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of Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine

G. P. Theotokatos

Department of Naval Architecture

School of Technological Applications, TEI of Athens

St. Spyridonos Str., 12210 Egaleo, GREECE

mtheot@teiath.gr http://www.na.teiath.gr

Abstract: -. In the present paper, two mean value modelling approaches of varying complexity, capable of simulating

two-stroke marine Diesel engines, are presented. Both approaches were implemented in the computational environment

of MATLAB Simulink®. Simulation runs of transient operation cases of a large two-stroke marine Diesel engine were

performed. The derived results were validated against previously published data are used for comparing the two

modelling approaches and discussing the advantages and drawbacks of each.

Key-Words: - mean value modelling, marine Diesel engine, simulation, MATLAB Simulink®

Due to the very high cost for the procurement of the against previously published data. In addition, they are

installation of a marine two-stroke Diesel engine, the compared against each other leading to conclusions on

major part of the engine control system development each approach advantages and disadvantages.

relies on appropriate simulation tools of varying

complexity, which can be categorized as transfer function 2 Mean Value Engine Modelling

models, cycle mean value models and zero or one- The two-stroke marine Diesel engine mean value

dimensional models. The representation of the real engine engine model is constructed by considering the processes

processes is enhanced as the complexity of the used occurring in its components. The main engine

simulation tool is increased (i.e. from transfer function components that have been mathematically modelled,

models to one-dimensional models), but at the same time, shown in Fig. 1, are the cylinders, the scavenging and

the required amount of input data as well as the model exhaust receivers, the compressor and turbine of the

execution time is also increased. The cycle mean value turbocharger and the engine air cooler. In addition, the

models compromise between the above mentioned engine exhaust pipe and the air filter, located upstream

contradictory factors and, therefore, are widely used compressor, are also modelled.

throughout the control system design procedure due to In both mean value engine modelling (MVEM)

their simplicity and their ability to sufficiently represent approaches presented bellow, the engine crankshaft and

the engine components behaviour [1,2]. turbocharger shaft speeds are calculated using the

In the present paper, two different ways of modelling following equations derived by applying the angular

a large two-stroke marine Diesel engine using cycle mean momentum conservation in the propulsion plant shaft

value models are presented. According to the first system and the turbocharger shaft, respectively:

approach, the engine crankshaft and turbocharger shaft dN E / dt = (η Sh QE − QP ) / ( I E + I Sh + I P ) (1)

speeds are obtained by solving the angular momentum

conservation differential equations. The other engine dNTC / dt = ( QT − QC ) / ITC (2)

variables are obtained as solutions to a nonlinear to ambient via engine

algebraic system of three equations corresponding to engine ambient exhaust piping system

energy and mass conservation across the engine.

According to the second approach, the engine scavenging compressor turbine

and exhaust receivers are modelled as open NTC

thermodynamic systems. The mass, temperature and

pressure of the working medium contained in the engine air cooler

receivers are calculated using the mass and energy

differential equations and the ideal gas law, respectively. scavenging exhaust

For representing the engine turbocharger compressor and receiver receiver

turbine, their maps, derived under steady state conditions

are used. The engine cylinders are modelled using a cycle

mean value modelling approach to calculate the average engine

mass flow and enthalpy rates of the exhaust gas exiting cylinders engine

NE crankshaft

the cylinders and entering the exhaust receiver. Engine

crankshaft and turbocharger shaft speeds are obtained Fig. 1: Components of a two-stroke marine Diesel

using angular momentum conservation. The simulation engine used for mean value modelling

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Maritime and Naval Science and Engineering

The engine cylinders of a two-stroke marine Diesel the average (per cycle) values of engine parameters are

engine are modelled considering a system comprising two calculated. In that respect, mean value modelling

orifices connected in series. Each one of the orifices approaches can not be used for calculating the

represents the cylinder intake ports and exhaust valve, instantaneous values (per degree of crank angle) of the

respectively. These two orifices can be combined in one engine parameters.

