustrates how human, material field operations: the organizational unit, target population and
and financial resources are used, while cost accounting focuses programmes) that serve to allocate costs between cost centres and
on the use of those resources for the implementation of opera- to cost units accounting.
tional objectives by country, programme and target population,
as defined in the PfR methodology. The aim of the system is to Cost centre accounting
enhance understanding of the resources needed to achieve opera- Any unit (department or unit at headquarters or delegation in
tional results and to determine the reasons for, and the objectives the field) within the organization generates costs as it consumes
of, the costs incurred. goods and services. It is important to identify the initiator of these
costs and to specify his or her responsibility for the type, quality
and dimension of the transactions concerned. This is the purpose
OVERVIEW of the cost centre accounting system. The cost centre reflects the
structure of the unit to which the costs incurred within a given
The objective of the financial accounting system is to record period are initially charged. The person who is answerable for the
expenses and to report on financial transactions in accordance origin of the relevant costs always manages the cost centre.
with legal requirements. The purpose of cost accounting, which
is based on financial accounting, is to promote understanding of Cost units accounting
processes and transactions, to respond to management require- Cost units accounting responds to the information requirements of
ments in terms of detailed information and – in particular for the management and donors, providing greater insight into the finan-
ICRC – to facilitate general and specific reporting to donors. cial resources consumed. It is an essential tool for management
since it describes the reason for or purpose of the costs. Cost units
The financial accounting system is composed of different data- accounting and reporting is based on the operational objectives
entry modules that supply the basic information to the cost defined using the PfR methodology and gives a clearer indication
accounting system (comprising cost centre accounting and cost of the purpose for which the costs were incurred.
units accounting). The costs are allocated from the cost centres to
the cost units according to where and by whom the objectives are To make it possible to produce all the reports required, a three-
being implemented. For the system to function, staff must report dimensional cost units structure is used. The three dimensions,
on the time they spend working on different objectives. outlined below, are independent from one another. Set together
they are the parameters of the PfR system. The total costs found
Financial accounting system in cost unit accounting are equal to the total costs found in cost
The financial accounting system consists of a number of mod- centre accounting. In all three of the dimensions described there
ules (general ledger, payroll, accounts payable, accounts receiv- are different levels of aggregation in order to monitor activities
able, stocks, fixed assets). Information recorded in the peripheral adequately.

21
ICRC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK AND DESCRIPTIONS OF PROGRAMMES

a) Financial “organizational unit” dimension INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM


The financial “organizational unit” reflects the hierarchy of the
organization in terms of responsibility for operational results. Faced with increasingly complex environments, over the years
As most ICRC field operations are designed for and implemented the ICRC has progressively and pragmatically adopted an inter-
in a specific geographical area, the organizational unit dimension nal control and compliance approach based on three pillars: the
also reflects the geographical structure of field operations. It serves Internal Control and Compliance Unit, a financial controller, and
to determine the costs and income of a delegation, region or geo- the Compliance and Quality Assurance Centre in the Philippines.
graphical entity and to compare those costs and that income with
the pre-defined objectives and results to be achieved. The Internal Control and Compliance Unit is responsible for
ensuring that the ICRC’s internal control system complies with
At headquarters, the organizational unit dimension corresponds the requirements of Swiss legislation and with the ICRC’s inter-
to directorates, departments and units. nal rules. The unit is mandated by the Directorate to update the
“entity-wide” control document which sets the tone for the entire
b) Headquarters service and field programme dimensions organization with regard to the control environment the ICRC
At headquarters, services (see “Services at headquarters” above) aims to create. This unit is the focal point for the external auditor
contribute to achievement of the aims outlined in one or more of for any matter related to the internal financial control system.
the ICRC key success factors (see above).
The above-mentioned unit also coordinates the financial control-
In field operations, programmes are slices of institutional objec- ler who, through field and headquarters missions, checks on the
tives cut along the lines of the ICRC’s core activities. They therefore implementation of financial, administrative, human resources and
represent the ICRC’s areas of competence translated into prod- logistics procedures.
ucts and services delivered to the beneficiaries (see “Programme
descriptions” above). In addition, for more than a decade, the ICRC has run the
Compliance and Quality Assurance Centre in the Philippines.
c) Target populations dimension It ensures comprehensive and consistent quality control of all
With the introduction of the PfR methodology, it has become accounting and logistics documents to ensure that financial
necessary to identify target populations as relevant cost units and transactions in the field are supported with bona fide documen-
hence to incorporate them into the project dimension (for the tation and that the standards set by the financial framework
definition of target populations see “Target populations” above). are respected.

Objectives and plans of action A list of the main financial risks and associated control measures
The objectives are a general statement of intent used for planning has been drawn up by the ICRC and validated by the external
purposes on a timescale of one to several years. Via plans of action, auditors. The list is reviewed at least once a year, although it can
this process clearly identifies a result or a measurable change for a be updated whenever necessary. Any required follow-up is done
target population. by the unit.

The overall objective is to ensure the ICRC is fully accountable


CONCLUSION to its donors and other stakeholders, such as the authorities in
contexts where it operates.
The ICRC has an ambitious accounting model that has implica-
tions not only for financial and data-processing procedures but
also for the organization and working methods of the relevant
support units. In this connection, it has started to work on perfor-
mance indicators which aim to enhance the financial information
obtained with operational key indicators.

22
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

INTERNAL AUDIT EXTERNAL AUDIT

According to Article 14 of the Statutes of the ICRC, the “Internal The ICRC’s principal revenue source is the contributions of
Audit shall have an internal monitoring function independent of governments and National Societies, funds from private sources
the Directorate. It shall report directly to the Assembly. It shall and income from securities. According to Article 15 of the Statutes
proceed through internal operational and financial audits”. The of the ICRC, the utilization of this revenue and of ICRC reserves
ICRC Internal Audit covers “the ICRC as a whole, both field and shall be subject to independent financial verification, both inter-
headquarters”. Its aim is “to assess, on an independent basis, the nally (by Internal Audit) and externally (by one or more firms
performance of the institution and the pertinence of the means of auditors).
deployed in relation to the ICRC’s strategy”. In the area of finance,
its role complements that of the external auditors (see below). Each year, external auditors, currently Ernst & Young, audit the
ICRC’s consolidated financial statements. The statements include
The Internal Audit helps the ICRC accomplish its objectives the consolidated statement of financial position, the consolidated
by using a systematic, disciplined approach to ensure and give statement of comprehensive income and expenditure, the consoli-
added value to the effectiveness of risk-management, control and dated cash-flow statement, the consolidated statement of changes
governance processes. Its methodology follows the Standards for in reserves and the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing of the Institute of
Internal Auditors. The audit is conducted in accordance with the International
Standards on Auditing. The external audit opines on whether
The internal audit reports its findings directly to the ICRC presi- the consolidated financial statements give a true and fair view in
dent and the Control Commission, and issues recommendations accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards
to the management. The head of Internal Audit is appointed by as adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board,
the Assembly. Swiss law and the ICRC’s Statutes. The audit report is published in
the ICRC’s Annual Report.
The Internal Audit’s yearly work programme and budget are pre-
sented to the Assembly for approval. Each audit assignment is The external auditors examine on a sample basis evidence
concluded by an audit report. The Directorate is responsible for supporting amounts and disclosures. They review the accounting
responding to the recommendations included in Internal Audit principles used, significant estimates made, and the overall consol-
reports; a formal system for following up the recommendations in idated financial statement presentation. They also give an opinion
each report is in place. Progress in implementation is reported to on whether an internal control system is in place.
the Control Commission of the Assembly.

23
ANNEX 1
THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH
TO RESULT-BASED MANAGEMENT:
IMPROVING HUMANITARIAN ACTION
Managing ICRC operations: the cycle and the results · · · · · · 24 MANAGING ICRC OPERATIONS:
Introduction· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 24 THE CYCLE AND THE RESULTS
The ICRC management cycle · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 25
The yearly internal planning process· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 27 INTRODUCTION
Results and indicators · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 28
Pragmatic approach to result-based management· · · · · · · · · · · · 28 People benefiting from humanitarian action depend on the quality
of the service they get from organizations that they cannot really
Result-based management in ICRC programmes · · · · · · · · · · 29 choose for themselves. Those organizations therefore have an ethi-
Introduction· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 29 cal responsibility to take into account local capacities, culture and
Assistance · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 29 vulnerabilities and to manage resources efficiently and produce
Cooperation with National Societies · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 31 results that have a beneficial effect on the population’s situation.
Prevention · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 31 They also have a responsibility to their donors to ensure that the
Protection· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 32 funds they receive are used optimally.

Result-based management and standard reporting Result-based management is a structured approach that keeps
to donors · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 32 an organization focused on the desired and expected results for
Cyclical standard reporting documents· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 32 the beneficiaries throughout the management cycle, and not sim-
Other standard reporting documents · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 34 ply on the implementation of activities or budget control. The
ICRC employs result-based management chiefly to enhance the
effectiveness of its action for victims of armed conflict and other
situations of violence and to increase its accountability, first to the
victims concerned, and second to other external stakeholders, in
particular donors. Result-based management links activities from
one stage to the next, generates structured information at each
stage, provides coherent information for management and report-
ing purposes, and ensures that resources are used to best effect.

In employing the result-based approach, the ICRC works accord-


ing to the following definitions of the terminology used, adopted
on the basis of a common understanding in existing literature:

. input: human, technical, material and financial resources


and logistical means that enable a person/organization to
do something
. activity: any action or process through which inputs are
combined to generate goods and services (outputs)
. output: the products, goods and services that people receive
as a result of ICRC activities and that are expected to lead to
the achievement of outcomes

24
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

. outcome: short- and medium-term At the ICRC, result-based management is in part translated
• short-term outcome: the likely, or achieved, short-term into the organization’s internal yearly Planning for Results
effects of the output that are expected to lead to the (PfR) process. The ICRC defines the PfR process as a “corporate
achievement of medium-term outcome function that assesses context, target groups, problems/needs,
• medium-term outcome: the likely, or achieved, risks, constraints and opportunities and sets priorities to ensure
medium-term (1–5 year) effects of the short-term an appropriate level of coordination and alignment of action
outcome that are expected to contribute to the impact and resources towards the achievement of expected results”. The
. impact: primary and secondary, long-term effects to which PfR process is carried out within the ICRC’s three-dimensional
interventions contribute, positively or negatively, directly or framework of contexts, target populations and programmes,
indirectly, intended or unintended. The ICRC, as any other which serves the ICRC in both operational and financial manage-
actor, is likely only to contribute to an impact. Many factors ment terms:
will come into play: some man-made, others occurring naturally

Context Target population Programme

Civilians Protection
People deprived of their freedom
Wounded and sick Assistance
Single country, group of countries,
Authorities
or other context
Armed forces and other bearers of weapons Prevention
Civil society
Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement Cooperation

Target populations are further broken down into sub-target popu- organization); and, whenever appropriate, sustainable (taking
lations and programmes into sub-programmes. into account longer-term impact and looking for lasting solutions
to the needs or problems encountered).
The three-dimensional framework and the PfR methodology were
introduced into the ICRC’s management procedures in 1998 in According to the terminology used at the ICRC, the management
a process encompassing: the development of electronic tools to cycle starts with an assessment, which, after analysis, may lead to the
support implementation of the methodology; the progressive and formulation/planning, implementation, monitoring, review and
ongoing adaptation of all operational guidelines on the various in some cases evaluation of a humanitarian operation. The entire
ICRC fields of activity; and continuous training for staff, particu- cycle and the decisions taken therein are consistent with the ICRC’s
larly those in the field. The accounting model was also adapted to mandate and its legal and policy framework. The cycle contributes
include both financial accounting and cost/analytical accounting. to result-based management by rationalizing the steps leading to a
successful outcome for the beneficiaries. It has four components.
In 2006 the ICRC conducted internal assessments, discussions and
consultations with a view to reaffirming its result-based approach
s
to management. Since 2007, this approach has been part of the Asses & analys
e
institutional strategy. The ICRC Directorate thus seeks to:
rn
ea
&l

Form
evaluate

. develop a management style based on clearly


ulate & pl

established objectives
view/

. enhance the skills required for result-based management at all levels


Re

an

. define indicators for all levels of established objectives


(programmes, field operations, institutional)
Im
ple
. adapt the existing institutional tools of result-based men
t & monito
r

management to achieve established objectives

The phases of the cycle are progressive: each phase needs to be com-
THE ICRC MANAGEMENT CYCLE pleted for the next to be tackled with success, with the exception of
monitoring, which is a continuous process during the implemen-
The management cycle for ICRC activities aims to maximize the tation phase. Decision-making criteria and procedures are defined
benefits of programmes for the beneficiaries, ensuring that actions at each stage, including key information requirements and quality
are: relevant to the needs of the beneficiaries; feasible (insofar as assessment criteria. Monitoring serves to recalibrate the opera-
objectives can be realistically achieved within the constraints of tion to ensure it remains focused on achievement of the desired
the working environment and the capabilities of the implementing result, as well as to verify that the desired result is still pertinent.

25
ANNEX 1 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO RESULT-BASED MANAGEMENT: IMPROVING HUMANITARIAN ACTION

New planning draws on the results of monitoring, review and in which happens at least once a year (see below), down to the sub-target
some cases evaluation of previous action, programmes and activities population (e.g. physically disabled people, under Wounded and
as part of a structured process of feedback and institutional learning. sick) and sub-programme (e.g. economic security, under Assistance),
and even in a limited geographical area within the context.

THE STAGES OF THE MANAGEMENT CYCLE Reviews take the form of qualitative and quantitative, narrative
AND THEIR DEFINITION and figure-based reports which are prepared by: teams in the field
(usually), professionals from ICRC headquarters (often), mixed
Assessment and analysis teams involving internal and external specialists (more rarely),
Through assessments, the ICRC aims to understand a situation in or external specialists mandated by the ICRC (also more rarely).
order to identify the problem(s) facing a target population, their
causes and the consequences for the target population. The pur- Information on the interim situation (the results so far) is
pose of an assessment is simply to identify any problems, not to compared with information on the intended results (the objective)
work out whether and how to address them. The assessment stage and on the initial situation (the baseline) to identify any significant
involves collecting information and data, both independently and deviations from the plan. In this way, the ICRC is able to iden-
during contacts with the target population itself, the authorities at tify problems and take corrective action. Either it will modify the
all levels, and any other relevant stakeholders. way in which it seeks to achieve its objective, or it will modify the
objective itself if it finds that the baseline situation or the needs
The ICRC then conducts a thorough analysis of the information have changed. As such, the stages of the management cycle are
gathered during the assessment to determine the current situation. replicated at various operational levels, multiple times, within
It is necessary to know what the conditions are at the beginning the overall yearly cycle for a given context.
in order to know what needs to be achieved. This is the baseline:
a set of information that defines the initial situation that must An evaluation is defined by the ICRC as an independent, objec-
be improved and against which any future improvement will be tive and systematic examination of the design, implementa-
measured. This is essential for determining objectives. tion and results of an initiative, programme, operation or policy
against recognized criteria. It is intended to articulate findings,
Formulation and planning draw conclusions and make recommendations in order that the
The aim of this phase is to define the desired future situation of ICRC may draw lessons, improve overall policy and practice, and
the affected populations on the basis of the problems they are enhance accountability. Evaluations commissioned by the ICRC
currently facing. This is the objective (the target), which is used are internal, while those commissioned by stakeholders outside
to determine the means of achieving the new status. Once the the institution are external; those taken on by the ICRC together
desired new situation of the target population has been defined, a with outside stakeholders are joint evaluations. Internal and joint
plan of action is formulated (with corresponding budget/human evaluations aim to influence ICRC action over the long term, on
resources), outlining the steps required to move from the baseline the basis of their findings. Given the magnitude of the undertak-
situation to the target situation. Tools, including any relevant indi- ing, only a few evaluations are carried out each year.
cators, for monitoring, reviewing, evaluating and ensuring that the
ICRC can learn from the process are decided on at this stage. The ICRC’s Institutional Performance Management Unit in the
Office of the Director-General has overall responsibility for manag-
Implementation and monitoring ing internal and joint evaluations. This includes writing the terms of
During this phase, the ICRC carries out the various activities reference, recruiting the independent evaluators, organizing visits
identified during the formulation/planning stage as being required and interviews, reading and commenting on draft reports, organiz-
to achieve the desired results for the target population. ing round-table meetings with the evaluators and the main internal
stakeholders to present and discuss the findings, conclusions and
Once implementation of the plan of action begins, so does moni- recommendations of the evaluation, and overseeing preparation of
toring, using the tools defined at the formulation/planning stage. the final report. The Unit cooperates closely with the main internal
Monitoring is a continuous and systematic process of self-assessment stakeholders throughout the process. A steering committee com-
throughout the life of the operation, which involves collecting, meas- prising all those involved is established for all internal evaluations.
uring, recording and analysing information on all the planned activi- The main stakeholders must prepare an approach paper, help estab-
ties and the results being achieved for the target population. It also lish the terms of reference and select the evaluators, provide relevant
includes continuous monitoring and analysis of the situation of the information (written and oral) to the evaluators, help organize field
target population and of the general context in which the operation is missions and read and comment in writing on the draft evalua-
taking place. It aids management, with the ultimate goal of ensuring tion reports. Once the evaluation report has been distributed, key
the effective delivery of a relevant and good-quality service. stakeholders are asked to provide feedback on the conclusions and
recommendations and to prepare an action plan for follow-up.
Review, evaluation and learning
Reviews are periodic or ad hoc internal examinations of perfor- The evaluation and learning process leads to lessons learnt both
mance that take place at various levels: from the context as a whole, for the delegation and for the ICRC as a whole.

26
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

THE YEARLY INTERNAL PLANNING PROCESS Formulation and planning


On the basis of its mandate, its legal and policy framework and con-
The PfR document marks the beginning of the yearly management sultations with the potential beneficiaries, the ICRC then determines
cycle for each context. a desired future situation for the target population. It makes these
kinds of decisions on the basis of a number of factors, including: the
most pressing needs; its own mandate and capacities; international
PFR DOCUMENTS humanitarian law and other internationally recognized standards;
Drawn up by specialists and managers in the field with the help resolutions of the Movement’s statutory bodies; a thorough knowl-
of staff at headquarters, the PfR documents (one per context) are edge of the context in question (e.g. customs and cultural sensitivities;
structured according to the ICRC’s framework of target popula- national standards, laws and capacities); and the mandate, objec-
tions/sub-target populations and programmes/sub-programmes tives and activities of other organizations, in particular its partners
(see Introduction above). They are structured according to the within the Movement (the National Societies and the International
management cycle described above: they provide an assessment Federation). It sets objectives to be achieved in the medium or long
and analysis of the situation, including a summary of the progress term and determines the incremental steps to be taken in the short
so far in terms of implementation of actions and results against term (within the year) towards achieving those objectives. Possible
the objectives defined for the previous yearly cycle, and the new and actual constraints on and limitations to the operation, identified
plan for the year to come. during the assessment and analysis of the context, are also taken into
account to ensure that the incremental steps are realistic.
Assessment and analysis
The PfR documents present the information collected during This process is undertaken by target population and sub-target
a thorough assessment of all aspects of the situation, including population, and by programme and sub-programme. The follow-
the results of operations, conducted first hand by the ICRC’s ing elements are defined:
delegations, sub-delegations, missions and offices in the field.
They compile information on the: . the desired humanitarian impact (the desired
future situation)
. general context . general objectives (medium- or long-term objectives,
. armed conflict or other situation of violence usually covering a 5-year period)
. humanitarian situation . specific objectives (that aim to be achieved within the year)
. security situation . specific operational strategies (strategies for achieving the
. other actors present specific objectives, enhanced at field level by operational
action plans)
Using the information collected during the assessment stage, ICRC
specialists in the field and at headquarters conduct a thorough The levels of intended result set out in the PfR documents correspond
analysis of the situation to identify the problems faced by the target to various result levels defined under result-based management
populations, their causes and their magnitude (problem analysis). (see Introduction above).

Planning for Results Corresponding intended result level

Desired humanitarian impact Impact


General objective Contribution to impact and/or medium-term outcome
Specific objectives/specific operational strategies Output and short-term outcome

The ways of measuring progress towards achievement of the FOLLOW-UP TO THE PFR DOCUMENTS
various levels of results are also defined at this stage. These are
many and various – some are standard and used by all delegations Implementation
conducting similar activities; others are specific to an individual Once the content of the PfR documents has been debated and
action (see Follow-up to the PfR documents below). agreed on by field and headquarters and approved by the ICRC
Assembly, implementation begins. Monitoring (see below) is an
Budget integral part of implementation.
The required financial, human and material resources are defined
by programme for each target population. Monitoring, review and audit
Various internal tools are employed to check on the implementa-
tion of ICRC activities and on the progress made towards achiev-
ing specific objectives (and therefore the general objectives and the
new desired state for the target population). This ongoing process
includes qualitative, quantitative and/or participative approaches,
with a combination of all three being required in most cases. All

27
ANNEX 1 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO RESULT-BASED MANAGEMENT: IMPROVING HUMANITARIAN ACTION

tools are shaped by the PfR process, its structure (target popula- RESULTS AND INDICATORS
tions and programmes) and content (objectives and budget).
These tools are complementary, often interlinked, and essential As mentioned above, during the yearly planning process the ICRC
for ensuring the effectiveness of the ICRC’s action. They also decides on ways of measuring progress in implementation of
provide the input for ICRC reporting to donors. activities and in achieving the intended results, at output, outcome
and contribution-to-impact level, through its specific objectives,
The tools include: constant data collection and observation operational strategies and operational planning.
in the field; weekly, bi-monthly or monthly operational reports
prepared by each delegation/for each context; monthly reports Indicators are variables that express real and verifiable changes, in
providing standard assistance and protection indicators; quarterly addition to progress made towards the achievement of objectives.
programme-specific reports; ad hoc context-based or thematic Indicators are established for the purpose of enhancing imple-
reviews; and internal and external audits. mentation and effectiveness to ensure the best possible outcome
for the beneficiaries.
Evaluation
Given the limited number of ICRC evaluations (see above), only Different kinds of indicators may be required for different activities
occasionally will an evaluation feed into the yearly cycle of an indi- under different programmes, or indeed for the same kind of activity/
vidual context. Evaluations nevertheless remain an integral part of programme in different contexts. In different contexts, the baselines
the ICRC’s overall management cycle and inform its operations will be different, meaning that the appropriate desired future situ-
as a whole. ation of the target population must be culturally and contextually
adapted (appropriate technology, quantities/type of aid, etc.).
Continuation of the cycle
If, during the monitoring process, a significant change in the situ- Result-based management is implemented through all ICRC pro-
ation is noted during the year, the ICRC might need to under- grammes, however not in a standard way across programmes.
take a major revision of its yearly PfR documents for that context. Nevertheless, all programmes work on the basis of what the ICRC
Thus, the management cycle will begin again on the basis of the calls “generic indicators” to measure and express their results,
new information collected and the new analysis undertaken, with based on the ICRC mission and ICRC policies. These generic
the setting of revised or even completely new objectives, and the indicators express a general state that comprises a number
drawing up, implementation and monitoring of corresponding of specific characteristics, which may be the object of specific
plans of action. If the needs are much greater and the action is indicators. For example, the availability of water (the generic indi-
expanded, this may necessitate an extension to the initial annual cator) is made up of more specific elements such as the quantity
budget, which is drawn up in the same way as the yearly PfR docu- of water, its quality, the reliability of the source, and the distance
ments. The reverse may also be true, with a reduction of needs, of the source from the beneficiary. The generic indicators are
and thus of the corresponding operation, leading to a reduction of therefore refined into many specific indicators according to the
the initial annual budget. situation, the objectives and intended results in a given context
(see Result-based management in ICRC programmes below).
Input for the next cycle
Whether or not this is required during the year, the yearly PfR The narrative reports prepared as part of the follow-up to PfR
documents contain a summary of all that has been ascertained documents in principle compare the intermediate situation of the
during the monitoring and reviews undertaken during the pre- beneficiaries with the baseline situation and the desired new situa-
vious cycle (the previous year). This ensures that the experience tion. As such, these internal progress reports make use of the generic
of the previous year and the lessons learnt are taken into account indicators as well as qualitative specific indicators to reflect whether
when the current situation is assessed and analysed and objectives the change desired in the specific objective has been achieved.
for the new cycle are set. The summary includes information on:
To support its narrative reporting, the ICRC uses figure-based indi-
. annual appraisal: the global results achieved or not achieved cators. It has, for example, a set of standard indicators for activities
as compared to the previous year’s orientations, priorities carried out under its Assistance and Protection programmes for the
and strategies target populations Civilians, People deprived of their freedom and
. innovations, creativity, lessons: new developments that might Wounded and sick. They refer to output and to short-term outcome.
be useful in other contexts or in future operations

Furthermore, given that general objectives are set for five years or PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO RESULT-BASED MANAGEMENT
more (if they are aimed at more systemic change), for each general
objective, a section in the PfR documents named current state of The ICRC believes that the first objective of result-based manage-
implementation provides a summary of the progress made to date ment should be to enhance the relevance and effectiveness of its
towards achieving the objective (progress made during previous action for victims of armed conflict and other situations of violence,
cycles). This feeds into the present project cycle to ensure that the and to increase its accountability, first to the victims, and second to
plans for the year ahead remain result-focused. other external stakeholders, in particular donors. Within the ICRC,

28
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

therefore, the result-based management approach and the manage- solutions, even if this limits the amount of information that can be
ment cycle are followed as rigorously as is possible and necessary to gathered, and therefore reported. Useful but unwieldy solutions
bring positive change to the situation of the beneficiaries. based on the measurement of factors such as knowledge, attitudes,
behaviours and practices to evaluate changes are used sparingly.
There are many potential barriers to effective management of the
cycle, many of them specific to the conflict situations in which the Finally, staff turnover levels within the ICRC mean that training and
ICRC works. supervision are constantly required to ensure continuity and the
transfer of the necessary skills and knowledge. In order for progress
. Sometimes, assessment capacity may be affected by restrictions to be achieved, requirements should remain as simple as possible,
on access owing to the armed conflict or other situation of and not be changed regularly or added on an annual basis.
violence; at other times the ICRC’s ability to monitor and
review an operation once implementation has begun may be
limited, or even no longer useful owing to a radical change RESULT-BASED MANAGEMENT
in the situation. IN ICRC PROGRAMMES
. Security is not the only factor: other access problems, such as
weather conditions (e.g. monsoon rains or heavy snows) or INTRODUCTION
damage to infrastructure (e.g. destruction of roads or bridges),
may also hinder management of the cycle. The ICRC endeavours to respond to humanitarian needs arising
. Specific circumstances will suggest the need for an urgent from today’s complex armed conflicts and other situations of vio-
response to needs. The time factor often being of crucial lence in the most timely, humane and professional way possible.
importance, assessments will be kept to a minimum to ensure As described in ICRC management framework and programme
that the operation can get under way and benefit the target descriptions, implementation of the ICRC mission is character-
population as soon as possible. Similar constraints can also ized by the strategic use of various modes of action at different
limit monitoring and review processes. levels of intervention. The ICRC combines four approaches with
. The ICRC’s ability to collect the information required for a view, directly or indirectly, in the short, medium or long term,
effective management of the cycle is frequently hampered by to ensuring respect for the lives, dignity, and physical and men-
factors such as the non-availability or limited quality of data. tal well-being of victims of armed conflict and other situations of
Lack of information on, for example, the population, the violence. Its action seeks to prevent (prevention), eradicate the
socio-economic situation, epidemiological matters and the cause of (protection) and alleviate (assistance) human suffering
administrative and professional capacities of other institutions in armed conflict or other situations of violence and to strengthen
and bodies, together with the complexity and/or opacity of the Movement (as a network) (cooperation).
existing institutions, bodies and power structures, means that
the ICRC may have to work with partial, unreliable and/or This involves the delivery of various services by headquarters and
controversial information. field operations focusing on different target populations associ-
ated with a diverse range of activities requiring varied skills and
It is worth recalling that indicators, particularly numerical ones, expertise (programmes).
need to be interpreted carefully. Some figures are meaningful only
in themselves and only within an annual cycle (i.e. are not com- Professionals in each programme work according to the ICRC
parable from one year to the next because they are too sensitive to management cycle and within a given framework, which includes
external variables). ethical and legal aspects, policies, guidelines and working tools.
Generic indicators (see above) are part of these and provide the
Moreover, in many cases the ICRC works with indicators that are basis for defining specific indicators measuring and expressing
key to its decision-making process but cannot be shared without results for concrete objectives in a given context. The sections
compromising its mandate as a neutral, independent and impar- below provide information on the management of each ICRC
tial humanitarian organization. approach, related programmes and existing generic indicators
(in bold) with examples of associated topics (listed in brackets)
Given that result-based management aims to streamline the rel- on which specific indicators might be defined/used.
evance and effectiveness of action for conflict-affected victims and
permit best use of resources, the ICRC seeks to collect the required
information through existing systems and data sources (in certain ASSISTANCE
cases with the provision of some support), rather than establishing
new ones, and pragmatic sampling. The ICRC has made it a policy Generic indicators based on the Assistance Policy (dated April 2004)
not to set up measurement systems, which could enhance moni- exist for all three assistance sub-programmes: economic security,
toring as such, but which are not directly required for monitoring health (including physical rehabilitation) and water and habitat.
the expected results of action for the beneficiaries. In any case, it These generic indicators are provided below with examples of
strives to avoid an overly cumbersome, bureaucratic system, set associated topics on which specific indicators might be defined/used
up solely for the purpose of monitoring, preferring to find simpler for concrete objectives in a given context.

29
ANNEX 1 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO RESULT-BASED MANAGEMENT: IMPROVING HUMANITARIAN ACTION

As far as sustainability is concerned, the ICRC takes into account . access to service (e.g. physical access, proximity/security,
the longer-term impact of its activities (the “do no harm” opening hours, free/paid, universal/discriminatory, patient
approach) and, whenever appropriate, endeavours to find lasting attendance, catchment population)
solutions to the needs of the affected population. This proviso is . quality of service (e.g. existence of and respect for protocols
introduced because of the life-saving character of some of its activ- and guidelines; waiting time; staff on duty; quality of supply
ities conducted on an emergency basis, the sustainability of which of drugs and consumables; mortality rate/case fatality rate;
is not guaranteed. Sustainability is therefore a generic indicator for referrals; reception; hygiene standards)
activities in the area of physical rehabilitation, but it also applies
to economic security income-generating activities, the rehabilita- For activities in the area of physical rehabilitation, an additional
tion of water infrastructure or the rehabilitation/construction of generic indicator is used as a basis for measuring and express-
health facilities. ing results, at least for certain centres and/or from a certain date:
sustainability (e.g. local policies, local resources, local public and
In addition, as mentioned above, standard quantitative indicators private structures, training capacities and curriculum).
are available worldwide for all three assistance sub-programmes.

WATER AND HABITAT


ECONOMIC SECURITY The water and habitat sub-programme covers five areas of activity:
The economic security sub-programme covers three areas of activity: safe drinking water supply, sanitation and environmental health,
relief aid, livelihood support and structural support. temporary human settlements, energy supply and building rehabili-
tation and construction.
Relief aid – to save lives and protect livelihoods
. access to food (e.g. adequacy and stability of access, Safe drinking water supply
availability of food, economic activities, household assets, . access (e.g. proximity, security, quality of source, fetching time)
market, food aid, cultural standards, nutritional status) . quantity (e.g. availability per day, seasonal influence, needs per day)
. access to essential household items (e.g. availability of . quality (e.g. storage, hygiene, water point maintenance)
essential household items, household assets and economic
activities, material aid, climate, shelter conditions, clothing, Sanitation and environmental health
living conditions, hygiene, water storage, cooking capacity) . hygiene and sanitation facility availability (e.g. quantity,
. access to means of production (e.g. seed, tools, availability proximity, access day and night, maintenance, cultural
of land, land tenure, job market, land cultivated, yield) standards, hygiene practices, environmental impact,
environmental conditions)
Livelihood support – to spur food production and/or . waste management (e.g. proximity, removal service,
generate income clean areas, hygiene practices, maintenance)
. food production capacity (e.g. availability of land, access . vector-borne disease control (e.g. hygiene practices,
to means of production such as land, seed, tools or animals, safe vector control practices, malaria control practices,
seasons, harvest, animal health, livestock management, stagnant water and refuse)
training, market, consumption of own product)
. income generation capacity (e.g. job market, production, Temporary human settlements
trade and revenue, remuneration, expenses, assets) . availability (e.g. timeliness, quantity, space, water and
sanitation, kitchen)
Structural support – to improve processes and institutions that have . quality (e.g. security, space, cultural standards, organization
a direct influence on a target population’s lives and livelihoods and management, heating/cooling, environmental impact,
. processes and institutional capacity (e.g. existence of services, environmental conditions)
type of service, quality of services, appropriateness of services,
deployment capacity, political will, security) Energy supply
. quantity (e.g. cooking fuel, water production, waste water
treatment, heating)
HEALTH . quality (e.g. usage, cultural standards, environmental impact)
The health sub-programme covers five areas of activity: first aid, . efficiency (e.g. fuel, equipment, availability, maintenance)
war surgery, health care delivery in conflict situations, physical
rehabilitation and health in detention. Building rehabilitation and construction
. adequate working/living infrastructure (e.g. rooms,
. availability of service (e.g. type of service, such as surgery, sanitation, kitchen)
vaccinations, antenatal care, gynaecology and obstetrics; . adequacy of the installations (e.g. living space, working space,
infrastructure and technology; medical/surgical and patient equipment and services)
equipment; drugs and consumables; presence of staff and . functional installations (e.g. organization and distribution of
professional knowledge) space, water, power, management)

30
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

COOPERATION WITH NATIONAL SOCIETIES promote IHL and other relevant bodies of law, as well as to
facilitate acceptance of the ICRC and access to affected people.
The Seville Agreement and its Supplementary Measures provide The medium- to long-term nature of prevention and its focus
a framework for effective cooperation and partnership between on influencing multiple environmental factors pose significant
the Movement’s members, thereby enhancing field-level coordi- challenges in terms of accountability. The ICRC needs to carefully
nation among them. The ICRC’s Cooperation Policy (dated May determine the objectives it can realistically achieve in respect of each
2003) enhances this framework with regard to the organization’s target group.
approach to National Societies working in their own countries
and its operational cooperation with them. The aim is to support The ICRC prevention approach includes three different sets of
National Society efforts to strengthen their institutional capacity activities corresponding to different goals: prevention-dissemination
and improve their delivery of quality service, thereby enhancing aims to foster understanding and acceptance of the ICRC’s
the effectiveness of the Movement as a whole (and in particular work and/or IHL and other relevant bodies of law; prevention-
that of the ICRC) and reinforcing this unique network. implementation focuses on developing and strengthening the
conditions allowing respect for IHL and other relevant bodies
Generic indicators are used as a basis for defining specific indica- of law, usually by incorporating the law into appropriate struc-
tors measuring and expressing results in the field of cooperation. tures; and prevention-development focuses on the development
These generic indicators are listed below with examples of associ- of IHL.
ated topics on which specific indicators might be defined/used for
concrete objectives in a given context. Only prevention-dissemination and prevention-implementation
sub-programmes are carried out in field operations and are there-
. National Society capacity (e.g. legal base, respect for the fore considered below. They focus on players that have a signifi-
Fundamental Principles, use of emblems, structure and cant capacity to influence the structures or systems associated
organization, services, Safer Access approach, human with identified humanitarian problems. Their main target groups
resources and training, equipment and maintenance, are therefore key decision-makers, such as authorities, armed
financial resources) forces, police forces and other weapon bearers, influential civil
. capacity to work together (e.g. relationship, staff and society protagonists, young people and academic circles and the
structure, training and competencies, resources, Movement media. For each, generic indicators are used as a basis for defin-
coordination mechanisms) ing specific indicators measuring and expressing results. They
. sustainability of cooperation (e.g. ownership, strategic/ are listed below with examples of associated topics on which
development plans, training capacity, structure and specific indicators might be defined/used for concrete objectives in a
organization, resources, networking) given context.

For the people affected by armed conflict and other situations Prevention-dissemination
of violence, operational cooperation between National Societies . knowledge of the context (e.g. stakeholder mapping, access
working in their own countries and the ICRC is managed via the to conflict-affected areas and people, needs, legal framework)
ICRC sub-programme concerned, e.g. economic security, health, . acceptance (e.g. number and frequency of contacts, ICRC
water and habitat and restoring family links. In such situations, access to conflict-affected areas/people)
the first goal of the partnership between the National Society and . ownership (e.g. quality of dialogue; content and scope of
the ICRC is to fulfil objectives to serve the people affected: generic issues discussed; type of follow-up undertaken by stakeholders;
indicators for these programmes are listed above under Assistance development of concrete initiatives such as information or
and below under Prevention and Protection. training sessions, pamphlets and press releases; number and
level of participants in ICRC-sponsored events)
. sustainability (e.g. follow-up of the information provided;
PREVENTION designation of liaison officers by stakeholders; existence of a
process for notification of movement; ICRC access to conflict-
The Prevention Policy (dated September 2008) sets out the ICRC affected areas/people; stakeholder support for the ICRC)
prevention framework, definitions of the main terms, and key
principles and operational guidelines for implementing activities Prevention-implementation
as part of ICRC medium- to long-term efforts to prevent human . knowledge of the context (e.g. stakeholder mapping, access to
suffering. Prevention activities aim to foster an environment con- conflict-affected areas and people, needs, legal framework)
ducive to respect for the life and dignity of people affected by . acceptance (e.g. number and frequency of contacts; quality
armed conflicts and other situations of violence and respect for of dialogue; sharing of existing policies, laws, codes, rules,
the ICRC’s work at global, regional and local level. operating procedures, and training curricula by stakeholders)
. ownership (e.g. content and scope of issues discussed; type
The policy focuses on developing and implementing contextu- of follow-up undertaken by stakeholders; development
ally adapted approaches to gain the support of influential play- of cooperation agreements; dedication of resources by
ers, and covers efforts to communicate, develop, clarify and stakeholders; assumption of leading role by stakeholders)

31
ANNEX 1 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO RESULT-BASED MANAGEMENT: IMPROVING HUMANITARIAN ACTION

. sustainability (e.g. signature and ratification of treaties; . exchange of family news (e.g. legal framework, cultural
existence of means and mechanisms for respect for the law, standards, needs, means, quantity, processing time)
such as (updated) national implementation laws, codes, rules . family reunification (e.g. legal framework, cultural standards,
and operating procedures, including sanctions; education and needs, criteria, number, quality and frequency of contacts,
training policies and training institutions; development of authorization process, quantity, processing time, availability
training curricula, existence of training materials for trainers and quality of services)
and trainees; designation of trainers; participation in . clarification of the fate and support to families of missing
training sessions) people (e.g. notification of arrest/capture and detention;
human remains management; tracing; mechanism to deal
In addition, for many years now, work with armed forces and with a missing person case; legal protection of the missing
other weapon bearers has been managed in many contexts with and their families; availability and quality of social services;
a score card template, which is adapted locally. Similar tools are cultural standards)
being developed for work with universities and schools and pro-
gressively implemented in the field. Delegates in charge of pre- Protection of people deprived of their freedom
vention programmes are also being trained to more systematically . knowledge of the context (e.g. legal detention framework,
monitor and review their activities. stakeholder mapping, detaining authorities, places of
detention, needs, information management)
. access to detainees (e.g. ICRC standard working procedures,
PROTECTION detainees’ status and categories, detention phases, places of
detention, individual monitoring)
The Protection Policy (dated April 2008) sets out the ICRC pro- . living conditions (e.g. infrastructure and facilities, living
tection framework, definitions of the main terms, and key princi- space, food, water, hygiene and sanitation, health, indoor and
ples and operational directives for implementing activities related outdoor activities, family contacts)
to the protection of people not or no longer participating in armed . treatment (e.g. interrogation methods, discipline, punishment,
conflicts or other situations of violence, people deprived of their sanctions, judicial guarantees)
freedom and restoring family links. This guidance document . dialogue with stakeholders, in particular the detaining
describes the tools and approaches available and underlines the authorities (e.g. access, contacts, frequency, issues discussed,
general action management cycle. Thus, it confirms long-existing follow-up)
generic indicators guiding ICRC protection activities.

