Sunteți pe pagina 1din 106

1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

This chapter contains: Background of the study, Statements of problems, the

objective of the study, significance of the study, limitation of study and Definition of

the key terms.

Background of the Study

Language as a means of communication is urgently needed because it is

considered at the most efficient medium to exchange knowledge and information.

Communication is important for all people; no one can live adequately without

communication with other people because human being is social creatures by natures.

In order to get what they need from others, people should be able to transfer their

thought, feeling and needs through certain chancel. They speak and behave in certain

ways when they send messages. Those who get their messages will do something as

the response to the message that is how communication occurs, and failure in

communication often causes unfulfilled aims. Thus, they need to understand

pragmatics theory or how to carry out the messages as well as interpretation of the

signals are important in order to maintain the smoothness and the effectiveness of

communication. The information in the sense of communication involves continuous

evaluation and negotiation of meaning on the part of the participants until the answer

is provided.
2

They speak in order to accomplish what they intend to do or to have. In the

interactive situations, language is used to explain, describe, accuse, deceive, make

commitment, deliver opinions, get others to do things, and so forth.

English language which has been recommended as an international language

in the world, however, Indonesian people still get difficulty in applying the English

language as means of communication because they have their own language.

Therefore it is necessary to equip them with an ability to communicate with people

from other countries, so Indonesian people have to learn English as an international

language.

Burns and Joyse (1977:54) stated “with the introduction of communicative

approach to language teaching, the general focus shifted toward spoken language

moreover Nuna (1991:390) also said that mastery the art of speaking is the single

most important aspect of learning a second of foreign language and success in

measured in the term of the ability to bring about conversation in the language.

Speaking is considered as an important and main factor for people in

learning language. Richard and Rodger (1986:75) added that the primary function of

the language is for communication and interaction which both of these can be

achieved through speaking.

Language becomes an important tool for communication since it has been

acquired by human being for transferring the knowledge and information; even the

students of IKIP Budi Utomo Malang in the academic year of 2009/2010 especially

students of English Department. As teacher IKIP Budi Utomo Malang, researcher


3

find series of problems according to the ability of fourth semester English

Department students to communicate in English, the problems are:

They preferred keeping silent during the class, because they were shy, and

being afraid of making mistakes in their speaking and finally they got poor scores in

their speaking test. This poor condition in the speaking class was also caused by the

unsuitable method applied in teaching speaking.

Other factor that causes the student having low motivation in learning

English, especially on speaking, may also derive from the lack of the teacher’s

variation in teaching techniques during the teaching and learning process. The teacher

usually uses monotones style of teaching like dialogues or just reading dialogues

without practically language in meaningful context. So the students only try to

memorize without understanding the meaning what they said in order words a

monotonous teaching style could make the students bore and lose interest on the

subject which affect the students’ ability

The problems above indicated that it is important to give the students the

some amount of change in exercising their speaking skill and pay more attention to

create a learning situation with various teaching techniques with prepared teacher

will know what is likely to interest and stimulate his class.

Considering the facts, the researchers choose one of the teaching techniques

to create a good learning atmosphere through debate technique. Debate in the

classroom contexts has had several beneficial results. First and most importantly,

debate exercise have increased context learning and critical thinking. As Bellon

(2000) and Golden (2003) have shown, the challenging, realistic issue raised in a
4

debate motivate students to think critically about information and encourage them to

engage the course, material broadly, deeply and personally. As Bellon (2000) states”

debate is a complex, interactive experience that presents students with personally

meaningful challenges and encourages intensive analysis.

Participant in debate activities has also been shown to improve oral

communication skills interpersonal as well as public speaking (Bellon, 2000). In

particular, debate activities increase both self-confidence in stating one’s view and

open mind toward the views of others in Bellon’s summary of the scholarly

consensus, participants in create learn how to become more flexible in debate and

more effectively listen to understand other people viewpoints, which in turn help the

individual to debate the issue in a richer context. As teaching the speaking skill gave

the students insufficient time to practice their speaking skill and affected their ability

to use the target orally.

To master this speaking competence is not easy since it has something not

only deals with the background of the knowledge but also with learners’ mental

factors. Those are their mood, motivation, readiness, etc. The students are not

encouraged to try expressing their thought and feeling in language they are learning,

they will easily get bored, lose their motivation and be reluctant to participate in

speaking class.

The English teacher can use some technique to teach speaking such as

drama, discussion, presentation, debate, etc. by applying one of techniques he can

encourage the students to participate in the classroom activities especially speaking.


5

There are several ways that teacher can use in teaching speaking by introducing the

topics and one of the ways of the technique is called a debate.

Debate is useful device for stimulating students’ participation in speaking

class. The teacher becomes facilitators of learning process that enables students to

become more deeply and more actively invested in their education.

And when teacher use debate, they act at as more than dispenser of
information to the classroom of passive students. They become facilitator of
a learning process that enables students to become more deeply and more
actively in their education. (http: // www.idebate.org/ resources/software.
June 14th 2010/. )

One of the debate forms used to increase the student’s speaking skill and

ability in critical thinking and presentation is Educational Debate. Driscoll (2000:153)

clarified that Educational Debate is a form of debate designed to increase the

students’ ability in critical thinking band presentation, characterized by formality of

structure, restriction of conflict, and competitive judgment

In the some School or University in the Asian, debaters follow the

Australasian Parliamentary format which places students in two teams of three

members. Debate is held between two teams of three members each. These two teams

will be referred to as the affirmative and the negative. Members of each team are

assigned position as 1st, 2nd, 3rd speakers. For each around debate, a motion or topic

or resolution is given. After the motion is given teams are given ten (10) minutes to

prepare for each debate, and this 10 minutes period is called “Case building” of which

the members of each team are discussing to build arguments for the debate.
6

Because of the above nature, therefore, researcher is interested in

conducting a research under the title “Improving Speaking Skill of the Fourth

Semester English Department IKIP Budi Utomo MALANG through Debate”

1.1 Research of the Problems


Based on the background of this study the research tries to formulate the

research problem as follows:

How can the students speaking skills be improved using by the Australasian

Parliamentary Debate?