equivalent orifice producing the same mass flow rate for a The engine governor is modelled using a

given pressure ratio across engine cylinders and its proportional-integral (PI) controller law. Thus, the engine

geometric area can be estimated using the areas of intake governor rack position is calculated as follows:

ports and exhaust valves, as follows [3]: t

xr = xr , o + k p ∆N + ki ∫ ∆Ndt (13)

Aeq = ( zcyl / 2π ) ∫

0

2π

( i

2 2

e )

Ai (φ ) Ae (φ ) / A (φ ) A (φ ) dφ (3)

0

where ∆N=Nord-NE is the difference between the ordered

The cylinders air mass flow rate is calculated using engine speed and the actual engine speed. In addition,

the following equation, which has been derived according torque and scavenging pressure limiters have been also

to the quasi-one dimensional consideration in an orifice incorporated in the engine governor model as proposed

with subsonic flow [4]: and used by engine manufacturers [8] for protecting the

m a = cd Aeq pSC / RaTSC f ( prcyl , γ α ) , prcyl = pER / pSC , engine integrity during fast transients.

The compressor impeller absorbed and turbine wheel

(4)

(

f ( prcyl , γ α ) = 2γ α / ( γ α − 1) prcyl 2 / γ α − prcyl ( α ) α)

γ +1 / γ delivered torques, required in equation (2), are calculated

by:

The mass and energy balances applied on engine QC = 30 PC / π NTC , QT = 30 PT / π NTC (14)

cylinders give: The compressor and turbine powers, absorbed and

m a + m f = m e (5) delivered to the turbocharger shaft respectively, are

(m a hSC + ηcomb m f H Lζ )ηex = m e hER (6) calculated depending on the modeling approach as

described in the next sections of this text.

where, ζ is fuel chemical energy proportion in the exhaust

For modelling the air cooler, its effectiveness and

gas entering turbine [3] and ηex is a correction factor used

pressure drop are required. The air cooler effectiveness is

to take into account the heat transfer from the exhaust gas

assumed to be a polynomial function of the air mass flow

to the ambient in the cylinder exhaust ports and exhaust

rate, according to the following equation:

receiver.

The proportion of the fuel chemical energy ε AC = k AC 0 + k AC1m a + k AC 2 m a2 (15)

contained in the exhaust gas is considered linear function whereas the pressure drop in the air cooler is calculated

of the engine mean effective pressure [3]: by:

ζ = k z 0 + k z1 pb (7) ∆p AC = f AC ( ρ AC w2 / 2 ) = f AC m a2 / ( 2 ρ AC AAC

2

) (16)

The engine brake mean effective pressure is The pressure after the turbine is calculated using the

calculated by subtracting the friction mean effective pressure increase of the exhaust piping system, which in

pressure from the indicated mean effective pressure: turn is regarded as proportional to the exhaust gas mass

pb = pi − p f (8) flow rate squared:

The indicated mean effective pressure is calculated pT , d = patm + ∆pep = patm + kep m e2 (17)

using the rack position, the maximum indicated mean The propeller torque, required in eq. (1), is

effective pressure of the engine and the combustion calculated according to the propeller law through the

efficiency, which in turn is regarded as function of air to engine maximum continuous rating (MCR) operating

fuel ratio [5]: point:

pi = xr pi ,maxηcomb (9)

QP = k P N E2 , k P = QE , MCR / N E2 , MCR (18)

The friction mean effective pressure is considered

function of the indicated mean effective pressure and the

engine crankshaft speed [6,7]: 2.1 1st MVEM Approach

The air and gas properties are considered to be

p f = k f 0 + k f 1 N E + k f 2 pi (10)

constant. Thus, the temperature of the working medium

The engine fuel mass flow rate is calculated using (air or gas) throughout the engine components is

the following equation, where of the injected fuel mass calculated using the following equation:

per cylinder and per cycle vs. fuel rack position is h = c pT (19)

provided as input:

The compressor is usually modelled using its

m f = zcyl m f , cy N E / ( 60 revcy ) (11) performance map. However, in marine propulsion plant