The protection approach covers three sub-programmes: protection RESULT-BASED MANAGEMENT AND
of the civilian population, restoring family links and protection of STANDARD REPORTING TO DONORS
people deprived of their freedom. Standard quantitative indicators
are available worldwide for the restoring family links and the pro- The ICRC management cycle and the PfR documents form the
tection of people deprived of their freedom sub-programmes. basis for the ICRC’s standard reporting for donors. Such report-
ing therefore reflects the organization’s result-based management
For each of the three sub-programmes, generic indicators are approach employed during all stages of assessment, planning,
used as a basis for defining specific indicators measuring and implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
expressing results. They are listed below with examples of associ-
ated topics on which specific indicators might be defined/used for
concrete objectives in a given context. CYCLICAL STANDARD REPORTING DOCUMENTS

Protection of the civilian population Three standard reporting documents are produced every year.
. knowledge of the context (e.g. stakeholder mapping, other They are consistent with the ICRC management cycle and its
humanitarian actors, access to conflict-affected areas and yearly internal planning process (see above):
people, needs, legal framework, information management)
. dialogue with stakeholders (e.g. civilians, weapon bearers, . ICRC Appeals: they cover the assessment/analysis and
number and frequency of contacts, quality of dialogue, content formulation/planning stages of the ICRC management
and scope of issues discussed, type of follow-up undertaken cycle (see above) and are based on the content of the PfR
by stakeholders) documents for the year concerned
. protection of the affected people (e.g. identification, needs . ICRC Midterm (covering the five first months of each
and vulnerabilities, priorities, responses) year) and Annual Reports: they cover the implementation/
monitoring and evaluation/learning stages of the ICRC
Restoring family links management cycle (see above) and are compiled using the
. prevention of disappearances (e.g. legal framework, information generated by the various tools employed during
stakeholder mapping, contacts, Red Cross/Red Crescent family the internal project cycle and the summary of progress in the
links services, human remains management) PfR documents for the next year

32
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

The structure of all three documents is consistent with that of the as an objective (a longer-term goal to which the ICRC may be able
PfR documents. All three documents are structured in a logical only to contribute).
sequence: the Midterm and Annual Reports follow the content of
the Appeal. The length of each document for one context does not The specific objectives and specific operational strategies in the
exceed 3,200 words/4 to 5 pages. PfR documents translate into the plan of action and indicators
following each objective in the Emergency Appeals. These show
ICRC Appeals the incremental steps to be taken to achieve the objective and
Like the PfR documents, the Emergency Appeals are structured should be achievable within the year under consideration, security
by context, target population, and programme. Under each of the and other factors permitting. As such, they are output, short-term
seven target populations, there are descriptions of the current sit- outcome and, occasionally, medium-term outcome indicators.
uation of (or set of problems faced by) the target population or
sub-target population in question. They summarize the in-depth If, during the monitoring process, a significant change is observed in
assessment and problem analysis contained in the PfR documents the situation and the ICRC deems it necessary to set revised or even
and set out the baseline. completely new objectives and draw up correspondingly new plans of
action, it may communicate these revisions to donors in the form of an
Following this presentation of the current situation, the desired Update (see below), a Budget Extension Appeal or, more rarely, a Budget
future situation of the target population (as outlined in the PfR’s Reduction document. All these documents follow the standard struc-
desired humanitarian impact and general objectives) is described ture of the Appeals as they reflect the same internal planning process.

Planning for Results documents (internal) and Emergency Appeals (external)

The sections of the two documents correspond as follows:

Planning for Results documents (internal) Emergency Appeals (external)

General context
Armed conflict or other situation of violence
Humanitarian situation become Context / Humanitarian response
Security situation
Other actors present

Problem/situation faced by each target population becomes Statement of problem/current situation (preceding each objective)
Desired humanitarian impact/general objective becomes Objective
Specific objectives/specific operational strategies becomes Plan of action and indicators

Accordingly, the Emergency Appeals, reflecting the PfR documents, also reflect the various levels of intended results:

Planning for Results (internal) Emergency Appeals (external) Corresponding intended result level

Desired humanitarian impact Objective (the ideal situation/medium Impact


General objective to long term) Medium-term outcome and/or contribution to impact
Specific objectives/
specific operational strategies Plan of action and indicators Output and short-term outcome

Midterm and Annual Reports contained in the objective is reported on, by describing the results
The Midterm and Annual Reports provide qualitative (narrative achieved through the plan of action and indicators – at output,
descriptions) and quantitative (figures) reporting on the actual outcome and contribution-to-impact level. Such information is
results achieved compared with the baseline information and the obtained via rigorous internal monitoring and reviews at the imple-
intended results. mentation stage, using the various tools enumerated above.

The baseline situation of the target population as set out in the For each operational context, the Midterm and Annual Reports
Emergency Appeals is directly or indirectly recalled in the Midterm contain quantitative standard assistance and protection indicators,
and Annual Reports to reflect the scene prior to the ICRC’s inter- with the narrative texts providing, where available, a more detailed
vention and to act as a benchmark against which the results breakdown of the indicators that appear in the tables at the begin-
achieved within the reporting period can be measured. Then, pro- ning of each chapter. This might include, for example, specific
gress towards achieving the new situation for the target population information about ICRC-visited detainees held by the government

33
ANNEX 1 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO RESULT-BASED MANAGEMENT: IMPROVING HUMANITARIAN ACTION

and those held by armed groups, the different groups of people


benefiting from food aid, or the number of RCMs distributed
to civilians and the number delivered to detainees. In addition,
the quantitative indicators used in ICRC reporting are numbers
that the ICRC considers meaningful and knows to be realistic and
verifiable. The ICRC refrains from providing information and
data that it considers to be inaccurate, exaggerated, only intermit-
tently available or subject to controversy.

The Annual Report also provides detailed financial reporting,


including the yearly consolidated financial statements certified
by external auditors. The consolidated financial statements are
prepared in compliance with the International Financial Reporting
Standards (IFRS) adopted by the International Accounting
Standards Board (IASB) and the interpretations issued by the
IASB Standing Interpretations Committee (SIC); they are pre-
sented in accordance with the ICRC’s Statutes and Swiss law.

OTHER STANDARD REPORTING DOCUMENTS


In addition to the cyclical standard reporting documents outlined
above, the ICRC provides various documents to donors or selected
groups of donors such as the government Donor Support Group,
which comprises representatives of governments and inter-
governmental organizations providing a minimum of CHF 10 million
in cash each year to the Emergency Appeals.

These documents include:

. regular financial updates


. updates related to a given context, sometimes to a specific
programme, describing changes in the situation (since the last
Appeal) and reporting on the ICRC operation with interim
results and/or changes in orientation, the plan of action and
indicators (5 to 12 pages)
. updates providing an internal reporting document –
assessment, monitoring or review report – about a specific
(part of) programme implemented in a given context;
such reports (20 to 40 pages) illustrate in detail the ICRC’s
working methods and approach, in particular its result-based
approach; they provide an in-depth picture of one (or part of
a) programme briefly summarized in a Midterm or Annual
Report, and are meant to supplement the Midterm or
Annual Reports
. updates presenting specific programmes (approaches and
results) with examples taken across various ICRC operations
worldwide (8 to 12 pages)
. updates with the executive summaries of internal and joint
evaluations
. updates presenting new or revised ICRC policy documents
. the external financial audit reports for all ICRC
field operations

Finally, public documents regularly posted on the ICRC website,


particularly those reporting on ICRC operations, provide donors
with useful day-to-day information as a complement to the afore-
mentioned documents.

34
ANNEX 2
THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL
APPROACH TO WOMEN AND GIRLS
Background and approach · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 35 BACKGROUND AND APPROACH

Women and girls in ICRC programmes, Owing to its unique mandate, the ICRC implements an “all vic-
by target population · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 36 tims” approach aimed at protecting the life and dignity of victims
Civilians · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 36 of armed conflict and providing them with assistance. Within this
People deprived of their freedom · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 38 approach, the ICRC acknowledges that women’s experience of
Wounded and sick · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 39 war is multifaceted (separation, loss of loved ones, loss of sources
Authorities, armed forces and other bearers of livelihood and coping mechanisms, increased risks of sexual
of weapons, civil society · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 39 violence, greater responsibility for dependents, wounding, deten-
Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 39 tion, even death) and often differs from that of men. The ICRC
approaches gender as a means of fostering a better understand-
ing of the respective social and cultural roles of men and women
(such as division of labour, productive and reproductive activities,
access to and control over resources and benefits) and of the social
and economic factors influencing them. It endeavours thereby
to obtain a more sensitive and holistic grasp of women’s roles,
responsibilities and experiences, and therefore to provide a more
adequate response to their needs in times of conflict. In accord-
ance with its principles of neutrality and impartiality, the ICRC
does not claim to reform gender relations.

Often, women and children are lumped together in the same


category of vulnerability. Such hasty categorization overlooks the
fact that women’s needs, experiences and roles in armed conflicts
and other situations of violence differ from those of children and
that women often display remarkable strength, as evidenced by the
part they play as combatants or agents for peace, or by the roles
they assume in wartime to protect and support their families. The
relevant question is not who is more vulnerable but rather who
is vulnerable to what particular risks (which are context-related
and depend on individual circumstances, resources and available
coping mechanisms). Different groups face different factors of
vulnerability and it is an oversimplification to see one gender as
active (male combatants) and the other as passive (female victims).

The ICRC’s main objective is therefore to ensure that the needs,


situations and perspectives of women and girls are integrated into
all activities and programmes, and that special programmes are
developed when necessary to respond adequately to their specific
social, medical, psychological, economic and protection needs.

35
ANNEX 2 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO WOMEN AND GIRLS

Recognizing that armed conflicts have a different impact on men, CIVILIANS


women, children and the elderly, and that the needs of women
are often overlooked, the ICRC pledged in 1999 to better assess (Whenever possible, ICRC activities for civilians are carried out
and address the needs of women and girls, and to promote the with the National Society of the country in question, particu-
respect to which they are entitled, with a specific focus on situa- larly in the fields of assistance and restoring family links.)
tions involving sexual violence. It launched a four-year “Women
and War” project (from 1999 to 2003), during which it conducted Protection
an in-depth study of the impact on women of armed conflict or Protecting the civilian population
internal violence, focusing on issues such as physical safety, sexual . The ICRC monitors the situation of individuals and groups
violence, displacement, access to health care and hygiene, food, not or no longer taking part in hostilities, the large majority
water and shelter, and the problem of missing relatives and its of whom are women and their children. Where documented,
repercussions on survivors. The ICRC then produced Addressing allegations of abuse committed against women and girls, such
the needs of women affected by armed conflict: an ICRC guid- as sexual violence and enforced enrolment by armed groups,
ance document to translate the study’s findings into practical are raised in the ICRC’s discussions with all parties on alleged
guidelines for staff involved in the planning and implementation IHL violations and the measures to be taken to stop them. In
of humanitarian programmes. At the end of the four years, the some contexts, dialogue with women is possible only owing to
ICRC renewed its commitment to the issue by appointing a focal the presence of female ICRC staff, both national
point for the operational implementation of the study’s findings and expatriate.
and recommendations. . In addition to formal and informal oral and written
representations to the authorities concerned about alleged
In armed conflict and other situations of violence, sexual violence incidents, preventive dissemination activities are conducted
is a widespread phenomenon that affects mostly women and girls. for all kinds of weapon bearers to raise their awareness of their
The overall consequences are serious, but given that the stigma responsibilities under IHL to protect and respect at all times,
associated with sexual violence may prevent victims from com- in particular, women and children not taking part in hostilities
ing forward, the true extent of the problem is often concealed. It (see Authorities, armed forces and other bearers of weapons,
affects not only the victims, but also their families, and sometimes civil society).
entire communities. The ICRC has therefore developed a Frame of
reference for sexual violence in armed conflict and other situations Restoring family links
of violence, which gives a comprehensive and detailed overview . Enabling women to restore and maintain contact with
of the various aspects of sexual violence and defines the ICRC’s their husbands and families contributes to their psychological
multidisciplinary approach to the problem. It encompasses well-being and can also help ensure their safety and the
preventive action, awareness-raising activities and protection respect of others. In certain contexts, where for social and
strategies aimed at addressing the causes and consequences of cultural reasons women are less visible or less accessible,
sexual violence while providing victims with timely medical and awareness-raising sessions to promote existing tracing
psychological support. services are held specifically for women.
. The ICRC family reunification programme aims to reunite
The development of the ICRC’s stance on women and war vulnerable people with their families, including children with
is reflected today in its operational strategies, programmes their mothers, thus preserving the family unit. Similarly, when
and activities. organizing repatriations, the ICRC pays special attention to
enabling families to stay together, with particular emphasis on
keeping children with their mothers.
WOMEN AND GIRLS IN ICRC PROGRAMMES,
BY TARGET POPULATION Unaccompanied girls/girls formerly associated
with fighting forces
Below is a description, by target population, of how ICRC . Boys and girls who have become separated from their parents,
programmes take into account the specific situations and needs including those who have formerly been associated with
of women and girls in times of armed conflict. These descrip- fighting forces, are registered by the ICRC and their mothers
tions are valid in any ICRC operation. They are not repeated and fathers, or their closest relatives, sought.
explicitly under each context section, unless specifically . Working closely with the authorities concerned and other
required, but they may be cited to enhance understanding of organizations active in child protection, the ICRC pays special
the information therein. attention to the treatment of unaccompanied girls living in
host or foster families; whenever necessary, it directs them to
the appropriate referral structures.
. The ICRC advocates that children formerly associated with
fighting forces, in particular girls, be provided with adequate
care, in particular in disarmament, demobilization and
reintegration processes.

36
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

. Family reunifications are organized according to the best . ICRC food parcels often include baby food.
interests of the child and only if all parties – the child and the . Hygiene kits usually include specific products for women and
family – want to be reunited. their children, such as culturally adapted sanitary materials,
. Special attention is paid to the treatment of boys and girls baby powder or washable cotton and plastic nappies.
reunited with their families, and to how the children readapt
to family life; whenever necessary the families and the children Economic security – livelihood support
concerned receive material support and are directed to referral . In addition to providing relief, the ICRC also aims to help
structures. The children are often checked on several months destitute or very poor families, very often mainly households
after being reunited with their families to ensure that they headed by women or girls, recover their ability to earn a
do not face new protection problems, especially if they were living. Its micro-economic initiatives provide victims of sexual
formerly associated with fighting forces or are girls with violence who have lost their sources of livelihood and victims
children of their own. of conflict, such as widows and the wives of missing persons,
with social and economic support.
Missing persons . Livelihood support programmes help women and girls in their
. ICRC action in relation to missing persons benefits mainly endeavour to ensure the family’s self-sufficiency. Seed and tool
women as they are overwhelmingly the ones left behind after distributions, livestock replenishment and vaccination, cash-for-
a loved one has disappeared during an armed conflict or other work projects to rehabilitate community infrastructure, grants
situation of violence. or material inputs (e.g. sewing machines, donkey carts, flour
. Whenever possible, the ICRC works closely with the relevant mills, oil presses, brick-making machines, irrigation pumps), to
authorities and organizations to accelerate the tracing process. give but a few examples, directly improve the standard of living
It provides support for ante-mortem data collection and the of many women and their children by helping women continue
forensic process, and covers the transport costs of families or jump-start an income-generating activity.
– mainly women – of the missing to visit mass graves or . Occupational training often forms part of livelihood support
exhumation sites. On its website it updates and publishes programmes. Particular attention is paid to increasing the
lists of persons reported missing. It provides women with participation of women, who perform most of the activities
administrative help in dealing with matters of inheritance, that provide the household with food or income.
pensions, legal status, custody of children and property rights.
. The ICRC organizes meetings with family associations, whose Water supply, sanitation and shelter
members are chiefly women, to ensure that their interests are . ICRC water, sanitation and habitat projects (trucking of clean
represented in various fora and provides the associations with drinking water during emergencies; rehabilitation or building
financial and technical support. of water sources and infrastructure) give displaced and
. Directly or through associations or institutions, the ICRC resident women safe access to a source of water for household
contributes towards the psychological support of relatives of purposes, ensure better sanitation practices for the whole
missing persons, principally women and their children, and family, and free up for other tasks time once spent fetching
towards their education and occupational training. water. They also reduce the incidence of sickness caused by
. It also encourages governments to enact or implement inadequate hygiene and prevent long journeys to water points
legislation to prevent people from becoming unaccounted during which the women may be at risk of attack.
for (by establishing an information bureau, for example), to . In some contexts, the provision of fuel-saving stoves reduces
ascertain the fate of missing persons through appropriate the need for women and girls to go out in search of firewood,
measures and to protect and support the families – mainly thus leaving them more time for other household tasks and
women who have become heads of household, and children – reducing their risk of being attacked.
of those who are missing, notably by making it easier for them . As women are in charge of the water resources and
to undertake legal proceedings. bear most of the burden for the household in many
contexts, ICRC engineers systematically involve them
Assistance in the design, implementation and management of water
Economic security – emergency aid: food and and habitat projects.
essential household items
. When distributing aid, the ICRC gives priority to the most Health care
vulnerable households, many of which have been deprived of . The majority of the people treated in outpatient departments
their main breadwinner and are headed by women. Women and referral hospitals in violence-affected areas are women
and girls are often, therefore, the main beneficiaries of the and children, and thus are the main beneficiaries of ICRC
relief provided to IDPs, returnees and residents. support to such facilities, which provide comprehensive
. If the need exists, the ICRC provides food rations and essential reproductive health and delivery services and care for children
household items, such as blankets, tarpaulins, jerrycans, under five. Mobile clinics give women and children who are
kitchen sets and hygiene kits, to enable women to take care of unable to reach permanent structures access to essential health
their families. Other items, such as clothes or fabric to make and medical care and the opportunity to be referred to a
clothing, are also distributed according to need. second level of care.

37
ANNEX 2 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO WOMEN AND GIRLS

. In many contexts where there are not enough skilled birth PEOPLE DEPRIVED OF THEIR FREEDOM
attendants to cover the population’s needs, the ICRC trains
traditional birth attendants/midwives in ante and post- Protection
natal care, in the identification of at-risk mothers, in skilled . During its visits to people deprived of their freedom,
attendance for home delivery and in the management of the ICRC pays special attention to the conditions of
complications. The birth attendants/midwives also play a detention of any women or girls being held, in particular
decisive role in health education (basic care and breastfeeding to their accommodation, which should include dedicated
and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, including cells and sanitation facilities, and their access to health
HIV/AIDS). In some contexts they also receive instruction services, including to female nurses and gynaecological
in how to identify victims of sexual violence and refer them care when needed. It drafts its confidential reports
promptly to appropriate medical services. and recommendations to the authorities
. In contexts where sexual violence is a major problem, concerned accordingly.
the ICRC provides post-rape kits to ICRC-supported . As far as possible, ICRC delegates and translators
hospitals and health centres and runs training courses visiting places of detention do so in mixed teams,
enabling health staff working in those facilities to treat as these are perceived to be more approachable and
victims effectively. better able to assess thoroughly the needs of all
. Local volunteers offering support for victims of sexual violence people detained.
at community level are trained in counselling techniques, so . As infants often stay with their detained mothers,
that they can offer reassuring support to the victims and help their needs are also addressed, in terms, for example,
them search for solutions. They are also taught mediation of food, health care, clothing and play.
skills, enabling them to facilitate the reintegration of victims . In certain societies, women who are detained are often
of sexual violence, who are often rejected by their families ostracized and sometimes even abandoned by their families,
and communities. especially when they are held for so-called moral offences.
. Women and children are the primary target of health and The ICRC places special emphasis on their plight
hygiene promotion sessions. Most of the time, for social in its dialogue with the relevant authorities and in its
and cultural reasons, the ICRC uses teams of female health assistance programmes.
and hygiene promoters, who are especially trained for this . ICRC support for the penitentiary administration and
task. The teams also play a crucial role in raising awareness training for penitentiary staff (medical personnel included)
among women, especially pregnant women and those with encompasses, whenever relevant, action regarding or
small children, of how malaria is transmitted, and distribute consideration of the particular needs of women and children.
mosquito nets to help contain the spread of the disease. . ICRC family-news services allow detained women
. ICRC support for immunization programmes in particular to communicate with their families and
(cold chain, transport, supervision) run by governments, detained men to communicate with their wives and mothers
NGOs or international organizations benefits mostly outside. This contributes to the psychological well-being
women of child-bearing age and children under five, of all concerned.
who receive vital vaccinations against, for example, . The ICRC enables detained women to receive family
tetanus and polio. visits and family members, who are mainly women and
. In emergencies, the ICRC may also support therapeutic children, to visit their detained relatives, either by organizing
feeding activities to help malnourished children and the visits itself or by covering the cost of transport. Family
their mothers. visits are not only essential for the psychological well-being
both of the detainees and of their relatives outside, they are
Prevention also a vital channel through which detainees obtain food and
Mines/explosive remnants of war essential items. Family visits can also help ensure respect
. To help prevent injuries caused by mines and explosive from other detainees, as women who receive no visits may
remnants of war, the ICRC marks contaminated areas and become more vulnerable to prostitution or sexual exploitation
conducts mine-risk education. Mine-risk education sessions and abuse.
target primarily children, but also women. They are conducted
in schools, places of prayer or/and community fora and aim to Assistance
ensure the safety of civilians by informing them of the dangers . ICRC assistance programmes for detainees are adapted to
of mines. In the event of an accident, it also provides surgical, the specific needs of women and girls whenever necessary.
medical and economic assistance to victims, including physical For example, women detainees may receive female hygiene
rehabilitation. In parallel, it continues its advocacy with items, clothing and recreational materials for themselves and
the relevant authorities and often supports the work of the for their children. Occupational training (in sewing, weaving,
national mine-action body. literacy, for example) aims to break the isolation of imprisoned
. Communities are given support to create safe, mine-free play women and improve their prospects for reintegration into
areas for their children. society after release.

38
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

Water and habitat AUTHORITIES, ARMED FORCES AND


. As part of its efforts to improve environmental health OTHER BEARERS OF WEAPONS, CIVIL SOCIETY
conditions for detainees, the ICRC often carries out
maintenance, rehabilitation or construction projects in Prevention
places of detention. These projects always take into . Preventive activities targeting political authorities, armed
consideration the needs of women and children, such as forces, other bearers of weapons and civil society (e.g. the
separate accommodation for men and women, separate media, schools, universities, NGOs) always emphasize the
access to toilets and showers and adequate facilities for need to take measures to respect the physical integrity and
women with babies and/or small children. dignity of all people who are not, or no longer, participating
in the armed conflict or other situation of violence. The target
groups are systematically made aware that not only do women
WOUNDED AND SICK and children (those under 18 years) more often than not form
the majority of that group, but their position in society may
Assistance also make them particularly vulnerable and their specific needs
Medical care must be recognized and addressed. Depending on the target
. Women and children have priority in operations to evacuate group, preventive activities comprise highlighting the existing
the wounded and sick from areas affected by fighting. provisions of IHL that focus on women, examining legal and
. The specific needs of women and girls are included in training practical measures to protect women from abuse and meet
in first aid and medical evacuations and the support provided their specific needs, and case studies.
to ambulance services. . The ICRC endeavours to raise awareness of the situation of
. ICRC support for hospitals focuses as a priority on emergency women affected by armed conflict and internal disturbances
surgical, obstetric and paediatric services, as well as medical – and of the international law that accords them protection –
services for patients in general and women in particular. This among governments, representatives of the diplomatic,
support may include the provision of equipment, medical political, military and academic communities, international
supplies and training, for example in obstetric surgery. organizations and NGOs. It is often invited to speak about
the issue at relevant conferences hosted by donors and
Physical rehabilitation regional organizations. The ICRC also provides input when
. Women benefit from physical rehabilitation programmes new international resolutions and policies are drafted and
supported by the ICRC. They may receive artificial limbs, encourages their enforcement.
walking aids, wheelchairs and physiotherapy. The ICRC pays . During its dialogue with all authorities and weapon bearers,
particular attention to ensuring that women and men have the ICRC recalls how IHL stipulates that the parties to a
equal access to physical rehabilitation programmes. conflict must allow and facilitate the rapid and unimpeded
. Where there are no female staff in a rehabilitation centre, passage of humanitarian relief (for civilians in need, including
the ICRC helps train women, and may pay the transportation women and girls), which is impartial in nature and conducted
costs for women and their dependents to be treated in a without adverse distinction, subject to their right of control.
centre with female staff. Many disabled women are also . The ICRC makes a particular effort to engage with different
offered employment in ICRC-run or ICRC-supported sectors of society and circles of influence, including women’s
physical rehabilitation centres. associations or networks, to help sustain the organization’s
. Women also benefit from projects – education, vocational activities for victims of conflict.
training or micro-credit schemes – to help them reintegrate
into society.
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT MOVEMENT
Water and habitat
. The renovation or construction of health facilities such Cooperation
as hospitals, health centres and physical rehabilitation National Societies
centres always takes into account the specific needs of . The ICRC provides support for the development of National
women and children. In most cases, women and children Society tracing, first-aid and emergency-preparedness
are given special accommodation in line with local capacities, the better to enable National Society staff and
customs and international standards. volunteers to meet the specific needs of women in situations
of armed conflict or internal violence. It provides training
in the Safer Access approach, including the analysis of risk
and vulnerability factors affecting National Society staff and
volunteers, such as the participation of female workers in
certain operations.

39
ANNEX 2 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO WOMEN AND GIRLS

. Furthermore, the ICRC often works in partnership


with National Societies from other countries which are
working internationally and which contribute to ICRC
operations in cash, kind or by providing personnel and
operational management.
. Through regular meetings and dialogue, and in line with
the Seville Agreement and its Supplementary Measures, all
operations to meet the needs of those affected by armed
conflict and other situations of violence, including women
and girls, are coordinated with other Movement components
present in the context to ensure the best response.

ICRC employment policy


. The ICRC’s employment policy promotes equitable conditions
for male and female staff through gender mainstreaming
and affirmative action. The ICRC believes there is a strong
link between the improvement of women’s status within
the organization and progress in the protection of and delivery
of assistance to women in situations of armed conflict or
internal violence.
. The ICRC has improved its staff training courses by adding
key messages consistent with the policies, recommendations
and guidelines related to women affected by armed conflict
and internal disturbances, including those related to specific
issues, such as sexual violence, and by disseminating the
ICRC guidance document. Role playing, which is part of the
introductory training course for new delegates, highlights
specific aspects related to women and war.
. In carrying out its activities, the ICRC encourages the use of
teams that comprise both men and women. It also promotes
the participation of local women as a means of fostering direct
contact and dialogue with women, the better to define and
respond to their needs.

40
ANNEX 3
THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL
APPROACH TO CHILDREN
Children in war · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 41 CHILDREN IN WAR

Protection under international law · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 41 Conflict increases the vulnerability of those who are already vulner-
able, especially children. A child needs a family and a community
The ICRC’s multidisciplinary approach · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 42 that provide a nurturing and protective environment. Conflicts,
however, spare no one. Most children experience armed conflict
Children in ICRC programmes, by target population · · · · · · 43 as civilians, and as such are often exposed to acts of violence. They
Civilians · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 43 are often the powerless witnesses of atrocities committed against
People deprived of their freedom · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 45 their relatives. Such acts include death or injury from indiscrimi-
Wounded and sick · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 46 nate attacks and mine explosions, but also direct assaults. In addi-
Authorities, armed forces and other bearers of weapons, tion, many children are killed, wounded or imprisoned, torn from
civil society · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 46 their families, compelled to flee or left without even an identity.
Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 47 As dependents, the loss of a father or of the family’s main bread-
winner may have more than just a psychological impact. It is
not unusual for very young children to be propelled into adult
roles. They become heads of families, taking care of and protect-
ing younger siblings. Destitution and the loss of close relatives
may force young girls into early marriages or prostitution. A
young breadwinner may seek to join an armed group just to sur-
vive. More often, however, children are forcibly recruited. Often
unarmed, they are used by fighting forces in a large variety of roles
such as cooks, porters, messengers, spies, human mine detectors
or sex slaves. Child trafficking, for purposes such as unlawful
adoption and forced labour, may also increase during armed con-
flict, especially when boys and girls are deprived of the protection
of their parents and other relatives. Furthermore, the disruption
or collapse of public services as a result of armed conflict or other
situations of violence can restrict children’s access to health care
and education during the fighting and long after it has ceased.

PROTECTION UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW

IHL provides broad protection for children. In the event of armed


conflict, whether international or non-international, children ben-
efit from the general protection provided to all persons affected by
the conflict. First, if they fall into the hands of enemy forces they
must be protected against murder and all forms of abuse: torture
and other forms of ill-treatment, sexual violence, arbitrary deten-
tion, hostage-taking or forced displacement. Second, they must
in no circumstances be the target of attacks, unless, and for such
time as, they take a direct part in hostilities. Instead, they must be

41
ANNEX 3 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO CHILDREN

spared and protected. Many of the rules of IHL constitute custom- measures to ensure that members of their armed forces who have
ary law and are therefore binding on parties to an armed conflict, not reached the age of 18 years do not take a direct part in hostili-
regardless of whether they have ratified the relevant treaties. ties. Finally, the Optional Protocol provides that non-governmen-
tal armed groups “should not, under any circumstances, recruit or
Given the particular vulnerability of children, the Geneva use in hostilities persons under the age of 18 years”.
Conventions of 1949 and their 1977 Additional Protocols enumer-
ate rules that provide them with special protection. These include In addition, the Convention on the Rights of the Child guarantees
the prevention of the recruitment and participation in hostilities children’s right to be with their families and to have access to educa-
of children under the age of 15, as well as provisions on family tion and adequate health care. It also reaffirms fundamental human
reunification, protection in detention, humanitarian assistance rights, such as the right to life, the prohibition of torture and other
and education. Children who take direct part in hostilities are forms of ill-treatment, and the principle of non-discrimination.
not exempt from this special protection. Children are covered by
25 such articles in the 1949 Geneva Conventions and their 1977 In some cases, national or regional law can grant children even
Additional Protocols. higher levels of protection.

International human rights instruments play a complementary


role in the protection of children affected by armed conflict and THE ICRC’S MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH
other situations of violence.
Owing to its unique mandate, the ICRC implements an “all vic-
The 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and its 2000 tims” approach aimed at protecting the life and dignity of victims
Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed con- of armed conflict and other situations of violence and providing
flict are applicable during times of armed conflict. The Protocol them with assistance. Within this approach, the ICRC acknowl-
sets limits on children’s recruitment into armed forces or armed edges that children not only represent a large segment of the
groups and participation in hostilities, which are stricter than the population (and therefore of those affected by armed conflict and
provisions of the 1977 Additional Protocols. It prohibits com- other situations of violence) but are also more vulnerable than
pulsory recruitment into State armed forces for all those under adults. Despite the protection afforded to them by national and
18 years of age and requires States to raise the age of voluntary international law, they remain a major beneficiary of the ICRC’s
recruitment from 15. It also requires States to take all feasible prevention, protection and assistance programmes worldwide.

DEFINITIONS USED BY THE ICRC

A child, in accordance with the Convention of the Rights of the Child, is any person below 18 years of age unless, under the law
applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.

A separated child is a child separated from both parents or from his/her previous legal or customary caregiver, but not necessar-
ily from other relatives. A separated child might therefore be accompanied by other adult family members.

An unaccompanied child, also called an unaccompanied minor, is a child who has been separated from both parents and from
other relatives and is not being cared for by an adult who, by law or custom, is responsible for doing so.

A child associated with an armed force or armed group is any person below 18 years of age who is or has been recruited or used
by an armed force or armed group in any capacity, including, but not limited to, fighters, cooks, porters, messengers, spies or for
sexual purposes. This category does not only refer to a child who is taking, or has taken, direct part in hostilities. Rather, by broad-
ening the definition from that of ‘child soldier’, it aims to promote the idea that all children associated with armed forces and
groups should cease to be so associated, and should benefit from disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes,
regardless of their role with the armed actor.

Within its programmes, the ICRC carries out activities to respond Despite the fact that the ICRC has become a world reference on
to the specific material/economic, medical, social, protection, and working with unaccompanied/separated children, it continually
psychological needs of children. All of the ICRC’s activities are strives to enhance the quality of its work on the ground. Thus, in
guided by the “best interests” principle. In other words, all activi- 2009, it produced a new set of field guidelines for its staff working
ties to enhance children’s well-being take into account the specific with unaccompanied/separated children and with children associ-
nature and circumstances of each individual child and thus are ated with armed forces/groups. The guidelines draw together les-
tailored to be in his/her best interests. sons learnt by the ICRC and aim to facilitate consistency between

42
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

ICRC activities in various contexts. They also complement and of both unaccompanied and separated are being sought,
build upon existing guidelines commonly agreed with UN agencies unaccompanied children might be given priority, where
and NGOs with expertise in this domain, such as the Inter-agency necessary. When the whereabouts are known, the children are
guiding principles on unaccompanied and separated children, by able to restore and maintain contact with their families through
ICRC, UNHCR, UNICEF, World Vision International, Save the RCMs, thus contributing to their psychological well-being.
Children UK and International Rescue Committee. These organi- . As the tracing process usually takes time, it is crucial to
zations and the ICRC coordinate regularly and proactively on pol- ensure that unaccompanied/separated children are protected
icy issues and on the ground in areas of common interest in order and provided for while they are waiting for their relatives
to maximize impact, identify unmet needs and avoid duplication. to be found. The ICRC rarely arranges interim care for
unaccompanied/separated children as it generally refers them
to other qualified actors, including National Societies, for this
CHILDREN IN ICRC PROGRAMMES, purpose. However, if and when the ICRC does help to arrange
BY TARGET POPULATION alternative care, it:
• keeps children informed of plans being made for them and
Below is a description, by target population, of how ICRC pro- gives their opinions due consideration
grammes take into account the specific situations and needs of • ensures that siblings are kept together, as this enhances
children in times of armed conflict. These descriptions are valid protection and can facilitate family reunification
in any ICRC operation. They are not repeated explicitly under • gives preference to family/community-based care over
each context section, unless specifically required, but they may institutional care, as this provides continuity for children’s
be cited to enhance understanding of the information therein. social development
• monitors foster families and, if necessary, provides them
with extra assistance to help meet children’s protection and
CIVILIANS material needs
• ensures that if institutional care is the only solution,
(Whenever possible, ICRC activities for civilians are carried out it is viewed as a temporary measure that does not divert
with the National Society of the country in question, particu- focus from potential family reunification or placement
larly in the fields of assistance and restoring family links.) in the community
• may support interim care centres by, for example, donating
Protection food or other items
Protecting the civilian population
. The ICRC monitors the situation of individuals and groups . Family reunifications are organized according to the
not or no longer taking part in hostilities, the large majority of best interests of the child and only if all parties – the child
whom are children. Where documented, allegations of abuse and the family – want to be reunited. Material assistance
committed against boys and girls, such as enforced enrolment is usually provided (see Assistance, Economic security –
by armed forces or armed groups, or sexual violence, are emergency aid, below)
raised in the ICRC’s discussions with all parties on alleged . Special attention is paid to preparing for the reunification of
violations of IHL and international human rights law and the boys and girls with their families, especially when they have
measures to be taken to stop them. been separated for a long time. The ICRC also monitors how
. In addition to formal and informal oral and written the children readapt to family life: they are often checked
representations to the authorities concerned about alleged on several months after being reunited with their families
incidents, preventive dissemination activities are conducted to ensure that they do not face new protection problems,
for all kinds of weapon bearers to raise their awareness of especially if they were formerly associated with fighting forces
their responsibilities under IHL to protect and respect at all or are girls with children of their own.
times, in particular, children not taking part in hostilities . The ICRC advocates that children formerly associated with
(see Authorities, armed forces and other bearers of weapons, fighting forces be provided with adequate care, in particular
civil society). in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes.
In general, however, it recommends their immediate release
Restoring family links: unaccompanied and separated children/ without waiting for a peace agreement to be signed or for a
children formerly associated with fighting forces disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process to
. Unaccompanied/separated children, including those formerly be launched.
associated with fighting forces, are registered by the ICRC and . The ICRC also aims to prevent children from becoming
their mothers and fathers, or their closest relatives, sought. separated from their families in the first place. To do this
A distinction must be made between separated children – who the ICRC, inter alia, identifies the causes of separation and
are without their usual caregiver but are under the protection locations where separations are most likely to occur, such as
of another relative – and unaccompanied children, who are border crossings, checkpoints, transit sites and health facilities
on their own or under the care of persons totally unrelated to so that preventive activities can be undertaken there. It also
them, often as a result of spontaneous fostering. If the parents informs families of what they can do to minimize the risk of