1.2 Research of the Study

Referring to the formulation of the problem mention, the objective of this

study is to improve students speaking skill using Australasian Parliamentary Debate.

1.3 Significance of the Study

The result of the study expects to give practical contribution to the teaching

of English. The theoretical contribution relates to the principle of language learning.

a) Australasian debate can be one way to make the students in a pleasure, comfortable

environment, and enjoyable. And also enable to the students to use the language to

communicate with other people and the more confidence the students feel the better

they will learn. b) The preliminary goal of language teaching is enable to the student

to user the language to communicate withy other people.


7

The practical contributions refer to the advantage of debate language. a)

Reference through debate technique to improve students speaking ability, encourage

the students to be more actively in learning process. b) Real model of teaching

speaking for the teacher to be in real class setting. c) Strategy to force students to

speak English. d) Motivate and expose the students to real English communicate and,

e) encourage the students to be more actively in learning process.

1.5 Limitation of the Study


1. The subjects are the fourth semester students of English Department IKIP

Budi Utomo Malang in the academic year of 2009/2010

2. This debate limited to Australasian debate system which related to the

objective of the action research.

1.6 The definition of Key Terms

Some items are defined in order to give the readers a better understanding

and to avoid misunderstanding. Those terms are:

1. Speaking Ability : an activity to produce utterances in oral community.

This activity is involving two or more people in

which the participants are both hearers and speakers

having to react to what they hear and make their

contribution at high speed, so that each participants

has an interaction or a set of intention that he wants to

(Keith and Morrow, 1981:70)


8

2. Oral Communication : is a two-way process between speaker and listener

and involves productive skill of speaking and the

receptive skill of understanding (or listening with

understanding). (Byrne, 1976:8)

3. Educational Debate : a form of debate designed to increase the student’s

ability in critical thinking and presentation,

characterized by formality of structure, restriction of

conflict and competitive judgment. (Discroll,

2000:153)

4. Australasian Parliamentary

Format Debate : a structured form of educational debate in which

easy round is divided into 7 distinct sections, each

with its own rules and each limited to specific length

of time. The Australasian Parliamentary format which

places, students in two teams of three members.

Debate is held between two teams of three members

each. These two teams will be referred to as the

affirmative and the negative.

5. Technique : is any of a wide variety of exercises, activities or

task used in language classroom for teaching lesson

objectives.
9

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In relation with the research, the research reviews some related literature to

the study. The review encompasses; speaking ability, the teaching of speaking, debate

technique, educational debate called Australasian Parliamentary Debate, the process

of applying the Australasian Parliamentary Debate in Speaking class and speaking

proficiency measurements.

2.1 Speaking Ability

Speaking ability is important in the process of language learning. We

communicate through speaking to gain much more information. Both teacher and

students should realize the role of speaking ability for their success in language

learning. In relation to this Keith and Morrow define that:

Speaking ability is an activity to produce in oral communication. This


activity is involving two or more people in which the participants are both
hearers and speakers having to reach to what they hear and make their
contribution at high speed, so that each participant has an interaction or a
set of intention that he wants to (1981:80)

Moreover it is also stated by Byrne that Oral communication is a two-way

process between speaker and listener (or listener) and involves the productive skill of

speaking and the receptive skill of understanding (or listening with understanding)

(1978:8)
10

Therefore, a teacher should encourage his students in using the target

language, so they can have speaking ability. Franks as quoted by Richard and

Rodgers (2001:11) say that in teaching second language, teacher must encourage

direct and spontaneous use of foreign language in the classroom.

Furthermore, Littlewood (1948:48-49) says that language learning could

take places through natural process. It happens when learners uses a language for

communication. Therefore, the communication activity (inside and outside the

classroom) is an important part of the learning process. Mostly all activities in the

classroom especially in the class are initiated by a teacher. In this case to encourage

students to use the language spontaneously and creatively is not an easy job. The

teacher should find technique to use the language as in real communication

One of the techniques is the practice with a debate in the classroom

activities. It can encourage students to use the language spontaneously. They can

express their ideas or thoughts freely without being afraid of making mistakes. In this

way they can practice the language to real the situation.

2.2 The Teaching of Speaking

Language is one of the English skills that should be mastery by the students

as one of the academic purpose. In the globalization era mastering English speaking

is high advantage. As the result by mastering it, people or students can communicate

well not only for academic purpose but also for professional purpose. Students are

required to be able to speak as well as to read and write in English.


11

Concerning with teaching speaking, Murdibjono and Hartatik (2005:14)

states some points related to speaking skill. It is important for students to have an

opportunity to use the language for both from and many focused instruction

integrated as well as opportunities for language use in formal and informal

conversation.

As an English teacher can be use to falcate the students to put the language

components they have learned, for example by giving the dialogues or sentences to

memorize and practice regularly, it is expected that students will have language

facilities which are ready to be used when needed. Memorize and practice are suitable

in develop students communicative competence where the atmosphere of speaking

class should be created as pleasant as possible. If the students free to express their

ideas, they will participate in the class, without being afraid of making mistakes.

Hugos (2003:113) states that the objective of teaching speaking, language is

the development of the ability to interest successful in using the target language,

comprehension as well as production based on the reason, it can be said that teaching

speaking is focused on providing students with oral productive skill

2.2.1 The Method of Teaching Speaking

The method of teaching speaking has been changed from the use of Audio

Lingual to Communication Approach. Audio Lingual to Communication Approach

was proved to be unsuccessful, since the students were still unable to use English to

communicate in real situation appropriately.


12

Students taught by using Audio Lingual to Communication Approach only

master the rules of the language usages but they do not have opportunities to use it in

appropriate situation. It makes students feel bored and discouraged. They do not have

motivation to be creative in using the language they are learning. Freeman says that

students may know the rules of language usages, but will be unable to use the

languages (1986:23).