The engine torque, brake power, brake specific fuel systems, the engine is loaded according to the propeller

consumption and efficiency are calculated using the law and the compressor operating points under steady

following equations: state conditions lay on a single curve on the compressor

pbVD Q π NE m f Pb map [5]. Depending on the selected surge margin, the

QE = , Pb = E , bsfc = ,η b = (12) compressor operating points could be located on regions

2 π revcy 30 Pb m f H L

of constant efficiency or close to the optimum compressor

It must be noted that using the equations given above

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Maritime and Naval Science and Engineering

efficiency parabola. In that respect, the compressor simulation time, the values for the three independent

pressure ratio can be modelled as function of the variables (air mass flow rate, exhaust gas pressure and

turbocharger shaft speed, whereas the compressor temperature) are initialized. For each time step, taking

efficiency can be taken either as constant or on the into account the values for engine speed, turbocharger

optimum efficiency curve of the compressor map. shaft speed (their initial values are taken into

According to the modelling approach presented in consideration at the start of the simulation time) and rack

this section, the compressor pressure ratio and efficiency position, the required engine parameters are calculated

are regarded as second order polynomial functions of the and the no-linear algebraic system is solved to provide the

turbocharger shaft speed and are calculated using the air mass flow rate and the exhaust gas pressure and

following equations: temperature. Then, the remaining engine parameters, as

prC = 1 + kC1 NTC + kC 2 NTC

2

(20) well as the time derivatives of the engine speed and the

turbocharger shaft speed are also derived. The engine

ηC = kCef 0 + kCef 1 NTC + kCef 2 NTC

2

(21) speed and the turbocharger shaft speed are calculated

The compressor exiting air temperature is calculated using a fourth order Runge-Kutta integration method with

using the following equation, which has been derived fixed time step. The above described procedure is

using the compressor efficiency definition equation [5]: repeated for every time step till the end of the simulation

( (

TC = Ta 1 + prC (

γ a −1) / γ α

) )

− 1 / ηC (22) time.

The pressure and temperature of the air contained in 2.2 2nd MVEM Approach

the engine scavenging receiver are derived as follows: According to the second modelling approach, the

TSC = TC (1 − ε AC ) + ε AC Tw, AC (23) two-stroke marine Diesel engine is modelled using flow

pSC = pC − ∆p AC = prC patm − ∆p AC (24) receivers (control volumes) interconnected between flow

elements. Fixed fluid elements with constant pressure and

The engine exhaust gas mass flow rate is calculated

temperature are used for modelling the engine

by the following equation derived applying a quasi-one

boundaries. Shaft elements are used for calculating the

dimensional approach [4,5] in the turbine:

engine crankshaft and turbocharger shaft rotational

2γ e

m e = AT ,eff

pER

ReTER (γ e − 1)

(

prT2 / γ e − prT( e ) e )

γ +1 / γ speeds by solving the differential equations (1) and (2),

respectively. The engine governor rack position and

(25) propeller torque are calculated using equations (13) and

γe

prT = max pT , d / pex , ( 2 /(γ e + 1) ) e

γ − 1 (18) in the PI governor and propeller elements,

respectively.

The turbine effective flow area is calculated from the The engine scavenging and exhaust receivers are

turbine geometric area and the turbine flow coefficient. modelled as flow receivers, whereas the engine

The turbine flow coefficient and efficiency are derived compressor, cylinders and turbine are modelled as flow

from turbine steady state performance maps and are elements. The model was also implemented in the

considered polynomial functions of the turbine pressure MATLAB/Simulink environment following a modular

ratio, i.e.: way as shown in Figure 2. Thus, the modelled engine

AT , eff = α T AT , geo , αT = f ( prT ), ηT = f ( prT ) (26) elements form discrete subsystems, which exchange the

Combining the equations (4)-(11), (15)-(17) and required variables through appropriate connections. The