43
ANNEX 3 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO CHILDREN

separation, such as teaching children their names, addresses . Hygiene kits usually include specific products for infants,
and other family details and giving children name tags if such as baby powder or washable cotton and plastic nappies.
they are forced to flee. Governments, staff of national and . Upon reunification with their families (see Protection,
international agencies, religious groups and local communities Restoring family links, above) children are usually provided
are also made aware of how to prevent separation. with a kit that may contain clothing and food items to help
. Deliberate separation can be prevented by ensuring that all to reduce immediate costs for the family. In extreme cases of
households have access to basic relief supplies and that the poverty, the ICRC may consider providing some assistance
provision of basic services, particularly those targeted solely to the family. Whenever possible, however, such assistance is
at children, does not unintentionally cause separation. The channelled through the community so that the family is not
ICRC attempts to ensure that such necessities are provided, seen as receiving preferential treatment.
by supporting the efforts of the relevant authorities or
stepping in when they are unable or unwilling to assume Economic security – livelihood support
their responsibilities. . In addition to providing emergency relief, the ICRC also
aims to help destitute or very poor families, or those deprived
Missing persons of their main breadwinner, to recover their ability to earn
. ICRC action in relation to missing persons benefits mainly a living. Livelihood support programmes help heads of
children and their mothers as they are overwhelmingly the ones household, often children themselves, in their endeavour
left behind after a father/husband has disappeared during an to ensure their family’s self-sufficiency. Seed and tool
armed conflict or other situation of violence. Whenever possible, distributions, livestock replenishment and vaccination,
the ICRC works closely with the relevant authorities and cash-for-work projects to rehabilitate community infrastructure,
organizations to accelerate the tracing process. On its website grants or material inputs (e.g. sewing machines, donkey carts,
it updates and publishes lists of persons reported missing. flour mills, oil presses, brick-making machines, irrigation
. The ICRC provides the relatives of missing persons with pumps), to give but a few examples, directly improve the
administrative help in dealing with matters of inheritance, standard of living of many children by helping the head of
pensions, legal status, custody of children and property household continue or jump-start an income-generating activity.
rights. Directly or through associations or institutions,
it also contributes to the provision of psychological support, Water supply, sanitation and shelter
education, occupational training, material assistance and . ICRC water and sanitation (trucking of clean drinking water
livelihood support (see Assistance below). during emergencies; rehabilitation or building of water sources
. It also encourages governments to enact or implement and infrastructure) give displaced and resident children safe
legislation to prevent people from becoming unaccounted access to a source of water for household purposes, ensure
for (by establishing an information bureau, for example), better sanitation practices, and free up for other tasks time once
to ascertain the fate of missing persons through appropriate spent fetching water. They also reduce the incidence of sickness
measures and to protect and support the families, including caused by inadequate hygiene and prevent long journeys to
the children, of those who are missing, notably by making water points during which they may be at risk of attack.
it easier for them to undertake legal proceedings. . ICRC habitat projects, such as the rehabilitation or building
of health centres and schools, give children access to
Assistance essential services.
Economic security – emergency aid: food and . In some contexts, the provision of fuel-saving stoves reduces
essential household items the need for children to go out in search of firewood, thus
. When distributing aid, the ICRC gives priority to the most reducing their risk of being attacked and leaving them more
vulnerable households, many of which have been deprived time for other household tasks.
of their main breadwinner. Children and women are often, . Children and their mothers are the primary target of hygiene
therefore, the main beneficiaries of the relief provided to IDPs, promotion sessions that help ensure that they have the
returnees and residents. Furthermore, children, particularly knowledge and skills to help them prevent and contain the
girls, often find themselves heading their household. In such spread of communicable diseases. Sessions commonly cover
cases, special efforts are made to ensure that the children the prevention of hand-to-mouth contamination through
heads of household are included in registration and census good personal/food/clothing hygiene, the proper use and
exercises to ensure that they are issued with documents in maintenance of facilities/equipment for water, sanitation and
their name entitling them to assistance for themselves and waste management, and the prevention and treatment
for other children in their care. of diarrhoea.
. If the need exists, the ICRC provides food rations, often
including baby food, and essential household items, such as Health care
blankets, tarpaulins, jerrycans, kitchen sets and hygiene kits, . The majority of the people treated in outpatient departments
to enable families to take care of themselves and their children. and referral hospitals in violence-affected areas are children
Other items, such as clothes or fabric to make clothing, and their mothers, and thus are the main beneficiaries of
are also distributed according to need. ICRC support to such facilities, which provide comprehensive

44
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

reproductive health and delivery services and care for children the safety of civilians by informing them of the dangers of
under five. Mobile clinics give children who are unable to mines. In the event of an accident, the ICRC also provides
reach permanent structures access to essential health and surgical, medical and economic assistance to victims,
medical care and the opportunity to be referred to a second including physical rehabilitation (see Wounded and sick). In
level of care. parallel, it continues its advocacy with the relevant authorities
. In many contexts where there are not enough skilled birth and often supports the work of the national mine-action body.
attendants to cover the population’s needs, the ICRC trains . Communities are given support to create safe play areas for
traditional birth attendants/midwives in ante and post- their children, free from mines and explosive remnants of war.
natal care, in the identification of at-risk mothers, in skilled
attendance for home delivery and in the management of
complications. The birth attendants/midwives also play a PEOPLE DEPRIVED OF THEIR FREEDOM
decisive role in health education, such as basic care and
breastfeeding. They also may receive delivery kits containing Protection
soap, surgical gloves, plastic sheeting, a sterile razor blade and . Given their greater vulnerability, detained children are
string for the umbilical cord. registered by the ICRC, which monitors them on an individual
. In contexts where sexual violence is a major problem, the basis with the aim of ensuring that they are afforded due care
ICRC provides post-rape kits to ICRC-supported hospitals and protection. Infants living with their detained mothers may
and health centres and runs training courses enabling health also be registered to deter any attempt to use the child to exert
staff working in those facilities to treat victims, which are pressure on the mother.
often girls, effectively. . During its visits to people deprived of their freedom, the
. Local volunteers offering support for victims of sexual violence ICRC pays special attention to the treatment and living
at community level are trained in counselling techniques, so conditions of detention of any children being held. Particular
that they can offer reassuring support to the victims and help consideration is given to their accommodation, which should
them search for solutions. They are also taught mediation separate boys from girls and children from adults (unless
skills, enabling them to facilitate (i) the reintegration of the children are housed with their families), and to their
victims of sexual violence, who are often rejected by their ability to maintain regular contact with their families and to
families and communities, and (ii) acceptance of children continue their education. It drafts its confidential reports and
born of rape who are at particularly high risk of being rejected, recommendations to the authorities concerned accordingly.
stigmatized or abused and denied access to education, . When the children detained are below the age of criminal
inheritance rights or even a name. responsibility, the ICRC makes representations to the
. Children and their mothers are the primary target of health detaining authorities with the aim of securing their release.
promotion sessions that help ensure that they have the . ICRC support for the penitentiary administration and
knowledge and skills to help them prevent the spread of training for penitentiary staff (medical personnel included)
disease. For example, such sessions may include raising encompasses, whenever relevant, action regarding or
awareness among pregnant women and the mothers of consideration of the particular needs of children, for example
young children of how malaria is transmitted. Many receive in terms of food, health care, education and recreation.
mosquito nets. . ICRC family-news services allow child detainees to
. ICRC support for immunization programmes (cold chain, communicate with their families and detained adults to
transport, supervision) benefits mostly children under five and communicate with their children outside. This contributes to
women of child-bearing age, who receive vital vaccinations the psychological well-being of all concerned.
against, for example, measles, tuberculosis, tetanus, diphtheria, . The ICRC enables child detainees to receive family visits and
polio and whooping cough. The ICRC may act as a neutral children to visit their detained relatives, either by organizing
intermediary to facilitate access to isolated areas cut off by the visits itself or by covering the cost of transport. Family
fighting so that other organizations may carry out vaccination visits are not only essential for the psychological well-being
campaigns, support a government in its immunization efforts, both of the detainees and of their relatives outside, they are
or substitute health authorities in cases where they are not able often a vital channel through which detained children obtain
to conduct activities themselves. food and essential items.
. In emergencies, the ICRC also supports therapeutic feeding
activities to help malnourished children and their mothers. Assistance
. ICRC assistance programmes for detainees are adapted to
Prevention the specific needs of children whenever necessary. For
Mines/explosive remnants of war example, clothing, educational and recreational materials are
. To help prevent injuries caused by mines and explosive geared to the age of the child, and girls may receive female
remnants of war, the ICRC marks contaminated areas and hygiene items.
conducts mine-risk education. Mine-risk education sessions . As infants often stay with their detained mothers, their needs
target primarily children. They are conducted in schools, are also addressed, in terms, for example, of food, health care,
places of prayer or/and community fora and aim to ensure clothing and play.

45
ANNEX 3 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO CHILDREN

Water and habitat always emphasize the need to take measures to respect the
. As part of its efforts to improve environmental health physical integrity and dignity of all people who are not, or no
conditions for detainees, the ICRC often carries out longer, participating in the armed conflict or other situation of
maintenance, rehabilitation or construction projects in places violence. The target groups are systematically made aware that
of detention. These projects always take into consideration not only do children often form the majority of this group,
the needs of children, such as separate accommodation from they are also particularly vulnerable and their specific needs
adults, dedicated sanitation facilities, and adequate facilities must be recognized and addressed.
for women with babies and/or small children. . Depending on the target group, preventive activities comprise
. Detained minors and children living with their detained highlighting the existing provisions of IHL and international
mothers benefit from hygiene promotion sessions run human rights law that focus on children, such as the 1977
in prison that aim to prevent and contain the spread of Additional Protocols and the Optional Protocol to the
communicable diseases. Sessions commonly cover the Convention on the Rights of the Child, along with relevant
prevention of hand-to-mouth contamination through national legislation, which may give even more protection.
good personal/food/clothing hygiene, the proper use and The ICRC provides technical support and advice to countries
maintenance of facilities/equipment for water, sanitation and in becoming party to such instruments and in enacting
waste management, and the prevention and treatment national legislation to implement their provisions in order to
of diarrhoea. enhance the protection afforded to children and to meet their
specific needs.
. The target groups are systematically made aware of their
WOUNDED AND SICK responsibilities in this respect through a combination of
bilateral meetings, dissemination sessions, training courses,
Assistance documentation and publications, games and competitions,
Medical care and communication campaigns.
. Children, along with women, have priority in operations to . The ICRC is often invited to speak about the effect of armed
evacuate the wounded and sick from areas affected by fighting. conflict and other situations of violence at conferences hosted
. The specific needs of children are included in training in first by donors and regional and international organizations. The
aid and medical evacuations and the support provided to ICRC also provides input when new international resolutions
ambulance services. and policies are drafted and encourages their enforcement.
. ICRC support for hospitals focuses as a priority on emergency . During its dialogue with all authorities and weapon bearers,
surgical, paediatric and obstetric services, as well as medical the ICRC recalls how IHL stipulates that the parties to a
services for patients in general and children in particular. conflict must allow and facilitate the rapid and unimpeded
This support may include the provision of equipment, medical passage of humanitarian relief (for civilians in need, including
supplies and training, for example in paediatric/obstetric care. children), which is impartial in nature and conducted without
adverse distinction, subject to their right of control.
Physical rehabilitation . The ICRC has launched two large-scale programmes for
. Children benefit from physical rehabilitation programmes young people in educational settings: the secondary school
supported by the ICRC. They may receive artificial limbs, programme for countries of the former Soviet Union, and
walking aids, wheelchairs and physiotherapy. Children require the Exploring Humanitarian Law programme for secondary
such services more frequently than adults as they rapidly school children elsewhere around the world, which is often
outgrow their prosthetic/orthotic devices. implemented with the support of the National Society of
the country in question. Bearing in mind that today’s school
Water and habitat children are tomorrow’s decision-makers, opinion-leaders, or
. The renovation or construction of health facilities such simply citizens, the basic aims of the programmes are:
as hospitals, health centres and physical rehabilitation centres • to foster young people’s understanding of humanitarian
always takes into account the specific needs of children. issues arising in armed conflict and other situations of
In most cases, children and their care-givers are given violence, and to familiarize them with the notion of human
special accommodation in line with local customs and dignity as an inviolable quality that must be respected, both
international standards. in times of peace and in times of armed conflict;
• to familiarize young people with the basic rules and
principles of IHL and with the nature and work of the
AUTHORITIES, ARMED FORCES AND International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
OTHER BEARERS OF WEAPONS, CIVIL SOCIETY

Prevention
. Preventive activities targeting political, diplomatic and
military authorities, armed forces, other bearers of weapons
and civil society (e.g. the media, schools, universities, NGOs)

46
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT MOVEMENT

Cooperation
National Societies
. In addition to working in partnership with the National
Society of the country in question to strengthen its own
operational capacity (see Civilians), the ICRC supports
the development of National Society tracing, first-aid and
emergency-preparedness capacities. This helps the National
Society improve its response to the specific needs of children
in armed conflict or other situations of violence.
. In conjunction with the International Federation, the ICRC
builds the general institutional capacities of National Societies,
in accordance with the Fundamental Principles. The two
organizations provide National Societies with the expertise
required to strengthen their capacity to conduct domestic
activities in accordance with their own priorities and plans, so
that children’s needs may be addressed in peacetime as well as
during armed conflict and other situations of violence.
. The ICRC often works in partnership with National Societies
from other countries which are working internationally and
which contribute to ICRC operations in cash, kind or by
providing personnel and operational management.
. Through regular meetings and dialogue, and in line with
the Seville Agreement and its Supplementary Measures,
all operations to meet the needs of those affected by armed
conflict and other situations of violence, including children,
are coordinated with other Movement components present
in the context to ensure the best response.
. The ICRC often supports National Societies’ youth
programmes that enable young people to learn about
humanitarian values and engage in humanitarian work
within their own country.

47
ANNEX 4
THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL
APPROACH TO DISPLACEMENT
Displacement and the displaced · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 48 DISPLACEMENT AND THE DISPLACED

The “all victims” approach · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 49 Displacement is a recurrent consequence of armed conflict and
other situations of violence. Civilians are brutally uprooted and
The multidisciplinary approach · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 50 forced to flee their homes as they try to avoid the dangers gener-
Using the multidisciplinary approach at each stage ated by the conflict. In most cases, displacement is an inherently
of displacement · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 50 unstable and unsustainable set of circumstances, from the point of
view of both those displaced and the authorities concerned.

Relations with the Movement and There are two broad causes of displacement in armed conflict:
humanitarian coordination · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 50 as a direct consequence of the hostilities, owing either to actual
violence or as a pre-emptive measure on account of fears or
Displacement in ICRC programmes, threats; and as a secondary consequence, owing, for example, to
by target population · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 51 the exhaustion of resources or to poor access to essential services.
Civilians · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 51
Wounded and sick · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 54 Given that the term “displacement” describes a process and a set
Authorities, armed forces and other bearers of weapons, of circumstances as opposed to a “status”, there is no international
civil society · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 54 legally binding definition of an IDP. Nor does the ICRC have its
Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 55 own definition. The definition most commonly used within the
international community is the one provided for in the 1998 UN
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, which bring together
existing norms of IHL, international human rights law and refugee
law in a way that covers all the phases of internal displacement. The
definition, which is broad, refers to “persons or groups of persons
who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or
places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order
to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized vio-
lence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disas-
ters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State
border”. As the majority of IDPs are nationals of the State in which
they find themselves displaced, they are entitled to the full protec-
tion of national law and the rights it grants to its citizens without
adverse distinction resulting from displacement. Some of those dis-
placed, however, will not be State nationals. Nevertheless, they are
protected under international human rights law, and many of the
same rights must be granted to them without discrimination.

Under IHL, the arbitrary displacement of civilians should not occur


in the first place, but if it does, their protection is ensured. Indeed,
IHL expressly prohibits any party to an armed conflict from com-
pelling civilians to leave their places of residence. Exceptionally,
temporary evacuations may be carried out if the security of the
civilians or imperative military necessity so demands. In addition

48
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

to this express prohibition, the rules of IHL intended to spare civil- (e.g. agriculture, livestock, business, wage labour); separation
ians from hostilities and their effects also play an important role in or disruption/complete breakdown of family and community
preventing displacement, as it is often violations of these rules that support networks; increased risks of exploitation and abuse;
cause civilians to flee their homes. reduced access to essential services; potential marginalization
from decision-making structures; and psychological and physical
Although displacement is seldom experienced as a linear process, trauma. These elements obviously increase the general difficul-
specific phases can be identified: ties inherent in a conflict environment. Moreover, those affected
are often displaced several times over, each time causing further
. the pre-displacement period: this requires efforts to prevent impoverishment and trauma, and weakening coping mechanisms.
displacement, to the extent feasible and in the best interests
of those at risk However, not all people who are displaced are necessarily made
. the event that causes displacement: an understanding of exceptionally vulnerable. For example, those who have adequate
the events causing the displacement is crucial for preventing resources may be able to cope independently with the conse-
their recurrence quences. Nor are those that do not move necessarily safe. Those
. acute crisis or emergency phase of displacement: periods which who are unable to flee (e.g. the elderly, the sick, the wounded, the
are frantic and highly unpredictable and in which immediate physically disabled, those for whom fleeing is too risky, or mem-
protection and assistance efforts are required to ensure basic bers of a persecuted group unable to flee because of tensions with
safety and essential needs with the aim of saving lives their neighbours) are often more vulnerable than those who leave
. chronic crisis or longer-term displacement: periods in which to seek safer circumstances.
more stable circumstances are established and in which basic
needs are covered by existing services and infrastructure, When people do flee their homes, they have to arrive somewhere.
though often insufficiently, while the displaced await Neighbouring communities (whether sympathetic or not) or
conditions that will enable them to find durable solutions extended family are often the first to receive the IDPs and can be
comprising dignified approaches to supporting those affected, significantly affected by their arrival, especially when IDPs are
such as the restoration of an independent productive capacity directly welcomed into and supported by individual households.
. return, local integration or relocation (generally sought Often, however, this temporary solution allows IDPs to stay close
once the situation has sufficiently stabilized): this would to their place of origin and families and to avoid being confined to
ideally consist of people being able to return to their pre- camps, which should remain a last resort.1 These residents, how-
displacement place of dwelling, although when this is not ever, often enough also faced dire circumstances even before the
feasible, or desirable, local integration or relocation should be IDPs arrived and tend to be quickly stretched beyond their capac-
an option. Return, local integration or relocation should also ity to help, reaching the point at which they are forced to send
be accompanied by support to restore the former lives and the IDPs away in order to protect their own economic security.
livelihoods and independence of the affected individuals. It is frequently the case that host communities begin to resist the
arrival of IDPs owing to the strain they place on general resources
(land, water, jobs, essential services such as health care and educa-
THE “ALL VICTIMS” APPROACH tion, etc.). Tensions over insufficient resources can easily emerge
and rapidly escalate. Moreover, in some cases those who were
Owing to its specific mandate, the ICRC implements an “all vic- originally hosts may also be forced to move as they exhaust their
tims” approach aimed at protecting the life and dignity of victims independent means.
of armed conflict and other situations of violence and providing
them with assistance. As part of this approach, the ICRC aims to As such, displacement – and the circumstances causing it –
alleviate the plight not only of IDPs but of all those affected (such typically has severe protection and resource implications both
as those unable to flee and communities hosting IDPs), during all for those directly affected (i.e. the IDPs) and for those indirectly
stages of the displacement. This involves working with all stake- affected (e.g. host families and communities). As the conflict and
holders, from the beneficiaries themselves right up to the high- violence persist, the general economy can also take a severe hit,
est authorities: (i) to ensure conditions that prevent any need for with reduced availability of and access to goods/supplies/land/
displacement to occur in the first place; (ii) to alleviate the effects services – all of which could further undermine the independent
of the displacement, if it does occur, both on the displaced them- means and capacities of the entire population.
selves and on others; and (iii) to create the conditions necessary
for the permanent return home, local integration or relocation of
the IDPs, without adverse effect on them or on others.
1. A policy of encampment is generally not favoured or accepted (Principle 12 of the Guiding
Principles). In situations of armed conflict, IHL allows for internment or assigned
Within this approach, the ICRC acknowledges that those who residence only when required for imperative reasons of security. In other cases, when
camps are set up to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance, if the quality of life in
have been forced to leave their homes are likely to face particular the camps is significantly higher than the average standard of living in the area, this may
vulnerabilities. People at risk often flee at very short notice and create tensions between the IDPs and the people outside the camps. It may also lead to
the IDPs becoming dependent on aid and hinder efforts to restore their self-sufficiency.
often in chaos, experiencing, inter alia: loss of shelter, resources Camps may even attract the non-displaced and become overburdened, putting undue
and essential documentation; a likely disruption of livelihoods pressure on the services available

49
ANNEX 4 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO DISPLACEMENT

The needs of IDPs cannot, therefore, be considered to the exclu- Alleviating the effects of displacement
sion of the rest of the affected population. Rooted in the principles If displacement nevertheless occurs, the ICRC reminds the author-
of impartiality and response according to need, the ICRC’s “all ities that it is their responsibility to ensure that IDPs are protected,
victims” approach means that, in addition to meeting the needs their rights respected and their essential needs met. The ICRC also
of IDPs, appropriate emphasis is also placed on those unable to acts as a neutral intermediary between warring parties in order to
flee and on residents who are affected by the displacement of oth- facilitate the conclusion of agreements aimed at resolving humani-
ers. This underscores the fact that displacement is not solely about tarian issues, including the plight of IDPs.
IDPs. Understanding it, instead, as a process and a set of circum-
stances allows for acknowledgement of its impact on a wide range In addition, the ICRC conducts a wide range of assistance activities
of people. which are designed not only to help those affected meet their most
immediate survival needs (in terms of shelter, water and sanitation,
nutrition, access to health care, etc.), but also to serve as protec-
THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH tion measures by enhancing individuals’ capacity to avoid threats in
their environment that might compound their problems. The ICRC
The ICRC has developed a multidisciplinary response capacity, also supports the relevant local authorities and existing structures.
which stems from the organization’s mandate to both protect and
assist people affected by armed conflict and other situations of vio- Easing return, local integration and relocation
lence. This dual mandate leads the ICRC to address the diverse The ICRC also aims to facilitate the return, local integration or relo-
needs of the affected population by linking efforts that aim to cation of those that have been displaced, by reminding the authori-
ensure that the law is upheld with a range of activities to address ties of their obligations to promote voluntary return whenever it is
the consequences of violations of the law and of the armed conflict safe, and local integration and/or relocation whenever conditions
or situation of violence. Activities are combined with a view to allow. In this respect, the ICRC continually reminds the authorities
ensuring that the impact on the beneficiaries is greater than the that it is their responsibility to restore the basic conditions required
sum of the individual results generated. for resolving the displacement crisis (including security, access to
essential services, opportunities to restore livelihood, etc.). The
The ICRC’s commitment to considering all phases of displacement ICRC often conducts protection and assistance activities for people
ensures that its response to the phenomenon and to other conse- seeking lasting solutions to their plight, including those returning,
quences of armed conflict is inherently flexible and able to adapt integrating locally on a permanent basis or relocating. This includes
to the changing circumstances of all those affected by displace- addressing the concerns of the residents already in the area, with a
ment. The multidisciplinary approach is employed during every view to minimizing tensions between the two groups.
phase to ensure the most comprehensive and effective response
to the needs of those at risk of being displaced, those already dis-
placed or affected by the displacement of others and those seek- RELATIONS WITH THE MOVEMENT AND
ing to return home or relocate. The organization’s activities for HUMANITARIAN COORDINATION
those affected by displacement are designed in such a way as to
empower beneficiaries, to promote self-reliance and to reinforce Given the scope and magnitude of the problem of internal dis-
coping mechanisms. placement, it is generally recognized that an effective and com-
prehensive response to the needs of IDPs, affected residents and
returnees is beyond the capacity of any single organization.
USING THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH AT EACH
STAGE OF DISPLACEMENT ICRC activities benefiting people affected by displacement are
often carried out in partnership with the Movement’s other
Preventing displacement components, with which it shares a common identity through
The ICRC aims to persuade authorities, armed forces and armed the emblem it uses and the Fundamental Principles guiding its
groups, through confidential dialogue, to fulfil their obligations action. The National Society in the country in question is the
to prevent the displacement of civilians (unless the temporary ICRC’s primary partner, but in many instances, other National
evacuation of civilians during military operations is required for Societies that work internationally are also involved. In line with
their own security) and other violations of the relevant bodies of the Seville Agreement and its Supplementary Measures, the ICRC
law that would result in displacement. If displacement neverthe- leads and coordinates the efforts of the Movement’s components
less occurs, the ICRC makes confidential representations to the in armed conflicts and other situations of violence, and leads all
alleged perpetrators with a view to having them take measures to the Movement’s efforts to restore family links, an essential activity
stop the violations and prevent further displacement. ICRC assis- wherever people have been displaced.
tance activities (such as ensuring access to a safe water supply and
health care services, and providing livelihood support) can also The ICRC’s experience in the domain of displacement has been
help remove some of the causes of displacement. instrumental in Movement efforts to formalize current practices in
a policy on the issue. Working with the International Federation
and a representative cross section of 20 National Societies,

50
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

the ICRC held consultative meetings to prepare a Movement pol- . In addition to formal and informal oral and written
icy on internal displacement, which was adopted (Resolution 5) representations to the authorities concerned about alleged
by the Council of Delegates in November 2009. It promotes and incidents, preventive dissemination activities are conducted
contributes to its implementation. for the authorities and all kinds of weapon bearers to raise
their awareness of their responsibilities under IHL to protect
The ICRC is also fully committed to implementing effective coor- and respect at all times individuals and groups not or no
dination with other players while preserving its independence, longer taking part in hostilities (see Authorities, armed forces
neutrality and impartiality. It has welcomed the various UN ini- and other bearers of weapons, civil society below).
tiatives for humanitarian reform – including the cluster approach. . By reinforcing civilian coping mechanisms and acting as a
Although, as a genuinely neutral and independent organization, neutral intermediary to facilitate movement across front lines
it is unable to be a formal part of the cluster approach, the ICRC or access to essential services such as markets or health care,
sees it as no obstacle to coordination. Such coordination, how- the ICRC can remove some of the causes of displacement.
ever, must, on the one hand, have as its aim to meet all the needs
of those affected by conflict by promoting complementary roles Assistance
among the various humanitarian organizations (avoiding dupli- Economic security – livelihood support
cation or gaps) and, on the other hand, maximize the impact of . Livelihood support programmes help households ensure
the ICRC response. As humanitarian coordination is never an end their self-sufficiency. Seed and tool distributions, livestock
in itself, only reality-based and action-oriented coordination can replenishment and vaccination, cash-for-work projects to
fulfil these two conditions, i.e. tasks being distributed according to rehabilitate community infrastructure, grants or material
the skills and capacities of each organization, and notably accord- inputs (e.g. sewing machines, donkey carts, flour mills, oil
ing to the organization’s ability effectively to implement them in presses, brick-making machines, irrigation pumps), to give
order to ensure that needs are covered comprehensively. but a few examples, directly improve the standard of living
of households by helping them continue or jump-start an
income-generating activity. This in turn can also help people
DISPLACEMENT IN ICRC PROGRAMMES, to cope with the various threats in their environment posed by
BY TARGET POPULATION the armed conflict or other situation of violence. In this way,
boosting economic security can prevent impoverishment that
Below is a more exhaustive description, by target population, of might lead to displacement.
how ICRC programmes take into account the specific situations
and needs of those affected by displacement in armed conflict. Water supply, sanitation and shelter
These descriptions are valid in any ICRC operation. They are . Access to and the quality of water supplies can suffer in times
not repeated explicitly under each context section, unless of conflict. By ensuring access to safe drinking water (see
specifically required, but they may be cited to enhance under- Alleviating the effects of displacement/Assistance/Water supply,
standing of the information therein. sanitation and shelter below), either directly or by supporting
other providers, the ICRC can remove one of the possible
causes of displacement.
CIVILIANS
Health care
(Whenever possible, ICRC activities for civilians are carried out . Access to and the quality of health care can suffer in times of
with the National Society of the country in question, particu- conflict. By ensuring access to permanent or mobile health
larly in the fields of assistance and restoring family links.) care services (see Alleviating the effects of displacement/
Assistance/Health care below) either directly or by supporting
other providers, the ICRC can remove one of the possible
PREVENTING DISPLACEMENT causes of displacement.

Protection Prevention
Protecting the civilian population Mines/explosive remnants of war
. The ICRC monitors the situation of individuals and groups . The ICRC engages in advocacy with the relevant authorities
not or no longer taking part in hostilities. Where documented, on mines and explosive remnants of war with a view to
allegations of abuse committed against civilians are raised in the stopping their use of such weapons and encouraging them
ICRC’s discussions with all parties on alleged IHL violations and to clear contaminated areas. Representations are often based
the measures to be taken to stop them and thus remove one of on incident data collected first hand by the ICRC or the
the causes of displacement. Such allegations may include direct National Society.
or indiscriminate attacks, harassment, arbitrary arrests, sexual
violence, looting or destruction of property and possessions,
forced recruitment by weapon bearers, or restriction/denial of
access to land, fields, markets and essential services.

51
ANNEX 4 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO DISPLACEMENT

ALLEVIATING THE EFFECTS OF DISPLACEMENT for in relation to the conflict. In addition to advocacy efforts,
the ICRC may aim to boost national forensic and data
Protection management capacities, offer its legal expertise for the drafting
Protecting the civilian population of legislation, and work to improve psychological support for
. It is often the case that the authorities bearing the primary the families of missing persons.
duty to care for the displaced and to manage the displacement
crisis lack the capacity or the will to do so. The ICRC plays Assistance
an important role in highlighting critical humanitarian needs Economic security – emergency aid: food and essential
and making recommendations to the authorities on how they household items
can better fulfil their obligations, including to protect civilians . People often have to flee at short notice, and in any case are
from abuses (see Preventing displacement/Protection/Protecting the likely to be limited in the belongings they can carry with them.
civilian population above). When distributing aid, the ICRC gives priority to the most
. IDPs are not a homogenous group: there are many sub- vulnerable households. Many of these are IDPs, although the
populations who are likely to have particular concerns. The ICRC also assists residents who are directly affected by the
ICRC takes measures to assess these concerns and to respond conflict, but unable or unwilling to leave the affected area, or
to the most urgent needs. It also pays particular attention to who are affected by the presence of IDPs and the additional
the relationship between IDPs – living in dedicated places strain that they place on resources. If the need exists, the ICRC
or hosted by residents – and local resident communities in provides food rations and essential household items, such as
order to avoid or reduce tension between the two groups, blankets, tarpaulins, jerrycans, kitchen sets and hygiene kits, to
such as that caused by competition for overstretched enable the displaced to set up temporary homes. Other items,
resources. Whenever possible, the ICRC takes direct action such as clothes or fabric to make clothing, are also distributed
to remove or reduce the causes of the tension. according to need.
. Part of encouraging respect for people’s dignity includes
ensuring that they have access to accurate information and Economic security – livelihood support
can actively participate and influence decisions made on their . Some civilians are displaced temporarily and are able to return
behalf, to ensure that they are still able to make choices about home after a relatively short time. Others experience more
their lives however dire the circumstances. For example, a prolonged displacement. Being cut off from their livelihoods
lack of information regarding the services available or a lack severely undermines the capacity of IDPs to generate
of familiarity with local procedures can reduce the capacity of income and the longer the situation lasts, the more it erodes
new arrivals to obtain access to essential services and support. any resources they may have. In such cases, in addition to
In such cases, the ICRC will directly facilitate beneficiaries’ providing emergency relief, the ICRC also aims to help the
access to the services available, including those run by the displaced recover their ability to earn a living (see Preventing
State, as well as prompting the authorities to improve their displacement/Assistance/Economic security – livelihood
communication and information-sharing systems. support above). Resident communities affected by economic
. During their flight, IDPs may leave behind or lose critical impoverishment as a result of the presence of IDPs, especially
documents (personal identification, passport, birth certificate, the households hosting IDPs, also benefit.
marriage certificate, etc.) or indeed have them stolen, making . Occupational training often forms part of livelihood support
it impossible for them to exercise their rights. The ICRC programmes, either to help the beneficiaries keep up their
reminds the authorities of their obligations to make document skills or to enable them to take up a new economic activity
replacement services available to all eligible citizens. It can also more suited to the area to which they have been displaced.
act as a neutral intermediary to relay official documents across
frontlines, between family members or between the authorities Water supply, sanitation and shelter
and civilians. . ICRC water, sanitation and habitat projects (trucking of clean
drinking water during emergencies; rehabilitation or building
Restoring family links and missing persons of water sources and infrastructure) give IDPs, residents and
. As they flee, IDPs often lose contact with loved ones, either returnees safe access to a source of water for household purposes,
in the chaos or because they have to leave them behind, ensure better sanitation practices for the whole family, free up
or because they leave in a hurry and are unable to inform for other tasks time once spent fetching water, and aim to reduce
relatives ahead of time. Enabling the displaced to restore and any tensions caused by competition for resources. They also
maintain contact with their families, within the country or reduce the incidence of sickness caused by inadequate hygiene.
abroad, contributes to the psychological well-being of both the . The displaced, resident and returnee beneficiaries
IDPs and their relatives, who may also be IDPs. systematically participate in the design, implementation and
. The ICRC family reunification programme aims to reunite management of ICRC water and habitat projects.
vulnerable people with their families, particularly those who . When large numbers of IDPs head for camps or converge
became separated as a result of displacement. on State-run reception centres or evacuation sites, they
. The ICRC also reminds the authorities of the right of families may find themselves in facilities able to cater only for much
to ascertain the fate and whereabouts of relatives unaccounted smaller numbers. The ICRC may carry out small-scale

52
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

rehabilitation work on infrastructure, construct or repair water bear responsibility for restoring essential conditions required
and sanitation facilities, provide equipment or train staff, for resolution of the situation. The ICRC advocates the
volunteers or IDPs in rehabilitation or maintenance. establishment of such conditions, which include security
guarantees, assurance of access to and availability of essential
Health care services, the ability to exercise housing, land and property
. An influx of IDPs into an area can place a heavy burden rights, and often compensation for lost, stolen or destroyed
on health care facilities that might already be run down or property. A premature return often leads to re-displacement
overstretched owing to the conflict. In such cases, the ICRC and further hardship.
may provide supplies, train staff and rehabilitate infrastructure
to ensure the provision of comprehensive primary health care, Assistance
including vaccinations, for IDPs and resident communities Economic security – emergency aid: food and
alike. At the same time, the ICRC highlights the needs to essential household items
the authorities, encouraging them to expand the services . IDPs finally returning to their places of origin may find
they provide. that their homes and land have been destroyed. The ICRC
. Mobile clinics give IDPs and residents unable to reach commonly provides these people and those who decide to
permanent structures access to essential health and medical settle elsewhere with kits that might contain food, essential
care and the opportunity to be referred to a second level of household and hygiene items, and/or shelter materials and
care. Such clinics can also provide an early indication of any tools to rebuild their homes.
outbreaks of disease.
. In contexts where sexual violence is a major problem, the Economic security – livelihood support
ICRC documents alleged incidents and brings them to the . IDPs returning to their homes or resettling elsewhere after a
attention of the authorities. It provides post-rape kits to ICRC- prolonged displacement will often require support in order
supported hospitals and health centres and runs training to restart an economic activity. ICRC livelihood support
courses to ensure that health staff in those facilities are programmes (see Alleviating the effects of displacement/
equipped and able to treat victims, including IDPs, effectively Assistance/Economic security – livelihood support above) are
and to provide counselling. also tailored to the needs of returnees and to residents in the
. IDPs benefit from psychological support to help them deal areas of return or relocation, with a view to reducing tensions
with the trauma of displacement or indeed of the violations of between the two groups.
IHL that prompted the displacement.
. IDPs living in overcrowded and cramped conditions are Water supply, sanitation and shelter
particularly susceptible to the spread of disease. Health and . By ensuring access to an adequate and safe water supply (see
hygiene promotion sessions aim to teach people basic practices Alleviating the effects of displacement/Assistance/Water supply,
that can help minimize or prevent the spread of disease. sanitation and shelter above), either directly or by supporting
. Depending on their circumstances, IDPs may be at risk other providers, the ICRC can help create conditions
of malnutrition. In emergencies, the ICRC may support conducive to the return or relocation of IDPs.
therapeutic feeding programmes.
Health care
Prevention . By ensuring access to health care services (see Alleviating the
Mines/explosive remnants of war effects of displacement/Assistance/Health care above), either
. To help prevent injuries caused by mines and explosive directly or by supporting other providers, the ICRC can help
remnants of war, the ICRC marks contaminated areas and create conditions conducive to the return or relocation
conducts mine-risk education to make people aware of the of IDPs.
dangers. In the event of an accident, it also provides surgical,
medical and economic assistance to victims, including physical Prevention
rehabilitation. In parallel, it continues its advocacy with Mines/explosive remnants of war
the relevant authorities and often supports the work of the . To help create conditions conducive to the return or
national mine-action body. relocation of IDPs, the ICRC encourages the relevant
authorities to clear land contaminated with mines and
explosive remnants of war and to stop using such weapons.
EASING RETURN, LOCAL INTEGRATION It also marks contaminated areas and conducts mine-risk
OR RELOCATION education to make people aware of the dangers. In the event
of an accident, it provides surgical, medical and economic
Protection assistance to victims, including physical rehabilitation.
Protection of the civilian population
. Any movement of IDPs ordered by the authorities must
be carried out in a safe, voluntary and dignified manner.
In terms of responding to a displacement crisis, the authorities

53
ANNEX 4 THE ICRC’S OPERATIONAL APPROACH TO DISPLACEMENT

WOUNDED AND SICK AUTHORITIES, ARMED FORCES AND


OTHER BEARERS OF WEAPONS, CIVIL SOCIETY
ALLEVIATING THE EFFECTS OF DISPLACEMENT
. Prevention activities targeting political authorities, armed forces,
Protection other bearers of weapons and civil society (e.g. the media, schools,
Protection of the “medical mission” universities, NGOs) always emphasize the need to take measures
. In its dialogue with the authorities and weapon bearers, the to respect the physical integrity and dignity of all people who are
ICRC reiterates their obligations under IHL to respect medical not, or no longer, participating in the armed conflict or other
personnel, equipment and facilities. In addition, health situation of violence, which includes IDPs. The target groups are
personnel are instructed in their work-related rights and systematically made aware of their responsibilities in this respect
obligations under IHL, such as marking structures with through a combination of bilateral meetings, dissemination
a protective emblem. sessions, training courses, documentation and publications,
games and competitions, and communication campaigns.
Assistance . The formal authorities, both civil and military, bear the
Medical care primary duty to protect and assist people on their territory.
. IDPs and residents alike may be wounded in the fighting A humanitarian response cannot substitute comprehensively
or may fall sick and need to be treated in hospitals that are for shortcomings in the formal system. The ICRC therefore
ill-equipped to deal with them because they are dilapidated reminds the authorities, at all levels, on the ground and
or simply because of the sheer numbers of people in need. in high-ranking positions right up to the cabinet, of their
ICRC support for hospitals focuses as a priority on emergency obligations to respect, protect and support those affected
surgery, as well as medical services such as gynaecological/ by displacement, and that IDPs enjoy the same rights and
obstetric and paediatric services. This support may include freedoms under the applicable legal frameworks (IHL and
the provision of equipment, medical supplies and training, for national law), without discrimination, as their compatriots.
example in traumatology. . Where inadequate legislation exists, the ICRC provides
. Similarly, the ICRC supports first-aid posts, as well as technical support and expertise to the authorities to help them
facilitating, as a neutral intermediary, or itself carrying out develop new laws.
operations to evacuate the wounded and sick from areas . During its dialogue with all authorities and weapon bearers,
affected by fighting. the ICRC recalls how IHL stipulates that the parties to a
conflict must allow and facilitate the rapid and unimpeded
Physical rehabilitation passage of humanitarian relief (for civilians in need), which is
. IDPs are among those who benefit from ICRC-supported impartial in nature and conducted without adverse distinction,
physical rehabilitation programmes. They may receive subject to their right of control.
artificial limbs, walking aids, wheelchairs and physiotherapy.

Water and habitat PREVENTING DISPLACEMENT


. The renovation or construction of health facilities such as
hospitals, health centres and physical rehabilitation centres Prevention
also boosts the capacity to provide adequate services to those . Respect for the basic rules of IHL would prevent a good
in need, including IDPs. portion of the cases of conflict-affected displacement, which is
often related to violations of those rules. Such rules include:
• the obligation to distinguish at all times between
EASING RETURN, LOCAL INTEGRATION civilians and combatants and between civilian objects
OR RELOCATION and military objectives
• the prohibition on making civilians or civilian objects
Assistance the target of attacks
Physical rehabilitation • the prohibition on indiscriminate attacks
. Disabled IDPs may also benefit from projects – education, • the obligation to use force that is proportional to the
vocational training or micro-credit schemes – to help them military objective in order to minimize the collateral
reintegrate into society. damage suffered by civilians
• the obligation to take precautions in attacks to spare the
Water and habitat civilian population
. The renovation or construction of health facilities such as • the prohibition on the destruction of objects indispensable
hospitals, health centres and physical rehabilitation centres for the survival of the civilian population
also boosts their capacity to provide adequate services to those • the prohibition on reprisals against the civilian population
in need, including returnees. and civilian property
• the obligation to respect fundamental guarantees such as
the prohibition of ill-treatment.