After unsuccessful Audio Lingual to Communication Approach then the

linguistic came with a new method that is Communication Approach. It was assumed

that the previous approach applied to the teaching of English was not appropriate

anymore. The new method Communication Approach will make students more

motivated to study a foreign language because they will are learning something useful

with the language they are studying. It is in line with that Richards and Rodgers says:

The major aim of communicative approach is to make learners achieve their


communicative competence so that they are able to perform real and
communicative behavior in a communicative competence (1986:67)

It will make students able to communicate in the foreign language and the

accuracy of grammar is not very important. They will be able to interact and able to

use the language communicatively.

According to Wang (1990:36) there are some teaching strategies on English

oral presentation and oral practice in English classes:

1. Cultivating language habit by being exposed to wholly English presentation in the


class. In learning English as a second language, it is important to use language
completely in a presentation. For the beginners, they have to adjust to a new
language environment with the aid of the teacher’s facial expression and the
gesture. This activities will be useful to acquire the language itself
2. Creating a lively atmosphere for communicate activities. If the atmosphere in the
speaking class is “alive” the students will be more active in using the language
13

and the shorter time from the beginning to its peak the more the class will be. To
achieve this teacher has to devote a small proportion of the class time to stimulate
his students in communicative actively. For example, the teacher can ask them to
talk about their daily life or their experience.
3. Presenting new material in a communicative context rather than in isolated simple
sentences. The presentation of new materials at the right point in the right context
is useful for the students in learning a language. Therefore, presentation should
not only contain the meaning of the text but also the use the language in social
context.
4. Providing a wider range of communication by drawing upon the learner’s
imaginations and store knowledge. Learning through talking is better than
passively memorizing phonology, semantic and syntax. According to Finocchiaro
as quoted by Ricahrd and Rodgers learning a language means learning to
communicate (1986:67)

The teacher may use real situations authentic materials and popular

scientific knowledge to make speaking class more active. It is important for teachers

in the teaching to think about the material. It should be in accordance with the

students’ speaking proficiency, interest, and needs because they will affects students

to participate actively in the classroom. In addition the material or topics for speaking

should be about students with their everyday life and social community. It means

what they get in the classroom can be used outside.

2.2.2 The Process of Teaching Speaking

In learning a foreign language, speaking is very important. The goal of

teaching second language of foreign language is to gain the ability to communication

in the target language. Therefore, teacher should give students opportunities to use

the target language to communicate with other (Byrne 1976:3-5). The teacher can use

the speaking class to improve student’s speaking ability. And it can be an effective

way for teacher to know whether students are active in the class or not.
14

To make a speaking class works and to improve student’s ability in

speaking skill are not easy. Usually students do not say much in target language.

They only listen to what the teacher says, especially in large classes. In order to

develop the skills needed, especially in speaking; Byrne states some obstacles that

should be paid attention by teacher, such as:

a. The size of the class (often thirty or more learners)

b. The management of the classroom (which rarely favors

communications)

c. The number of hours available for teaching the language (which

cannot and should not all be spent on oral work)

d. The syllabus itself and particularly examinations which may

discourage us from giving adequate attention to the spoken language

(1976:1)

Under these conditions it is not easy to provide effective oral practice, so

that teacher should find techniques of teaching speaking in order to achieve the goal

of language teaching effectively. Therefore, teacher plays important role in the

classroom. That is to create best conditions for learning (Byrne, 1976:1).

According to Byrne (1976:2) the teachers have specific roles to play at

different stages of the learning process. Those stages are:

a. Presentation (when teacher introduce something new to be learned)

b. Practice (when teacher allow learners to work under your direction)

c. Production (when teachers give them opportunities to work on their

own)
15

Furthermore, Byrne (1976:2-3) explain about the role of teacher to play

at those three stages:

1. The Presentation Stages

At the presentation stages the main task of teacher is to serve as a kind of

informant. The teachers select the new material to be learned (using the textbook

normally but supplementing and modifying it as required) and presents this in such a

way that the meaning of the new language is as clear and memorable as possible. The

students listen and try to understand. Although they are probably saying very little at

this stage, except when invited them to join they are by no means passive. At this

point of the lesson then the teacher is at the center of stage. It is a role that many

teachers find attractive and there is a danger of spending too much time presenting

(sometimes because the teachers want to make sure that their students have really

understood) so that the students do not get enough time to practice the language

themselves.

1. The Practice Stage

At the practice stage, teacher acts as conductor and monitor. It is the

students turn to do most of the talking, while teacher’s main task is to devise and

provide the maximum amount of practice, which must at the same time, be both

meaningful and memorable. The teacher’s role then is radically different from that at

the presentation stage. The teacher does the minimum amount of talking himself. He

is like the skilful conductor of an orchestra, giving each of the performance a chance

to participate and monitoring their performance to see that it is satisfactory.


16

2. The Production Stage

At the production stage, teacher acts as manager or guide. It is a pity that

language learning so often stops short at the practice stage. Many teachers feel that

they have done their job if they have given their students adequate, though usually

controlled, practice in it. All the same, no real learning should be assumed to have

taken place until the students are able to use the language for themselves and unless

opportunities are available for them to do this outside the classroom, provision must

be made as part of the lesson. At any level of attainment from elementary to advance

the students need to be given regular and frequent opportunities to use the language

freely, even if they sometimes make mistakes as a result. This is not to say that

mistakes are unimportant, but rather that free expression is more important and it is a

great mistake to deprive students of this opportunity. For it is through debate

opportunities to use language as they wish, to try to express their own ideas that

students become aware that they have learned something useful to them personally

and are encourages going on learning. It is the most important factor of all in helping

to keep the interest in language learning alive. Thus, in providing students with

activities for free expression and discreetly watching over them as they carry them

out, teacher takes on the role of manager and guide. This is one of the best ways of

finding out whether students are really making progress.

In addition, from the three stages above teacher can move either from

presentation to practice to production or from production to presentation to practice

according to the level of students, their needs and the type of teaching materials being

used (Byrne, 1976:3).


17

Byrne adds in his book that is one other key role that cuts across these three

stages, namely teacher as motivator (1976:3). In this case, the ability of teacher to

motivate students to arouse their interest and involve them in what they are doing,

will be crucial. (Byrne: 3) states:

Whatever you are doing in the classroom, your ability to motivate the
students, to arouse their interest and involve them in what they are
doing, will be crucial. Some key factors here will be your own
“performance”_ your mastery of teaching skills, often dependent on
careful preparation; your selection and presentation of the topics and
activities (it may often be necessary to make them interesting) and of
course your own personality which in language teaching must be
flexible enough to allow you to be both authoritative and friendly at the
same time.