(19)-26), for a given set of engine speed, turbocharger flow elements use as input the pressure, temperature and

shaft speed and engine governor rack position, (NE, NTC, the properties of the working medium (air or gas)

xr), a non-linear algebraic system is solved to obtain the contained in the adjacent elements (flow receiver(s) or

three independent variables, i.e. the air mass flow rate, the fixed fluid), whereas their output includes the mass flow

exhaust receiver pressure, and the exhaust receiver and energy rates entering and exiting the flow element as

temperature. Then, the remaining engine parameters are well as the absorbed (for the case of compressor) or

calculated from the respective equations given above. produced torques. The former are provided as input in the

Taking into account eq. (19), the power of adjacent flow receiver elements, whereas the latter is

compressor and turbine required according to eq. (2) and required as input in the shaft elements. The output of

(14) for calculating turbocharger shaft speed, are shaft elements i.e. the engine crankshaft and turbocharger

PID governor time

To Workspace FR

Nord

Neng

pscav Nord

schedule

OUT_FF

OUT_u

OUT_d

FR

INP_u

Neng

INP_d

INP_u

INP_d

Ntc

fixed

OUT_FF

OUT

INP_u

INP_d

Ntc

flluid Thermo- Thermo- exhaust

engine dynamic

is calculated using the following equation, which is ambient ambient

OUT_shaft

dynamic

System- turbine

Sum_out

cylinders

Sum_out

Sum_in

OUT_u

OUT_d

System-

Sum_in

OUT_u

Qcomp

OUT_d

OUT_u

OUT_d

Qturb

scavenging exhaust

compressor receiver

derived by the turbine efficiency definition equation [5]: receiver

( (γ e −1) / γ e

)

T2

TT , d = TER 1 − ηT 1 − ( pT , d / pER )

T1

N_tc

Neng

OUT Neng

(28)

Q_comp

T/C

INP_load

INP_eng

Q_turb

Engine

shaft propeller

crankshaft

the MATLAB/Simulink® environment. The calculation Fig. 2: Model of two-stroke Diesel engine implemented

procedure takes place as follows. At the start of the in MATLAB/Simulink environment

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Maritime and Naval Science and Engineering

shaft rotational speeds, are supplied as input in the 3 Results and Discussion

respective flow controller. The above described MVEM approaches were

The flow receiver elements are modelled using the applied for examining the transient behaviour of the

open thermodynamic system concept [4,5]. The working MAN B&W 9K90MC two-stroke marine Diesel engine.

medium mass, temperature and pressure are calculated That engine was also used in previous research studies [8-

using the following equations derived from mass and 10], where significant amount of experimental data and

energy balances and the ideal gas law, respectively: simulation results were published. The main engine

dm / dt = m in − m out (29) characteristics as well as the required input data and

( ht in in out out )

dT / dt = Q + m h − m h − udm / dt / ( mc ) (30)

v

engine steady state performance data were extracted from

the engine manufacturer project guide [11].

p = mRT / V (31) For each one of the MVEM approaches, the

No heat transfer is taken into account for the following steps were followed. Initially, the mean value

scavenging receiver, whereas the transferred heat from engine model was set up and the required constants were

the gas contained in the exhaust receiver to the ambient is calibrated so as the simulation results under steady state

calculated using the following equation: conditions are in good agreement with the respective ones

Q ht = kht Aht (TER − Tatm ) (32) presented by the engine manufacturer in [11]. Then, the

calibrated mean value engine model was used to perform

The working medium properties are considered to be simulation runs under engine transient operating

functions of temperature and fuel to air equivalence ratio. conditions.