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ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

ALLEVIATING THE EFFECTS OF DISPLACEMENT RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT MOVEMENT

Prevention PREVENTING DISPLACEMENT, ALLEVIATING


. The authorities have the obligation to provide protection and THE EFFECTS OF DISPLACEMENT, EASING RETURN
assistance and to seek solutions when displacement occurs. OR RELOCATION
This includes ensuring that civilians:
• are protected against threats, indiscriminate arrests, attacks Cooperation
and other acts of violence, as is their property (either that . In contexts where internal displacement is a major
currently with them or that left behind) humanitarian concern, the ICRC promotes implementation
• are able to maintain their dignity, physical, mental and of the Movement policy on internal displacement when
moral integrity and family unity responding directly to the needs of the people affected and
• have freedom of movement and freedom to choose their when backing other Movements components in doing
place of residence (in or out of camps, within the country so. During the Movement’s statutory meetings, and in
or abroad) and are protected against forced return coordination with the International Federation, it reports to
• have an adequate standard of living in terms of food, water, the other components of the Movement on implementation of
sanitation, basic shelter, clothing, health care and education this policy.
• have access to the documents they need to enjoy and exercise . Whenever possible, the ICRC works in operational partnership
their rights (personal ID, passport, birth certificate, marriage with the National Society of the country in question to meet
certificate, etc.) the needs of all those affected by displacement. It also provides
• have access to accurate information in order to make technical, material and financial support and training to the
informed choices and participate in and influence decisions National Society to boost its capacities to fulfil its mandate,
being made on their behalf. for example in terms of tracing, first aid and emergency-
preparedness and response (see Civilians above).
. Furthermore, the ICRC often works in partnership
EASING RETURN, LOCAL INTEGRATION with National Societies working internationally and
OR RELOCATION contributing to its operations, including those addressing
displacement, in cash, kind or by providing personnel and
Prevention operational management.
. The authorities also have the responsibility to restore . Through regular meetings and dialogue, and in line with
conditions that permit return, local integration or relocation the Seville Agreement and its Supplementary Measures, the
as quickly as possible. The basic conditions for sustainable, ICRC, when leading the Movement’s international response,
long-term solutions, based on voluntary, safe and dignified ensures that all operations to meet the needs of those affected
choices, include the following assurances that former IDPs: by displacement are coordinated with other Movement
• do not suffer attacks, harassment, intimidation, persecution components present in the context to ensure the best response.
or any other form of punitive action upon return to their The ICRC supports such coordination mechanisms when they
home communities or settlement in other locations are led by other Movement components.
• are not subject to discrimination for reasons related to
their displacement
• have full non-discriminatory access to national protection
mechanisms (police, courts)
• have access to the personal documentation typically
needed to access public services, to vote and for
administrative purposes
• have access to mechanisms for property restitution or
compensation
• enjoy without discrimination an adequate standard of living,
including shelter, health care, food and water
• are able to reunite with family members if they so choose
• are able to exercise the right to participate fully and equally
in public affairs.

55
HEADQUARTERS

57
ICRC GOVERNING AND
CONTROLLING BODIES
The governing bodies of the ICRC, comprising the Assembly, the The Assembly also held discussions on the following issues: the
Assembly Council and the Presidency, have overall responsibility interpretation and development of IHL (including the results of
for institutional policy, strategy and decisions related to the develop- the two-year study on the current state of IHL and the forthcom-
ment of IHL. These bodies oversee all the activities of the organiza- ing review of the commentaries on the 1949 Geneva Conventions
tion, including field and headquarters operations and the approval and their two Additional Protocols of 1977), the ICRC’s policies
of objectives and budgets. They also monitor implementation by regarding the new nuclear disarmament debate and torture and
the Directorate of Assembly or Assembly Council decisions and are other forms of ill-treatment, the organization’s role in determin-
assisted in this task by a Control Commission and the internal and ing applicable law in situations of armed conflict, its withdrawal
external auditors. from the International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen (Germany)
and operational partnerships with National Societies. In accord-
ance with its statutory mandate and pursuant to the advice of its
MEETINGS AND DECISIONS Control Commission, the Assembly reviewed and approved the
OF THE GOVERNING BODIES financial accounts (April) and the Directorate’s proposals for the
2011 objectives and budgets. The Assembly also examined the
In 2010, the Assembly and the Assembly Council held 6 and yearly report of the Ombudsman. Discussions on the yearly report
11 meetings respectively. The president and director-general of on gender balance and equal opportunity were postponed to
the ICRC kept the Assembly and the Assembly Council informed early 2011.
about the conduct of operations, issues relating to IHL, humani-
tarian diplomacy, cooperation within the Movement and with
other humanitarian practitioners, external communication, and
administration and finance. The Assembly and the Assembly
Council examined, in particular, ICRC operations in China, Côte
d’Ivoire, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Iraq, Japan, Kyrgyzstan,
Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Sudan.

58
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

MISSIONS Other members of the Committee also conducted missions and


attended functions for the ICRC:
Mr J. Kellenberger, president, conducted various missions to
hold bilateral discussions with governments; where pertinent, . Mrs Ch. Augsburger travelled to Colombia (field mission)
the missions included a visit to ICRC operations in the field, as in and Haiti (Florence Nightingale medal)
Kyrgyzstan and Sudan. Other missions included visits to Belgium . Mr P. Bernasconi travelled to Italy (Italian Red
(European Union and Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council-NATO Cross seminar)
in Brussels); Denmark; Ethiopia (Peace and Security Council of . Mr F. Bugnion represented the ICRC at various fora,
the African Union in Addis Ababa); France; Germany; Italy (San including conferences and other events to mark the
Remo); Luxembourg; Norway; Sweden; Switzerland (Swiss gov- centenary of the death of Henry Dunant and Gustave
ernment in Bern and World Economic Forum in Davos); the Moynier, and received, inter alia, representatives of
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; and the Cambodia’s General Department of Prisons and Interior
United States of America (UN Security Council in New York). Ministry at ICRC headquarters
. Mr M. Daetwyler represented the ICRC at various fora
Ms C. Beerli, permanent vice-president, conducted missions to in Switzerland (Arbon, Heiden)
the following countries: Austria, Belgium, China, Croatia, France . Mr B. Daniel travelled to Georgia (field mission)
(Africa-France Summit in Nice), Guatemala, Jordan, Lao People’s . Mr J. Forster travelled to Italy (San Remo)
Democratic Republic (First Meeting of States Parties to the . Ms C. Le Coultre travelled to Bangladesh (Special Fund
Convention on Cluster Munitions), Mexico and the United States for the Disabled,) and Norway (Norwegian Red Cross)
of America (UN Security Council). In addition, she attended vari- . Mr Y. Sandoz travelled to Uganda (Review Conference
ous conferences in Switzerland. of the Rome Statute)
. Mr R. Soiron travelled to the Democratic Republic
Mr O. Vodoz, non-permanent vice-president, received various of the Congo (field mission)
high-profile guests at the ICRC’s headquarters and represented . Mr D. Thürer represented the ICRC at the Swiss Red Cross
the ICRC at various fora in Switzerland. general assembly in Zürich

59
DIRECTORATE
The Directorate is the executive body of the ICRC. Its members are to achieve the ambitions laid out in the strategy in terms of:
the director-general and the heads of the ICRC’s five departments: (1) reinforcing its scope of action; (2) strengthening its contextu-
Operations, International Law and Cooperation, Communication alized, multidisciplinary response; (3) shaping the debate on legal
and Information Management, Human Resources, and Financial and policy issues related to its mission; and (4) optimizing the
Resources and Logistics. The Directorate is responsible for apply- ICRC’s performance.
ing institutional strategy, as defined by the Assembly, and defining
and implementing its objectives accordingly. The Directorate also The roadmap was then translated into objectives and plans of
ensures that the organization, particularly its administrative struc- action to be implemented by or under the leadership of each
ture, runs smoothly and efficiently. department. It should enable the ICRC to make incremental
progress towards the intended results.
The members of the Directorate are appointed by the Assembly for
four-year terms. The current Directorate took office on 1 July 2010.
MANAGEMENT PRIORITIES FOR 2007–2010
The Directorate rounded off its work on the management
priorities it set for 2007–2010 and defined new orientations for the At the beginning of its mandate, the previous Directorate estab-
coming four years, ensuring a smooth transfer of responsibilities lished management priorities for 2007–2010. These priorities
from one executive team to the next. During this transition year, aimed to reinforce the ICRC’s position as the benchmark organi-
the challenge was to promote continuity in achieving objectives zation for neutral, impartial and independent humanitarian action
set while initiating the changes needed to preserve the relevance and IHL on the basis of three pillars:
of the ICRC’s organizational model in the future. This required
the organization to strike an appropriate balance between pursu- . strengthening the ICRC’s capacity to design and manage
ing a “business as usual” approach and beginning to implement its multidisciplinary operations
new priorities. . enhancing internal and external accountability
. increasing the effectiveness of ICRC operations

PLANNING FOR 2011–2014 The Directorate established a detailed plan of action for each
of its management priorities and made incremental progress
The new Directorate was instrumental in preparing the ICRC’s on achieving related objectives during the course of the year,
2011–2014 institutional strategy. It shared its priority concerns as described below.
with the ICRC’s governing bodies and worked with them to ana-
lyse the humanitarian issues that the ICRC is grappling with in Manage a wide range of services
the field. The resulting strategy builds on the orientations of the The ICRC has been steadily reviewing and enhancing its range of
previous institutional strategy and sets an ambitious framework activities in order to provide an appropriate response to all the
for action for the future. needs of populations affected by armed conflicts and other situa-
tions of violence. It intends to pursue most of these activities on
Following the strategy’s adoption, the Directorate developed its own or in cooperation with National Societies, rather than out-
a roadmap for its implementation, identifying the organiza- sourcing them.
tion’s management priorities for the coming four years, formu-
lated in terms of expected results. This roadmap links the main Plan of action
orientations of the strategy with the ICRC’s key success factors/ . build the capacity of staff at all levels to design and manage
areas of risk, providing a common reading grid for tracking the multidisciplinary action
organization’s performance. The expected results defined by the . define the range of services and strengthen expertise in
Directorate specify how, in concrete terms, the ICRC intends identified core activities, such as protection and health

60
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

. reinforce the skills needed to engage in operational Ensure that the ICRC operates smoothly and
partnerships with National Societies in countries where the is able to react rapidly
ICRC has a significant presence, with a view to bolstering The ICRC intends to clarify its internal functioning on the basis
emergency response capacities of a transparent, rapid and efficient decision-making process and
appropriate management procedures.
Main achievements in 2010
. the ICRC clarified its approach and response criteria in Plan of action
situations of violence other than armed conflict, facilitating . reaffirm the ICRC’s organizational model of a single
its effort to more systematically and effectively bring the headquarters and a worldwide network of delegations
humanitarian consequences of such situations within its . clearly define the roles and methods in the institutional
scope of action decision-making process
. in light of the shifting international political landscape, the . improve the internal flow of information
ICRC developed an approach aimed at widening its support . enhance the mobility (geographical and hierarchical) of
base among emerging State actors of influence personnel so as to be able to respond to emergencies in a
. it developed a reference framework on migration timely and efficient manner
. medical activities in armed conflicts and other situations of . further improve career management and ensure that
violence were further strengthened, with improvements in the dialogue between the organization and its staff is transparent
quality of hospital programmes, the development of mental and coherent
health practice, and the recruitment of an increased number of
health staff to meet field requirements Main achievements in 2010
. in the realm of protection, the ICRC adopted a policy on . the ICRC carried out successful rapid deployments in
its response to torture of detainees and other forms of ill- contexts including Côte d’Ivoire, Haiti, Kyrgyzstan,
treatment (a public version will be made available) and Pakistan and Thailand
finalized a handbook on the protection of civilians . after the many problems encountered in the deployment of
. the ICRC continued strengthening operational the MesProf2 project, a new organization-wide messaging
partnerships with National Societies and mainstreaming system (ICRC Mail) was successfully deployed; this system
related activities offers staff the possibility to access their individual mail
accounts via the web
Implement result-based management . the ICRC intranet was introduced, providing unprecedented
The ICRC strives to develop a management culture of account- access to information to ICRC staff worldwide and
ability and learning that allows for enhanced monitoring and heralding an important shift in the organization’s internal
critical evaluation of its operations. communication culture
. rules on access to information according to staff functions
Plan of action were clarified
. develop a management style that is based on clearly . People Leadership and Management training courses
established objectives continued to be rolled out for ICRC senior managers; the
. enhance the skills required for result-based management latest series focuses on identifying and developing core
at all levels management competences for the ICRC as a whole
. define indicators for all levels of established objectives . an external review was completed on the effectiveness of the
(field operations, programmes, institutional) new integration course for delegates
. adapt the existing institutional tools of result-based
management to achieve established objectives

Main achievements in 2010


. the Directorate ensured that the organization’s annual
objectives were aligned with the institutional strategy
. on the basis of a wide consultation among users, the ICRC
initiated a reform of the field planning and monitoring process
and tool, which will have implications for ICRC practice at
both programme and management levels
. the headquarters planning and budgeting tool was refined
to permit a finer financial analysis of the headquarters
budget and more useful planning and monitoring features
for unit managers
. the “Independent evaluation of the ICRC programmes for
Strengthening National Societies in Law and Fundamental
Principles” was carried out

61
OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR-GENERAL
The director-general chairs the Directorate and ensures that its LEADING THE DIRECTORATE
decisions are implemented. He reports to the President’s Office and
the Assembly on the Directorate’s objectives, decisions and activi- Throughout the year, the Office of the Director-General man-
ties, and on the results achieved. The Office of the Director-General aged the work of the Directorate and maintained an effective link
supervises the headquarters unit responsible for performance man- between the administration and the governing bodies. It played
agement, oversees the project management office and promotes, a key role in ensuring the relevance, coherence, timeliness and
throughout the organization, the development of partnerships. implementation of institutional decisions.
It also focuses on issues related to health and ethics, through the
work of the senior medical adviser. More specifically, the Office of the Director-General helped the
new Directorate articulate its overarching priorities and devise
During a year marked by the transition to a new ICRC Directorate, implementation strategies at both Directorate and depart-
the Office of the Director-General played a crucial role in ensur- ment levels. It managed the Directorate’s agenda to ensure that
ing follow-up to established priorities while leading and managing it reflected these priorities, organizing Directorate sessions and
organizational change in certain domains. The new director- related follow-up accordingly. The Office also initiated a review
general reaffirmed the key features of the ICRC’s organizational of the Directorate’s working practices, in an effort to optimize
model as a humanitarian organization that works in close proxim- its functioning. In addition, it managed the Directorate’s inter-
ity to the people affected by armed conflicts and other situations of nal communication, defining related needs, plans and products
violence, but identified a number of areas where the ICRC needed together with the Internal Communication Unit.
to adjust its management practices. These areas were fleshed out
in the development of the 2011–2014 institutional strategy and the The Office of the Director-General led meetings of the two plat-
Directorate roadmap. forms for interdepartmental discussion on external relations
issues and on organization and management, which were set up
Coinciding with the arrival of the new director-general, certain by the Directorate in July to ensure coherence and efficiency in
new functions were brought into the Office of the Director- issue identification, decision-making and follow-up, between and
General, while others were relocated to different departments to across departments. Their output began to feed into Directorate
further mainstream related activities. The new director-general discussions and help align the work of various departments.
focused the Office’s work on leading the Directorate, managing
the ICRC’s performance, developing partnerships, strengthening
the organization’s positioning in external debates, and providing
input on health and ethical issues. At the same time, functions
related to internal communication, gender equality, the envi-
ronment and the International Tracing Service were reinforced
through their transfer to other departments.

62
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

MANAGING THE ICRC’S PERFORMANCE PLANNING

In 2010, the ICRC continued to refine its performance manage- The Office of the Director-General provided support for the
ment method in order to facilitate management decisions and Directorate’s work to develop a roadmap to guide the implemen-
enhance learning and document performance accountability. It tation of the 2011–2014 institutional strategy (see Directorate).
was thus able to:
For the first time, an explicit link was made between the organi-
. establish general and specific performance objectives zation’s longer-term strategic ambitions and its annual planning
and targets exercise. In the framework of the Planning for Results process,
. link objectives to budgeting and accounting objectives were formulated to permit incremental progress in
. monitor performance achieving the expected results defined in the Directorate roadmap,
. carry out independent evaluations and reviews in order reinforcing alignment across different organizational levels (both
to boost operational performance, knowledge management headquarters and field).
and the process of learning from experience
To bolster the institution’s planning efforts at the working
The ICRC remained a full member of and represented the level, the Institutional Performance Management Unit (IPM)
Movement on the steering committee of the Active Learning together with the Finance and Administration Division’s Audit,
Network on Accountability and Performance (ALNAP). It Compliance and Budget Unit, further refined the headquarters
continued to work actively with donors and NGOs on issues planning and budgeting tool to provide a finer financial analysis
related to accountability and performance management for of the headquarters budget and more useful planning and moni-
humanitarian activities. toring features for unit managers. It also continued to support an
institutional project run by the Operations department and aimed
at mainstreaming and strengthening result-based management
PROJECT MANAGEMENT practice at both programme and management level.

The Project Management Office was established within the Office


of the Director-General to oversee institutional projects, develop MONITORING
project standards and support individual project managers. This
function plays a crucial role in revamping ICRC project manage- The Office of the Director-General supported the Directorate’s
ment practices, with a view to improving project success rates monitoring effort, in view of its particular information needs.
and identifying and replicating institutional good practices in The Directorate set up a biannual review of the implementation
project implementation. of the institutional strategy, which should permit it to review
results related to its priorities and thus gauge progress on achiev-
With the support of the new set-up, the Directorate began to mon- ing the expected outcomes defined in the Directorate roadmap.
itor progress related to five important institutional projects. The The Directorate also initiated a quarterly business review, which
Project Management Office developed a project self-evaluation aims to provide it with a “health card” of the organization at a
procedure to enable project managers/sponsors to perform an given moment in time (covering operations, finances, human
initial assessment of those projects and identify potential areas resources and key institutional projects). This review will allow
for improvement. the Directorate to take the decisions needed to maintain the “good
health” of the organization.
More generally, it began to help project managers set and imple-
ment realistic and achievable objectives and to monitor and report The IPM launched a review of the ICRC’s risk management strat-
on progress in order to facilitate decision-making. egy for the ultimate purpose of adopting a more dynamic, coher-
ent and comprehensive approach to managing operational and
Work was also initiated on developing a corporate project man- corporate risks. Throughout the year, it provided specific guid-
agement framework that will enable the institution to prioritize ance on formulating indicators at different management levels.
projects on the basis of objective criteria. It includes the implemen-
tation of an action plan defined by the Directorate on the basis of
recommendations made in the report on the audit of the MesProf2 EVALUATION
project (see Communication and Information Management).
In accordance with its work plan, and under the direct supervision
of the IPM, in 2010 an “Independent evaluation of the ICRC
programmes for Strengthening National Societies in Law and
Fundamental Principles” was completed.

63
OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR-GENERAL

DEVELOPING PARTNERSHIPS

The Office of the Director-General has taken the lead in clarifying


the ICRC’s vision and strategy for establishing new partnerships,
in line with the institutional strategy. This will help the organi-
zation as it forms partnerships with National Societies and other
organizations on priority operational and thematic issues.

POSITIONING THE ICRC IN EXTERNAL DEBATES

The director-general plays a key role in positioning the ICRC in


external debates. Drawing on the new institutional strategy, he has
sought to make the ICRC’s voice heard on legal and policy issues
related to its mission.

The platform for interdepartmental discussion on external


relations, run by the Office of the Director-General, was set up
in July 2010 to improve the ICRC’s issues management practice.
It contributed to setting the ICRC’s external positioning agenda
by: (1) identifying and tracking cross-cutting issues and trends on
which the organization must position itself; (2) determining appro-
priate strategies for positioning the organization and agreeing on
required follow-up; and (3) aligning the organization’s position
on key messages and themes. For example, the platform facilitated
the coordination of work to prepare the ICRC’s statements for the
65th UN General Assembly, provided input regarding the scope,
scale, and direction of an institutional project in 2011 entitled
“Health Care in Danger: respecting and protecting health care
in armed conflict and other situations of violence”, and started
lending support for the preparatory work for the 31st International
Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent.

HEALTH AND ETHICS

Humanitarian action in armed conflicts and other situations of


violence frequently gives rise to complex ethical issues. It is there-
fore essential to develop a space for open, organized and multidis-
ciplinary ethical reflection, so that stakeholders can take complex
decisions in a way that is concerted, fully informed and account-
able, and that can be evaluated.

The ICRC’s senior medical adviser conducted visits to people


deprived of their freedom in certain contexts, with an emphasis
on medical, mental health and ethical issues. He organized and
chaired meetings of the reference group for ethics in humanitarian
action, aiming to facilitate the analysis of complex issues in ethical
dilemmas. He also participated in internal and external meetings
and training sessions on addressing vulnerabilities and promoting
the resilience of victims of extreme violence. The outcome of these
activities contributed to shaping and enriching the training mod-
ule on ethics in humanitarian action for ICRC delegates.

64
OPERATIONS
The Department of Operations is responsible for the overall supervi- Regular meetings on topics related to vulnerability and resilience
sion of ICRC field activities worldwide. It supervises the drawing up were held with a view to reinforcing cooperation between protec-
of operational policies and guidelines, oversees the global analysis tion and assistance on cross-cutting issues, in line with the ICRC’s
of key trends and events, and coordinates the conception, planning multidisciplinary approach, thereby ensuring that the needs and
and budgeting of field activities carried out by ICRC delegations capacities of the most vulnerable are systematically addressed
and missions in some 80 countries. It ensures that field activi- and their capacities strengthened. The identification of weak-
ties are conducted coherently and professionally, in line with the nesses and good practices helped ensure better support for field
ICRC’s principles and policies, its code of ethics and staff security. operations. With similar objectives in mind, the Assistance and
It also ensures that adequate resources are allocated in accordance Central Tracing Agency and Protection Divisions strengthened
with ICRC priorities, humanitarian needs as they arise, and the their teamwork on various matters, including: the development of
budgetary framework. guidelines for more coherent and comprehensive assessments of
and responses to the plight of IDPs; new working tools and revised
At the end of 2010, the Department of Operations comprised nine training for staff and operational partners, for example regarding
geographical regions, two operational divisions (Assistance, and detention-related activities; and work on thematic issues such as
Central Tracing Agency and Protection), two smaller units (Security the challenges facing humanitarian action in urban areas.
and Stress, and Rapid Deployment) and a head of project on result-
based management (RBM), all providing operational support1. Aiming to improve its operational RBM approach, the ICRC com-
pleted a diagnosis of the field Planning for Results (PfR) approach
The rapid deployment mechanism adopted in 2007 was success- and tools. It examined how the field PfR integrates RBM and pos-
fully activated for the earthquakes in Chile and Haiti (January), sible needs for enhancement, and looked at ways of simplifying
events in Kyrgyzstan (April and June) and Thailand (May), floods the field PfR tool and related management processes, while facili-
in Pakistan (August) and the crisis in Côte d’Ivoire (December). tating participative planning, monitoring and multidisciplinary
It helped ensure quick implementation of a meaningful humani- cross-cutting approaches. Research and design work continued
tarian response, clear decision-making and the rapid mobilization within the framework of the ongoing operational RBM project led
of human and material resources. To further increase response by the Department of Operations.
capacities in crisis situations and to develop synergies between
Movement partners, nine National Societies signed a rapid deploy- The Security and Stress Unit focused on monitoring develop-
ment framework agreement with the ICRC on standby capacities ments in the security environment in contexts where the ICRC is
in different fields of activities (e.g. primary health care, cargo han- operational, conducting missions in support of headquarters and
dling or institutional support to National Societies working in field activities, providing staff training and issuing comprehensive
their own countries). documents on security and stress management. It reaffirmed the
principle of decentralized security management based on seven
pillars (acceptance, identification, information, staff, rules, tel-
ecommunications and protection). It contributed to the manage-
ment of all security crises.

The security environment deteriorated in a number of contexts


over the past year, resulting in more security incidents involv-
ing ICRC staff, in particular kidnappings. In two cases in 2010,
staff were abducted in Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic
1. The Multilateral Diplomatic and Humanitarian Coordination Unit, formerly attached to
of the Congo (DRC) and later released; the delegates abducted in
Operations, joined the International Law and Cooperation Department on 1 July 2010 Chad and Sudan (Darfur) in 2009 were freed in the first part of 2010.

65
OPERATIONS

The tragic death of an expatriate’s wife in Nairobi (Kenya) in following their publication in late 2009. They are the result of a
April showed how risks linked to criminality have also spread to broad two-year consultation with UN agencies and NGOs involved
urban areas, where the family members of ICRC staff often stay. in protection. Workshops and presentations were held in
A security management review undertaken in three cities with Dakar (Senegal), Kabul (Afghanistan), Sydney (Australia) and
high crime levels resulted in recommendations regarding ways Washington (United States of America).
to lower such risks, which were shared with ICRC delegations
located in such environments.
PEOPLE DEPRIVED OF THEIR FREEDOM

CENTRAL TRACING AGENCY AND PROTECTION The main objective of ICRC work to protect people deprived of
their freedom is to prevent or put an end to summary executions,
The Central Tracing Agency and Protection Division provides torture and other forms of ill-treatment, inadequate conditions
strategic support and professional expertise to field operations in of detention, the severing of contact between detainees and their
three areas of activity – protection of the civilian population, pro- families and disregard for fundamental judicial guarantees and
tection of people deprived of their freedom and restoring family procedural safeguards. ICRC visits are a means of collecting first-
links; the latter also covers activities relating to missing persons hand information about the treatment and living conditions of
and their families (see Operational framework and programme detainees. Trained ICRC staff visit detainees and places of deten-
descriptions for more details on the protection programme). tion, talk with the authorities concerned, hold private interviews
with detainees/internees and prepare an overall analysis of their
In 2010, the division participated in the ICRC’s rapid deployment findings. ICRC findings, assessments and related recommenda-
mechanism in the course of 10 missions to Chile, Côte d’Ivoire, tions are discussed confidentially with the authorities at the appro-
Haiti, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan. priate levels, and ICRC visits are repeated in a process that is held
to strict professional standards.

PROTECTION OF THE CIVILIAN POPULATION The 2009 ICRC-convened round-table on prison cell space
attended by professionals from around the world resulted in the
The ICRC seeks to protect civilians from the effects of armed production of a reference book on best practices regarding pris-
conflicts and other situations of violence and to secure respect oners’ accommodation and prison architecture and design. It
for fundamental rights by weapon bearers and the authorities draws on ICRC field experiences, lessons learnt from activities
concerned. It conducts activities to make the authorities aware around the world, and discussions during the round-table. From a
of their responsibilities, recommending and sometimes sup- prison management perspective, it complements the 2004 Water,
porting measures that can enhance the protection of the civilian Sanitation, Hygiene and Habitat in Prisons handbook.
population. Other activities aim to reduce the vulnerability of
people exposed to specific risks, especially children, women, the In December 2010 the ICRC Assembly adopted the revised policy
elderly and disabled, and the displaced. These activities are not on torture of detainees and other forms of ill-treatment (a public
mutually exclusive. version will be made available). The text, replacing a document
dating from 1985, reconfirms the commitment of the ICRC to
The institutional framework on migration adopted in 2010 fight this phenomenon and updates operational approaches in
should help delegations across the world to better design and accordance with current field experiences and the changing envi-
implement activities for migrants, mostly in partnership with ronment in which ICRC delegates operate. It also outlines inno-
National Societies. These activities will benefit the most vulner- vative operational avenues, to increase the impact of the ICRC’s
able migrants originating from countries facing an armed conflict response on the victims of ill-treatment around the world.
or other situation of violence, or migrants who find themselves
caught in the midst of violence and conflict or separated from The division worked on a revised ICRC operational approach
their families. aimed at better addressing the humanitarian needs of persons
deprived of their freedom. In the same vein, delegations were
The institutional guidelines on protection of civilians, the main provided with guidelines to strengthen the ICRC response to the
reference document for ICRC protection work outside places humanitarian problems of people held by armed groups in non-
of detention, were revised to bring them in line with the newly international armed conflicts and other situations of violence.
adopted framework regarding migration, the Movement’s
policy on IDPs (2009) and the internal guidelines on separated and In addition to ongoing field support and training, a three-day con-
unaccompanied children (2009). ference enabled representatives of various headquarters services to
learn about progress made and discuss new challenges in the field
The “Professional standards for protection work carried out of detention. The forum also contributed to ensuring coherence in
by humanitarian and human rights actors in armed conflict the multidisciplinary support to field delegations.
and others situations of violence” continued to be promoted

66
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

RESTORING FAMILY LINKS MISSING PERSONS AND THEIR FAMILIES

Armed conflicts, other situations of violence and natural or man- Armed conflicts and other situations of violence often lead to
made disasters may lead to massive population displacement and the disappearance of hundreds or even thousands of people,
the separation of family members. Working as a rule in close leaving their families uncertain as to their fate. ICRC activities
cooperation with National Societies, the ICRC provides services in relation to missing persons include promoting the relevant
for restoring family links, including reuniting family members. It humanitarian rules, lending support for the development of
pays particular attention and gives priority to children separated appropriate national legislation, helping the authorities set up
from their families and those demobilized from fighting forces, as mechanisms aimed at addressing the issue of missing persons,
they may encounter specific protection problems. cooperating with the authorities and the other players involved with
a view to ascertaining the fate of the missing, tracing people who
The family-links network – comprising the ICRC’s Central are unaccounted for, assisting in the proper recovery, identifica-
Tracing Agency, ICRC delegations and National Society trac- tion and management of human remains, and providing support
ing services – provides essential services to those with needs in to the families of the missing. The internal task force on missing
this domain. It enables people to communicate with one another persons and their families, chaired by the division, met regularly
and strives to reunite separated family members, to locate miss- to ensure consistent development of the ICRC’s humanitarian
ing relatives and to recover, identify and correctly manage human response in this domain.
remains. The ICRC acts both in its direct operational capacity and
in its lead role for restoring family links within the Movement. The division also focused on promoting ICRC support to the fam-
As such, it acts as the Movement’s technical adviser in this field ilies of missing persons. Together with the Assistance Division,
and coordinator of the related international response, including it produced guidelines for better assessing the needs of missing
in situations of natural disaster occurring outside conflict zones or persons’ families and worked on a pilot version of a handbook
violence-prone areas. centred on the community-based accompaniment of such fami-
lies. Several delegations received advice and support to help them
Work continued on implementation of the Restoring Family Links carry out family needs assessments or design response plans.
Strategy for the Movement, adopted by the Council of Delegates in
2007. This strategy aims to strengthen the Movement’s family-links As part of specialized training for field staff, the division organ-
network by enhancing the capacity of its components to respond ized a round-table on the complex links between transitional
to the needs of those without news of family members owing to an justice processes, disappearances and their effects on families of
armed conflict or other situation of violence, a natural disaster or missing persons.
other circumstances, such as migration. In 2010, work focused on:

. the response capacity in the event of a natural disaster ASSISTANCE


or emergency: training was completed of the pool of
60 international family-links specialists drawn from ICRC The Assistance Division provides field operations with policy
staff and National Societies and established for rapid support and professional expertise in three areas of activity –
deployment; 13 pool members were deployed in 7 countries health services, economic security, and water and habitat. These
(Chile, Côte d’Ivoire, Guatemala, Haiti, Kyrgyzstan, activities encompass forensic science, weapon contamination and
Pakistan and Uzbekistan) nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) expertise.
. the promotion of two sets of guidelines produced in 2009 In September 2010, the women and war and the internal displace-
on providing family-links services to people separated as ment advisers joined the division.
a result of migration and on restoring family-links needs
assessment: the guidelines were translated; a growing number Work continued to ensure that the specific needs of women and
of National Societies conducted needs assessment exercises girls are taken into account in all operations. It included: provid-
and explicitly modified their family-links services to include ing additional tools to delegations for assessing and addressing the
migrants and their families needs of women; commenting and reviewing plans and activities
. upgrading information and telecommunication tools for the specifically targeting women (e.g. the support provided to women
family-links network: the Family Links website was launched deprived of their freedom in Yemen); carrying out support mis-
following the Haiti earthquake and improved based on lessons sions at the request of delegations; encouraging cooperation
learnt from that experience; in addition, the development of a within the Movement (for example in Haiti, with the International
case-management software for National Societies was initiated Federation and National Societies working internationally on a
in close cooperation with 14 National Societies project to address the needs of victims of sexual violence in the
main Port-au-Prince shantytowns).

67
OPERATIONS

Work on internal displacement resulted in increased multi- The various tools needed to sustain activities – Geographical
sectoral technical support to help field delegations address the Information Systems (GIS), specific technical databases, reference
related needs of people in many operations (for example the manuals and handbooks, IT tools and software – were constantly
DRC, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Yemen). It included guidance on amplified. To increase accountability, internally and externally,
protection issues faced by IDPs and camp management based on RBM tools continued to be developed and applied gradually.
the conclusions and recommendations regarding ICRC opera-
tions in IDP camp settings. Several meetings organized by the
UN, NGOs and think-tanks were opportunities for the adviser HEALTH
on internal displacement issues to promote the ICRC approach
and the Movement policy on internal displacement adopted by The Health Unit addresses the needs of people in armed conflicts
the Council of Delegates in 2009, and to present the support pro- or other situations of violence according to defined minimum
vided to the African Union in following up the adoption of its packages of health care. Curative and preventive health action
Convention on IDPs (see African Union). remains at the heart of the unit’s projects. Saving lives and allevi-
ating suffering is the central objective of health assistance. In 2010,
The division actively promoted the Framework for Environmental ICRC health activities continued in the five core areas: first aid,
Management in Assistance Programmes produced in 2009 to help war surgery, health care delivery in conflict situations (access to
delegations systematically incorporate environmental concerns basic health care and essential hospital activities), physical reha-
into operational planning. It also completed the review of its bilitation and health in detention. Mental health activities were
approach regarding complex construction projects. developed in the areas of sexual violence and the missing and for
victims of ill-treatment in places of detention. The unit spear-
The newly recruited head of project and technical expert started headed preparation of the ICRC project “Health Care in Danger:
working to develop and implement a minimal operational respecting and protecting health care in armed conflicts and other
response capacity for NRBC events. The team outlined an initial situations of violence”, which is a priority for the organization
concept to launch the project and drafted the guiding principles and the Movement. The project will be expanded over the next
for the ICRC’s response to NRBC events. It also began to define four years with a view to engaging all stakeholders, especially gov-
standard ICRC practice for NRBC response and worked with ernments, on the full spectrum of issues relating to insecurity of
selected regions to help them define their contingency planning. health care and to obtaining their support and commitment for
improving the situation in the field.
The Strategy of the ICRC Forensic Services and Plan of Action
2009–2014, adopted at the end of 2009, guided the implementa- In support of field activities, the unit encouraged the use of and
tion of forensic activities in over 40 operational contexts worldwide, feedback on existing tools. Several guidelines and tools were pro-
to help ensure the proper management of human remains and duced: reference frameworks for all health activities; ICRC guiding
comprehensively address the issue of people missing as a result of principles for first aid, primary health care and hospitals (distrib-
armed conflict, other situations of violence or natural disaster. uted to all delegations); drug and equipment formularies for first
aid, primary health care, hospitals and detention; e-learning tools
for primary health care sourced on the Internet and distributed to
OPERATIONAL SUPPORT the field; a standard library for primary health care programmes
and primary health care facilities; a health information tool for
In 2010, most ICRC delegations and offices around the world carried health care in detention. Work continued on a toolbox for the
out health, economic security, and water and habitat programmes. management and administration of hospitals run or supported
Those in Afghanistan, Chad, Colombia, the DRC, Iraq, Israel and by the ICRC. Physiotherapy guidelines were supplemented and
the Occupied Territories, Mali, Niger, Pakistan, the Philippines, manufacturing guidelines for prostheses and orthoses translated
Somalia, Sudan and Yemen carried out the most extensive pro- into Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. Cooperation with CR
grammes. All programmes received appropriate routine and pro- Equipments SA continued to ensure the ICRC’s leadership in the
active support from the division for programme design, monitoring, development of appropriate prosthetic/orthotic technology.
review or evaluation and reporting, with a view to maintaining, and
where necessary improving, programme performance and quality.
The division’s forensic experts answered numerous requests from WATER AND HABITAT
field delegations for help with tracing activities or with the man-
agement of dead bodies during emergencies. It sent headquarters ICRC water and habitat programmes provide basic services to
staff to Haiti, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan with the rapid groups of people affected by armed conflicts or other situations of
deployment teams to provide emergency assistance support. It also violence, ensuring they have access to water supplies, decent con-
dedicated significant time and energy to defining contingency plans ditions of sanitation and adequate shelter. When necessary, health
for potential emergencies caused by natural disasters or conflict, facilities are renovated or built from scratch to improve access to
from the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to Nepal. health care. The services are provided throughout the different
phases of a crisis, from the acute stage to the post-crisis period,
until the authorities or other players are able to take over.