Based on the explanation above, the role of teacher in conducting speaking

class is very important. The teacher has to be careful in preparing the materials

because the success of the teaching learning process depends on the preparation made

by teacher. Interesting topic selected by teacher can also arouse students’ interest. In

addition teacher should be flexible, both authorities and friendly in the class.

Therefore, teacher needs some technique to encourage students to participate in the

classroom activities. According to Lubis (1988:40-45) the English can use some

technique to teach speaking such as guessing games, dialogues, retelling stories,

debates, small group discussion and role play.

One of the technique that can be used by teacher as a technique to give

students opportunities to express their ideas freely is debate. In http: //

www.idebate.org. /teaching/debate-format.php, there are some debate formats such us

parliamentary debate, public debate, public forum debate, legislative debate, internet
18

debate, middle school debate, etc. Nowadays, students at senior high school and

University are introduced a new debate technique, namely Educational Debate using

Australasian Parliamentary System. With this technique, students are expected to

have critical thinking or opinions. They will hopefully be able to use the language for

realistic communication.

1.3 Debate Technique

The rules of each speaker

In team each of speakers has specified rules that they must accomplish to

play their part in the team. They are laid out below in the order that the speaker will

speak

1st First Affirmative must:

a. Defines the motion of the debate

b. Presents the affirmative

c. Delivers substantial arguments (1st affirmative part of the

split) supported with relevant and convincing evidence and example.

d. Provides a brief summary of the speech

1st Speaker of the Negative

a. Respond the definition-either accepts or challenges and redefines the motion

b. Rebuts 1st affirmative, delivers a part of the negative’s substantive case

c. Give the outline of the negative’s team split

d. Delivers substantial arguments (1st negative’s part of the split)

e. Provide a brief summary of the speech


19

2nd Speaker of the Affirmative

a. Rebut the 1st negative’s argument

b. Briefly restates in general terms the affirmative ‘s team case

(briefly reiterates the first two speakers arguments)

c. Deliver substantial arguments (2nd affirmative part of the split). Most of the

2nd affirmative’s time should be spent to strengthen and widen the 1st

affirmative argument

c. Provides a brief summary of the speech

d. Summarizes the issues of the debate.

2nd Speaker of the Negative

a. Rebut the 1st and 2nd affirmative’s argument

b. Briefly restates in general terms the negative’s case

c. Deliver substantial arguments (2nd affirmative part of the split). Most of

the 2nd affirmative’s time should be spent to strengthen and widen the 1st

affirmative argument

d. Provides a brief summary of the speech

3rd Speaker of the Negative

a. Rebut the points raised by the first two negative speakers. The 3 rd affirmative

is mainly entrusted with the duty of responding to the arguments of the

negative that were not previously deal with by the first two affirmative

speakers

b. Rebuild the team’s case

c. Summaries the issues of the debate.


20

3rd Speaker of the Negative

a. Rebuts the point raised by all three affirmative speakers.

b. Rebuild team’s case (briefly reiterates the firs two speakers arguments)

c. Identified the point of the clash/ content of the debate

d. Summarize the issues of the debate.

1.3.1 Debate

Kayfetz and Stice (1987:141) define that:

Debate is formal contest in which two teams present opposing arguments on

a controversial topic. One of team presents arguments in favor of the topic (the Pro

Team); the other team presents arguments in opposition to the topic (the Con Team).

The team sit at opposite of a table. Moderator (the teacher) sits at the head of the table

and times of each part of the debate. The goal of tem is to convince the audience of

its point of view and thus win the argument.

From the definition above we know that in debate there are some rules

which must be followed and for those who take part in. it can be a means to train their

way thinking. How they present their arguments, opinions and ideas and how they

defend them.

In debate the speaker is trying to prove that he is right and those who

disagree with him are wrong. In speaking class teacher takes parts as moderator. He

sits at the head of the table and times of each part of the debate.

Therefore, in debate class the students are expected to have critical thinking.

It means that this technique will give students advantages. First, they will have a

chance to get involved in the speaking class activities, by giving their comments or
21

asking questions. Second, they have a chance to train themselves how to present their

opinion or ideas. Third, students will know how to participate constructively and

cooperative in debate. It involves clear logical thought and debating skills. The

students will hopefully have the ability to generalize from examples, or o converse, to

draw analogies, judge priorities and also speak relevantly and clearly.

2.3.2 Educational Debate


Driscoll defines that:
Educational debate is a form of debate designed to increase the student’s
ability in critical thinking and presentation, characterized by formality of
structure, restriction of conflict and competitive judgment (2000:153)

As we know that are many kinds of debate forms that we can find in society

at large. Some debates are conducted in legislative assemblies, some are held in

lecture halls and public areas, some are presented in school and universities, and other

can be read in the column of magazines and newspaper or heard on the radio or

television. The differences between debate in society at large and Educational Debate

are difference in form. It is clarified by Driscoll (2000:4):

The differences between debate in society at large and Educational


Debate are differences in form. Educational Debate is characterized by
formality of structure, restriction of conflict, and competitive judgment.
Finally it is distinctive in that debaters argue both side of a given
proposition.

There are many kind of debate system in University such us Asian Parliamentary

System, England Parliamentary system, Karl popper system and Australasian

Parliamentary System.

Debate system that focuses on the development of critical thinking skills

tolerance for differing point of view and offers opportunities to students to be


22

achieved to express opinion in the class, one of them is using Australasian

Parliamentary Debate.

2.3.3 Australasian Parliamentary Debate System


Structured form Australasian Parliamentary which each round is divided

into 7 distinct sections. The Australasian Parliamentary format which place students

in two teams of three members. These two teams will be referred to as the affirmative

and the negative.