The compressor is modelled using its steady state The transient engine operation case selected to be

performance map, which is provided as input in a investigated was the first one presented in [8]. According

digitized form containing lines of the turbocharger speed, to that, the engine operation for 100 seconds with changes

pressure ratio, corrected flow rate and efficiency. Given of the ordered engine speed from 94 rpm to 69 rpm at the

the turbocharger speed and pressure ratio, the corrected 10th sec and back to 94 rpm at 60th sec was examined. The

flow rate and efficiency are calculated using changes in ordered speed correspond to engine load

interpolation. The compressor pressure ratio is calculated changes from 100% load to 40% load. Such changes are

by the following equation using the pressures of the fixed considered very abrupt and are usually avoided in real

fluid and the scavenging receiver connected upstream and engine operation, but engine operation response under

downstream the compressor, respectively, the pressure similar load changes are used for the control system

drops in the air filter and air cooler and the pressure design. The results for the above mentioned transient run

increase in the auxiliary blower: presented in [8] were derived using a zero-dimensional

prC = ( pSC − ∆p AC + ∆pBL ) / ( patm − ∆p AF ) (32) engine simulation code, which was extensively validated

The air filter pressure drop is considered to be under steady state and transient conditions [8-10] and,

function of the compressor mass flow rate as follows: therefore, are considered of high reliability. So, they are

∆p AF = k AF m C2 (33) used in the Fig. 3 and 4 presented below as “reference”

data.

The blower pressure increase is taken as function of

A set of results derived using the 1st MVEM

the volumetric flow rate:

approach, including the engine crankshaft speed, the

∆pBL = f (VBL ) (34) turbocharger shaft speed, the scavenging receiver

The air cooler is modelled using eq. (15) and (16). pressure and the exhaust receiver temperature are shown

The temperature of the air exiting the compressor is in Fig. 3 (labelled as “model 1–T/C Inertia x 1”). As it is

calculated using eq. (22). The compressor absorbed deduced from Fig. 3, the engine speed response is

power is calculated by: adequately predicted during the first applied ordered

PC = m C ( hC − hatm ) (35) speed change (after the 10th sec). However, there is a

where the enthalpies of the air exiting and entering the slight deviation between the predictions for the engine

compressor are calculated from the respective speed and the respective reference data during the second

temperatures. applied ordered speed change (after 60th sec), where,

The turbine is modelled using its swallowing according to the predictions, the scavenging pressure

capacity and efficiency maps, which must be provided in limiter is not engaged as it occurs in the reference case.

digitized form. Given the turbine pressure ratio, the That is explained as follows. As it is shown in Fig. 3, the

turbine mass flow rate and efficiency are calculated using turbocharger speed, predicted using the 1st MVEM

interpolation. The temperature of the gas exiting turbine approach, varies more rapidly than the respective one of

is calculated by equation (28). The turbine power is the reference case, owing to the unmodelled dynamic of

derived by: the scavenging and exhaust receivers’ volumes. Thus, the

predicted scavenging receiver pressure during the second

PT = m T ( hER − hT , d ) (36) ordered speed change (after 60th sec) was greater than the

The model includes six differential equations (eq. respective one of the reference case, and in consequence

(29),(30) for engine scavenging and exhaust receivers and the scavenging pressure limiter was not engaged. Finally,

eq. (1),(2)), which are solved using a fourth order Runge- although the exhaust receiver temperature response is

Kutta integration method with fixed time step. qualitatively predicted, there is a noticeable deviation

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Maritime and Naval Science and Engineering

between the predictions and the reference data. value of the turbocharger polar moment of inertia is used.

A way to improve the model accuracy is through On the contrary, the prediction of the exhaust receiver

increasing the value of the turbocharger rotating parts temperature exhibits greater deviation from the respective

polar moment of inertia by an additional quantity. That reference data.

added inertia corresponds to the turbocharging system A set of simulation results derived from a) the 1st

volume inertia (scavenging and exhaust receiver volumes, MVEM approach using 75% increase in the actual value

compressor and turbine piping). The simulation run was of the turbocharger polar moment of inertia (model 1), b)

repeated increasing the actual value of the turbocharger the 2nd MVEM approach (model 2) and the respective

polar moment of inertia by 50%, 75% and 100%. The reference data (reference) are presented in Fig. 4. As it is

respective results are also presented in Fig. 3. As it is observed from Fig. 4, the engine parameters response

shown in Fig. 3, the responses of the engine speed, including the exhaust receiver temperature are predicted

turbocharger speed and scavenging receiver pressure are with very satisfactory accuracy using the 2nd MVEM

adequately predicted when 75% increase in the actual approach. This is attributed to the more detailed