68
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

The Water and Habitat Unit checked, added to and validated over HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
220 field project proposals worth a total of about CHF 35 million.
It produced close to 500 GIS maps for ICRC operations, including To ensure professional work, both the Assistance and the Central
during emergencies. It focused throughout the year on develop- Tracing Agency and Protection Divisions devoted considerable
ing its RBM framework and completed guidelines for both con- resources to staff training. They reinforced their interaction in
struction management and hospital waste management. Global several training events aimed at strengthening the multidiscipli-
analysis regarding key topics such as environmental issues, urban- nary approach to cross-cutting issues.
ization, early recovery, remote management in conflict areas, and
programme adequacy in more complex environments remained Specialized training courses and workshops were organized
part of the daily work to support field teams. for field staff on protection of civilians, restoring family links,
detention-related activities, the multidisciplinary humanitarian
The unit’s work in places of detention remained a priority, response for missing persons and their families, humanitarian
and built on the experience gained during years of providing forensic sciences, hospital management and administration,
structural support to detaining authorities in the management of primary health care, training of trainers and health in detention.
prison infrastructure. At a seminar held in Jakarta (Indonesia),
representatives from the penitentiary services of several coun- The revised training course for senior protection managers
tries in Asia discussed national standards for infrastructure and emphasizes the management of multidisciplinary teams and pro-
services, budgets and financing and examples of adapted tech- tection data. A master surgeons workshop reviewed ICRC surgical
nologies from joint projects with the ICRC. They concluded by protocols, guidelines, equipment and management of challenging
acknowledging the benefits of a constructive long-term structural pathologies, and updated the ICRC’s senior surgeons on surgical
approach to enhancing the environmental and health conditions projects and the main challenges lying ahead.
of prison populations and staff. They will continue to meet regu-
larly to follow up lessons learnt and review other issues. Progress was made on creating an e-learning tool for work related
to the protection of civilians. This tool will provide users with
resources, reference materials and a forum to share ideas and best
ECONOMIC SECURITY practices and lend mutual support. It includes a module on identi-
fying and responding to the needs of women and girls in situations
The ICRC’s approach to economic security aims to ensure that where the ICRC operates. In mid-2010, staff attending protection
households and communities can cover their essential needs and training tested several modules; the final version is expected by
maintain or restore sustainable livelihoods. This involves initia- mid-2011 and will be accessible to all delegates in charge of pro-
tives ranging from emergency distributions of food and essential tection work.
household items to sustainable food production programmes and
micro-economic initiatives. The Water and Habitat Unit developed tools to strengthen capac-
ity building in internal and external training on various aspects of
The Economic Security Unit organized or contributed to several detention-related structural and technical support. The training
internal thematic meetings on issues such as the global economic strategy focused on the multidisciplinary aspects of engineering
crisis, urban growth, environmental degradation and land, their activities, enhancement of the unit’s input into various courses
impact on violence, operations in urban settings and develop- and outsourcing of key regional technical competencies (e.g. via
ments in the approach to nutrition in humanitarian action. These the international certification course for quality concrete held in
enabled the unit to enhance its support to the field and ensure Amman, Jordan).
the availability of accurate guidelines. Guidelines on nutrition in
detention were completed and will be printed in early 2011. The ICRC Technical Commissions met to discuss matters pertain-
ing to prostheses and orthoses and to physiotherapy. The weapon
Cooperation between economic security and protection teams contamination team developed a protocol for the recruitment and
working on detention issues continued throughout the year. Host deployment of clearance teams, and organized two training ses-
National Societies and economic security teams also strengthened sions for ICRC and external staff and a joint training session with
their partnerships, notably thanks to capacity building/training in the Protection Division on weapon issues.
needs assessment, planning and monitoring provided by the unit
and agreements concluded on economic security programmes in Courses and workshops were also organized for non-ICRC
various operations. health practitioners on topics such as first aid and emergency
surgery in war-torn areas. Seven Health Emergencies in Large
To improve emergency response, the unit and the Logistics Populations (H.E.L.P.) courses were organized, in three languages,
Division provided the field with a jointly prepared shortlist in: Ouidah (Benin), Beijing (China), Pretoria (South Africa),
of relief commodities (food, essential household items) for use Geneva (Switzerland), Baltimore and Honolulu (United States
in emergencies. New emergency registration and distribution of America) and, for the first time, Nairobi (Kenya). A total of
kits will be pre-positioned in strategic locations within regional 175 students from 53 countries attended, including 38 from within
stocks worldwide. the Movement (11 from the ICRC and 27 from National Societies)

69
OPERATIONS

and 137 from the health sector (84 doctors and 53 nurses). After
Beijing (2009) and Nairobi (2010), preparations started for a
new H.E.L.P. course in Doha (Qatar) in 2011. The annual ICRC
International Course on the Management of the Dead in Armed
Conflicts and Catastrophes attracted a large number of applica-
tions, prompting the ICRC to run two courses in 2011.

Members of both divisions representing the ICRC at external con-


ferences took the opportunity to promote the ICRC’s views on
various topics such as torture, medical ethics, public health issues
in detention, the “health care in danger” project, war surgery and
prosthetic/orthotic technology.

RELATIONS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS AND


CONTRIBUTION TO THE HUMANITARIAN DEBATE

Members of the department participated in various meetings,


round-tables and conferences on general and specific humani-
tarian, protection and assistance issues, and maintained bilateral
relations with the main organizations, institutions, professional
associations and academic institutions active in common areas
of interest.

Staff from the Assistance and the Central Tracing Agency and
Protection Divisions regularly attended coordination and cluster
meetings and numerous other events organized by key humani-
tarian organizations such as specialized UN agencies (including
the Food and Agriculture Organization, the Inter-Agency
Standing Committee (IASC), the Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs, UNDP, UNHCR, UNICEF, the UN Institute
for Disarmament Research, the UN Mine Action Service, WFP
and WHO), NGOs (including Action Contre la Faim, Handicap
International, Médecins Sans Frontières, Oxfam and Physicians
for Human Rights), think-tanks and other academic circles.

These meetings were opportunities to share experiences and


expertise, acquire a better understanding of the approaches and
working methods used by others, bring them together whenever
possible and strengthen coordination. They provided the ICRC
with fora for promoting its specific approach combining an “all
victims” perspective with responses for specific groups of people
facing particular risks and/or with specific needs, in order to maxi-
mize impact, identify unmet needs and avoid duplication. They
also enabled the organization to keep abreast of new professional
practices, share its views on various topics and contribute exper-
tise in specialized areas such as internal displacement, torture,
health and medical ethics in prisons, war surgery, the rehabilita-
tion of amputees, water and habitat engineering, and the “health
care in danger” project. This was particularly the case during the
many UN global cluster meetings (e.g. health, protection, shelter
or water) and other working groups such as the IASC sub-working
group on needs assessments and the “Dashboard” project.

70
INTERNATIONAL LAW
AND COOPERATION
The Department of International Law and Cooperation contributes It uses a multi-stakeholder approach to mobilize and support
to the development and clarification of IHL, promotes that law and players that have an influence on the fate of people affected by
other relevant norms, and provides expert services for the integration armed conflicts and other situations of violence. It promotes
of applicable legal provisions into relevant structures and systems. IHL treaties and provides expert services for the integration of
It works to enhance the coherence and coordination of Movement the relevant law into appropriate structures and systems. The
action. It also endeavours to improve coordination among humani- Multilateral Organizations, Policy and Humanitarian Action
tarian actors in general and participates in a wide array of policy Division acts as the focal point for relations between the ICRC
debates on strengthening humanitarian action. It contributes to and multilateral organizations and is responsible for providing
better understanding and acceptance of the ICRC’s humanitarian the requisite analysis of trends in humanitarian action, ena-
action and the principles and policies that guide its work. bling the institution to define policies and manage present and
future challenges.
Armed violence around the world in 2010 took the form of armed
conflicts, some of them intense, and manifold other situations of
violence below the threshold of IHL applicability, some of which INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW
took an enormous toll on the population. In addition, devastating
natural disasters challenged coordination and cooperation within The protection of war victims is largely dependent on respect for
the Movement as well as humanitarian action in general. Based IHL. In accordance with the mandate conferred on it by the inter-
on these experiences, the ICRC continued its efforts to optimize national community, the ICRC strives to promote compliance
the Movement’s overall response and the capacity of National with IHL and to contribute to its development.
Societies working in their own countries. It pursued its numerous
undertakings to reaffirm the relevance of IHL for protecting the
victims of today’s conflicts while progressing in its examination of ENSURING RESPECT FOR IHL BY
the need to adapt IHL to current realities and challenges. THE PARTIES TO ARMED CONFLICTS

In 2010, the Department for International Law and Cooperation ICRC delegations worldwide drew on expertise provided by
was restructured according to three main themes: law, humanitar- the Legal Division, notably regarding the legal frameworks
ian action and policy-making. In order to enhance synergy and governing situations of violence in which the ICRC is carrying out
reinforce coherent approaches in the ICRC’s preventive work its activities. This included legal advice and input for confidential
and to show leadership in major humanitarian debates, two new representations reminding those involved in armed conflicts and
divisions were formed, one for the Integration and Promotion other situations of violence of their obligations under IHL and
of Law1 and the other for Multilateral Organizations, Policy and other relevant bodies of law.
Humanitarian Action.2 These two new divisions will complement
the two existing divisions dealing with IHL and other relevant
bodies of law and with Movement cooperation and coordina- REAFFIRMING, CLARIFYING AND DEVELOPING IHL
tion. The Division for the Integration and Promotion of Law
aims to help foster an environment conducive to respect for States, intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, other interested
IHL, other relevant norms and the ICRC’s humanitarian action. bodies and participants in numerous conferences, seminars and
courses worked with input received from ICRC representatives on
a variety of IHL-related topics. ICRC expertise helped promote
1. The Division comprises the Advisory Service on IHL and the International Review of the and ensure compliance with existing treaty and customary rules
Red Cross, plus the Civil Society Relations and Relations with Armed and Security Forces of IHL and highlight their continued relevance to contemporary
Units, which were both formerly attached to the Communication Department
2. The Division comprises the Policy Unit and the Multilateral Diplomatic and Humanitarian
armed conflicts. It also contributed to clarifying the legal system
Coordination Unit, which was formerly attached to the Operations Department applicable in different situations, defining the precise content of

71
INTERNATIONAL LAW AND COOPERATION

key provisions of IHL, identifying current challenges to IHL and practice by using three search parameters: subject matter, type of
possibilities for further clarification and development of the law, practice and country. Some 2,000 people have used the database
and explaining the specific role of the ICRC. monthly since its launch.

At the time of its launch, the database contained revised prac-


STRENGTHENING LEGAL PROTECTION FOR tice including international materials, particularly UN material
VICTIMS OF ARMED CONFLICTS: THE ICRC STUDY and case-law, up to 2007. As the formation of customary IHL is
ON THE CURRENT STATE OF IHL an ongoing process, updates will be provided regularly, includ-
ing of national practice. These updates are the result of contri-
The ICRC announced the results of its two-year study on the cur- butions by numerous ICRC delegations and National Societies
rent state of IHL. These results were presented to the Permanent and are processed by a team of lawyers based at the Lauterpacht
Missions in Geneva, Switzerland, by the ICRC President on Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge, in the
21 September. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (United
Kingdom) as part of a joint project between the ICRC and the
The study shows that IHL remains, on the whole, a suitable frame- British Red Cross.
work for regulating the conduct of parties to armed conflicts,
both international and non-international. Recent experience has
demonstrated the enduring relevance and adequacy of this legal OCCUPATION AND OTHER FORMS
framework in preserving human life and dignity during armed OF ADMINISTRATION OF FOREIGN TERRITORY
conflicts. What is required in most cases is greater compliance
with existing rules, rather than the adoption of new rules. Experts consulted within the framework of the ICRC project on
occupation and other forms of administration of foreign territory
However, the study has also identified four areas in which the have received for review an ICRC draft report summarizing the main
current law applicable to armed conflicts should be strengthened findings of the three expert meetings convened in 2008 and 2009.
to offer better protection to the victims: (a) the protection of
persons deprived of their freedom; (b) implementation of IHL
and reparations for victims of violations; (c) the protection of the CYBER WARFARE
natural environment; (d) the protection of IDPs.
The ICRC followed the discussions and developments related
The ICRC has engaged in consultations with States and other to cyber warfare in order to assess the potential humanitarian
interested stakeholders regarding the study’s conclusions and any impact of this type of warfare and to consider it from the specific
follow-up to it. These consultations, along with the study’s con- angle of the application of IHL rules. In legal terms, fundamen-
clusions, will form the basis for the ICRC’s decision on whether tal humanitarian rules apply to this new means of combat pro-
to propose initiatives for strengthening the legal framework vided it is used in a situation in which IHL is applicable. However,
applicable to armed conflict and, if so, how to proceed, to the there may be a need for further clarification of how specific rules
31st International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent will apply in the context of cyber warfare. Against this back-
(International Conference), to be held in Geneva, Switzerland, ground, the ICRC participated in an expert process, organized
in 2011. by the University of Durham (United Kingdom) and sponsored
by NATO’s Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
(Tallinn, Estonia), which aims to clarify the IHL rules applicable
STUDY ON CUSTOMARY IHL in a context of cyber warfare.

In August, the ICRC launched a new database on custom-


ary IHL (based on the Study published in 2005 by Cambridge INTERPRETIVE GUIDANCE ON DIRECT
University Press). Developed in association with the British Red PARTICIPATION IN HOSTILITIES
Cross, the database is designed to be used as a legal reference in
international and non-international armed conflicts, notably by Throughout 2010, the ICRC continued to promote its Interpretive
States, international organizations, courts and tribunals, as well Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities
as academia. As one of the principal sources of IHL, customary under International Humanitarian Law, which was published in
law contributes to enhancing the legal protection of victims of 2009. Based on six years of expert consultations and research, the
armed conflicts. Interpretive Guidance sets out the ICRC’s recommendations on
how existing IHL relating to civilian participation in hostilities
The new database is divided into two parts. The first includes the should be interpreted in contemporary armed conflicts.
rules which the original study deemed to be customary in nature.
The second part contains the practice on which the rules are based. As part of their dialogue with the ICRC, selected national and
The database enables users to easily access the rules of custom- multilateral authorities and their armed forces familiarized them-
ary IHL identified in the ICRC study and to research the related selves with the Interpretive Guidance, as did many humanitarian

72
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

and academic target groups around the world. Articles published NUCLEAR WEAPONS
in international academic journals with ICRC input also contrib-
uted to broad discussion and dissemination of the document. With the subject of nuclear weapons and their proliferation gain-
ing increasing attention, the ICRC’s views were regularly sought
by States and specialists. Speaking to the Geneva diplomatic corps
UPDATE OF THE COMMENTARIES shortly before the May 2010 Review Conference of the Nuclear
ON THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS AND Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT), the ICRC president recalled the
THEIR ADDITIONAL PROTOCOLS ICRC’s first-hand account of the effects of the Hiroshima bombing.
He reminded States that the horrific human costs of such weap-
The commentaries on the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and ons are multiplied by the destruction of health infrastructure and
their two Additional Protocols of 1977 need to be updated in view long-term health and environmental effects. He underscored
of the legal, military and technological developments and practice that the ICRC cannot envisage any use of a nuclear weapon that
that have emerged since they were first published. To this end, would be compatible with IHL and appealed to all States to ensure
a long-term project to be launched in January 2011 will research a they are never again used, regardless of their views on the legality
variety of sources, including military manuals, case law, academic of such use. The States party to the NPT have taken note of the
commentary and the ICRC’s archives. ICRC’s concern: for the first time they spoke collectively of the
“catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of a nuclear
weapon” and of the relevance of IHL in this regard.
CLUSTER MUNITIONS AND THE MINE BAN CONVENTION

Ten years after the ICRC appealed for new regulations on cluster OTHER MATTERS
munitions to protect civilians from their harmful effects, the
organization welcomed the entry into force of the Convention on Many other key issues received special legal attention. These
Cluster Munitions on 1 August 2010. It also contributed through- included, for example, the protection of women and children in
out the year to preparations for the First Meeting of States Parties armed conflicts, humanitarian assistance, the legal implications
to the Convention, which was held in November in the Lao of incapacitating chemical agents, the protection of journalists
People’s Democratic Republic, a country still severely contami- and multinational forces. The ongoing promotion and wide shar-
nated by cluster munitions dispersed three decades ago. ing of the Montreux Document on Pertinent International Legal
Obligations and Good Practices for States Related to Operations of
Incremental successes in the effort to eliminate anti-personnel Private Military and Security Companies During Armed Conflict
mines have also required detailed and persistent efforts. The work resulted in 18 additional States expressing their support for the
of the ICRC in support of the Mine Ban Convention included document, bringing to 35 the total number of supporting States.
regular representations in four countries which had not met their
stockpile destruction deadlines, expert commentary on the many The work of the 65th Session of the UN General Assembly (see
requests for extension of clearance deadlines and continued efforts New York) and the deliberations of the Human Rights Council,
to promote the Convention’s norms worldwide. The 2010 Meeting including its Universal Periodic Review system, provided oppor-
of States Parties, held in Geneva, reported gradual progress on all tunities for the ICRC to follow legal and other developments
these fronts. regarding armed conflict and IHL and issues such as targeted
killings, “terrorism”, torture and IDPs, and to promote IHL and its
adequate implementation.
CONTROLLING ARMS AVAILABILITY

After some five years of intergovernmental discussions, formal INTEGRATION AND PROMOTION OF THE LAW
preparatory work got under way in 2010 on an international
Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). The ICRC promotes such a treaty as PROMOTING THE UNIVERSALITY OF IHL INSTRUMENTS
a means of protecting civilians from the effects of unregulated AND THEIR NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION
arms transfers, which can make weapons readily available to those
who use them to commit serious violations of IHL. The second National authorities worldwide continued to benefit from legal
ATT Preparatory Committee confirmed the treaty’s humanitar- and technical advice provided by the ICRC’s Advisory Service
ian objectives and highlighted the relevance of IHL in this regard, on IHL in order to promote accession to IHL treaties and their
thereby rewarding civil society and ICRC efforts to ensure that domestic implementation, in areas as diverse as the repression
respect for IHL will be among the criteria for arms transfers in a of war crimes, the use and protection of the distinctive emblems
future ATT. (red cross, red crescent and red crystal), and the prohibition of or
restrictions on production and use of certain weapons.

73
INTERNATIONAL LAW AND COOPERATION

Lebanon, Nigeria and Serbia created interministerial commit- • 9 States (Belgium, China, Cyprus, Gabon, Honduras, Italy,
tees on the national implementation of IHL with the ICRC’s Panama, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia)
assistance and encouragement, bringing the total number world- to Protocol V
wide to 97. Representatives from most of the national commit- . 23 States (Antigua and Barbuda, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burkina
tees, along with representatives of international organizations Faso, Cape Verde, Chile, Comoros, Denmark, Ecuador, Fiji,
and experts, attended the third Universal Meeting of National Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Lebanon, Lesotho, Mali, Monaco,
IHL Committees, organized by the ICRC in Geneva in October. Montenegro, Panama, Republic of Moldova, Saint Vincent and
They discussed the importance of domestic law in preventing and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Tunisia, United Kingdom)
responding to serious violations of IHL, and considered the legal ratified the Convention on Cluster Munitions
measures and national mechanisms required to support a com-
prehensive system for the repression of serious violations of IHL.
REACHING OUT TO DECISION-MAKERS
The ICRC also worked closely with international and regional AND OPINION-FORMERS
organizations such as the Commonwealth, the League of
Arab States, the Organization of American States (OAS), the Work started on drafting a framework for engaging in dialogue
European Union, the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the Inter- with influential sectors of civil society in a way that more fully
Parliamentary Assembly of the Commonwealth of Independent involves the relevant National Society.
States. It took part in meetings of States party to treaties such as
the Mine Ban Convention, the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague
Convention on Cultural Property and the Rome Statute. ACADEMIC CIRCLES

The year was marked by the following progress in State participa- As training grounds for future leaders and decision-makers,
tion in IHL treaties: universities received support for the teaching of IHL and its
incorporation into curricula, and their professors participated in
. 1 State (Iraq) acceded to Additional Protocol I activities to develop, implement and promote the law. With the
. 1 State (Lesotho) made the declaration on the International help of the Civil Society Relations Unit at headquarters, more
Fact-Finding Commission under Article 90 of Additional than 60 delegations worked with universities, training lecturers,
Protocol I co-organizing seminars, supporting student events, generat-
. 3 States (Serbia, Spain, Ukraine) ratified Additional ing interest in IHL and stimulating debate on how to improve
Protocol III respect for the law. More than 100 academics and humanitarian
. 3 States (Belgium, Colombia, Georgia) ratified or acceded professionals attended intensive IHL courses organized in
to the Second Protocol to the Hague Convention on France, Poland and Switzerland in the framework of partnerships
Cultural Property between academic institutions and the ICRC. More than
. 8 States (Congo, Cyprus, Gabon, Georgia, Guyana, Hungary, 40 teams of university students participated in the annual
Malawi, Seychelles) ratified or acceded to the Optional Jean Pictet Competition. University professors and students
Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child received help aimed at developing IHL research, including a wide
. 4 States (Bangladesh, Republic of Moldova, Saint Lucia, range of documents and teaching aids. Work continued on the
Seychelles) ratified the Rome Statute revised and updated English and French editions of the ICRC’s
. 1 State (Honduras) acceded to the Convention on the casebook How does law protect in war? to be published in 2011.
Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes
and Crimes against Humanity
. 3 States (Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, YOUTH
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines) became party to
the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Education authorities continued to receive support for integrating
• 1 State (Dominican Republic) to the revised Framework IHL education into formal school curricula. While in some coun-
Convention tries education programmes were formally handed over to national
• 3 States (Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, authorities after completion (e.g. in Armenia and Azerbaijan),
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines) to Protocol I other countries (e.g. Indonesia and Timor Leste) signed agree-
• 1 State (Dominican Republic) to Protocol II ments with the ICRC with a view to starting such programmes.
• 3 States (Dominican Republic, Gabon, Saint Vincent and Twenty National Societies participated in a seminar on IHL pro-
the Grenadines) to Amended Protocol II motion among young people co-organized with the Norwegian
• 3 States (Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Red Cross.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines) to Protocol III
• 4 States (Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, As part of a research project exploring new methodologies for
Gabon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines) to Protocol IV working with children at risk of involvement in organized armed-
violence, National Societies with such programmes participated
in a consultation launched by the ICRC. The results will be

74
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

presented at a workshop in 2011 with the aim of sharing good Workshop on International Rules governing Military Operations,
practices and developing a stronger Movement response. In an in Lucerne, Switzerland. The San Remo institute continued to
effort to reach young people directly, the ICRC’s first Young receive assistance and advice from the ICRC, notably for its new
Reporter Competition mobilized 500 young people between training course on rules of engagement. In addition, more than
18 and 25 years of age worldwide. 60 military officers from 30 countries received fellowships.

ICRC staff attended training on indirect fire issues at the British


OTHER CIVIL SOCIETY TARGET GROUPS Royal School of Artillery in order to update their knowledge and
understanding in this field and improve their ability to make
The Nordic National Societies and the ICRC deepened their part- representations regarding the conduct of hostilities.
nership on “Communicating IHL and Neutral and Independent
Humanitarian Action” to explore new avenues for promoting IHL
and the Fundamental Principles. With other partners, including POLICE AND GENDARMERIE
the Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research, the
ICRC helped facilitate IHL courses for humanitarian practitioners, Police and security forces, including key individuals at the
for example in Barcelona (Spain) and Cambridge. policy-making level, academies and institutes, further consolidated
their dialogue with the ICRC in more than 80 countries. Topics
Media professionals will be able to draw on training resources reviewed included the use of force, arrest and detention, and search
developed and nearly completed in 2010 when reporting on the law and seizure. More than 20 high-ranking officials and experts from
applicable during armed conflicts and on the Movement’s work. 16 countries worldwide attended the first International Conference
for Senior Law Enforcement Officials organized by the ICRC;
The ICRC Visitors’ Service continued to raise awareness of the they exchanged views on law enforcement issues of concern
ICRC and IHL and to liaise with present and future decision- to the ICRC, learned from each other’s challenges and experi-
makers and opinion-leaders, welcoming 200 groups (more than ences, and reinforced their relations with and understanding of
5,500 people) from 33 countries to ICRC headquarters. the ICRC.

To further explain the organization’s role with regard to police


INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS forces and to deepen the institutional dialogue on international
standards applicable to law enforcement, delegations can draw on
The International Review of the Red Cross is a peer-reviewed new practical tools explaining ICRC dialogue with the police, for
academic journal published by the ICRC with the assistance of example a CD containing images on police work in general and on
an international editorial board and printed and distributed by ICRC interaction with the police. ICRC staff also received training
Cambridge University Press. The four issues in 2010 (Vol. 92) on law enforcement issues during two two-week specialist courses,
focused on women (No. 877), urban violence (No. 878), the envi- half-day sessions during communication and protection training
ronment (No. 879) and Afghanistan (No. 880); a second part on courses, and a two-day workshop in Mexico for staff in charge of
Afghanistan is to be published in March 2011. The contents of dialogue with weapon bearers in Latin America.
all issues are available free online. Besides the English original
version, a yearly selection was published in Arabic, Chinese,
French, Russian and Spanish. OTHER WEAPON BEARERS

Dialogue with groups active in 31 countries, ranging from insur-


DIALOGUE WITH ARMED, SECURITY AND gents and pro-governmental armed groups to territorial gangs
POLICE FORCES, AND OTHER WEAPON BEARERS active in big cities such as Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was developed
with a view to facilitating acceptance of the ICRC, its access to
MILITARY AND ARMED FORCES victims and respect for IHL. In order to consolidate its experience
with armed groups, the ICRC carried out a vast research project
Relations with the armed forces of 160 countries, in particular to collect best practices, due to be completed in the first quarter of
with those that resorted to force, either at home or abroad, contin- 2011, involving both an internal workshop and ICRC participa-
ued. Twenty-four specialized ICRC delegates advised the military tion in events hosted by humanitarian or academic institutions.
on the implementation of IHL and human rights law, observed It also developed an e-learning module on dialogue with armed
respect for the law in some 10 international military exercises and groups for ICRC personnel.
took part in numerous pre-deployment briefings or exercises, in
particular for US and NATO units going to Afghanistan or Iraq. The ICRC continued to contribute to the drafting of the
International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service
More than 60 generals and senior officers from 50 countries Providers, an initiative developed under the leadership of the
exchanged views on ways of implementing relevant legal norms Geneva Centre for Security, Development and the Rule of the
through the study of practical cases during the fourth Senior Law. The finalized document, which defines a set of international

75
INTERNATIONAL LAW AND COOPERATION

human rights and humanitarian law standards for private security Committee on Migration, Refugees and Population participated in
companies, was adopted and signed in November by 58 private both events. In the run-up to the Summit of the Organization for
security companies from across the world. Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the OSCE Review
Conference in Vienna, Austria, on the subject of conflict preven-
tion, crisis management and post-conflict situations provided the
MULTILATERAL DIPLOMACY, POLICY ICRC with the opportunity to re-affirm the commitments and
AND HUMANITARIAN ACTION obligations of the member States under IHL.

International fora are an essential platform for the ICRC to pro-


mote and facilitate its strictly neutral, impartial and independent ENHANCING COOPERATION AND COORDINATION AMONG
humanitarian action and to promote knowledge of IHL, respect for HUMANITARIAN PLAYERS
the law and – whenever appropriate – its development. Multilateral
and bilateral contacts are also aimed at influencing the humanitar- Coordination with other players remained essential and a major
ian debate by sharing the ICRC’s position on issues of humani- task for the ICRC, both at headquarters and in the field, given
tarian concern. The results of this long-term engagement can the scale and complexity of needs arising from crises and the
often only be measured over time, for instance in terms of refer- growing number of players involved in humanitarian response.
ences to IHL made in resolutions and key guidance documents, Humanitarian crises such as those in Haiti and Pakistan reinforced
and of support mobilized for ICRC efforts to obtain access to the ICRC’s commitment to humanitarian coordination. Activities
conflict victims. carried out by delegations in the field and headquarters included
coordination at both operational and policy levels (see New York).

INFLUENCING THE HUMANITARIAN DEBATE In Principals and Working Group Meetings of the UN Inter-
IN INTERNATIONAL FORA Agency Standing Committee, the ICRC’s contributions as a
standing invitee focused on neutral, impartial and independent
The ICRC continued to invest in its relationships with strategic humanitarian action and the Movement’s independence. High-
multilateral organizations through which it could influence impor- level meetings with UN agencies such as UNHCR and WFP and
tant decisions about IHL and humanitarian action. This helped NGOs such as Médecins Sans Frontières facilitated coordination
preserve neutral, impartial and independent humanitarian action at field level as well as dialogue on operational challenges including
despite continuously diverging views held by States primarily rapid deployment and the transfer of relief assistance at the onset
affected by humanitarian crises and traditional donor States of sudden crises. NGO consortia with a significant role in human-
regarding such action and the underlying principles. itarian coordination and action (e.g. the Global Humanitarian
Platform, the International Council of Voluntary Agencies and
Dialogue on humanitarian issues of common interest was the Steering Committee for Humanitarian Response) deepened
maintained and developed with regional organizations, such their dialogue with the ICRC on issues such as quality, account-
as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (see Jakarta), the ability and certification of humanitarian organizations with a view
League of Arab States (see Egypt) or the OAS (see Washington). to improving the humanitarian response.
Therefore, in keeping with the Cooperation Agreement con-
cluded in 1994, the Department for Humanitarian Affairs of the Work continued with influential corporate players operating in
Organization of the Islamic Conference and the ICRC agreed on situations of armed conflict or other violence, for example in the
the establishment of regular consultations, including on specific frame of the Voluntary Principles for Security and Human Rights.
ICRC operations. In Africa, in addition to its strong coopera- This helped raise corporate awareness of the need for heightened
tion with the African Union (see African Union), the ICRC also due diligence when operating in armed conflicts and for developing
strengthened its cooperation with the main regional economic guidance on that subject.
communities and parliamentary organizations (see Nigeria,
Pretoria and Yaoundé) through its network of focal points
in delegations. POLICY

The ICRC followed closely the work of the UN Human Rights The Assembly approved the revised policy on determination of
Council and its institutions, which sought and took into account applicable law and its communication by the ICRC in armed
the organization’s expertise on issues such as missing persons and conflicts and other situations of violence; a public version will be
their families and IDPs. made available. Work on the overall revision of existing policy
documents progressed in respect of the following topics: confi-
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (CoE), the dentiality, IHL and internationalized internal armed conflicts,
French Red Cross and the ICRC jointly organized a photo exhi- and torture; it was put on hold in respect of headquarters agree-
bition on Humanity in War and an event on Missing Lives in ments and the ICRC’s immunity from providing evidence
the Balkans, which helped the CoE mobilize support from States in court.
in addressing the issue. The CoE deputy secretary general and

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ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

MOVEMENT COORDINATION AND COOPERATION OPERATIONAL AND MOVEMENT COORDINATION SUPPORT

PARTNERSHIP AND CAPACITY BUILDING ICRC delegations in the field received support aimed at establishing
WITH NATIONAL SOCIETIES or strengthening Movement coordination mechanisms. The
ICRC and the International Federation jointly prepared a new
Partnership with National Societies remained a priority for the model agreement on Movement coordination (Memorandum
ICRC, as reflected in the ICRC Strategy for 2011–2014. In 2010, of Understanding) in line with the Supplementary Measures of
36% of ICRC operations were implemented in partnership with the Seville Agreement. Promoted in several contexts throughout
National Societies working in their own country. the year, the model served as a basis for the agreements signed
in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in spring 2010, which greatly con-
Delegations in the field received support from the Division for tributed to effective Movement coordination during the crisis that
Cooperation and Coordination within the Movement aimed at broke out in Kyrgyzstan later in the year.
strengthening these partnerships, in particular those with the
National Societies in Afghanistan, Colombia, the Democratic The division produced a check-list to improve the quality of its
Republic of the Congo, Israel and the occupied Palestinian response to major crises. Its staff contributed to the rapid deploy-
territory, Pakistan, the Philippines, Somalia and Yemen. Work ment operations in Haiti, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan.
also progressed on developing new strategic partnerships with Special notes, joint statements on Movement coordination
National Societies in areas of converging thematic interest. arrangements and phone conferences with the International
Federation and National Societies facilitated information-sharing
To strengthen their capacity to form partnerships with National with and coordination among all Movement partners.
Societies, delegations can now turn to the Guidelines for effective
partnership with National Societies, which include a set of core
competencies for strengthening National Society capacity. Under MOVEMENT PRINCIPLES AND RULES
a pilot project, staff from the Sudan delegation attended a new
three-day Movement partnership training course conceived for The Joint ICRC/International Federation Commission for
programme and line managers. National Society Statutes continued to help National Societies
meet their commitment to adhere at all times to the Fundamental
The Canadian and the Colombian Red Cross Societies and the Principles by strengthening their legal base. The Commission
ICRC jointly launched a project entitled “Strengthening National met eight times in 2010 and provided formal comments and
Society capacity to respond to armed conflict and other situations recommendations to more than 50 National Societies on draft or
of violence”. This project involves 52 National Societies in devel- adopted statutes and national legislation. Further to the adoption
oping new resources to support their efforts to work at all times by the 2009 Council of Delegates of a resolution on the revision
in accordance with the Fundamental Principles of neutrality, of National Society statutes, the Commission initiated a review
impartiality and independence, with a view to securing the accept- of its activities and working methods with a view to proposing
ance required for safe access to victims. During its first meeting recommendations to the 2011 Council of Delegates. Based on its
in September, the Project Advisory Team, which is made up of statutory responsibilities, the ICRC also managed and followed
the National Societies of Canada, Colombia, Nepal, Palestine and up several files regarding National Society recognition with the
Uganda plus the International Federation, began to outline the stakeholders in question.
content and form of such resources.
Throughout the year, the ICRC dealt with some 40 inquiries
The “Independent evaluation of the ICRC programmes for relating to the proper use of the emblems, providing advice
Strenghtening National Societies in Law and Fundamental and recommendations to ICRC delegations, National Societies,
Principles” provided an assessment of the relevance, coher- government authorities and private individuals. It continued to
ence, implementation and overall results of the programme and promote the Study on Operational and Commercial and other
made recommendations aimed at improving results in line with Non-operational Issues Involving the Use of the Emblems and
expected outcomes and developing further approaches and tools. of its recommendations among various target groups within and
A cross-cutting working group responsible for following up these beyond the Movement.
recommendations started implementing an action plan to develop
the necessary guidance and tools. The ICRC continued to attach great importance to assisting
National Societies in protecting their integrity in accordance with
The ICRC and the International Federation strengthened their the Fundamental Principles. It coordinated with the International
cooperation. For example, the International Federation attended Federation on integrity matters in Geneva and in the field, and the
and contributed to the ICRC’s regional cooperation meetings two organizations intervened jointly to support National Societies
in Amman (Jordan), Geneva, Johannesburg (South Africa) and when appropriate. The ICRC contributed to the work undertaken
Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); the ICRC in turn contributed to the by the International Federation’s Compliance and Mediation
International Federation’s Organizational Development Training Committee.
Study and Intensified Capacity-Building Study.

77
INTERNATIONAL LAW AND COOPERATION

The ICRC remained committed to guiding National Societies in


operational interaction with government agencies, the UN system,
and other intergovernmental bodies and external actors to ensure
well coordinated and complementary action while safeguarding
the Movement’s distinct identity. It followed up the discussions
on relations between components of the Movement and external
actors held at the 2009 Council of Delegates by promoting further
research on the topic and seeking to establish the most appropri-
ate process to support all Movement components with practical
and relevant guidance in preparation for the statutory meetings
to be held in 2011. Together with the International Federation,
the ICRC worked to establish a Movement position regarding
relations with civil protection mechanisms.

Together, the International Federation and the ICRC reviewed


the concept of Movement induction courses. Two groups of newly
elected National Society leaders attended the new course, one
in English and one in Russian. Lastly, the division continued to
administer various Movement funds and medals. Among those,
it examined applications to the Empress Shôken Fund together
with the International Federation and awarded grants to three
National Societies.

MOVEMENT POLICY

In consultation with National Societies and a number of govern-


ments, the ICRC and the International Federation worked on
the preliminary agendas for the 2011 Council of Delegates and
the 31st International Conference. Building on issues identified
as important for the Movement at the 2009 Council of Delegates,
strengthening respect for and protection of health care in armed
conflicts and other situations of violence emerged as a key point.
Research, consultation and analysis carried out during the year
enabled major initiatives for the implementation and possible
development of IHL to be included in the preliminary agenda of
the International Conference.

Preparatory work began regarding reporting on the implemen-


tation of resolutions adopted at the 2009 Council of Delegates
and the 30th International Conference. This required coop-
eration among Movement components, with a special focus on
lessons to be learnt from the implementation of the Movement’s
policy on internal displacement. In accordance with the deci-
sions of the 2007 Council of Delegates and the 30th International
Conference, the division continued to provide support to the inde-
pendent Monitor of the Memorandum of Understanding between
the Magen David Adom in Israel and the Palestine Red Crescent
Society and participated in four missions in 2010.

78
COMMUNICATION AND
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
The Communication and Information Management Department Internal communication saw several major developments
seeks to foster understanding and acceptance of the ICRC’s work, in 2010, including the ICRC’s first-ever intranet and major efforts
including IHL promotion and development. It aids institutional to accompany organization-wide change processes such as the
decision-making by monitoring the environment in which the ICRC introduction of the new ICRC mail system (ICRC Mail).
operates and tracking its reputation. It develops result-oriented
external communication strategies, which, drawing on its quality The decision to introduce a new mail system based on a standard
language services, it implements through public and media rela- product from the market was taken in the summer by the incom-
tions and online, audio-visual and printed materials. It also ensures ing Directorate to solve the many problems that occurred after
the coherence of internal information management, including the the deployment of the MesProf2 system in March. These included
safeguarding of institutional memory for internal and external serious technical issues which compromised the viability and func-
use. Furthermore, the Department provides information and com- tioning of MesProf2. In addition, the Directorate commissioned
munications systems and technologies that meet operational and an audit which was carried out by the Zurich Financial Services
corporate requirements. Group, an ICRC corporate partner (see Financial Resources and
Logistics). The audit showed many shortcomings and failures
As part of its re-organization, the ICRC set up a new department in in the project’s management. The Directorate adopted a plan of
July 2010 for communication and information management. The action to follow up the lessons and recommendations resulting
department is made up of four divisions: Public Communication, from the audit (see Office of the Director General).
Corporate Communication, Archives and Information Management
and Information and CommunicationTechnologies.1 The new department also began to develop and promote infor-
mation management practices within the organization that enable
In 2010, the ICRC developed a range of communication strategies staff to have access to and manage the information they require.
and tools to convey key messages relating to its activities for The ICRC’s Archives continued to ensure that information
people adversely affected by armed conflicts and other situa- was stored, safeguarded and made accessible, including, where
tions of violence, its role as a neutral, impartial and independent relevant, to the public.
humanitarian organization and IHL. This reinforced the strate-
gic importance of communication and underscored the need Finally, the Information and Communication Technology
to integrate it into all decision-making processes and activities, Division continued to play a key role in providing the tools the
both at headquarters and in the field. ICRC needs to attain its humanitarian objectives. Its resources
had to focus first on the deployment of the MesProf2 system,
In order to reach key target groups worldwide, the ICRC pursued followed by crisis management, and later on the development
a multimedia approach, producing professional communica- and deployment in late December of ICRC Mail, which, for the
tion materials for different platforms and making more strategic first time, offers most staff the possibility of access to individual
use of its multilingual website. At the same time, it continued mail accounts via the web.
to monitor the media and analyse global, regional and thematic
trends to inform the organization’s decision-making and public
communication.