Australasian Parliamentary is a debate format of Educational debate used at

university. It focuses on the development of critical thinking skills and tolerances for

differing viewpoints; it focuses on the development of critical thinking skills and

tolerance for differing viewpoints. To facilities these goals, debaters work together in

teams of three and must research both sides of each issue. Each team is given the

opportunity to offer arguments and direct questions to the opposing team

Australasian Parliamentary debate should:

a. Focus on the core elements of controversial issues

b. Emphasize tolerance for multiple points of view

c. Emphasize the development of analytical thinking skills

d. Instill in participants an appreciation for the value of team work

e. Provide students with the opportunity to debate many kinds of

the resolutions or motion or topic (http:// idw.idebate.org/idea/

ruleskarlpopper. June 25th, 2010).


23

3.1 Definition of Some Important Debate Terms

a. Motion is topic being debated. The motion must have two paints of view, i.e.

the pro and against arguments.

b. Definition of the key terms, motion, of arguments should be reasonable,

clear, and have a logical link with the topic. The definition should be clear

description of the parameter of the team’s arguments to be presented. The

affirmative and negative teams are permitted to give different definition of the

debate.

c. Team split is statement by the first speaker of each team outlining the aspect

of the debate to be covered by each individual in their team. Each individual

member’s argument should complement the views of the each other teams

members

d. Argument is a logical discussion presented by the team members stating the

affirmative and the negative case for the topic of the debate. Views stated

should be substantiated with relevant and convincing evidences.

e. Refutation/ rebuttal are the process of proving your opponent’s argument is

illogical, irrelevant, or that the evidence used to substantive his/her views is

incorrect. It can also show that your opponents’ argument may be correct but

that the implication of his/her views is unacceptable.

3.2 Plan for the Debate

There are two opposing sides that in a debate round. One side affirms the

motion and one negative it. We can say Affirmative Team and Negative Teams.
24

a. The affirmative team has the responsibility to define and interpret the motion.

The affirmative should interpret the topic as it would reasonably be interpret in

the public. The affirmative needs not necessary provide a literal interpretation of

the motion; rather the objective of the affirmative teams is to make an adequate

case for its interpretation of the motion. To this end, the teams must introduce

one or more arguments in support of the motion as they have interpreted it and

sustain that case through out the debate.

b. The negative team argues against the affirmative position. The negative team

may counter the affirmative team’s interpretation of the motion if they believe it

is not reasonable. The negative team may challenge any aspect of the

affirmative team’s case and may offer a case of its own. for example, it may

challenge the interpretation of the motion, the factual and analytical foundations

of the case, or the underlying assumptions of the affirmative’s claims. (http: //

idw.idebate.org/ideastandards/ruleskarlpopper. June 27th, 2010)

There are eight sections in Australasian Parliamentary format. Six of the

section consist of speeches-that is, uninterrupted presentation by a designated

speaker. The remaining one consists of replier speech-that is comparison and

conclusion of speeches that is delivering by the first or the second speaker of each

team.

The length of the time allotted to section is also determined by the format.

The following is the order of time in Australasian Parliamentary debate system:


25

No Speaker Times
1 First speaker of affirmative 5 minutes
2 First speaker of negative 5 minutes
3 Second speaker of the affirmative 5 minutes
4 Second speaker of negative 5 minutes
5 Third speaker of affirmative 5 minutes
6 Third speaker of negative 5 minutes
7 Reply speaker of affirmative 3 minutes
8 Reply speaker of Negative 3 minutes

In some debate formats, competitive is also event: there is one person

affirming the motion who faces person negating it. The Australasian Parliamentary

System is distinctive in that it conceives of debate as team activity. Teamwork is

important because individual debaters do not win events but the teams do (Driscoll,

2000: 8-9)

(Driscoll, 2000:8-9) adds in each round of course there are two teams that

meet to compete. All in all, six debaters speak in around: three forms the affirmative

team and three form the negative team. The roles assumed by the various team

members are determined by the format.

The debate is arranged with two teams, i.e. the affirmative team which gives

the arguments for the motion and the negative team which gives the arguments

against the motion.

Each team consists of 3 speakers and each speaker has his/her duties:

1st Speaker of the Affirmative

Defines the motion of the debate

Presents the affirmative team


26

c. Delivers substantial arguments (1st affirmative

part of the split) supported with relevant and convincing evidence and

example

Provides a brief summary of the speech

1st Speaker of the Negative

Respond the definition-either accepts or challenges and redefines the motion

Rebuts 1st affirmative, delivers a part of the negative’s substantive case

c. Give the outline of the negative’s team split

Delivers substantial arguments (1st negative’s part of the split)

Provide a brief summary of the speech

2nd Speaker of the Affirmative

a. Rebut the 1st negative’s argument

b. Briefly restates in general terms the affirmative ‘s team case

(briefly reiterates the first two speakers arguments)

c. Deliver substantial arguments (2nd affirmative part of the split). Most of the 2nd

affirmative’s time should be spent to strengthen and widen the 1st affirmative

argument

c. Provides a brief summary of the speech

d. Summarizes the issues of the debate.

2nd Speaker of the Negative

Rebut the 1st and 2nd affirmative’s argument

Briefly restates in general terms the negative’s case


27

c. Deliver substantial arguments (2nd affirmative part of the split). Most of the 2nd

affirmative’s time should be spent to strengthen and widen the 1st affirmative

argument

d. Provides a brief summary of the speech

3rd Speaker of the Negative

a. Rebut the points raised by the first two negative speakers. The 3 rd affirmative

is mainly entrusted with the duty of responding to the arguments of the

negative that were not previously deal with by the first two affirmative

speakers

b. Rebuild the team’s case

c. Summaries the issues of the debate.

3rd Speaker of the Negative

a. Rebuts the point raised by all three affirmative speakers.

b. Rebuild team’s case (briefly reiterates the firs two speakers arguments)

c. Identified the point of the clash/ content of the debate

d. Summarize the issues of the debate.

Reply speakers have duties to show the weakness of the opponents team’

argument and support his/her arguments and finally gives conclusion by telling that

his /her team’s arguments are much better, the team deserves to be winner of the

debate. The time of reply speech for the 3 minutes is given at end of the substantive

speeches. It is initiated by the negative team.