100 13000

95

reference

model 1-T/C inertia x 1 12000

reference

model 1-T/C inertia x 1 modelling of engine receivers and, in a lesser extent, to

model 1-T/C inertia x 1.5 model 1-T/C inertia x 1.5

engine speed (rpm)

the use of complete compressor map. Adequate

T/C speed (rpm)

model 1-T/C inertia x 2

85 10000

80 9000

agreement in the prediction of engine parameters (except

75 8000 from exhaust receiver temperature) is also obtained using

70 7000

the 1st MVEM approach. The execution time of the

65 6000

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

time (s)

70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

time (s)

70 80 90 100

simulation run using the 2nd MVEM approach increased

in comparison to the respective one of the 1st MVEM

4 900

reference reference

exh. receiver temperature (K)

scav. receiver pressure (bar)

3.5 model 1-T/C inertia x 1.5

approach, but it was reasonable. Thus, the 2nd MVEM

model 1-T/C inertia x 1.5 800

model 1-T/C inertia x 1.75 model 1-T/C inertia x 1.75

model 1-T/C inertia x 2 750 model 1-T/C inertia x 2

3

700

650

approach can be reliably used in advanced engine control

2.5

600

550

studies, e.g. including, apart from engine speed control,

2

500 turbocharger speed or scavenging receiver pressure

1.5 450

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

time (s)

70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

time (s)

70 80 90 100

control etc.

Fig. 3: Simulation results using the 1st modelling However, in cases of slow engine transients, which

approach and comparison with reference data taken from are usual for the ship propulsion plant operation, the

[8] engine parameters are also predicted with enough

accuracy using the 1st MVEM approach, as inferred by

1.2 100

engine speed (rpm)

rack position (-)

1 reference reference

90

0.8

model 1

model 2 80

model 1

model 2

comparing the results shown in Fig. 5, which are derived

0.6

70

from a slow transient run conducted with 1st and 2nd

0.4

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 60

MVEM approaches.

5000 time (s) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

time (s)

engine torque (kNm)

12000

reference

T/C speed (rpm)

reference

4000 model 1

model 2

10000 model 1 4 Conclusions

model 2

3000 8000 The modelling of a large two-stroke marine Diesel

2000 6000

engine was presented by using two different mean value

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

approaches. The simulation results were used for

exh. receiver temperature (K)

scav. receiver pressure (bar)

4 1000

reference

3

reference

model 1 800

model 1 revealing the advantages and drawbacks of each

model 2 model 2

approach.

2 600

The main findings derived from this work are

1

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

400

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

summarised as follows.

time (s) time (s)

Fig. 4: Simulation results using the 1st and 2nd modelling The first mean value engine model is simpler,

approaches and comparison with reference data taken requires smaller amount of input data and takes less

from [8] computing time for execution. It adequately predicts the

100 11500 engine speed response and in that respect, it can be

model 1 model 1

95

model 2

11000

model 2 reliably used in the engine speed control design process.

engine speed (rpm)

10500

90

10000

In order to represent with acceptable accuracy the

85

9500 turbocharger shaft speed response during fast transients,

80

9000 the value of the turbocharger rotating parts polar moment

75 8500

of inertia, provided to the model as input, must be

70 8000

4

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

time (s)

800

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

time (s) increased by an additional amount for taking into account

model 1 the effect of the volume inertia of the engine scavenging

exh. receiver temperature (K)

scav. receiver pressure (bar)

model 1

3.5 model 2 750 model 2

700

and exhaust receivers. In such a case, additional data

3

650

(experimental data or simulation results from more

2.5

600 detailed models) are required in order to adjust the value

2

550 of turbocharger inertia. Thus, for advanced engine control

1.5

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

500

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

studies (e.g. including, apart from engine speed control,

time (s) time (s) turbocharger speed or scavenging receiver pressure

Fig. 5: Simulation results using the 1st and 2nd modelling control), such a model should be carefully treated.