1. Included in these are the Archives, formerly attached to the International Law and
Cooperation with the Movement Department, the Information Systems Unit, formerly
attached to the Resources and Operational Support Department, and the Internal
Communication Unit, formerly attached to the Office of the Director-General

79
COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

PUBLIC COMMUNICATION The ICRC continued to significantly expand its presence on social
media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr
PUBLIC RELATIONS and Scribd. There was a steady increase in the number of subscribers
to these platforms and their interaction with the organization.
The overarching objective of the ICRC’s public relations remained
to support the organization’s humanitarian field operations while The challenge of securing acceptance of the ICRC and its activi-
positioning it as a key global actor providing protection and assis- ties and of promoting respect for IHL in highly polarized con-
tance to people adversely affected by armed conflicts and other texts called for coherent and adapted communication strategies at
situations of violence. The main challenge in 2010 was to have a the global, regional and local levels. In 2010, staff participated in
positive influence on perceptions of the ICRC in a competitive communication workshops organized in the Asia-Pacific region
global environment where all stakeholders – including parties and Western Europe in order to consolidate analyses of regional
to armed conflicts – communicate publicly, at times “using” the and global trends, share best practices and strengthen field-based
ICRC as a reference to support their own views. communication to enhance acceptance of and support for the
ICRC and its work. In addition, the result of the “Independent
Public communication aimed to position the ICRC as a reference evaluation of the ICRC programmes for Strenghtening National
organization on the humanitarian situation in operational con- Societies in Law and Fundamental Principles”, completed at the
texts that were high on the international agenda. In 2010, these end of the year, will help shape the nature of future cooperation
included Afghanistan, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of with National Societies in the communication domain.
the Congo (DRC), Haiti, Iraq, Israel and the occupied territories,
Pakistan, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen. The ICRC’s public messag- The Public Relations Unit continued to implement its human
ing, providing field-based analysis of the humanitarian situation resources strategy, aiming to provide delegations with competent
on the ground and of the plight of the most vulnerable, helped to communication staff in a timely manner. Various training events
illustrate the added value of its neutral, impartial and independent enabled some 120 field communicators to strengthen their capacity
approach to humanitarian action. Major media outlets drew on to develop communication and networking plans and activities,
ICRC information to report on key humanitarian issues, such as and to position the ICRC publicly as a reference organization
the potential impact of nuclear weapons, the fate of people missing for humanitarian action and IHL. A workshop on communica-
because of armed conflicts or other situations of violence and the tion as part of the ICRC’s rapid deployment response to major
need to effectively implement the global ban on cluster munitions. crises provided headquarters and field staff with the opportunity
to build on lessons learnt during past crises (e.g. Gaza Strip, the
Several humanitarian crises required rapid responses in terms of Georgia-Russian Federation conflict) and on shared best prac-
both operational, field-based communication and worldwide public tices. ICRC communicators continued to draw on a specialized
communication. These included the devastating earthquake that hit Toolbox database, which was regularly updated to document best
Haiti in January and the floods that paralysed Pakistan for months practices and provide information about new communication
on end, not to mention the protracted conflicts in Afghanistan and and monitoring tools.
Yemen. The ICRC’s public criticism of the closure of the Gaza Strip
and the denial of family contacts for the Israeli soldier detained by
Hamas as violations of IHL strengthened its public position as a ref- ONLINE PUBLISHING
erence organization for this body of law.
There were two significant milestones for the ICRC’s online pub-
The ICRC’s network of communicators in Geneva, Switzerland, lishing strategy in 2010.
and in delegations, including in media hubs such as Beijing
(China), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Cairo (Egypt), London . In February, the organization’s first-ever intranet was
(United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), launched and quickly established itself as an important
Moscow (Russian Federation), Nairobi (Kenya), Paris (France) channel for internal communication and information
and Washington (United States of America), enabled it to pro- management for ICRC staff worldwide.
mote the organization’s work effectively across the globe and . In November, the ICRC’s external website in English was
around the clock. Most delegations devoted considerable efforts re-launched with a new graphic design and improved
to building quality relationships with local media in conflict areas, functionalities to optimize user experience and increase the
encouraging them to take account of humanitarian concerns and ICRC’s visibility on external search engines. The other website
IHL in their reporting. language versions will migrate to the new platform during 2011.

80
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

The new website and the intranet are hosted on the same Content The much-awaited film on the ICRC’s work in places of detention
Management System and share the same search engine, which was released, providing a comprehensive explanation of the scope
greatly facilitates information management and retrieval. and impact of these activities. Other widely distributed produc-
tions included two films in the “From the Field” series, shot in the
The external www.icrc.org websites in seven languages (Arabic, Central African Republic and Peru.
Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Russian, plus
IHL databases in English and French) registered some 4.3 million
visitors during the year and around 17.1 million page views. This CORPORATE COMMUNICATION
represents 23% more visitors than in 2009 and an increase of 5%
in the number of pages consulted. The proportion of pages viewed MARKETING
by language remained similar to previous years, with the English
reference site accounting for half of all pages viewed, followed by Together the British and Kenyan Red Cross Societies and the ICRC
the Spanish and French. The topics of greatest interest were chil- launched the Red Cross and Red Crescent Branding Initiative pro-
dren and war, customary IHL, women and war, displacement, the ject for the Movement. The project aimed to identify common brand
emblem, the Movement, the missing, anti-personnel mines and values and attributes, review the challenges linked to branding
detainees. The contexts of greatest interest during 2010 were, in and reputation, gather best practices and learn about any solutions
descending order, Haiti, Pakistan, Israel and the occupied territo- that have been implemented by National Societies. A survey car-
ries, Colombia, Afghanistan, Iraq, the DRC, Sudan, Somalia and ried out among various National Societies helped gain insight and
Sri Lanka. identify common branding/reputation issues as well as potential
areas for shared learning and collaboration. During a technical
In August, the anniversary of the 1949 Geneva Conventions meeting, a number of National Societies and the ICRC shared
was used to launch the customary IHL database on the ICRC’s the survey findings and discussed ways to develop best practices,
website (see International Law and Cooperation). In addition to considering topics such as “positioning the brands to engage new
an upgrade of the ICRC’s iPhone application, work began on audiences in a competitive environment”, “managing the brands
extending the organization’s presence to other mobile platforms. in a digital world” and “balancing the domestic and international
image of a National Society”.

PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION Communication research enabled the ICRC to track and manage
its public reputation among key target groups. The research carried
The production, promotion and distribution of relevant, credible out in 2010 among academic circles, peer humanitarian organi-
and up-to-date audiovisual and print materials on humanitarian zations, one government and the Association of Southeast Asian
crises and issues, and the ICRC’s response to them, constitute a Nations (ASEAN) was aimed at identifying key reputation drivers
core element of the organization’s global communication efforts. and ensuring that the ICRC’s work and messages are understood
In 2010, over 50 new print products were published covering and accepted. Follow-up measures addressed any issues identified
priority themes such as restoring family links and medical assistance. by specific target groups such as National Societies which were
Some 350,000 copies of films and publications were distributed surveyed in 2009.
worldwide, filling some 4,000 orders.
The ICRC further developed various evaluation tools to assess the
The updated Corporate Visual Identity Guidelines published in pertinence and impact of its products, public campaigns and com-
2010 offer precise graphic specifications for the five institutional munication activities. In particular, an evaluation assessed whether
print categories; they were promoted throughout the organization. the ICRC’s key messages had been successfully communicated
Three regional print production workshops were organized in during the crisis in Kyrgyzstan and provided recommendations to
Cairo, Dakar (Senegal) and Kathmandu (Nepal) to facilitate their enhance the impact of future media work. Likewise, the organiza-
implementation by field delegations. tion commissioned or conducted evaluations of its public com-
munication on Afghanistan between 2007 and 2010 and of several
Ten audiovisual news releases, produced and distributed via satel- flagship communication products, such as the film Panorama 08,
lite and online, offered the world’s broadcast media quality footage the International Review of the Red Cross, and the “Our world. Your
from the Central African Republic, Haiti, Mali, Niger, Pakistan, move.” communication campaign carried out in 2009.
Peru, the Philippines and the West Bank. Digital tracking showed
strong interest in this material, notably the footage from Haiti and In parallel, and closely linked to the institutional project “Health
Peru. The video newsroom launched in late 2010 on www.icrc.org Care in Danger: respecting and protecting health care in armed
makes the distribution of broadcast-quality audiovisual material conflict and other situations of violence”, work started on pre-
more simple and rapid. paring the launch in August 2011 of a four-year communication
campaign on the topic. The aim of the campaign is to raise aware-
Reflecting the increased emphasis on online audiovisual materials, ness of the problems associated with health care in armed conflicts
20 short films, including a series of clips in support of institutional and other situations of violence, and to remind all the parties con-
recruitment efforts, were produced for www.icrc.org. cerned of the need to respect and protect health care personnel,

81
COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

their transport and facilities, and to ensure access for the wounded INTERNAL COMMUNICATION
and sick. Initial contacts made with National Societies, ICRC field
delegations and external partners enabled work on various creative The launch of the first ICRC intranet was the single most impor-
concepts to move ahead. tant development regarding internal communication. The
intranet provides unprecedented access to information to ICRC
staff worldwide as almost all ICRC sites now have the connectivity
MULTILINGUAL COMMUNICATION required for such a tool. The home page stories covered main
institutional topics throughout the year.
In keeping with its mission, the ICRC communicated with a wide
range of stakeholders at the local, regional and international levels. The intranet considerably improved information management
In 2010, at headquarters, over 7 million words were processed. and provided staff with a new feedback channel. Work started on
The ICRC’s language staff and their external partners edited, a second release that will provide collaborative spaces and local
translated and proofread a broad variety of public communication content in 2011 to further improve internal communication.
materials, including media products and materials for the ICRC
website, public statements, publications and donor documenta- The new Directorate made it a priority to communicate actively
tion as well as documents of a legal and operational nature. and openly with ICRC colleagues, using a variety of channels.
It provided regular intranet updates on institutional develop-
ments, taking stock of new experiences and bringing in lessons
RESEARCH SERVICES learnt. Formal and informal gatherings with managers and staff
held both in Geneva and in the field as well as periodically organ-
To help optimize the ICRC’s understanding of its operational and ized conference calls also enhanced information-sharing between
institutional working environment, the Research Service used a headquarters and the field.
range of tools and internal and external resources to scan media
and other public sources of information. It worked closely with Internal communication was also central in conveying infor-
ICRC operational and regional delegations, thus enhancing the mation on and accompanying major institutional changes and
organization’s capacity to monitor issues by drawing on local, projects. In particular, the new ICRC Mail benefited from consid-
regional and international information sources. Thanks to a struc- erable internal communication support.
tured and systematic approach to tracking external trends and
issues, the service provided ICRC management and operational
staff with comprehensive information on contexts in which the ARCHIVES AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
ICRC operates and offered guidance on sources of information.
A daily digest of information was provided during operational INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
crises in contexts such as Haiti, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan.
The newly created Archives and Information Management
Delegates preparing to depart for the field systematically called on Division brings together different skills and competences in
the service for context-specific information, including available order to strengthen processes and procedures for informa-
services and sources. tion management. This should reinforce decision-making
processes, improve the organization’s performance and ensure
Quarterly and annual statistical reports on ICRC visibility in the that knowledge is retained by the ICRC and readily available to
public domain guided public communication (in line with the staff who need it.
ICRC’s approach to result-based management). The data showed
that the Haiti crisis in January provided the highest ICRC visibility To enable staff to manage and share information efficiently follow-
in print, audiovisual and online media and blogs. ing the introduction of ICRC Mail, a framework was established
to govern information flows within the new system, includ-
Headquarters and field delegations also drew on a wide range of ing electronic records management introduced with MesProf2,
standard products distributed electronically (e.g. the newsletter and to define processes, tools and policies. Headquarters and
“ICRC in the Press”; summaries of information on various delegation staff established and shared guidelines during work-
humanitarian issues). On request or in response to events of shops. Users relied on a support structure to work with existing
particular relevance, ICRC operations received documentary sup- and future tools.
port in the form of ad hoc thematic and context-related research.
These products were redesigned and adapted for publication on
the new ICRC intranet. RECORDS MANAGEMENT

In 2011, the Research Service will integrate the reputation and Reports on all ICRC activities, registers of official decisions and
perception research activities previously based in the Marketing legal and operational correspondence have been stored since 1863
Unit, enabling it to monitor perceptions and the reputation of the in the ICRC’s archives.
ICRC among key stakeholders.

82
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

Following the introduction of an electronic records management Preservation activities focused on two main projects:
system in early 2010, the Archives and Information Management
Division advised and supported ICRC headquarters and delega- . the cleaning and repackaging of 950 boxes of institutional files
tions in the management of their records and organization of their from the 1960s in preparation for their opening to the public;
filing system. It monitored the quality of files created by users . the restoration of more than 1,000 items and their preparation
worldwide and adapted tools and procedures as necessary. for digitization as part of the multi-year project on the
archives of the First World War International Agency for
The archivists continued to establish specific institutional reference Prisoners of War. The production of digital images of bound
files while responding to some 650 internal archival research requests. paper originals and microfilms started in October. By the end
of the year, around half a million images had been produced.

LIBRARY AND PUBLIC ARCHIVES Other ongoing projects included the preservation and restora-
tion of ICRC audio archives and of 16mm films documenting
By providing access to the ICRC’s collection of over 150,000 books, ICRC activities for people affected by armed conflicts between
periodicals, photos and videos, the library and related services 1950 and 1980.
continued to promote awareness of the organization’s role as a key
reference concerning IHL and the Movement. Students, teachers, The ICRC Archives handled some 3,200 requests from victims of
civil society, the media and the general public were the main users past armed conflicts and their next-of-kin for official documents
of this service. Many of them used the online catalogue for books such as attestations of captivity and detention. These mostly con-
and articles accessible through the ICRC’s website. Work pro- cerned the Second World War but also the First World War and
gressed on the project aimed at providing users with online access armed conflicts after 1950.
to the ICRC’s audiovisual catalogue by 2012.

To enhance the library’s role as a reference for IHL and to pro- INFORMATION SYSTEMS
vide wider access to documents, the Library and Public Archives
Unit and the Legal Division studied ways of enhancing the man- The main goals of the Information and Communication
agement of specific collections related to the national practice of Technologies (ICT) Division are to align ICT projects and
States regarding IHL. services with the ICRC’s strategic objectives and to ensure busi-
ness continuity. The division aims to optimize both investments
The core objective of ICRC historical research activities is to make and operating costs through the best possible allocation of human
the organization’s history more widely known. The organization and financial resources.
responded to more than 1,300 requests for information contained in
the public document, film and sound archives and welcomed exter-
nal researchers in its reading room for the equivalent of more than FIELD
440 working days. In compliance with the rules regulating access to
ICRC archives, work continued on preparing the opening of general The division’s main focus and achievements in the field can be
archives covering the period 1966-1970 to the public. summarized as follows:

To mark UNESCO’s World Day of Audiovisual Heritage on . by the end of the year, some 220 sites were connected to
27 October, a collection of radio archives and other sound record- the ICRC WAN (Wide Area Network) through permanent
ings documenting the story of half a century of humanitarian connections between the field and headquarters, including
work, from the Second World War to the 1990s, was made avail- 44 via VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) satellite
able to the public via the media and the ICRC website. connections; 23 sites remained to be connected, if technically
and administratively possible
. new applications were deployed worldwide, including:
PRESERVATION AND TRACING ARCHIVES • a new standard messaging system, ICRC Mail, offering
mobility and scalability (December)
Accruals to ICRC archives in 2010 amounting to about 250 linear • a new version of the shared database for economic security
meters consisted mostly of transfers of documents from ICRC del- project management
egations. New storerooms at headquarters will make more space • a new version of Ante Mortem–Post Mortem
available to accommodate this material. However, new facilities database software
still need to be completed in order to receive, treat and preserve • a new version of the Patient Management System for use in
important acquisitions made in recent years and those already prosthetic/orthotic centres; its deployment will be completed
announced for the coming years. in the first quarter of 2011

83
COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

• version 1 of the ICRC intranet (February)


• an applications portal providing web access to webmail,
e-learning, human resources services and
the library catalogue
• a new platform for the ICRC’s relaunched website in English
(November; additional languages in 2011)
. monthly updates, patches and bug fixes ensured that the
infrastructure and field platform were regularly updated
. the new “Field” server was defined and its launch planned
for the end of 2011
. in the framework of the ICRC’s rapid deployment mechanism:
• ICT staff and material supported the operations in
Côte d’Ivoire, Haiti, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan and Thailand
• the full-scale ICT kit, used for the first time during the crisis
in Kyrgyzstan, proved its worth in terms of communication
and organization

HEADQUARTERS

Important work to adapt the headquarters infrastructure to new


requirements included:

. a new Service Desk tool launched with the rollout of


ICRC Mail; it will eventually include support for business
applications as well as core systems.
. the launch of Office Communicator in the first half of
2010, providing around 7,000 ICRC employees with instant
messaging and voice and video-conferencing services
. work to introduce new security redundancies and a new
back-up solution for headquarters servers
. improving secure remote access to IT resources at
headquarters for ICRC headquarters staff during their travel
worldwide or for working from home
. the launch of the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) service
in the first half of 2010 enabling the exchange of large
files worldwide
. the implementation of a new authentication infrastructure
(Elcard) providing a better response to increased mobility by
giving staff improved means to access individual mail accounts
. piloting mobile access to e-mail via SmartPhones

New applications deployed at headquarters included:

. the Library Management System for the library service


. the integration of human resources data into the Institutional
Data Warehouse to improve human resources statistics
. for human resources management, the “Employee/Manager
Self-Service”

Work progressed on a common IT platform for finance and


logistics (see Financial Resources and Logistics). The completion
of the “stock module” brought the “donor to distribution” pro-
ject to conclusion. By the end of 2010, a number of strategic soft-
ware application projects were in their final development/testing
phases before deployment in 2011, including the digitization of
the 1914–18 POW archives.

84
HUMAN RESOURCES
The Human Resources Department is responsible for ensuring especially high, while the number of positions requiring this
that the ICRC has a sufficient pool of competent, trained staff to language continued to rise. The pool of Arabic-speaking
meet its operational needs worldwide. It develops the policies and delegates had increased to 120 by the end of 2010. A work-
tools for recruitment, compensation, training and talent manage- ing group was created in November to review the department’s
ment. Its policies are geared towards raising professional standards, planning approach.
developing the particular skills required for humanitarian work
and promoting and supporting management of staff through its The hostage crisis which started in 2009 with the abduction of
professional hierarchy. The Department strives to promote inter- two expatriates in Chad and Sudan ended with the release of both
nal cohesion within the ICRC by encouraging staff to identify with delegates in 2010. The crisis mobilized several heads of personnel,
the organization’s visions and objectives. The ICRC is an equal mainly for the purpose of maintaining contact with and support-
opportunity employer. ing the hostages’ relatives.

In 2010, an average of 9,817 national employees1 and 1,504 expatriates


were working in the field. PLANNING AND CAREER-PATH MANAGEMENT

Following a transition period bracketed by the departure of the


MEETING ONGOING CHALLENGES previous director at the end of 2009 and the arrival of the incom-
AND REQUIREMENTS ing director early in 2010, the Department faces two main chal-
lenges resulting from the institutional strategy 2011–2014: to
The department strives continuously to reinforce the ICRC’s provide the ICRC with a revised vision and strategy for people
capacity to manage its multidisciplinary and multicultural staff in management, based exclusively on the skills and competencies of
increasingly complex environments. employees, whether they are expatriate or national staff, and to
ensure appropriate diversity management.
By maintaining pools of personnel with different professional pro-
files, the department was able to fill more than 97% of all field The Career Assessment Commission for middle managers and
posts at any one time. During the course of the year, for vari- specialist middle managers met regularly. Each middle manage-
ous operational reasons, including natural disasters in Haiti and ment function is now supported by a general job description to
Pakistan, the ICRC increased the number of posts for delegates in help identify the skills required for management positions. This
some delegations, which meant that the department had to resolve will be refined with a project currently under way to define more
unforeseen planning issues. Demand was particularly high for del- clearly the skills required in senior managers and the institutional
egates with operational experience. outcome of the second round of management training for senior
managers (see People Leadership and Management below).
Starting from May 2010, expatriate staff were posted in Iraq,
including some previously based in Amman, Jordan, and The Career Advisory Service (Service Avenir) conducted a sur-
some from other locations. Their number had increased to 99 vey with a focus group and a benchmark study which underlined
by December. the need for continuous support to increase staff employability.
Follow-up work started and will include a new set of web pages,
The demand for specialized delegates, particularly those with adapted communication and counselling, available to all expatri-
specific language and professional skills, remained high through- ate staff in the field.
out the year. The turnover of Arabic-speaking delegates was

1. Daily workers not included

85
HUMAN RESOURCES

GENDER AND DIVERSITY DEPLOYMENT OF THE NEW STAFF


INTEGRATION PROGRAMME
The gender equality adviser2 is responsible for following up meas-
ures taken to implement the ICRC’s Gender Equality Policy and The new Staff Integration Programme introduced in 2008 under-
presenting an annual report to the Directorate and the Assembly, went an external evaluation in 2010. The overall result was very
and for designing a strategy to ensure appropriate diversity man- positive, the only recommendations being to further strengthen
agement and its inclusion in the new people management strategy. work-based learning and the link between career management
and training. These recommendations will be included in the
The 2009 gender equality report analysed gender equality among human resource vision and strategy project, which will be initiated
all categories of staff in each of the nine geographic regions covered in 2011.
by the ICRC. Women were found to hold 36% of senior manage-
ment positions; they remained well represented at headquarters
but their number in the field stayed unchanged. A study consisting PEOPLE LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
of a questionnaire was made of the head of delegation function, in
order to obtain a better understanding of the situation and identify The People Leadership and Management (PLM) training course
measures to facilitate women’s access to such positions. for middle and senior managers continued throughout 2010 and
will end in 2011.
The ICRC signed a four-year partnership agreement with the
Department of Organizational Behaviour of the University of It will be replaced by a new concept of management training cur-
Lausanne (Switzerland) Faculty of Business and Economics for rently being prepared. The aim is to help managers improve coach-
the purpose of identifying and tackling stereotypes. It continued ing and mentoring as major conditions for effective work-based
to adapt mechanisms to promote women’s career paths and to learning. ICRC managers are to be helped to translate into practice
ensure that both men and women are able to reconcile work and the principles stemming from the PLM training: self-awareness,
family life. Measures such as mentoring, which aim to encourage the creation of a conducive environment, effective decision-mak-
and support women’s professional development, continued to ing and providing feedback. Training will include not only people
be implemented. management but also financial and planning management. This
move is in line with the new human resources approach of prac-
tising a single policy for expatriate staff and national employees.
KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

The human resources data warehouse project was brought to a ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT
successful conclusion. It enables the department to produce con- AND CONTROL PROCEDURES
solidated statistics and indicators on all staff at headquarters and in
the field. New dashboards are now in place to evaluate and moni- Pursuant to the recommendations of external auditors, centralized
tor the quality of the department’s work, in particular its value to administrative management was put in place at the beginning of
operations; in addition, all staff have access to human resources 2010. This new structure ensures compliance with internal audit
general statistics available on the ICRC intranet. norms, in particular by making a clear distinction between oper-
ational processes and administrative/control tasks.

TRAINING All staff working at headquarters were given online access to their
personal data through the web-based “Employee/Manager Self-
GLOBAL LEARNING AND TRAINING STRATEGY Service” tool starting in mid-2010. In 2011, access will be extended
to field staff, existing online services will be further improved
Following the creation of the ICRC learning resources centre and new ones will introduced. This new tool to facilitate routine
(Centre des Ressources Educatives) in 2009, blended learning is administrative processes enables the department to devote more
being gradually introduced. Step by step, all learning events are resources to key activities.
incorporating self-teaching, distance learning (e-learning), classic
training courses and work-based learning.

Blended learning has also been introduced in courses delivered by


the four regional training units in Amman, Bangkok (Thailand),
Dakar (Senegal) and Nairobi (Kenya).

2. The gender equality adviser was transferred in July 2010 from the Office
of the Director-General to the Human Resources Department

86
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

CONSOLIDATING THE RECRUITMENT BASE

The Recruitment and National Societies Division continued


to work in close cooperation with all units requesting staff,
with a view to ensuring that new recruits correspond as closely as
possible to the profiles required and are available as needed.

The ICRC remained an attractive employer in 2010, with the num-


ber of job applicants increasing to 7,000 (6,200 in 2009). There was
an ongoing need for delegates with specific language skills, such as
Arabic and other oriental languages, in order to facilitate access
and proximity to the beneficiaries of major ICRC operations in the
Middle East and North Africa, Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Overall in 2010, with 280 newly hired staff, recruitment remained


at nearly the same level as in 2009, corresponding to the average
of the past 10 years.

In keeping with the ICRC’s policy of enhancing the international


character of its expatriate staff, 84% of the delegates recruited for
the first time in 2010 came from outside Switzerland. Also, 44% of
new recruits were women.

The evolving humanitarian environment, combined with signifi-


cant changes in the employment market, brought new challenges
in terms of recruitment, retention and management of human
resources. The division responded by working to redefine the key
competencies required of each candidate in line with new organi-
zational requirements and the institutional strategy 2011–2014.

STAFF HEALTH

The HIV/AIDS workplace programme aims to protect the rights


of employees and fight stigmatization/discrimination of those who
are or may be infected with HIV. It also aims to prevent HIV/
AIDS through awareness raising, training, education, voluntary
counselling and testing, and by promoting behavioural changes
among delegation employees, their families and expatriate staff
via a global policy of prevention and awareness raising. Over
300 volunteer peer educators have been trained to support the
programme. Complete medical care is provided, including drug
therapy to lower morbidity and mortality.

In 2010, people in 29 of the 84 countries where the ICRC had


operations, including 25 African countries, benefited from the
programme. Some 200 staff members and/or their dependents
received antiretroviral drugs. Almost 4,000 ICRC staff received
information about the HIV threat.

87
FINANCIAL RESOURCES
AND LOGISTICS
The Department of Financial Resources and Logistics provides In July 2010, the department changed its name to “Financial
support for field operations in terms of finance, administration Resources and Logistics”, after the Information Systems Division
and logistics. It also raises and manages funds for the ICRC as a joined the Department of Communication and Information
whole. It works closely with the Department of Operations while Management. At the same time it initiated a comprehensive pro-
maintaining close contact with donors to keep them abreast of ICRC cess to explore ways of incorporating the concept of sustainable
operations and financial requirements. The Department conducts management into its policies and operations1.
regular reviews to ensure that its support to the field is in line with
operational needs, and verifies compliance by ICRC headquar-
ters and delegations with institutional procedures. Furthermore, FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION
it ensures that the ICRC’s working methods integrate the principles
of sustainable development. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

The Department of Financial Resources and Logistics focused on The purpose of financial management is to provide the ICRC with
ensuring that field and headquarters received adequate funding trustworthy and cost-effective data, enabling it to make sound and
and appropriate support in terms of logistics, finance and admin- effective decisions and to provide its donors and partners with
istration. Six budget extensions were added to the initial annual reliable information.
budget (compared with nine for 2009), reflecting the scope of
emergencies requiring flexible and well-organized use of resources In 2010, the Finance and Administration Division notably:
to address the most urgent needs in an efficient and timely man-
ner. The largest budget extension amounted to CHF 77 million, . prepared and fully implemented the new fraud guiding
aimed at helping people affected by violence and flooding principle and framework approved by the Directorate
in Pakistan. . enhanced its policies related to treasury management,
with a focus on mitigating risk linked to currency
The global financial situation remained very uncertain and recov- exchange volatility
ery weak. The ICRC’s main donors largely upheld their commit- . as an ICRC priority, reviewed financial management and
ments, although the first effects of the economic crisis were felt reporting issues regarding ICRC cooperation with National
in 2010. The 2010 financial year closed with a global deficit leaving Societies; its conclusions were approved by the Directorate
a record number of delegations with a negative balance brought and will be implemented in 2011
forward. These budgetary issues, coupled with an ever more strin- . built on an improved headquarters planning/budgeting cycle
gent regulatory environment, led the department to focus more and approach, providing management with a far greater level
closely on accountability and the development of internal control of detail and analysis of headquarters services in order to
and compliance systems. enhance efficiency in terms of steering and management
. consolidated and improved the institutionwide data
The food market remained highly volatile, with food prices affected warehouse for reporting purposes
by various factors. This was of concern to the ICRC because of
the potential for violence and the additional complexity of the
procurement environment.

1. The department includes the adviser on environmental issues, who was formerly attached
to the Office of the Director General, and whose mandate was extended to cover all areas
of sustainable development

88
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT EXPENDITURE

The purpose of infrastructure management is to make sure Overall expenditure


the ICRC has the requisite office space and to ensure long-term CHF 1,175.6 million (including overheads)
maintenance of the entire infrastructure at a reasonable cost.
Headquarters
Major repair work was done on the roof of one of the headquarters CHF 176.2 million
buildings in Geneva, Switzerland. The new logistics centre on
the city’s outskirts, built according to ecological and sustainable Field operations
development criteria, will be completed in early summer 2011. CHF 999.5 million

The implementation rate (field expenditure in cash, kind and


INFORMATION DELIVERY services divided by final field budget – excluding contingency
funds – multiplied by 100) for the activities the ICRC had planned
The ongoing objective in this area is to optimize the speed of to carry out in order to meet its objectives for the year was higher
information delivery (e.g. by mail) while maintaining reasonable in 2010 than in the previous year (2009: 86.2%; 2008: 95.1%),
cost levels. This was increasingly challenging because of interna- with expenditure reaching 90.7 % of the overall final Emergency
tional transport security restrictions. Appeals budget. This is chiefly the result of the ICRC’s improved
access to conflict areas and the ensuing capacity to deploy major
operations.
FUNDING

All ICRC funding is coordinated by and channelled through the CONTRIBUTIONS


External Resources Division, which raises the funds the organiza-
tion needs to carry out its humanitarian activities while securing Total contributions received in 2010: CHF 1.054 billion
its independent status. The ICRC seeks the widest possible range
of predictable, sustained and flexible sources of financial support Funding sources and patterns were similar to previous years. In
in order to meet its objectives. It guarantees that donor require- 2010, the proportion of support from governments was 81.0%
ments are given due consideration. (2009: 81.4%; 2008: 80.1%), while that from National Societies
increased slightly to 5.4 % (2009: 4.8%; 2008: 4.6%). Funding
received from the European Commission held steady at 10.6%
BUDGETS (2009: 10.6%; 2008: 11.3%), while contributions from various
other public and private sources decreased slightly to 2.7% (2009:
The initial budget appeals for 2010, launched by the ICRC in 3.0%; 2008: 3.6%).
November 2009, totalled CHF 1.2 billion. This was CHF 9.3 million
less than the preceding year’s initial budget. The largest decrease The United States of America (United States) remained the
was in the Emergency Appeals for ICRC field operations, ICRC’s largest donor, accounting for 24.8% (CHF 261.8 million)
which amounted to CHF 983.2 million in 2010 as opposed to of all contributions received and 26.6% (CHF 242.2 million) of
CHF 996.9 million in 2009. The Headquarters Appeal, for its part, funding for field operations. The European Commission ranked
increased from CHF 168.6 million in 2009 to CHF 173.0 million second with a contribution of CHF 111.4 million to the Emergency
in 2010. Appeals, which accounted for 10.6% of all contributions received
and 12.2% of funding for field operations. Switzerland’s total
In the course of the year, donors received information about six contribution of CHF 110.0 million was the third largest. The 2010
budget extensions (five budget extension appeals, and one budget contribution of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
extension for Yemen that drew from contingency funds). The Ireland (United Kingdom) was CHF 77.9 million (a drop from
extensions were launched in response to unforeseen events and CHF 91.6 million in 2009; and CHF 139.1 million in 2008).
substantial humanitarian needs brought about by the resurgence/
intensification of hostilities or natural disaster in Haiti, Kyrgyzstan The ICRC’s operational flexibility was enhanced by the fact that
(Tashkent regional), northern Mali and Niger (Niamey regional), a number of governments provided advance information on the
Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen. level of funding and either did not earmark their contributions
or did so in a relatively broad fashion (mostly by geographical
region). Governments that made substantial contributions com-
prising over 40% in flexibly earmarked funds include Australia,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland,
Kuwait, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.

89
FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND LOGISTICS

The ICRC’s Donor Support Group (DSG) – made up of those gov- The table below shows the contributions of DSG members in 2010.
ernments contributing more than CHF 10 million in cash annually Based on this, the DSG will have 18 members in 2011.
– comprised 19 members in 2010 (based on the 2009 contributions).
Its annual meeting was hosted by the Norwegian Government.

(in CHF million)

NAME OF DONOR CASH –


(DSG member) HEADQUARTERS CASH – FIELD TOTAL CASH TOTAL KIND TOTAL SERVICES GRAND TOTAL

Australia 1.9 32.0 33.9 - - 33.9


Belgium 1.1 16.2 17.3 - - 17.3
Canada 3.2 28.9 32.1 - - 32.1
Denmark 3.9 8.8 12.7 - - 12.7
European Commission - 111.4 111.4 - - 111.4
Finland 1.4 8.9 10.3 1.0 - 11.3
France 1.4 13.7 15.1 0.2 - 15.3
Germany 2.0 27.8 29.8 - - 29.8
Ireland 0.2 10.0 10.2 - - 10.2
Italy 0.7 5.1 5.9 - - 5.9
Japan 0.5 37.7 38.2 - - 38.2
Luxembourg 1.2 9.8 11.0 - - 11.0
Netherlands 5.6 31.5 37.1 - - 37.1
Norway 4.6 44.7 49.2 -2.7 - 46.5
Spain 0.9 19.6 20.5 - - 20.5
Sweden 6.6 60.8 67.4 - - 67.4
Switzerland 70.0 40.0 110.0 - - 110.0
United Kingdom of Great Britain
0.5 77.4 77.9 - - 77.9
and Northern Ireland
United States of America 19.6 242.2 261.8 - - 261.8

CONTRIBUTIONS IN RESPONSE In total, CHF 722.4 million were provided for ICRC field opera-
TO THE HEADQUARTERS APPEAL tions by 39 governments, CHF 111.4 million by the European
Commission, CHF 50.3 million by 28 National Societies,
A total of CHF 142.2 million was received in contributions for the CHF 2.9 million by a variety of international organizations, and
headquarters budget: CHF 131.4 million from 75 governments, CHF 24.5 million by public and private sources. These include
CHF 6.5 million from 61 National Societies and CHF 4.4 million Rotary International, the Union of European Football Associations
from a number of other private and public sources. (UEFA) and members of the ICRC Corporate Support Group
(Credit Suisse Group, F. Hoffmann - La Roche, Holcim Ltd and
Zurich Financial Services).
CONTRIBUTIONS IN RESPONSE
TO THE EMERGENCY APPEALS
FLEXIBILITY IN FUNDING
Cash component
CHF 898.6 million (2009: 929.3 million; 2008: 977.4 million) The ICRC received a growing number of specific donor demands
for tighter earmarking and ad hoc reports. Decentralized donor
In-kind component representatives in the field frequently asked ICRC delegations for
CHF 1.3 million (2009: 12.9 million; 2008: 9.1 million) operational information and special reporting.

Services To meet needs effectively, it is essential for the ICRC to continue


CHF 11.7 million (2009: 14.5 million; 2008: 11.3 million) enjoying flexibility in the use of its funds, particularly in relation
to earmarking and reporting. The increased level of earmarking
Assets
was often accompanied by both rigorous project implementa-
CHF 0.0 million (2009: 0.0 million; 2008: 0.0 million)
tion timetables and stringently specific reporting conditions.

90
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

Experience has shown that there is a direct correlation between broad support in terms of the level and number of sources, a closer
flexible funding policies and the ability of the ICRC to maintain look reveals that the ICRC is reliant on a relatively small number
its independence and rapid response capacity. of key donors for the bulk of its funding.

2010 NON-EARMARKED cash contributions Overall ICRC funding


CHF 269.7 million / 26.0% (24.7% in 2009; 25.8% in 2008) CHF 1.054 billion

2010 TIGHTLY EARMARKED cash contributions 81 governments and the European Commission
CHF 202.7 million / 19.6% (20.8% in 2009; 18.4% in 2008) CHF 965.2 million / 91.6% (2009: 92.0%; 2008: 91.4%)

At 26.0% in 2010, the proportion of non-earmarked cash con- Top 10 governments including the European Commission
tributions (“core funding”) made in response to the ICRC’s CHF 816.3 million / 77.5% (2009: 78.0%; 2008: 77.6%)
Emergency and Headquarters Appeals was slightly higher than in
Top 5 governments including the European Commission
2009 (24.7%; in 2008, 25.8%). Apart from certain private dona-
CHF 628.5 million / 59.6% (2009: 60.6%; 2008: 60.4%)
tions, most non-earmarked funds for both the Emergency Appeals
and the Mine Action Special Appeal came from 17 governments
(most notably from Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Contributions were received from 68 National Societies (2009: 91;
the Netherlands, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom), the 2008: 85).
Norwegian Red Cross and the canton of Geneva.
In all, 81 governments (2009: 82; 2008: 90) and the European
Cash contributions loosely earmarked for a given region, coun- Commission responded to the ICRC Appeals with much appreci-
try or programme represented 54.4% (CHF 564.3 million) of ated contributions.
the total.

RELATIONS WITH THE CORPORATE SECTOR


PREDICTABILITY IN FUNDING
The ICRC also sees the business sector as a major stakeholder
The ICRC’s system of funding does not rely on set (statutory) in its work. Together with a group of selected Swiss companies,
contributions. Moreover, its programmes are implemented it set up the Corporate Support Group (CSG) in 2005, establishing
according to needs and are not contingent on the level of contri- an innovative and long-term partnership. The Group’s founding
butions received or pledged. The organization relies on donors to members are: ABB Asea Brown Boveri Ltd, F. Hoffmann La Roche
provide the funding it needs to achieve its objectives through the Ltd, Fondation Hans Wilsdorf, Lombard Odier Darier Hentsch
programmes it plans to implement in a given year. To minimize & Cie, Swiss Reinsurance Company, Vontobel Group and Zurich
financial risks, the ICRC seeks both to be realistic in terms of its Financial Services. The Credit Suisse Group and the AVINA
objectives and budgets and to ensure a degree of predictability with STIFTUNG joined in 2008; Holcim started supporting ICRC
respect to funding. Ideally, it needs funding commitments from activities in 2009 and joined the CSG at the beginning of 2010.
donor countries spanning several years. It already has such agree-
ments with Belgium, Ireland, Luxembourg, Sweden, Switzerland The 2010 CSG plenary meeting took place in October and was
and the United Kingdom. The ICRC is aware that donor planning hosted by Vontobel Group in Zurich, Switzerland.
constraints and national budget and financial regulations do not
easily allow donors to commit themselves over the medium term, Members of the CSG provide additional sources of funding for the
as it would prefer. Nevertheless, it will continue to seek ways of ICRC, thereby increasing the private-sector component of ICRC
obtaining longer-term funding commitments. Clear indications financing. Their contributions are used either for operational
from donors early in the year regarding the annual level of funding activities or to train staff – the ICRC’s most valuable asset.
and the timing of their transfers would facilitate financial planning
and reduce risk.
REPORTING TO DONORS

DIVERSITY IN THE DONOR BASE The ICRC kept donors informed of its activities through a vari-
ety of documents and publications. Its 2010 Emergency and
The ICRC remained concerned about the slow progress made Headquarters Appeals, which were launched in November 2009,
towards enlarging the range of its main financial contributors were followed in the course of 2010 by one preliminary appeal and
despite its ongoing efforts to broaden its donor base. In view of six budget extensions approved by the Assembly Council.
its universal mandate and worldwide activities, the organization
would like to be able to count on the broadest possible support in The ICRC reported to donors on all its field operations by means
Asia, Latin America, Central Europe and the Middle East. While of the midterm report, which covers field operations from January
the general data provided above would at first appear to indicate to May. The second part of the year is covered by the country

91
FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND LOGISTICS

reports contained in the present Annual Report. These reports WORKING IN HARMONY WITH PARTNERS
discuss progress achieved for each target population in light of the
objectives, plans of action and indicators set out in the Emergency Over many years, the ICRC has developed partnerships to increase
Appeals for 2010 (and budget extensions). They are result-based its reach in the field of logistics. It maintained close cooperation
whenever possible and include the standard figures and indica- with partners, in particular with the International Federation on
tors for ICRC activities by context, further enhanced in the present The Emergency Catalogue, with Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)
report since their introduction in the 2005 Annual Report. on an aircraft-sharing programme and with MSF, UNICEF and
WHO on a pharmaceutical suppliers audit plan. The logistics team
Financial updates were provided on a monthly basis, from also began to explore ways to optimize performance with its part-
March to November. In September the ICRC issued its Renewed ners, notably National Societies. It participated actively in the UN
Emergency Appeal, which presented the overall funding situation Cluster Group and met regularly with other logistics partners so
for field operations, including contributions received by that time. as to maximize efficiency and collaboration in major operations.