28

2.4 The process of applying Australasian Parliamentary Debate in Speaking

Class

Sometimes in speaking class we find that the role of teacher is dominant and

make students passive in the classroom. This can limit the communicative function

that students need to use and the international skills they need to practice.

Littlewood (1981) in his book says that if conversation performs its role as a social

interaction activity, teacher must perform as a co-communicator rather than a

director. He may guide and stimulate but not take away the learners responsibility as

equal participant in the classroom. During the speaking class activity teachers’ role is

limited. The teacher should not interfere too much in the activities but students

practice using the target language.

The reason why students study the language is that they can master that

language and use it as a mean of communication and exchange ideas. The teacher

must also give the opportunity to the students to practice their speaking ability. So

that teacher should choose right technique. The parliamentary debate can be one of

the ways for students to make them familiars with the situation which they have to

respond. The role of the teacher in conducting this technique is very important. To

conduct this technique teacher should use three stages of teaching: presentation,

practice, and production.

At the presentation stages, teacher has to select the new material should be

debated. In this stage teacher must be careful in preparing the material because the

success of the technique depends on the preparation made by teacher. The material or

the topic must be controversial. And then teacher presents the topic as clearly as
29

possible and explains the ways of the debate which will be held. Before students

begin to debate teacher has to explain some expression that will be used in the debate.

Example expression that will be used:

Good morning the honorable, adjudicator, time keeper, chairperson, my


beloved opponents and all member of this house.
Well ladies and gentlemen before we come to our debate with the
motion………., we are from affirmative team would like to define……..so
the while definition of our motion today is………………..
Well ladies and gentlemen I am acting the first speaker of affirmative team
would like to elaborate our motion which is taken from…………point of
view and second speaker will elaborate our motion today which is taken
from……..point of view ladies and gentlemen, and my third speaker will
give rebuttal and also give support to our team case,
So that why ladies and gentlemen we are from negative team absolutely
agree that………………….. Because…………………..

The teacher has to be careful in spending too much time presenting, so that

the students have enough time to practice.

At the practice stages, it is the students’ turn to practice. The students are

divided into groups of six because in every round of Australasian Parliamentary

debate, there are two groups. They consist of six students. They are affirmative and

negative. According to Richards and Lockhart (1996:153) the use of group activities

is one of strategies to make the class dynamics. Furthermore they state the advantage

of using groups:

a. It reduces the dominance of the teacher over the class.

b. It increases the amount of the student’s participation in the class.


30

c. It increases the opportunities for individual students to practice and use

new feature of the target language.

d. It promotes collaborations among learners.

e. It enables the teacher to work more as a facilitator and consultant.

f. It can give learners a more active role in learning (Richard and Lockhart, !

996:153)

By using group work at this stage students are given opportunities to

practice and use the target language. They are expected to be active and have active

role in learning. Group work also gives chance to make collaboration among students.

So it can reduce the dominance of teacher in the class. At this stage the teacher acts as

if he were a conductor of an orchestra.

Finally, at the production stage students are given opportunities to express

their idea freely in the debate. The teacher takes part as a chair man/ moderator and

timekeeper. In this position teacher motivates students to use the language freely, not

to be afraid of making mistakes. So, teacher can play his role as a motivator and

facilitator. It is in line with what Breen and Candin (1980) as quoted by Nunan

(1989:87) said that “that the teacher has three main roles in the communicative

classroom. The first is to fact as facilitator of communicative process, the second is to

act as participant and the third is to act an observer and learner.

In Australasian Parliamentary debate system, teacher takes part in the class

activities but he is not actively involved or teacher’s role is not dominant. It means

that the students are given a more active role in the class activities. The teacher acts

as facilitator. During the debate teacher makes some notes. The notes will be used to
31

give comments about students’ activities. The teacher also makes daily assessment

for students to find out the progress in their speaking ability.

2.5 Speaking Proficiency Measurement

To know the progress that has been made by students after undergoing the

Educational Debate, their speaking proficiency will be measured using (Oller;

1979:321) speaking proficiency measurement. There are several supporting

components in measuring the students’ speaking proficiency: accent, grammar,

vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. Each component has weighing points from

1-6 (one is the lowest and six is the highest).

According to FSI procedures as quoted by Oller (1979:321) grammar scale receives


the heaviest weighing, followed by vocabulary, then comprehension then fluency
then accent which receives the lowest weighing.
Accent
1. Pronunciation frequently unintelligible
2. Frequent gross and very heavy accent make understanding difficult,
require frequent repetition
3. Foreign accent requires concentrated listening because
mispronunciation leads to occasional misunderstanding and apparent
errors in grammar or vocabulary.
Grammar
1. Grammar almost entirely inaccurate except in stock phrases
2. Constant errors showing control of very few major patterns
and frequently preventing communication
32

3. frequent errors showing some major patters uncontrolled and


causing occasional and misunderstanding
Vocabulary

1. Vocabulary inadequate for even the simplest conversation

2. vocabulary limited to basic personal and survival areas

3. Choice of the words sometimes inaccurate, limitation of

the vocabulary prevent discussion of some common professional and

social topics

Fluency
1. Speech is so halting and fragmentary that
conversation is virtually impossible
Speech is very slow and uneven except for short routine sentences
3. speech is frequently hesitant and jerky;
sentences may be left uncompleted
Comprehension
1. Understand too little for the simplest type of conversation
2. Understand only slow, very simple
speech on common social and tourist topic; requires constant
repetition and rephrasing.
3. Understand careful, somewhat simple
speech directed to him with considerable repetition and rephrasing
By using weighing table, it can be obtained the total scores of each student.
Below is example the weighing table:
Weighing table

Proficiency table 1 2 3 4 5 6

Accent 0 1 2 2 3 4 ……..

Grammar 6 12 18 24 30 36 ……..
33

Vocabulary 4 8 12 16 20 24 ……..

Fluency 2 4 6 8 10 12 …….

Comprehension 4 8 12 15 19 23 …….

Total …….

The total scores which the students get will be covered into the conversation

table. Using the conversation table the progress of the students’ speaking proficiency

as well as their FSI level (Foreign Service Institute) can be easily seen.