approaches for a slow engine transient operation case The second mean value engine model requires

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Maritime and Naval Science and Engineering

additional input data, including the compressor and HL : fuel lower heating value

turbine maps, the volume of the engine receivers and h : specific enthalpy

initial values for the pressure and temperature of the gas k : coefficients, constants

contained in the engine receivers. The engine physical m : mass

processes are more accurately represented since the m

: mass flow rate

second approach includes the more detailed modelling of N : rotational speed

the engine scavenging and exhaust receivers. In that P : power

respect, the model gives better predictions for the engine p : pressure

operating parameters response during fast transients. In pr : pressure ratio

addition, the model execution time, although greater than p : mean effective pressure

the respective one of the first model, is reasonable Q : torque

enough. As a result, the second modelling approach is R : gas constant

more appropriate for advanced engine control system revcy: revolutions per cycle

design studies. T : temperature

t : time

References: u : specific internal energy

[1] Guzzella L. and Onder Ch.H., “Introduction to VD : displacement volume

Modeling and Control of IC Engine Systems”, Springer, w : velocity

2007. xr : rack position

[2] Eriksson L., “Modeling and Control of Turbocharged zcyl : number of engine cylinders

SI and DI engines”, Oil & Gas Science and Technology- αT : turbine flow coefficient

Rev. IFP, Vol.62, No. 4, pp. 523-538, 2007. γ : ratio of specific heats

[3] Meier E., “A Simple Method of Calculation and ∆p : pressure drop

Matching Turbochargers”, BBC Brown Boveri & ε : effectiveness

Company Ltd, Publication No. CH-T 120 163 E. η : efficiency

[4] Heywood J.B, “Internal Combustion Engines ηex: correction factor for the temperature of the

Fundamentals”, Mc-Graw Hill, 1988. exhaust receiver

[5] Watson N., and Janota M. S., “Turbocharging the

ρ : density

Internal Combustion Engine”, Macmillan Press, 1982.

ζ : proportion of the chemical energy of the fuel

[6] Theotokatos G., “A Modelling Approach for the

contained in the exhaust gas

Overall Ship Propulsion Plant Simulation”, 6th WSEAS

International Conference on System Science and φ : crank angle

Simulation in Engineering (ICOSSSE ’07), November

21-23, Venice, Italy, 2007. Subscripts

[7] Xiros N., “Robust Control of Diesel Ship

Propulsion”, Springer, 2002. AC : air cooler eq : equivalent

[8] Kyrtatos N.P., Theodossopoulos P., Theotokatos G., AF : air filter f : fuel, friction

atm : ambient ht : heat transfer

Xiros N., “Simulation of the overall ship propulsion plant

BL : blower i : indicated, intake ports

for performance prediction and control”, MarPower99

Conference, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 1999. b : brake MCR : maximum continuous

[9] Kyrtatos N.P., Theotokatos G., Xiros N., Marec K., C : compressor rating

and Duge R., “Transient Operation of Large-bore Two- comb: combustion o : initial conditions

stroke Marine Diesel Engine Powerplants: Measurements cy : cycle P: propeller

and Simulations”, 23rd CIMAC World Congress, cyl: cylinder SC : scavenging receiver

Hamburg, Germany, 2001. d : downstream Sh : shaft

[10] Kyrtatos N.P., Theotokatos G., and Xiros N.I., E: engine TC : turbocharger

(2002), “A Virtual Experiment Tool for Marine Diesel ER : exhaust receiver T : turbine

Engine Powerplant Analysis”, IMAM 2002, Rethymnon, e: exhaust gas, exhaust valve w : cooling water

Crete, Greece, May 13-17, 2002. ep : exhaust pipe

[11] MAN B&W, K90MC Mark 6 Project Guide Two-

Stroke Engines, 5th Edition, November 2000.

NOMENCLATURE

A : area

bsfc: brake specific fuel consumption

cd : discharge coefficient

cp : specific heat at constant pressure

cv : specific heat at constant volume

f : friction factor, fuel

Ι : polar moment of inertia

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