Donors were kept abreast of the main developments in ICRC


operations and related humanitarian issues in 42 updates cover- CROSS-CUTTING PROJECTS AND MANAGEMENT PROCESSES
ing a wide range of operations, topics, including some reviews of
specific programmes, and policy matters and in the special report Two key projects made significant progress.
on mine action in 2009.
. The “Donation to Distribution” project ended with the
The ICRC Donor Site, a password-protected extranet site on completion of the “stock module”. As a result, data relating
which all documents issued by the ICRC’s External Resources to needs, contributions and goods distributed via the logistics
Division are posted, continued to give donors immediate access to supply chain can now be linked. While corrective maintenance
reports and other funding-related documents. was still under way, the newly introduced software improved data
reliability and traceability from the field to headquarters, thereby
enhancing the accessibility and quality of available information.
LOGISTICS . For the LOG-FIN project, a solution was chosen in early 2010
following a rigorous selection process that included interviews
A NETWORK ON A GLOBAL SCALE with potential suppliers responding to the initial Request for
Information. LOG-FIN aims to build a common business and
The ICRC runs a worldwide professional supply chain central- technical solution for the processing of financial and logistical
ized in Geneva, its global reach secured by its staff and a solid data with a view to improving financial management, internal
international infrastructure: 2,500 employees of 80 nationalities control and the efficiency of the logistics supply chain in the
based in approximately 200 sites, 130 warehouses, a fleet compris- field and at headquarters.
ing 13 airplanes and 3,000 vehicles, as well as 3,700 suppliers in
100 countries all actively contribute to its efficiency. Cross-cutting working groups chaired by the department worked
to optimize management processes in the areas of reporting and
Logistics activities focused on: decision-making. As a result:

. the mobilization of extensive logistical resources for Haiti, . an interdepartmental skill group on business intelligence
Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan and the running of complex started to identify potential synergies between departments in
distributions of essential household items, food and medical order to recommend improvements in reporting and decision-
aid in remote areas suffering the combined effects of armed making processes and tools
conflict, violence and natural disasters . internal reports were inventoried and criteria for analysis
. the provision of relief and surgical supplies through listed and tested with the aim of streamlining the number,
its logistics bases in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire), Amman flow and content of reports produced in the field for
(Jordan), Nairobi (Kenya), Peshawar (Pakistan) and Geneva headquarters and of improving the multidisciplinary
(Switzerland) in response to conflict-related crises, mainly in reporting process
Afghanistan, the Central African Republic, the Democratic . work continued on the standardization of master
Republic of the Congo, Israel and the occupied territories, data-management procedures and associated tools to
the Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka and Yemen be used throughout the organization
. completing the final phase of deployment of its regional
structures (purchasing and warehouse)
. the successful deployment of three IT logistics tools (Field
Supply System, Air operations, International transport) in
the field, contributing to data quality and greater efficiency

92
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

The adviser on sustainable development initiated a process to


explore ways to develop a comprehensive ICRC approach allow-
ing for the best possible balance between the environment and
economic and social factors, thereby ensuring sustainable devel-
opment. In the field, several external environmental-impact
studies analysed how ICRC resources are consumed, aiming to
identify best practices and areas for improvement. The results are
shared across the organization to improve energy efficiency and
waste management in delegations worldwide while enhancing
the quality and sustainability of ICRC operations. Tools are being
developed to help staff meet their environmental responsibilities.

93
OPERATIONS

95
THE ICRC AROUND THE WORLD

ICRC headquarters

ICRC delegation

ICRC regional delegation

ICRC mission

96
AFRICA

ASIA AND
THE PACIFIC

EUROPE AND
THE AMERICAS

MIDDLE EAST AND


NORTH AFRICA

97
OPERATIONAL HIGHLIGHTS
armed groups or between State armed forces and armed groups
tending to be rare. Weapon bearers lived off the population and
engaged in appalling acts of brutality to instil fear, ensure control
and obtain new recruits. In such contexts, other factors, such as
political, ethnic or religious grievances, played a role and intercon-
nected, although they often appeared secondary or were used by
armed groups as a pretext for their acts.

Some of these characteristics were also very present in other situ-


ations of violence. The lines of distinction between ideological
and non-ideological confrontations have gradually blurred, and
the levels of violence and brutality in these situations, which were
below the threshold of applicability of IHL, at times surpassed
what took place in some full-blown armed conflicts. This trend
Thierry Gassmann/ICRC

appeared to become more widespread.

The second key feature was the duration of armed conflicts.


The majority of ICRC operations in 2010 took place in countries
where the organization had been present for two, three or four
decades. This is partly because many conflicts have economic roots
and revolve around struggles for access to key natural resources.
The resulting protracted situations of conflict that exist in many
CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTS AND CHALLENGES contexts fluctuate between phases of high and low intensity and
FOR HUMANITARIAN ACTION instability, without solutions for lasting peace.

In 2010, the armed conflicts and other situations of violence in These parameters contributed to a sense of spreading lawless-
which the ICRC operated had in common two main features. ness in many parts of the world, whether urban or rural, that were
beyond the control of the State and the influence of the interna-
The first was the diversity of the situations the ICRC had to deal tional community. Indeed, few armed conflicts have been resolved
with. These ranged from contexts where the most advanced militarily or through negotiation in recent years.
technology and weapons systems were deployed in asymmetric
confrontations, to conflicts marked by low technology and Lawlessness in unregulated areas of the world, combined with
high fragmentation, in which a variety of groups generated environmental degradation, also generated significant popula-
extensive insecurity. tion movements. IDPs, refugees and migrants were all exposed to
significant risks and threats as they moved through conflict zones
The nature of armed conflicts continued to evolve. The predomi- or were blocked in border areas in highly volatile environments.
nant form was non-international armed conflict, stemming from The impact of environmental degradation on armed conflicts and
State weakness that left room for local militias and armed groups other situations of violence is only beginning to be analysed prop-
to take matters into their own hands. This often led to an envi- erly. However, desertification, water scarcity and limited access to
ronment where looting and trafficking, extortion and kidnapping land clearly aggravated the vulnerability of populations already
became profitable economic strategies sustained by violence and affected by violence.
by national, regional and international interests. The violence was
primarily targeted at civilians, with direct confrontations between

98
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

OPERATIONS: REVIEW, APPROACH safe water, arable land, basic services or humanitarian assistance, and
AND THEMATIC CHALLENGES even death caused by largely preventable illnesses. In recent years the
ICRC has enhanced its understanding of such indirect needs, and has
In 2010, the ICRC was able to respond to a range of acute and consequently taken better account of them in its response.
chronic needs in armed conflicts and other situations of violence,
owing to its widespread presence and proximity to populations, Thanks to sustained efforts, the response to the needs of families
its neutrality, impartiality and independence, its networks, its of missing persons and victims of sexual violence continued to
strategic partnerships with National Societies and its ability to improve and mental health concerns were more effectively inte-
deploy rapidly in emergencies. grated into support for detainees.

The ICRC sought to live up to the responsibilities and pressures In 2010, the ICRC engaged in numerous effective operational part-
resulting from a large initial field budget (CHF 983.2 million), nerships with National Societies. In contexts such as Afghanistan,
from six budget extensions amounting to CHF 160.3 million (Haiti, Colombia, the DRC, Israel and the occupied territories, Nigeria,
Kyrgyzstan, Niamey regional, Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen), and Somalia and Yemen, these partnerships contributed to a signifi-
from a range of other demanding operations in contexts such as cant widening of the impact of activities, particularly regarding
Afghanistan, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo assistance programmes and the restoration of family links.
(DRC), Iraq, Israel and the occupied territories, the Philippines
and Sudan. In so doing it faced significant challenges to its neutral, ICRC teams also participated actively in the various coordination
impartial and independent approach. While the release of two of mechanisms at field level, be they UN cluster meetings or other
its staff, who were held hostage in the Darfur region of Sudan from fora, seeking to identify unmet needs and avoid duplication.
October/November 2009 to February/March 2010, was a particu-
larly positive development, constraints in terms of access remained
strong in several contexts owing to security and acceptance issues. AFRICA

Throughout 2010, ICRC and National Society staff were again The DRC and Somalia remained two of the foremost operational
confronted with the multiple risks, threats and suffering that affect challenges for the ICRC on the African continent.
the lives of men, women and children in conflict zones around the
world. Ensuring that the ICRC places the fate of these individu- In Somalia, the population continued to be exposed to the harsh-
als and communities at the very heart of its analyses and action est possible combination of man-made and natural calamities.
remained crucial. The number of wounded admitted to ICRC-supported hospitals
in Mogadishu reached 6,500 in 2010, the highest in recent years.
Armed conflicts affect people differently depending on whether There were large numbers of displaced people in different parts of
they are men or women, young or old. Analysing vulnerability central and southern Somalia. The ICRC, in cooperation with the
entails understanding the specific circumstances of the person Somali Red Crescent Society, provided over 1 million people with
or community in question. To this end, the ICRC endeavoured a combination of emergency supplies and livelihood support. The
to take due account of the specific needs relating to the victims’ international humanitarian response was subjected to particular
circumstances, to the nature of the risks and violations they were scrutiny after allegations surfaced about widespread misappro-
exposed to, and to their gender and age. It markedly improved priation of WFP supplies in Somalia. The ICRC provided donors
its analysis of and response to the specific needs of women and with detailed briefings on how it manages its planning, assess-
girls, and began developing more diverse responses to the needs of ment, implementation and monitoring cycle in this operation.
children in general and of the elderly. In addition, its analysis was
accompanied by a reinforced commitment to build on people’s In the DRC, the populations in the east (North and South Kivu,
resilience, in other words on their ability to cope or to take meas- Province Orientale) and the west (Equateur) faced multiple forms
ures to improve their situation. of violence and grave abuse. There were widespread incidents of
sexual violence, including appalling cases of mass rape. In a wider
There were again multiple ways in which conflict heightened sense, the population in isolated regions of North and South Kivu
people’s vulnerability. First, there were the people directly affected was exposed to extreme insecurity, resulting from violence per-
by fighting: the weapon-wounded, endangered civilians, IDPs petrated by the 40 or so armed groups operating in these regions.
fleeing battle zones and detainees at risk of ill-treatment or disap- Looting, physical brutality and abuse, and killings were among the
pearance. Their needs have traditionally received the most atten- daily tragedies facing civilians. The ICRC further strengthened its
tion from the ICRC as they can be attributed specifically to acts presence in a number of “priority regions”, where it sustained a
perpetrated by weapon bearers. regular presence and intervened with armed groups when con-
fronted with evidence of abuse. It also carried out medical, live-
Then there were the indirect effects resulting from prolonged restric- lihood and water projects in these regions. It supported some
tions on movement, from diverse forms of humiliation, and from 40 counselling centres for victims of sexual violence, which play
the steady deterioration of health and sanitation conditions for a an instrumental role in providing psychosocial support, medical
broader population in and around conflict zones: lack of access to referral and help in reintegrating into the community.

99
OPERATIONAL HIGHLIGHTS

In Sudan, the ICRC gradually resumed operations in the Darfur EUROPE AND THE AMERICAS
region, following the release of two staff members who had been
held hostage, and prepared to deal with the potential consequences The devastating earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 led
of pre- or post-referendum clashes. In the Sahel region (northern to a major national and international emergency response. The
Mali and Niger), it increased its operational scope, adding a sig- ICRC mobilized its staff and available resources on the ground
nificant drought-related response to its activities dealing with the and dispatched a rapid response team to help the Haitian National
consequences of various dynamics of conflict and violence in this Red Cross Society and carry out a range of activities in the first
region. In Nigeria, the ICRC built on its closer partnership with phase of the crisis. Once the International Federation had set up
the Nigerian Red Cross Society and became operational in the its coordination mechanism and a number of National Societies
Niger Delta and the north of the country. had become involved, the ICRC focused on working in places of
detention and some volatile areas of the capital, Port-au-Prince.

ASIA In Colombia, the ICRC maintained substantial protection and


assistance activities throughout 2010 in response to the lasting
South Asia remained the most volatile region in conflict and dynamics of conflict and violence.
disaster-related terms. UN figures pointed to a 20% increase in
civilian casualties in the Afghan conflict in 2010. Hostilities con- In several Latin American contexts, National Societies and the
tinued to spread to new regions of the country, leaving civilians ICRC were confronted with the escalating consequences of situa-
exposed to the increasingly indiscriminate use of improvised tions of violence other than armed conflict, in particular in urban
explosive devices and to the effects of combat operations. The settings. In partnership with the Brazilian Red Cross, the ICRC
ICRC reinforced its medical response, focusing on hospitals, a pursued its medical and first-aid activities in certain favelas in
range of ICRC and Afghan Red Crescent Society first-aid posts and Rio de Janeiro. It began exploring prospects for applying this
supporting the National Society’s network of first-aiders. It also experience to two cities in Colombia and to similar situations in
maintained its visits to detainees under US, International Security Central America.
Assistance Force and Afghan authority, and further expanded its
physical rehabillitation work by opening a new centre in Lashkar ICRC delegates continued to visit people held by US authorities
Gah, Helmand province. in Guantanamo Bay Naval Station in Cuba, and in Afghanistan
and Iraq. Further improvement was achieved in the construc-
In Pakistan, the ICRC maintained its operations related to the tive engagement with the US Department of Defense on a range
consequences of violence in the Federally Administrated Tribal of detention-related matters. The ICRC was satisfied with pro-
Areas and other regions along the border with Afghanistan. gress made regarding access to people held in detention facilities,
The primary focus was on providing medical assistance to the including internment, screening and transit facilities under the
wounded and emergency assistance to displaced people and the control of the Department of Defense.
residents hosting them. From August 2010 onwards, the ICRC
and the International Federation engaged in major operations to In Europe, the ICRC stayed actively involved in ongoing efforts
support the Pakistan Red Crescent Society’s response to the disas- to address the issue of people unaccounted for as a result of the
trous floods that affected large parts of the country. By year-end, various conflicts in the northern and southern Caucasus and in
the National Society/ICRC flood response had reached more than the Western Balkans.
1.3 million people.
In Central Asia, the ICRC deployed its single largest rapid
The ICRC conducted a wide range of activities in India, Nepal and response team in 2010 in reaction to the outbreak of inter-
the Philippines. There was no change in the operational scope in communal violence in Kyrgyzstan. It provided emergency aid to
Myanmar, but a number of difficulties in relations between the tens of thousands of affected civilians and was able to carry out a
authorities and the ICRC in Sri Lanka prompted the former to range of protection activities, including visits to people detained in
request the closure of ICRC offices in the north of the country. relation to these events.

Elsewhere in Asia, ICRC delegations, notably in Bangkok The ICRC engaged with a range of European Union institutions
(Thailand), Beijing (China), Jakarta (Indonesia), Kuala Lumpur and the Russian Federation on humanitarian perspectives and
(Malaysia), Suva (Fiji) and Tokyo (Japan), invested significantly concerns worldwide.
in efforts to deepen their dialogue and interaction with authori-
ties and key national and regional institutions. The focus was on
exchanges regarding IHL and the conduct of humanitarian action.

100
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

The year saw a very significant widening of the ICRC’s range of


activities and presence in Iraq. The ICRC shifted its detention-
related activities from detainees mainly under US authority to
those mainly under Iraqi authority. The extent of access was a
welcome element. Assistance activities focused particularly on
households headed by women, displaced and resident popula-
tions and disabled people, notably in Baghdad and in parts of the
country known as “disputed areas”. While the country concluded
the prolonged phase of government formation and economic
investment started in a number of regions, the number of civilian
casualties resulting from both random and targeted acts of
violence remained high compared with many other contexts
where the ICRC operated in 2010.

The activities in Israel and the occupied territories, including the


occupied Palestinian territory, remained substantial in 2010. They
focused on ensuring respect for IHL, in particular regarding the
protection of civilians under occupation. The ICRC monitored
the welfare of detainees held by Israeli and Palestinian authorities
and provided assistance to the Palestinian population in a range
of ways, including medical support to hospitals, emergency
preparedness with the Palestine Red Crescent Society, livelihood
support and water and sanitation projects, particularly in Gaza.
The ICRC on several occasions called for the lifting of the closure
of Gaza, describing it as amounting to collective punishment of
the population in the Strip. It also continued to call on the Hamas
Movement to grant ICRC delegates access to an Israeli soldier
detained since his capture in June 2006 and, at the very least, to
allow it to forward an RCM to him.

The ICRC operation in Yemen continued to expand in response


to persistent instability in the north, where the ICRC was the only
international humanitarian organization with a permanent pres-
ence, covering the provinces of Amran and Sa’ada. Together with
the Yemen Red Crescent Society, it provided medical supplies, food
and water to some 100,000 displaced people. Apart from assisting
victims of conflict, the ICRC and the Yemen Red Crescent helped
separated family members stay in touch. Anxious families, for
example, were able to contact relatives held in Afghanistan, Iraq
and at the US internment facility at Guantanamo Bay, through
RCMs and phone calls. Refugees and asylum seekers in Yemen
were offered the same services. In a welcome development, after
an interruption of several years the ICRC was able to resume visits
to detainees in Yemen in July 2010, to assess their treatment and
conditions of detention. The findings and recommendations were
shared confidentially with the detaining authorities, in line with
standard ICRC procedure.

101
ICRC OPERATIONS IN 2010:
A FEW FACTS, FIGURES AND RESULTS
PRESENCE PERSONNEL

In 2010, the ICRC was present in more than 80 countries through The average number of ICRC staff in 2010 was as follows:
delegations, sub-delegations, offices and missions. Its delegations
and missions were distributed throughout the world as follows: Headquarters: 840

Field: expatriates
Africa 27
Expatriates 1,353
Asia and the Pacific 15
National Society staff 122
Europe and the Americas 26
National staff on temporary mission 25
Middle East and North Africa 12
Field: national staff 9,817
Field: total1 11,317
Final total 12,157

1. This figure does not include an average of 1,162 daily workers hired by the ICRC in the field

FINANCE

ICRC expenditure in 2010 In million CHF USD EUR

Headquarters 176.2 169.7 127.8


Field 999.5 962.9 725.1
The sub-total comes to CHF 1,175.6 million, from which field overheads (CHF 60.9 million) must be deducted in order to reach the final total.
Final total 1,114.8 1,074.0 808.7
Exchange rates: USD 1.00 = CHF 1.0380; EUR 1.00 = CHF 1.3785

10 largest operations in 2010 in terms of expenditure In million CHF USD EUR

1 Pakistan 122.5 118.0 88.9


2 Afghanistan 76.5 73.7 55.5
3 Iraq 71.3 68.7 51.7
4 Sudan 70.4 67.8 51.1
5 Somalia 66.8 64.3 48.4
6 Israel and the Occupied Territories 60.9 58.6 44.2
7 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 57.0 54.9 41.3
8 Colombia 36.3 35.0 26.3
9 Tashkent (regional) 34.8 33.6 25.3
10 Yemen 31.4 30.2 22.8
Exchange rates: USD 1.00 = CHF 1.0380; EUR 1.00 = CHF 1.3785

102
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

VISITS TO DETAINEES It relayed 3,053 official documents of various types between


family members across borders and front lines.
ICRC delegates visited 500,928 detainees, 30,674 of whom were
monitored individually (1,081 women; 937 minors), held in A total of 832,754 people contacted ICRC offices worldwide for ser-
1,783 places of detention in 71 countries and in 5 different inter- vices or advice regarding issues related to protection and family links.
national courts. Of this number, 14,783 detainees (378 women;
750 minors) were registered and visited for the first time in 2010.
ASSISTANCE
With support provided by the ICRC, 17,948 detainees benefited
from family visits. In 2010, the ICRC ran assistance programmes in 66 countries.
The bulk of the work was carried out in Afghanistan, the Democratic
A total of 19,704 detention attestations were issued. Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Iraq, Israel and the occupied
Palestinian territory, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Mali, Niger, Pakistan,
the Philippines, Somalia, Sudan, Uzbekistan and Yemen.
RESTORING FAMILY LINKS

The ICRC collected 160,338 and distributed 145,114 Red Cross ECONOMIC SECURITY
messages, thus enabling members of families separated as a result of
armed conflict, disturbances or tensions to exchange news. Among During the year, ICRC activities to ensure economic security,
these messages, 30,433 were collected from and 20,982 distributed to many times implemented together with host National Societies,
detainees. In addition, 12,795 phone calls were facilitated between directly benefited households and communities in 54 countries
family members, often between detainees and their relatives. The worldwide. More than 4,937,000 internally displaced people,
ICRC also made 8,325 phone calls to families to inform them of the returnees, residents (in general, people living in rural areas and/
whereabouts of a detained relative visited by its delegates. or areas difficult to reach owing to insecurity and/or lack of infra-
structure) and people deprived of their freedom received aid in
The ICRC registered 1,983 unaccompanied/separated children the form of food and 4,735,000 in the form of essential household
(629 girls), including 614 demobilized children (37 girls) during and hygiene items. Around 40% and 44% of the beneficiaries
2010. Once their families had been located and with the agree- of food and essential household and hygiene items respectively
ment of the children and their relatives, it organized the reuni- were IDPs, around 25% and 24% respectively were women and
fication of 1,138 children (341 girls) with their families. By the around 48% and 45% respectively children. In addition, some
end of the year, the cases of 1,556 unaccompanied/separated 3,239,000 people (of whom around 33% were IDPs) benefited
children (including 219 demobilized children) were still being from livelihood support through sustainable food-production
handled, which involved tracing their relatives, maintaining programmes or micro-economic initiatives. These included
contacts between the children and their families, organizing fam- various response mechanisms ranging from the rehabilitation of
ily reunification and/or identifying other long-term solutions for traditional irrigation systems to small-scale community-based
the children concerned. cash-for-work and livestock-management/support projects.

The ICRC established the whereabouts of 3,822 people for


whom tracing requests had been filed by their families. The ICRC WATER AND HABITAT
website www.familylinks.icrc.org listed the names of 64,558
people, thus reconnecting them with their relatives and friends. In 2010, ICRC expatriate and national engineers and techni-
At the end of the year, the ICRC was still taking action to locate cians were involved in water, sanitation and construction work in
44,946 people (3,846 women; 4,913 minors at the time of disap- 45 countries. These projects catered to the needs of some
pearance) at the request of their families. 9,928,000 people worldwide (IDPs, returnees, residents – in general,
people living in rural areas and/or areas difficult to reach owing
The ICRC reunited 1,250 people (including 1,138 minors) to insecurity and/or lack of infrastructure – and people deprived
with their families. It organized the transfer or repatriation of of their freedom). Around 29% and 41% of the beneficiaries were
7,283 people, including 158 detainees after their release. women and children respectively.
It also organized the transfer or repatriation of 387 sets of human
remains. It issued travel documents that enabled 4,142 people to
return to their home countries or to settle in a host country.

103
ICRC OPERATIONS IN 2010: A FEW FACTS, FIGURES AND RESULTS

HEALTH CARE SERVICES FORENSIC SERVICES

During the year, the ICRC regularly supported 294 hospitals and During 2010, the ICRC’s forensic services supported field opera-
351 other health care facilities around the world. An estimated tions in more than 50 countries in all regions, to help prevent
5,210,000 people (34% women; 60% children) benefited from and resolve cases of missing persons, including in emergencies.
ICRC-supported health care facilities. Community health pro- Activities consisted mainly of promoting and supporting the
grammes were implemented in 21 countries, in many cases with implementation of forensic best practice for the proper and digni-
National Society participation. fied recovery, management and identification of human remains
in armed conflict, other situations of violence and natural disaster.
More than 17,000 weapon-wounded and 112,000 non-weapon- In addition, a variety of internal and external training, dissemina-
wounded (surgical) patients were admitted to ICRC-supported hos- tion and networking activities, including for National Societies,
pitals in 28 countries where more than 132,000 surgical operations were conducted to build countries’ capacities to deal with the
were performed. In these hospitals, more than 369,000 other problem and to raise general awareness of the issue.
patients were admitted, including 177,017 women and girls receiving
gynaecological/obstetric care. Some 1.23 million people were
treated as outpatients and 3,529 people had their treatment paid ICRC COOPERATION WITH NATIONAL SOCIETIES
for by the ICRC. The ICRC supported 81 first-aid posts located
near combat zones, which provided emergency treatment, mainly The aim of the ICRC’s cooperation with National Societies is to
for weapon-wounded patients. strengthen operational relationships and dialogue with Movement
partners, for the greater benefit of people affected by armed
conflict and other situations of violence.
CARE FOR THE DISABLED
In the vast majority of the countries where the ICRC operates,
ICRC physical rehabilitation technicians provided support to it does so in partnership with National Societies in their own
81 centres in 26 countries, enabling 200,945 patients (including countries and with the support of National Societies working
34,464 women and 56,035 children) to receive services. A total of internationally. Overall, it is estimated that more than one third of
8,692 new patients were fitted with prostheses and 21,077 with the ICRC’s operational activities are carried out in cooperation
orthoses. The centres produced and delivered 20,319 prostheses with the National Society of the country concerned.
(including 2,700 for women and 1,155 for children; 7,405 for
mine victims) and 45,129 orthoses (including 7,497 for women As part of this relationship, the ICRC also contributed to boosting
and 24,894 for children; 492 for mine victims). In addition, the capacity of these National Societies. A total of CHF 78.8 million
2,474 wheelchairs and 29,816 crutches and walking sticks was spent to help National Societies in their own countries in
were distributed, most of them locally manufactured. Training of strengthening their capacity to carry out their own activities and
local staff was a priority in order to ensure sustainable services to partner with the ICRC wherever possible. This included:
for patients.
. CHF 33.9 million for their preparedness and activities
relating to health, relief assistance and reducing
WEAPON CONTAMINATON the impact of weapon contamination on people
. CHF 33.5 million for their work to promote and spread
Throughout the year, the Weapon Contamination Sector provided knowledge of IHL and to support National Societies as
operational support to delegations, National Societies and political members of the Movement network in fully respecting the
authorities in 21 contexts (19 delegations). The Sector also worked Fundamental Principles
with the UN and NGOs to further develop and strengthen interna- . CHF 11.5 million for their work to restore family links,
tional mine-action standards and coordination. including responding to needs resulting from natural disasters,
in conformity with the Restoring Family Links Strategy for
the Movement

104
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

PUBLIC COMMUNICATION RELATIONS WITH WEAPON BEARERS

In 2010, the ICRC’s humanitarian concerns and activities contin- Throughout the year, ICRC delegates met with various weapon
ued to be widely covered by media worldwide. According to the bearers present in conflict zones, from members of the military
Factiva database, which compiles print and online media sources and the police to paramilitary units, armed groups and staff of
worldwide, the ICRC was mentioned more than 14,000 times. private military companies.

The ICRC produced some 71 print and audiovisual products, . 32 specialized ICRC delegates conducted or took part in
including 11 video news items, which were issued to broadcast- more than 100 courses, workshops, round-tables and
ers worldwide, and 20 other video news items and films for use exercises involving some 10,000 military, security and police
with various target groups. The ICRC’s news footage was widely personnel in more than 80 countries; more than 60 military
broadcast all over the world, with nearly 350 news items broadcast officers from 30 countries received ICRC scholarships to
on over 60 channels, including Al Jazeera and BBC World TV. attend 9 military courses on IHL in San Remo
. more than 60 general and senior officers from 50 countries
The ICRC distributed some 590,000 publications and 6,000 copies received ICRC scholarships to attend the Senior Workshop
of films worldwide. on International Rules governing Military Operations
in Lucerne, Switzerland
The ICRC website received some 4.2 million visitors who viewed . the ICRC maintained relations with the armed forces of
about 17 million pages in total. This represents an increase of 160 countries and with nearly 80 armed groups (in some
about 5% in the number of page views (23% more visitors) com- 30 contexts, mostly in non-international armed conflicts)
pared with the previous year. . specialized delegates in Africa, Asia, Europe, and
North America represented the ICRC and observed the
In 2010, more than 200,000 people received real-time ICRC updates implementation of IHL or international human rights law
and stories from the field. thanks to the organization’s presence during some 10 international military exercises
on different social networking, media sharing and micro blogging
sites – such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Scribd, Kaixin,
Weibo, Youku, and a blog. ICRC videos, photos and documents RELATIONS WITH ACADEMIC CIRCLES
published on YouTube, Flickr and Scribd received 650,000 views.
In practically every country covered by the ICRC, university
lecturers in law, international relations and journalism have
STATE PARTICIPATION IN IHL TREATIES incorporated IHL into their teaching. At national level, the ICRC
AND DOMESTIC IMPLEMENTATION supported the teaching of IHL at universities by distributing books
and other teaching materials and co-organizing academic events
The ICRC continued to develop an active dialogue with national on IHL, which addressed the theoretical and practical dimen-
authorities worldwide in order to promote accession to IHL trea- sions of the law, and IHL competitions for students. The ICRC
ties and their domestic implementation. It provided legal and sponsored the participation of academics in key regional and
technical advice to governments. It encouraged and supported international IHL events.
them in their endeavours to establish national interministerial
committees entrusted with the national implementation of IHL. In 2010, the ICRC organized or co-organized:
In 2010, 4 new national committees were created (in Lebanon,
Nigeria, Serbia and Uganda), bringing the total number world- . 15 regional and international IHL training seminars
wide to 98. for academics (4 in Africa; 3 in Asia and the Pacific;
5 in Europe and the Americas; 3 in the Middle East and
The ICRC organized, or contributed to, 37 regional events in rela- North Africa;), involving over 1,000 professors, lecturers
tion to IHL and its incorporation into domestic law, which were and graduate students.
attended by more than 1,100 people from some 153 countries. . 7 regional IHL competitions for students (1 in Africa;
2 in Asia and the Pacific; 4 in Europe and the Americas),
This work contributed to 71 ratifications of IHL treaties (including involving some 360 students and lecturers.
1 of Additional Protocol I, and 3 of Additional Protocol III) by
43 countries and the adoption of 16 pieces of domestic legislation
relating to various IHL treaties in 12 countries.

105
ICRC OPERATIONS IN 2010: A FEW FACTS, FIGURES AND RESULTS

SUPPORTING IHL EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS

Education authorities in 38 countries worldwide received


support from the ICRC to work towards the integration of IHL
education into formal secondary school curricula through its
two programmes. This support aimed to ensure full ownership
by the education authorities and the longer-term sustainability of
the programmes.

In 2010:

. more than 22,000 people consulted the Exploring


Humanitarian Law Virtual Campus, a web-based resource
centre for the programme
. 4 regional conferences on IHL education were organized
(Beijing, Oslo, Sarajevo and Pretoria)
. a global student competition on the theme of youth and
humanitarian action was organized to mark the
60th anniversary of the Geneva Conventions

INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION


MANAGEMENT AND MULTILINGUAL
COMMUNICATION

The ICRC’s Library and Public Archives Unit, managing a collec-


tion of over 150,000 books, periodicals, photos and videos, received
2,743 visitors and handled more than 1,400 requests from National
Societies, NGOs, academia, government departments and the
media. It hosted external researchers for the equivalent of roughly
440 working days.

The ICRC Preservation and Tracing Archives Unit handled


3,280 requests from victims of past armed conflicts while its
Records Management Unit responded to some 650 internal
research requests.

ICRC headquarters received 202 groups totalling some 5,500 visitors


(university students: 48%; secondary school and vocational train-
ing students: 13%; members of armed forces: 11%; National
Society staff and volunteers: 10%; diplomatic community: 9%;
NGOs and religious groups: 5%; and the private sector: 3%).

More than 9 million words were translated, edited and proofread


by translators and editors working for or contracted by the ICRC
through its language service.

106
USER GUIDE:
LAYOUT OF DELEGATION SECTIONS
The sections on each of the field delegations and missions in the Annual
Report have been formatted to facilitate reader access to the information
they contain. Each section comprises the following elements:

1. Map: The country or region showing the ICRC’s presence during


DELEGATION the year. The maps in this publication are for information purposes
only and have no political significance.

EXPENDITURE
2. Mission statement: The ICRC’s reasons for being in the country or
IMPLEMENTATION region and its main activities there.
RATE
MAP
3. Expenditure: Total, and by programme.
PERSONNEL

KEY POINTS 4. Implementation rate: Expenditure divided by yearly budget


multiplied by 100% (indicator).

5. Personnel: The average number of expatriate and national staff


employed over the course of the year.
MISSION
STATEMENT
6. Key points: Up to six major achievements or examples of progress
made by the ICRC or constraints it faced in terms of meeting its
CONTEXT
humanitarian objectives in a given context.
MAIN FIGURES AND INDICATORS
Protection 7. Context: The main developments in a given context and how they
have affected people of concern to the ICRC. This segment
Assistance highlights the elements that the ICRC takes into consideration
when analysing the situation to carry out its humanitarian action.

ICRC ACTION AND RESULTS 8. Main figures and indicators: Two tables providing key output and
by outcome figures relating to ICRC protection and assistance
TARGET POPULATION
programmes in a given context.
Civilians;
People deprived of their freedom;
Wounded and sick;
Authorities; 9. ICRC action and results: A summary of the ICRC action and
Armed forces and other bearers of weapons;
Civil society; results in the given context followed by a description of this action
Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and the results by target population.
Results:
These descriptions follow up objectives and plans of action provided
• stemming from implementation of the plans
of action in ICRC Appeals and Budget Extension Appeals to donors in yearly appeals and budget extension appeals. They
• according to the ICRC's multidisciplinary approach include qualitative and quantitative results (output, outcome and
combining four programmes –
some contributions to impact) and combine activities carried
Protection Assistance Prevention Cooperation
out in the four ICRC programmes, thus illustrating the ICRC’s
multidisciplinary approach.

107
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

Pedram Yazdi/ICRC
DELEGATIONS
Burundi
Central African Republic
Chad
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Eritrea
Ethiopia
African Union
Guinea
Liberia
Nigeria
Rwanda
Somalia
Sudan
Uganda

REGIONAL DELEGATIONS
Abidjan
Dakar
Harare
Nairobi
Niamey
Pretoria
Yaoundé

EXPENDITURE (IN KCHF)


Protection
50,824
Assistance
238,706
Prevention
40,421
Cooperation with National Societies
32,783
General
-

362,734 of which: Overheads 21,934

Implementation rate
89%

108
AFRICA

ICRC delegation ICRC regional delegation ICRC mission

109
INTRODUCTION

AFRICA with the potential to influence an armed conflict or other situation of


violence remained crucial. Much time was spent developing dialogue
In 2010, the ICRC maintained a strong operational presence in with authorities, including incoming administrations, political par-
sub-Saharan Africa (hereafter referred to as Africa), carrying out ties, weapon bearers and civil society. Such dialogue proved essen-
a wide range of activities to protect and assist victims of past and tial in facilitating National Society/ICRC access to people wounded,
present armed conflicts or other situations of violence. To assist detained, displaced or otherwise affected by, for example, election-
people rapidly and effectively, the ICRC remained flexible, adapting related violence in Côte d’Ivoire or fighting in Nigeria’s Niger Delta.
operations to the scale and urgency of needs. The Democratic There and elsewhere, such contacts were an opportunity to impress
Republic of the Congo (DRC), Somalia and Sudan were among upon all parties their responsibility to respect civilians and wounded
the 10 biggest ICRC operations worldwide. In Somalia, one of the and captured fighters under IHL or other applicable law. Delegates
world’s most pressing humanitarian emergencies, armed conflict documented abuses against civilians and, through representations,
intensified in central and southern regions, compounded by nat- urged the alleged perpetrators to end such practices. They addressed,
ural disaster. For its operations there, as well as in northern Mali for example, the recruitment of children by weapon bearers and sex-
and Niger, where drought and flooding devastated stockbreeding ual violence committed against civilians in the DRC.
and crop production in an environment already affected by recent
armed conflict and other situations of violence, the ICRC appealed In many situations, vulnerable people received emergency aid to cover
for funds in addition to its original budget to better respond to their immediate needs. In Somalia, for instance, some 679,000 people
people’s emergency needs. Elsewhere, for example in Burundi, displaced by armed conflict, natural disaster or both were given tarpau-
Chad and Uganda, it scaled down its presence where the situation lins, blankets and other essentials to ease precarious living conditions,
had stabilized to focus resources on areas facing more urgent needs. with some 430,000 receiving food to sustain them for 2–4 months, as
required. When prolonged drought caused critical water shortages, the
Across Africa, National Societies worked alongside the ICRC on ICRC trucked in water supplies for over 800,000 people in affected
the ground. Their local network allowed humanitarian aid to reach communities for as long as necessary. Other large-scale relief opera-
more people, for example in the DRC, Nigeria, Somalia and Sudan. tions sought to combat the emerging food-security crisis in northern
They received ICRC funds, materials, training and logistical back- Mali and Niger and the impact of insecurity in parts of Sudan and the
up to strengthen their organizational development and capacities Central African Republic, which drove thousands of people from their
to help needy communities in accordance with the Movement’s homes. Aid was directed towards communities hosting IDPs as well as
Fundamental Principles, and to promote these and IHL locally. In the IDPs themselves, thus alleviating strain on local resources.
countries preparing for referenda or elections, such support focused
on contingency planning, as in the south of Sudan. To maximize As appropriate, the ICRC followed up emergency relief with liveli-
the impact of humanitarian efforts, the ICRC coordinated its activi- hood support comprising agricultural, veterinary and/or micro-
ties both with Movement partners and with UN agencies and other economic initiatives designed to suit local skills and resources.
humanitarian actors working in fields of common interest. These aimed to help people regain self-sufficiency while boosting
the local economy in a sustainable manner. For example, in parts
In certain countries, notably in parts of the Central African Republic, of the DRC where the situation had stabilized, longer-term IDPs,
the DRC, northern Mali, Nigeria and Senegal’s Casamance region, returnees and residents were given seed and tools to help kick-start
armed groups, the associated military operations, and intercommu- farming activities, sometimes with food to tide them over until
nal violence contributed to insecurity; in some, banditry and kidnap- the next harvest. There and in impoverished parts of northern
pings constituted an additional hazard for local populations and aid and western Kenya, people received cash assistance to rehabilitate
workers. In some cases, these security constraints limited the ICRC’s local infrastructure, generating employment and improving
direct access to affected people, at times hindering planned initiatives. market access. Crisis-hit pastoralists in Mali and Niger sold their
In order to pursue its assistance activities in such situations while weakest animals to the ICRC, leaving them with a healthy herd
minimizing risks to staff, the ICRC adapted its working approach in and a cash injection with which to buy essentials. Like farmers and
line with procedures developed in recent years in Somalia, putting herders in, for instance, Chad, the DRC and Sudan, they also had
in place working and monitoring methods enabling it to manage its access to veterinary services to help preserve their animals’ health.
operations remotely. On this basis, it was able to assist victims of vio- Households headed by women were among the most vulnerable.
lence and natural disaster in northern Mali and in Niger and, follow- In Casamance and Eritrea, women received support to boost
ing the release in February and March of two ICRC delegates taken market gardening activities, while in Somalia they launched
hostage in 2009 on either side of the Chad/Sudan border, to resume small businesses with ICRC guidance and start-up equipment.
operations in that region, mainly in Darfur (Sudan). Nevertheless,
security constraints slowed ICRC output in these and other areas. In Improvements to water and sanitation facilities, including in areas
Ethiopia, government restrictions continued to impede ICRC access undergoing post-conflict reconstruction, helped ensure vulner-
to conflict-affected people in the Somali Regional State; new restric- able communities had sufficient clean water to meet domestic and
tions further reduced ICRC operations in Eritrea. agricultural needs. Such initiatives were commonly accompanied
by training to encourage sustainable benefits and reduce hygiene-
Against this background, building understanding of ICRC/National associated health risks. In rural Liberia, for instance, ICRC-trained
Society neutrality, impartiality and independence among all those National Society volunteers showed 200 community representatives

110
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

how to maintain water points and promote good hygiene locally. African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, the DRC, Guinea, Madagascar and
In Somalia, communities worked with ICRC specialists, local Zimbabwe, where limited resources hampered adequate meal provi-
contractors and National Society staff to construct or rehabilitate sion, malnourished inmates received supplementary rations and/
water points and rainwater reservoirs in 10 drought-prone regions, or nutritional supplements, helping stabilize morbidity and mortal-
benefiting some 170,500 farmers, nomads and their livestock. ity rates. In parallel, the ICRC worked with the authorities to achieve
long-term improvements to prison food standards and health care.
To enhance access to primary health care in volatile or remote For example, the Guinean and Ivorian authorities received advice on
areas, the ICRC provided health centres with supplies, equipment, recommended nutritional intake and support in briefing caterers, and
staff training and logistical and structural support as needed. For the Zimbabwe Prison Services benefited from support and agricul-
example, to combat rising malnutrition in Somalia, it boosted tural inputs to increase food production in on-site farms and to enable
its support for National Society health centres, which launched inmates to grow their own food. In Rwanda, the authorities monitored
11 further therapeutic feeding programmes for malnourished prison health data using a system established in 2009 with ICRC input,
children. In the DRC, victims of sexual violence continued to enabling them to identify and address epidemics.
receive psychological support at ICRC-backed counselling cen-
tres, including five temporary centres established to respond to Across Africa, detainees as well as people dispersed by migration,
a surge in needs. As planned, the ICRC handed over responsibil- armed conflicts or other crises regained or maintained contact
ity to the authorities for health centres and a referral hospital in with relatives worldwide through the family-links service run by
Uganda, and gradually withdrew its support for rural structures in the National Societies and the ICRC. As a priority, unaccompa-
Zimbabwe, providing training to smooth the transition. nied children and those separated from their families were put
back in touch and, where appropriate, reunited with their parents.
By furnishing support to hospitals and physical rehabilitation cen- To ensure the relevance of such services, National Society teams,
tres, the ICRC helped ensure weapon-wounded patients received with ICRC training, carried out assessments of family-links needs
adequate care. Hospitals benefited from ICRC funds, supplies, in Ethiopia, Guinea, Liberia and Senegal. With similar support,
staff training and improvements to infrastructure. To build surgi- the Burundi Red Cross extended its family-links services to nine
cal capacities, personnel from Mali, Niger, Senegal and Somalia provinces, up from three in 2009.
participated in ICRC war-surgery seminars. In countries at risk of
election-related violence, ICRC delegates helped hospitals review IHL promotion remained a key aspect of ICRC activities in Africa.
their contingency plans in coordination with National Society per- The ICRC engaged in dialogue on IHL and humanitarian issues
sonnel. National Societies in Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea and with the national and regional authorities concerned, lent gov-
Sudan, among others, upgraded their first-aid skills with ICRC ernments its expertise for the ratification of IHL treaties and the
training. When violence flared in Guinea, the National Society adoption of the relevant national laws, and sponsored the par-
swiftly deployed to treat the injured, transferring seriously wounded ticipation of officials in IHL events abroad. It signed cooperation
people to hospitals as planned. To provide victims of mines/ agreements with the Economic Community of Central African
explosive remnants of war and other disabled people with readier States and the Parliament of the Economic Community of West
access to quality limb-fitting and physical rehabilitation services, the African States (ECOWAS) to advance national IHL implementa-
ICRC began equipping a newly constructed prosthetic/orthotic centre tion among member States. Such efforts contributed, in particu-
in Guinea-Bissau and launched two new partnerships with such lar, to wider support for the African Union (AU) Convention on
service providers in Burundi and Niger. It continued to support IDPs and the Convention on Cluster Munitions, ratified by two
similar centres in Chad, the DRC, Ethiopia, Sudan and Uganda. and seven African countries respectively during the year. Armed,
security and police forces worked with the ICRC to incorporate
Delegates visited detainees in 25 countries in accordance with stand- IHL, international human rights law and humanitarian principles
ard ICRC procedures, monitoring their treatment and living condi- into their training, doctrine and operations. In particular, the ICRC
tions and sharing their findings confidentially with the authorities. trained Guinean security forces at the authorities’ request in prepara-
Following discussions with the authorities, the ICRC obtained authori- tion for elections, and briefed a newly established Chadian-Sudanese
zation to visit detainees in Gabon for the first time, regained systematic frontier force on IHL. At regional level, peacekeepers deployed on
access to detainees in Mali, and was able to visit additional detention the continent and other forces received similar briefings, including
facilities in Equatorial Guinea. Despite efforts, by year-end it had not trainees at the Southern African Development Community Regional
obtained systematic access to detainees falling within its mandate in Peacekeeping Training Centre. Brigades attached to the AU and
some other countries, including Ethiopia, Gambia and Sudan. Acting ECOWAS practised applying IHL during training exercises.
as a neutral intermediary and with the agreement of all the parties, the
ICRC facilitated the release and handover to the relevant authorities Backing up such activities, delegations across Africa worked with
of people held by armed groups in the DRC and Sudan. Furthermore, National Societies on tailored initiatives to increase awareness of
delegates worked with the authorities to help ensure detainees’ con- and support for the Movement, IHL and humanitarian issues among
ditions met internationally recognized standards, providing advice, influential civil society players and the wider public. They worked
training prison personnel and, in urgent cases, stepping in, for example with media representatives to encourage quality humanitarian report-
to renovate dilapidated water and sanitation infrastructure, facilitate ing, engaged in dialogue with religious and traditional leaders to build
medical treatment or provide basic hygiene items. In Chad, the Central mutual understanding, and stimulated IHL study in academic circles.