Below is the example of the conversion table:

Conversion Table

Total score (from weighing table) FSI Level

16-25 0+

26-32 1

33-42 1+

43-52 2

53-62 2+

63-72 3

73-82 3+

83-92 4

93-99 4+

The definition of FSI level from 1 until 5 as follows:

1. Able to satisfy routine needs and minimum courtesy requirements. Can


ask and answer question on topics very familiar to him; within the scope
34

of his limited language experience can understand simple question and


statements.
2. Able to satisfy routine social demands and limited work requirements.
Can handle with confidence but not with facility most social situation
including introduction and casual conversation about current event as well
as work, family and autobiographical information.
3. Able to speak the language with sufficient structural accuracy and
vocabulary to participate effectively in most formal and informal
conversation on practical, social and professional topics, can discuss
particular interest and special fields or a normal rate of speech;
vocabulary is broad enough that he rarely has to grope for a word; accent
maybe obviously foreign; control of grammar good; error never interfere
with understanding and rarely disturb the native speaker
4. Able to use language fluently and accurately on all levels normally
pertinent to professional needs. Can understand and participate in any
conversational within his range of experience with a high degree of
fluency and procession of vocabulary; would rarely be take for a native
speaker, but can respond appropriately even in unfamiliar situations, errors
in pronunciation and grammar quite rare; can handle informal interpreting
from and into language.
5. Speaking proficiently equivalent to that of an educated native speakers.
Has completed fluently in the language such that his speech on all level is
fully accepted by educated native speakers in all of its features, including
breadth of vocabulary and idiom, colloquialism and pertinent cultural
references. (ETS, 1970: 10-11 as quoted by Oller, 1979:320-323)
35

CHAPTER 111

RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter presents three points to discuss: research design, setting and subject

of the study, research subject and research procedures. In the procedures the research

discuses preliminary study, planning of the action, implementation of action,

observation of the action and analysis reflection

3.1 Research Design


This study is an action research whose main procedure follows Kemis & Mc

Taggart’s Model. This model uses cycles and each cycle consists of four phases

namely: planning, implementation, observation, evaluation, and reflection. The

number of the cycles depends on the result of the reflection in a cycle. Figure 3.1 the

procedure of C AR.

Observation
(pengamatan
terhadap situasi
Evaluation
pembelajaran)
Reflection
Observation Plan
Action

Reflection
36

Observation Revised Plan


Revised Plan
Action

Figure 3.1 the Procedures of Classroom Action Research Spiral


(Adapted from Kemmis and Mc Taggart’s in Mc Niff; 1988:2)

In this research, the researcher did the activity the fourth semester of

English Department IKIP Budi Utomo Malang in the year academic of 2009/2010.

Here, the researcher acted as teacher who conducts the process of teaching and

learning in the classroom. The procedures of this action research refer to the model of

Kemmis and Mc Tanggart’s 1988:2). These phases took place in every cycle in which

the analysis of the weakness and the strengths of activities conducted are discussed in

the reflection phases.

3.2 Setting and Subject of the Study

this classroom action research was conducted in June 2010 at campus IKIP

Budi Utomo Malang, located in Simpang Arjuna Street 14B Malang phone: (0341)

323214-326019, fax: 355070. Homepage: http//www.ikipbudiutoo.ac.id. The

researcher chose this object as the setting of this study on the following reason. First,

the object was located in Malang, second, the researcher as English teacher at IKIP

Budi Utomo Malang. Third, the English Department time allotment was in the fourth

semester with the consideration that they were still fresh and the fourth most the
37

students still got difficulties in oral communication and they tended to be afraid to

make mistakes

During the teaching and learning process, the students tended to be at a lost

when they were asked to answer the teacher’s question by using English even if in

form of simple English expression. Moreover, it was difficult for the students to

communicate in English since their speaking ability was low in the classroom. The

situation was not very conductive for the improvement of the students’ speaking

ability as it is traditional applied. The research had effort to use a debate technique

was able to motivate and improve students’ speaking ability.

3.3 Research Subject

The subjects of the study were students of IKIP Budi Utomo Malang. There

were 35 students of fourth semester of English Department in the academic year

2009/2010 which has 12 students of this class and take as the subject of this research

under certain considerations. These 12 students have low competence in speaking.

They are passive students it means that they prefer to keep silent during and learning

process. Moreover the researcher wanted to develop teaching and learning strategy,

especially in improving students’ speaking skill which was urgently the need to meet

the need of communication in globalization era. Also researcher wanted to measure

the success of speaking ability by using the debate technique on the target of the

standard scores.

3.4 Research Procedures


38

This study followed the following steps: preliminary study, planning of the

action, implementation of action, observation, and reflection.

1. Preliminary study; identifying, analyzing, formulating, the problem and

collaborating between the teacher and the researcher.

2. Planning the action; preparing the teaching strategy, demising the lesson

plan, preparing instructional material and preparing criteria of success.

3. Implementing the action; the researcher is a practitioner teacher teaches

speaking by using the lesson plan, interview guide, evaluation, reflection,

and analysis the collected data, determining whether the action is successful

or unsuccessful.

4. Observation; observing the teaching and learning process, collecting the

data, observation forms.

If the actions succeed so the Classroom Action Research (CAR) will be

stopped but if the action failed the researcher identify shortcoming and continued to

the next cycle then improved shortcoming.

3.4.1 Preliminary Study

The research conducted in June 2010 at campus IKIP Budi Utomo Malang.

It was done in order to get authentic the data concerning the teaching of English in

general. By doing a direct classroom observation and having a discussion with

another English teacher, the researcher found that there were some problems face in

the classroom’s speaking skill. The problems were the students still had difficulties in

expressing their ideas. The procedures of this action research made use of the recycle
39

process starting from planning, implementation, observation and reflection. The

researcher is responsible for observing the action and the result of observation are

discussed together between and the collaborator to see the effect of the action on the

students’ speaking ability.