111
BURUNDI
EXPENDITURE (IN KCHF)
Protection 2,149
Assistance 3,571
Prevention 902
Cooperation with National Societies 744
General -
. 7,366
of which: Overheads 449

IMPLEMENTATION RATE
Expenditure/yearly budget 93%

PERSONNEL
Expatriates 19
National staff 109
(daily workers not included)

KEY POINTS
In 2010, the ICRC:
. entered the final stages of rehabilitation
work aimed at improving access to
clean water
. helped improve detainees’ living
conditions, including by partially
funding the supply of drugs and medical
equipment to prison health services,
rehabilitating vital infrastructure and
distributing hygiene items
. launched a partnership with a physical
rehabilitation centre to improve services
for disabled patients and fit them with
affordable prosthetic and orthotic
devices produced on-site
. supported the Burundi Red Cross in
preparing a contingency plan to respond
to needs in the event of election-related
violence and in extending from 3 to
9 the number of provinces where it
provided RCM services autonomously

The ICRC has been present in Burundi since 1999, focusing on helping people overcome
the worst consequences of armed conflict. Owing to the progress in the peace process,
ICRC assistance activities have been scaled down and now focus on working with
the prison authorities to ensure that detainees are treated according to internationally
recognized standards. The ICRC also reinforces physical rehabilitation services, supports
the Burundi Red Cross, notably in restoring links between separated family members,
and provides assistance to the armed forces in their efforts to train members in IHL.

112
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

CONTEXT With UN support, the government completed a national consul-


tation process to help establish a transitional justice mechanism.
While Burundi was on the road to peace, tensions persisted and A final report was published in December.
key issues remained to be resolved, including the social reintegra-
tion of weapon bearers who had not been incorporated into the Burundi remained reliant on international support and continued
armed and security forces. The large number of weapons in circu- to suffer from poverty and underdevelopment. Rapid population
lation compounded the country’s fragile security situation. growth, driven not only by high birth rates but also by the return
of former refugees from neighbouring countries, fuelled tensions
The incumbent party in Burundi won elections comprising five over access to land.
polls between May and September. All opposition candidates
withdrew prior to the presidential race, alleging fraud.

MAIN FIGURES AND INDICATORS

PROTECTION
CIVILIANS (residents, IDPs, returnees, etc.)
Red Cross messages Total UAMs/SCs*
RCMs collected 2,164 10
RCMs distributed 2,179 9
Reunifications, transfers and repatriations Total
People reunited with their families 9
including people registered by another delegation 6
People transferred/repatriated 5
Tracing requests, including cases of missing persons Total Women Minors
People for whom a tracing request was newly registered 93 21 53
People located (tracing cases closed positively) 112
including people for whom tracing requests were registered by another delegation 13
Tracing cases still being handled at 31 December 2010 (people) 71 18 38
Demobilized
UAMs/SCs,* including unaccompanied demobilized child soldiers Total Girls
children
UAMs/SCs newly registered by the ICRC/National Society 8 4
UAMs/SCs reunited with their families by the ICRC/National Society 9 1 1
including UAMs/SCs registered by another delegation 6
UAM/SC cases still being handled by the ICRC/National Society at 31 December 2010 21 11
Documents
People to whom travel documents were issued 2
Official documents relayed between family members across borders/front lines 1
PEOPLE DEPRIVED OF THEIR FREEDOM (All categories/all statuses)
ICRC visits Total Women Minors
Detainees visited 11,245
Detainees visited and monitored individually 616 29 25
Detainees newly registered 526 28 22
Number of visits carried out 230
Number of places of detention visited 47
Restoring family links Total
RCMs collected 109
RCMs distributed 137
People to whom a detention attestation was issued 7
* Unaccompanied minors/separated children

ASSISTANCE
CIVILIANS (residents, IDPs, returnees, etc.)
Economic security, water and habitat Total Women Children
Water and habitat activities Beneficiaries 248,000 28% 45%
of whom IDPs Beneficiaries 4,960
PEOPLE DEPRIVED OF THEIR FREEDOM (All categories/all statuses)
Economic security, water and habitat
Essential household items Beneficiaries 3,413
Water and habitat activities Beneficiaries 5,100

113
BUR UNDI

MAIN FIGURES AND INDICATORS

ASSISTANCE
WOUNDED AND SICK
Physical rehabilitation Total Women Children
Centres supported Structures 1
Patients receiving services Patients 2,232 75 2,056
New patients fitted with prostheses Patients 1
Prostheses delivered Units 3 2
New patients fitted with orthoses Patients 129 2 122
Orthoses delivered Units 213 3 203
of which for victims of mines or explosive remnants of war Units 1
Crutches delivered Units 16

ICRC ACTION AND RESULTS In efforts to further integrate IHL into national law and military
doctrine, the ICRC fostered contacts with the relevant authorities
In 2010, the ICRC continued to focus on improving the living con- and offered them legal expertise and support, for example by pro-
ditions of detainees and assisting people affected by past conflict. viding the government with a draft model law to implement the
With the Burundi Red Cross, it stood ready to respond quickly Convention on Cluster Munitions and by devising a strategy with
and effectively to emergency needs if violence broke out. Given the Defence Ministry to incorporate IHL into military doctrine.
advancements in the peace process and the country’s relative
stability, it closed its final two structures outside Bujumbura – the As part of wider efforts to improve understanding of and respect
Gitega sub-delegation and the Ngozi office. for basic humanitarian principles, the ICRC strengthened its
dialogue with political and military authorities countrywide.
Delegates visited detainees in places of permanent and temporary Delegates briefed army officers in Burundi’s five military regions
detention and monitored their treatment and living conditions, on the Movement’s neutral, impartial and independent approach
sharing their findings and, if necessary, recommendations confi- in order to facilitate safe access of its personnel to people in need.
dentially with the authorities. After receiving one written report,
the judiciary took steps to improve case file management, with In parallel, Burundi Red Cross communication teams received
a view to speeding up the trial process. The ICRC also provided support to promote widespread understanding of the Movement’s
financial, material and technical assistance to help improve mandate. Emergency response brigades put in place a compre-
inmates’ living conditions, including by partially funding the hensive contingency plan enabling the National Society to provide
supply of drugs to prison dispensaries, upgrading water, sanitation first aid as needed, using the Safer Access approach.
and kitchen facilities and distributing hygiene items.
Movement partners met regularly to coordinate their activities
In rural and urban communities, the ICRC continued to work and their support to the Burundi Red Cross.
with water boards to improve water supply systems. Maintenance
courses for local personnel helped ensure the sustainability of water
facilities rehabilitated in rural areas. Projects to upgrade water CIVILIANS
distribution networks in urban areas were nearing completion.
Communities enjoy safer and more abundant water supplies
To enhance the quality of care for disabled people, the delegation Some 248,000 people living in areas where water facilities had dete-
launched a partnership with the Saint Kizito physical rehabilita- riorated or been destroyed by past conflict faced fewer health risks
tion centre in Bujumbura, detailing a plan of action to renovate after the ICRC, in close partnership with local water boards or the
prosthetic/orthotic workshops and begin producing affordable users themselves, repaired, extended and maintained permanent
devices. Work to this effect was well under way by year-end. water supplies. In rural communities, people had improved access
to safe water thanks to restored water points and newly protected
Family members dispersed within or across national borders springs. In the city of Rumonge, residents saw improvements in
restored contact through tracing and RCM services provided by water quality and quantity following the upgrading of the water
the ICRC and the Burundi Red Cross. With ICRC training and production, storage and distribution networks. Similar works in
equipment, the National Society extended its self-run RCM net- Cibitoke were scheduled for completion in 2011. Local committees
work from three to nine provinces, with the intention of eventually and water board personnel continued to build on their maintenance
expanding these activities countrywide. Where appropriate, skills during ICRC training sessions, including a two-week course
the delegation reunited unaccompanied children, including in hydraulics for 12 technical staff of the urban water and electricity
demobilized child soldiers, with their families. board, to secure the long-term sustainability of water facilities
rehabilitated since 2004. Where necessary, trained maintenance
personnel and the ICRC carried out repairs on the spot.

114
ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

National Society personnel underwent training to develop their Detainees, meanwhile, received the medical attention they needed
emergency water and sanitation response capacities, but the after prison dispensaries were reimbursed for 80% of the costs of
relative stability meant that emergency supplies of water and basic medicines by the ICRC, which also fully financed the treat-
essential household items were not needed. ment of serious medical cases and supported four public health
centres treating people held in places of temporary detention.
Separated relatives restore contact In parallel, the prison health authorities and relevant NGOs
Family members dispersed while fleeing past fighting, includ- received technical, material and financial support to work towards
ing Burundian refugees returning from the United Republic of ensuring that inmates had access to preventive and curative treat-
Tanzania and Congolese and Rwandan refugees living in camps in ment services for malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.
Burundi, restored contact through the tracing and RCM services
run by the ICRC and the Burundi Red Cross. With ICRC train- Some 5,100 inmates in places of permanent and temporary deten-
ing and equipment, the National Society was able to collect and tion faced fewer health risks thanks to upgraded water, sanitation,
distribute RCMs autonomously in nine provinces, compared with kitchen and storage facilities. Prison sanitation teams received
three in 2009 (see Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement). technical support to carry out pest-control campaigns, further
reducing the risk of an outbreak of disease. Detainees also got soap
Nine unaccompanied children, including one demobilized child and other hygiene items for personal use.
soldier, were reunited with their families in Burundi and abroad,
for which purpose coordination with other humanitarian and referral
organizations was paramount. Reunited families received visits WOUNDED AND SICK
from delegates, and children were provided with basic essentials,
where needed, to facilitate their reintegration. In June, the Saint Kizito physical rehabilitation centre in
Bujumbura and the ICRC signed an agreement detailing a three-
year plan of action to improve the quality of services for physi-
PEOPLE DEPRIVED OF THEIR FREEDOM cally disabled people. By year-end, work was well under way to
renovate the physiotherapy department and prosthetic/orthotic
Some 11,200 detainees in places of permanent and temporary workshops and to build a dormitory to accommodate patients
detention received regular visits, conducted in accordance with the living far away from the centre. Personnel making prostheses and
ICRC’s standard procedures, enabling delegates to monitor their orthoses received the necessary machinery and components to
treatment and living conditions. Security detainees, including produce more reliable and affordable devices on-site, using the
those arrested during the electoral period, were followed up ICRC’s polypropylene technology.
individually. Particular attention was also paid to the situation of
vulnerable inmates, such as women and children. People injured during sporadic incidents of violence received first
aid from the Burundi Red Cross, with ICRC support (see Red
After the visits, the authorities received confidential feedback and Cross and Red Crescent Movement), but pre-positioned medical
written reports from the delegation including, if necessary, recom- supplies were not required.
mendations for improvements. Following one such report, central
and local judicial authorities took practical steps to improve the
file management of pre-trial cases, with the aim of speeding up the AUTHORITIES
trial process and thus alleviating overcrowding. Prison authorities
and the ICRC explored other ways to improve respect for judicial To cultivate respect for basic humanitarian principles and garner
guarantees, often on the basis of lists of cases of concern drawn support for the ICRC and the Burundi Red Cross, national and
up by the delegation. Plans to publish a brochure for inmates local authorities countrywide were reminded during meetings
on the subject were shelved when the delegation’s partner NGO and presentations of customary and treaty-based IHL princi-
suspended its activities. ples. Representatives of regional and international organizations
and the ICRC met regularly to exchange information on their
Through the RCM service, detainees restored and maintained respective activities.
contact with their relatives in Burundi and abroad.
The relevant national authorities were encouraged and offered
Detainees’ living conditions improve legal expertise to establish a national IHL committee and ratify
The prison authorities and government ministries continued IHL treaties, such as Additional Protocol III. To this end,
to work with the ICRC to bring detention conditions in line Burundian representatives, with ICRC sponsorship, participated
with internationally recognized standards. The authorities were in the first regional meeting on customary IHL (see Yaoundé)
reminded of the need to increase the prison service budget and and the third Universal Meeting of National IHL Committees in
create a budget line for places of temporary detention to meet Geneva, Switzerland (see International Law and Cooperation).
detainees’ basic needs. They planned to start a campaign with the To assist it in implementing the Convention on Cluster Munitions,
delegation to galvanize international support to this effect. which Burundi ratified in 2009, the government received a draft
model law.

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ARMED FORCES AND OTHER BEARERS OF WEAPONS RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT MOVEMENT

To promote respect for IHL and support for the Movement, With the support of the International Federation, National
particularly in the run-up to the elections, information sessions Societies working internationally and the ICRC, and in coordina-
were held for army and police officers on basic humanitar- tion with the Burundi Civil Defence, the Burundi Red Cross put in
ian principles and the mandates and activities of the ICRC and place a comprehensive contingency plan to respond to the needs of
the National Society. Participants included some 270 officers people affected by potential election-related violence. Volunteers
responsible for maintaining law and order in 5 military regions countrywide, including 160 personnel in 8 emergency units from
during the elections and nearly 100 officers preparing to depart on higher-risk provinces, were trained or refreshed their skills in first
African Union peacekeeping missions. aid and the Safer Access approach. Meanwhile, 30 emergency
response brigades received medical supplies and first-aid materials
As part of ongoing efforts to integrate IHL into military training, during each of the 5 polls. On several occasions, trained volun-
officials at Burundi’s military academy held a workshop on IHL teers assisted the national authorities in administering first aid to
with the ICRC, during which they explored ways of introducing IHL injured people, and they remained ready to provide emergency
in military exercises. Academy instructors were better equipped water supplies in case of need (see Civilians).
to teach IHL after receiving specialized publications. In parallel,
the Ministry of Defence and the ICRC signed a formal agree- In parallel, key National Society personnel throughout Burundi
ment outlining a strategy and joint plan of action to work towards participated in courses to strengthen their skills in promoting
incorporating IHL into military doctrine and training in 2011. One the Fundamental Principles. They received materials in the local
commander began by participating in a workshop abroad. languages to foster widespread understanding of the Movement’s
mandate and recognition of its emblems, thus facilitating safe
access of its personnel to vulnerable people. Communication
CIVIL SOCIETY teams raised public awareness of the National Society’s activities
and achievements through a monthly electronic newsletter and a
Influential members of civil society, including journalists and biannual magazine.
religious and traditional leaders, learnt more about humanitarian
issues during a series of presentations and bilateral discussions, By year-end, within the framework of the Restoring Family Links
better placing them to raise public awareness of and support Strategy for the Movement, the Burundi Red Cross was collect-
for the Movement’s work. A media workshop was not held ing and distributing RCMs autonomously in nine provinces,
as planned, but journalists continued to cover the Movement’s compared with three in 2009. To do so, 24 volunteers participated
activities, drawing on press releases and promotional materials in ICRC-organized training and refresher courses, and 32 new
provided by the ICRC. volunteers were trained with a view to eventually expanding these
services countrywide. Six branch offices also received technical
Students from public and private universities conducted research and financial support and equipment to carry out their work.
on IHL at the delegation’s library, and two universities requested
and received complete sets of IHL reference books. A new network Movement partners met regularly to coordinate their activities and
of IHL lecturers was created following an ICRC meeting with help strengthen the National Society’s decentralized structures.
five universities on improving IHL instruction, and two lecturers
boosted their teaching skills at an IHL conference in Senegal,
with ICRC sponsorship (see Dakar). Owing to a lack of availability
of key stakeholders, a planned inter-university IHL competition
did not take place.

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EXPENDITURE (IN KCHF)
Protection 1,405
Assistance 10,959
Prevention 1,506
Cooperation with National Societies 1,289
General -
. 15,158
of which: Overheads 925

IMPLEMENTATION RATE
Expenditure/yearly budget 98%

PERSONNEL
Expatriates 28
National staff 126
(daily workers not included)

KEY POINTS
In 2010, the ICRC:
. expanded its activities in the south-east
to help meet the emergency needs of
over 40,000 newly displaced people,
vulnerable residents and refugees
affected by the ongoing presence of
an armed group in the region
. reinforced the capacities of the Central
African Red Cross Society to respond to
emergencies, as part of wider efforts to
improve the Movement’s humanitarian
access in remote areas
. helped nearly 180,000 people in the
north to start rebuilding their lives,
through agricultural, water, sanitation
and reconstruction activities and a range
of micro-economic initiatives
. strengthened contacts with parties to
the conflict whenever possible, notably
by briefing over 2,300 weapon bearers
in the field
The ICRC opened a delegation in the Central African Republic in 2007 in the context
. reunited 18 children, including
of the non-international armed conflict in the north, but has carried out activities in 10 who had reportedly escaped from
the country since 1983. It protects and assists people affected by armed conflict or other or been freed by armed groups,
situations of violence, providing emergency aid, helping people restore their livelihoods, with their families

and rehabilitating water and sanitation facilities. It also visits detainees, restores links . contributed to a sharp decline in
malnutrition among inmates in one
between family members separated by conflict, promotes IHL among the authorities,
prison, while regularly monitoring
armed forces, armed groups and civil society, and supports the development of the Central the general health of detainees during
African Red Cross Society. visits to detention facilities

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CONTEXT towns, where most of the rural population had fled following
attacks. Meanwhile, the Uganda People’s Defence Force continued
The situation in the Central African Republic (CAR) remained to carry out military operations against the LRA (see Uganda).
volatile, with improved security in some regions offset by fresh
violence in others. In the north, the disarmament, demobiliza- A number of foreign troops and peacekeeping forces remained in
tion and reintegration of armed groups progressed slowly, while the country. The mandate of the UN Mission in the CAR ended
fighters in the north-east refused to disarm, citing insecurity as the on 31 December 2010, by which time all troops had withdrawn.
main reason for keeping their weapons. IDPs returned home to
parts of the north-west where security had improved, but ongoing Presidential and parliamentary elections were postponed, and the
violence, military clashes, banditry and looting remained com- National Assembly passed a constitutional amendment allowing
mon elsewhere. This continued to drive people from their homes the president to remain in power until the polls took place.
and limited the movement of humanitarian organizations. In the
south-east, the ongoing presence of the Lord’s Resistance Army The Central African Economic and Monetary Community
(LRA) contributed to a deterioration of the security situation (CEMAC) held its 10th Summit of Heads of State in Bangui,
throughout the year, confining humanitarian action to the main aimed at strengthening regional cooperation.

MAIN FIGURES AND INDICATORS

PROTECTION
CIVILIANS (residents, IDPs, returnees, etc.)
Red Cross messages Total UAMs/SCs*
RCMs collected 139 14
RCMs distributed 346 4
Reunifications, transfers and repatriations Total
People reunited with their families 23
including people registered by another delegation 6
People transferred/repatriated 2
Tracing requests, including cases of missing persons Total Women Minors
People for whom a tracing request was newly registered 2 1
People located (tracing cases closed positively) 25
including people for whom tracing requests were registered by another delegation 21
Tracing cases still being handled at 31 December 2010 (people) 2 1
Demobilized
UAMs/SCs,* including unaccompanied demobilized child soldiers Total Girls
children
UAMs/SCs newly registered by the ICRC/National Society 21 10 14
UAMs/SCs reunited with their families by the ICRC/National Society 18 7 10
including UAMs/SCs registered by another delegation 5
UAM/SC cases still being handled by the ICRC/National Society at 31 December 2010 8 4 4
Documents
People to whom travel documents were issued 6
PEOPLE DEPRIVED OF THEIR FREEDOM (All categories/all statuses)
ICRC visits Total Women Minors
Detainees visited 1,557
Detainees visited and monitored individually 79 6 4
Detainees newly registered 61 6 4
Number of visits carried out 156
Number of places of detention visited 49
Restoring family links Total
RCMs collected 12
RCMs distributed 3
* Unaccompanied minors/separated children

ASSISTANCE
CIVILIANS (residents, IDPs, returnees, etc.)
Economic security, water and habitat Total Women Children
Food Beneficiaries 76,203 30% 50%
of whom IDPs Beneficiaries 76,203
Essential household items Beneficiaries 16,171 26% 54%
of whom IDPs Beneficiaries 4,525
Agricultural, veterinary and other micro-economic initiatives Beneficiaries 44,551 30% 50%
Water and habitat activities Beneficiaries 134,647 30% 40%
of whom IDPs Beneficiaries 13,465

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ICRC ANNUAL REPORT 2010

MAIN FIGURES AND INDICATORS

ASSISTANCE
PEOPLE DEPRIVED OF THEIR FREEDOM (All categories/all statuses)
Economic security, water and habitat Total Women Children
Food Beneficiaries 63
Essential household items Beneficiaries 1,176
Water and habitat activities Beneficiaries 240

ICRC ACTION AND RESULTS the armed forces in integrating IHL into its doctrine, training and
operations and sponsored several personnel to enhance their skills
The ICRC, together with the Central African Red Cross Society, at courses abroad.
focused on assisting people affected by armed conflict or other
situations of violence in the CAR. Security constraints prevented With ICRC financial, technical and material support, the Central
the delegation from working in parts of the Vakaga region, so only African Red Cross continued to develop its emergency response
limited assistance to the inhabitants of Birao town was possible. capacities and its ability to promote IHL and the Movement
among a broad audience. Notably, the National Society was in
People uprooted by fighting and their host communities received a better position to assist conflict-affected people during ICRC
essential household items and food rations to help them cope. The relief operations in the south-east after building a new office in
ICRC and the Central African Red Cross scaled up such assistance the region.
in the south-east, in response to a worsening security situation
there. To help ensure protection of civilians and gain safe access By coordinating closely with Movement partners and other human-
of aid workers to people in need, the ICRC briefed members of the itarian actors working in the CAR, the ICRC helped ensure that the
armed forces and armed groups in the field, whenever possible, as needs of vulnerable populations were met without duplication.
well as a number of local authorities and influential community
leaders, on basic humanitarian principles and the Movement. In
more stable areas, the delegation supplied vulnerable residents and CIVILIANS
returning IDPs with a combination of seed, tools, draft animals
and training in agricultural techniques to enable them to grow Violence and looting continued to affect populations in several
their own food. Others increased their income through a range of regions, with civilians reportedly killed, wounded or abducted,
micro-economic initiatives. Returnees were given materials and particularly in the south-east. A number of people in conflict-
training to build or repair their homes. To reduce health risks, affected areas approached the ICRC to make allegations of IHL
the ICRC constructed or rehabilitated water points and latrines violations. These were documented and formed the basis of confi-
in villages, while ICRC-trained National Society volunteers con- dential oral and written representations to the parties concerned.
ducted sessions for villagers on good hygiene practices. Whenever feasible, the delegation strengthened contacts with
weapon bearers, reminding them of their responsibilities under
People displaced by violence restored contact with family in the IHL to protect civilians. Such dialogue had the aim of gaining safe
CAR and abroad through the tracing and RCM services run by the access to people in need and preventing further abuses.
National Society and the ICRC. Where possible and appropriate,
the ICRC reunited children, including demobilized child soldiers, Conflict-affected families receive emergency relief
with their families. In parts of the north and south-east, thousands of people fled their
homes as a result of armed clashes, banditry and ethnic tensions.
Delegates visited security detainees held in places of detention Most sought refuge in town centres or outlying bush and often
throughout the country, monitoring their treatment and general had few or no belongings. To help IDPs cope during their first few
living conditions and sharing the findings and recommendations months of displacement and to alleviate some of the strain placed on
confidentially with the authorities. As the penitentiary adminis- host communities, over 66,700 people (19,250 households) received
tration often lacked the necessary resources, the ICRC provided one-off food rations and almost 16,200 people (3,300 households)
financial, technical and material support to improve inmates’ got by with essential household items. Those assisted included
nutrition, health and hygiene. With the authorities’ consent, the over 40,000 IDPs and Congolese refugees in the south-east, where
delegation also approached other organizations and donors for food distributions were scaled up following a deterioration of the
support in helping the CAR rebuild its penal and judicial systems. security situation during the year that sharply reduced agricultural
production. Resident farmers there also got a one-off food ration
The ICRC strengthened its dialogue with the national and mili- to tide them and their families (nearly 9,500 people) over until the
tary authorities while offering legal expertise to the relevant min- harvest. Whenever possible, trained Central African Red Cross vol-
istries in implementing humanitarian treaties and in creating a unteers worked alongside ICRC delegates during food distributions,
permanent national IHL committee. The delegation also assisted reinforcing their operational capacities.

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Returnees and vulnerable residents assisted IDPs, residents and returnees. Hospitals also received ad hoc sup-
in restoring their livelihoods plies of drugs and medical supplies to help ensure people wounded
In northern areas where the security situation had improved, IDPs during violence received appropriate treatment.
returning home found that little remained of their previous lives,
and residents were struggling to make ends meet. During the year, Family members separated by conflict reconnect
over 44,500 conflict-affected people (nearly 9,000 households) with their relatives
started to get back on their feet thanks to a variety of ICRC Refugees, IDPs and others separated from their families in or
livelihood-support initiatives. Some 300 villagers (20 families) across borders, mostly owing to insecurity in the south-east,
regained access to markets and health centres by means of ICRC- restored and maintained contact with relatives using the tracing
donated bicycles or pushcarts or began earning a living again and RCM services run by the National Society and the ICRC.
using brick-making kilns and peanut-processing kits. As part of
efforts to revive agricultural activities in the country, more than Eighteen children, ten of whom had reportedly escaped from or
40,000 other residents and returnees (8,800 households) used been freed by armed groups, rejoined their families thanks to the
seed, tools and draft animals to plant and harvest their own coordinated efforts of national authorities, relevant UN agencies
crops again and to generate income. Over a thousand farmers and neighbouring ICRC delegations.
who had received disease-resistant seed from the ICRC in 2009
participated in courses on good farming practices and market-
ing, further boosting the economic security of some 230 families. PEOPLE DEPRIVED OF THEIR FREEDOM
Additionally, some 300 members of farmers’ unions received
seed, tools and draft animals, drawn from resources redirected Across the country, some 1,557 detainees received visits, con-
from a planned seed multiplication initiative for village associa- ducted according to the ICRC’s standard procedures, enabling
tions after an ICRC assessment concluded that the unions had delegates to monitor their treatment and living conditions. Those
more immediate needs. Owing to the volatile security situation in detained in connection with armed conflict or for other reasons
Birao, resources to rehabilitate a veterinary pharmacy were used of State security were followed up individually. Particular atten-
instead to build and stock a new one in the more stable Paoua tion was also paid to the situation of vulnerable detainees, such
region, boosting animal health and thus the livelihoods of some as women and children. Inmates had the opportunity to commu-
3,000 pastoralists. nicate with their families through RCMs. After the visits, the rel-
evant authorities received confidential oral and written feedback
Civilians have improved access to water, on the ICRC’s findings and, where relevant, recommendations.
sanitation and shelter Meanwhile, with the full agreement of the national authorities, the
In parts of the north-west, residents and people returning to their support of other organizations and donors was sought in helping
villages after months or years of displacement had limited access rebuild the CAR’s penal and judicial systems. Dialogue continued
to adequate water, sanitation and shelter. Meanwhile, newly dis- with the government and armed groups to obtain access to all
placed people in the south-east were living in precarious condi- detainees in their custody.
tions. By year-end, nearly 135,000 people in the CAR had benefited
from a range of ICRC initiatives. Because the authorities often lacked the necessary resources, many
detainees suffered from poor health brought on by inadequate
Thus, in support of local water committees, over 17,000 people food, health care and sanitary facilities. Delegates regularly moni-
were able to access a clean water supply after the ICRC dug new tored their general health and nutritional status during visits to
wells and protected natural springs, as did some 42,200 people detention facilities and encouraged the authorities to meet their
living near newly repaired boreholes. Over 57,000 people learnt responsibilities regarding detainees’ welfare. Some 63 inmates in
about good hygiene practices from Central African Red Cross vol- one prison received high-energy dietary supplements and food
unteers trained by the ICRC. To reinforce this initiative, commu- rations, contributing to a sharp decline in malnutrition there.
nities worked with the ICRC to construct additional latrines near Detainees countrywide also had improved access to health care
schools and health facilities, serving over 9,000 people, and nearly in prison dispensaries or nearby public health structures regu-
9,000 families had latrines installed in their homes. In the north- larly supplied with drugs and medical material by the ICRC. To
west, over 7,100 people started to repair or rebuild their destroyed bolster the prison administration’s efforts to improve living con-
homes with ICRC material and technical support. ditions in detention facilities, health personnel received expert
advice in their work, with emphasis, among other things, on the
As an emergency measure in the south-east, some 10,000 IDPs importance of giving inmates access to national HIV/AIDS and
received clean water through an emergency distribution network tuberculosis programmes.
and attended hygiene-promotion sessions conducted by National
Society volunteers. Thanks in part to these initiatives, no major In parallel, detainees were given personal hygiene items, along
outbreak of water-borne diseases was reported. with buckets and jerrycans for cleaning purposes, and partici-
pated in sessions on good hygiene practices conducted by ICRC-
In parallel, health facilities in conflict-affected areas received ICRC trained National Society volunteers. In two detention facilities,
donations of medicines and medical materials to treat vulnerable including the gendarmerie’s main detention centre in Bangui,

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240 inmates enjoyed improved sanitation conditions after the in Bangui was reviewing the status of the integration of IHL into
ICRC rehabilitated latrines, showers, waste-collection systems and its curriculum, and cadets in their final year of study examined
water-storage units. With ICRC technical support, the authorities basic humanitarian principles during an ICRC seminar.
began reorganizing prison water distribution procedures to ensure
that inmates had a more regular supply. Incoming peacekeepers and officers of the Multinational Force in the
CAR participated in pre-deployment sessions on the basic principles
Despite a good harvest in 2009, the authorities in Bossangoa of IHL. They attended refresher sessions in the field, as needed.
prison had trouble managing the market garden launched with
ICRC support in 2007 to boost inmates’ nutritional intake. The
project was therefore suspended. CIVIL SOCIETY

Many influential members of civil society, as well as the general


AUTHORITIES public, were introduced to the ICRC and Central African Red
Cross through a series of national radio broadcasts, press releases
National and local authorities and the ICRC strengthened their and interviews on the Movement’s activities throughout the CAR,
dialogue through regular meetings. Discussions enhanced the such as its work to reunite members of dispersed families in the
authorities’ understanding of humanitarian principles and the south-east.
Movement and reminded them of their responsibilities under IHL.
To further generate support for IHL and the Movement, religious
Meanwhile, the government received legal advice in ratifying and traditional leaders participated in briefings held in areas
IHL treaties, such as Additional Protocol III, and in incorpo- where the ICRC and the National Society worked. During the
rating the relevant provisions into domestic law, for example discussions, the communities shared their knowledge of how sea-
through a draft prison act. The authorities were also supported sonal communal conflicts were triggered, which helped the ICRC
in their ongoing efforts to create a permanent national IHL com- to respond to needs more effectively.
mittee to better implement humanitarian instruments and to
promote the enforcement of existing laws, such as the law govern- Notwithstanding academic strikes in 2009, the CAR’s two main
ing use of the emblem, adopted in 2009. To this end, two mem- educational institutions, including the country’s only public uni-
bers of the ad hoc committee were sponsored to attend the third versity, continued teaching IHL with ICRC support. While a moot
Universal Meeting of National IHL Committees, held in Geneva, court competition was not held as planned, students boosted their
Switzerland (see International Law and Cooperation). With ICRC IHL knowledge during various information sessions, notably a
technical support, the ad hoc committee was also actively involved seminar for 100 public law students. One lecturer sharpened his
in organizing a national workshop on IHL implementation for key teaching skills at an IHL workshop abroad (see Yaoundé) and took
decision-makers. an active role in the national workshop on IHL implementation
(see Authorities).
At the regional level, diplomats, members of the international
community and representatives of the Bangui-based CEMAC met
regularly with the ICRC, enabling the delegation to rally support RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT MOVEMENT
for the Movement, keep abreast of developments in IHL imple-
mentation and provide legal recommendations on draft laws. With ICRC material, financial and technical support, the Central
African Red Cross continued to develop its capacities to respond
to emergencies, restore family links and promote IHL and
ARMED FORCES AND OTHER BEARERS OF WEAPONS the Movement.

Some 760 members of the armed forces and 1,600 other weapon To strengthen its first-aid capacity, the National Society trained
bearers, including those in still active armed groups, learnt about new instructors, organized refresher courses for volunteers, pro-
IHL and the Movement during ICRC presentations. These con- duced instruction manuals, and improved the delivery of materials
tacts also served to encourage respect for civilians and to facilitate to local committees in violence-prone areas. In preparation for the
ICRC/National Society access to people in need. elections, it also drafted a contingency plan, with the ICRC’s help,
which included monitoring and early warning systems.
In parallel, the armed forces received technical support to inte-
grate IHL into their doctrine, training and operations. Thus, one In the south-east, volunteers were fully involved in ICRC-led food
officer was sponsored to attend the fourth Senior Workshop on distributions and water and sanitation projects, strengthening the
International Rules governing Military Operations in Lucerne, National Society’s operational capacities (see Civilians). To this
Switzerland (see International Law and Cooperation). The armed end, local volunteers underwent specialized training to assess the
forces’ IHL committee was also in a better position to imple- needs of people affected by fighting. To extend its field presence
ment and promote IHL after one of its members participated in a in the region, the National Society constructed a new provincial
regional workshop abroad. With ICRC input, the military academy office in Obo, with ICRC funding.

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To promote widespread understanding of humanitarian principles


and the Movement, National Society communication personnel
gave talks on these topics to thousands of local volunteers, com-
munity members and local authorities throughout the country.
Volunteers received bicycles and megaphones to help get the
message out, and launched a campaign promoting respect for the
red cross emblem.

The ICRC worked in close cooperation with Movement partners,


holding regular meetings to coordinate activities and support to
the National Society.

122
CHAD
EXPENDITURE (IN KCHF)
Protection 4,579
Assistance 9,713
Prevention 2,038
Cooperation with National Societies 1,101
General