3.4.2 Planning the Action

Designing the debate strategy, the researcher developed the lesson plan and

designed the instructional materials and media. The instructional materials were

dealing with choosing of the topic, a simple of steps and rules of the debate. Also

providing any references and the media used were clock for timing, white board for

writing the motion and the names of each speaker of two teams. Dictionary can help

the students to translate Indonesian into English or on other hand. During this stage,

the division of the students into groups was also managed, one group consisted of

three students and the 12 students were divided into four group

The lesson plans were designed for three meeting in which each meeting

was focused on the use of group work as the manifestation of the debate in the

classroom. Before giving the copied text prepared by the researcher the students were

brainstorming for a few minutes to think of what they would discuss about.

The division of students into groups was done considering the number of the

students the different speaking ability of the students and the characters to be acted

out in the debate were important to be included in the debate activity. The member of

each groups were made heterogeneous in term of their achievement in English and

also based on the result of the observation in the preliminary study. The groups were
40

fixed for every meeting. The purpose was to make the students’ feel comfortable

among members of the group.

During the preparation, the researcher observed the condition and the

characteristic of fourth semester of English Department of IKIP Budi Utomo Malang

by asking the students about the implementation of debate technique used in teaching

speaking class

1. Preparing Teaching Strategy

The teaching strategy that will use is “Debate” which has some certain rules.

It emphasizes in practicing the students’ speaking ability. In general, the techniques

which carry out in the research contain the following steps: 1). Introduce the debate

and the roles of the debate 2). Practice debate. 3) Apply the debate.

2. Designing the teaching and learning activities through Debate

The module was design to support the teacher in teaching learning activities

for the effectiveness of the strategy in teaching learning activity.

The teaching learning procedure was divided into 3 steps, which consist of pre-

activity, main-activity, and post-activity.

a. Pre-activity the teacher motivates students in order to get the students

interest in the class. Engaging the students is important for the learning

process. The teacher asks some questions based on the ability of their

speaking. Here the researcher gave free debate in order to know how far

students understand and involve in teaching and learning process. To


41

find out the effectiveness of new technique in a speaking class the

researcher prepared topic or the motions to be debated.

The topics or motions are as follows:

1) THBT education’s violence should be banned

2) THBT Barack Obama would not give any significant

contribution in Indonesia

3) THBT students should not bring HP (mobile phone) to

school.

b. Meanwhile, main activities the researcher inform to the students the

objectives of the lesson in order to know what they will get after the

lesson. The researcher explained the lesson to provide information that

helps to explain the aspect of the activity after students provide

opportunities to explore and inquire. It may be necessary to provide

science content information or expect result or conclusion.

c. The last is post activity for the session final expression is the same

importance as initial one.

3. Deciding the Criteria of Success

Based on the Oller’s Speaking Proficiency Measurement and according to

FSI procedure as quoted by Oller (1979:321) grammar scale receives the heaviest

weighing, followed by vocabulary, then comprehension, fluency, accent which

receives the lowest weighting.


42

Here the researcher wants used criteria to measure the success of the action

based on the Oller’s Speaking Proficiency Measurement, they are: (1) the students

can show their good performance when they are debating; (2) the students can use

their correct English function when they speak English orally; (3) the students can

achieve the level 3 to 3+.

Accent

1. Pronunciation frequently unintelligible

2. Frequent gross and very heavy accent make understanding difficult,

require frequent repetition

3. Foreign accent requires concentrated listening because mispronunciation

leads to occasional misunderstanding and apparent errors in grammar or

vocabulary.

Grammar

1. Grammar almost entirely inaccurate except in stock phrases

2. Constant errors showing control of very few major patterns and

frequently preventing communication

3. frequent errors showing some major patters uncontrolled and causing

occasional and misunderstanding

Vocabulary

1. Vocabulary inadequate for even the simplest conversation

2. Vocabulary limited to basic personal and survival areas


43

3. Choice of the words sometimes inaccurate, limitation of the vocabulary

prevent discussion of some common professional and social topics

Fluency

1. Speech is so halting and fragmentary that conversation is virtually

impossible

2. Speech is very slow and uneven except for short routine sentences

3. speech is frequently hesitant and jerky; sentences may be left

uncompleted

Comprehension

1. Understand too little for the simplest type of conversation

2. Understand only slow, very simple speech on common social and tourist

topic; requires constant repetition and rephrasing.

3. Understand careful, somewhat simple speech directed to him with

considerable repetition and rephrasing

By using weighting table, it can be obtained the total scores of each student.

Below is example the weighting table:

Weighting table

Proficiency table 1 2 3 4 5 6

Accent 0 1 2 2 3 4 ……..

Grammar 6 12 18 24 30 36 ……..

Vocabulary 4 8 12 16 20 24 ……..

Fluency 2 4 6 8 10 12 …….

Comprehension 4 8 12 15 19 23 …….
44

Total …….

The total scores which the students get will be covered into the conversation

table. Using the conversation table the progress of the students’ speaking proficiency

as well as their FSI level (Foreign Service Institute) can be easily seen.

Below is the example of the conversion table:

Conversion Table

Total score (from weighing table) FSI Level

16-25 0+

26-32 1

33-42 1+

43-52 2

53-62 2+

63-72 3

73-82 3+

83-92 4

93-99 4+

From the criteria above the researcher tries to have information of the

collected in order to see whether the implementation of the debate success or not

3.4.3 Implementation of the Action Plan


45

In the implementation phase, the researcher teaching speaking to the fourth

semester students of English Department IKP Budi Utomo Malang using Australasian

parliamentary debate. The researcher explained Australasian Parliamentary Debate

System and how it done in detail. After that the researcher gave the motions to the

students to be debated and the researcher tell the students to find the materials or

articles that detail with the motions or topic to be debated from Magazines, internet,

or from other resources to support them in giving arguments during the debate.

Table 3.1 the Procedure of Teaching and Learning Activities through the Debate

No Stages Activities

1. Pre-activities Warming up
Greeting and checking the attendance list
Explaining the objective of the lesson
Introducing the debate Australasian System
Explaining the procedure of the debate
Free - debate
2. Main-activity Implementation of the Debate
Grouping the Students
Determine the topic
Giving time to discuss (case building)
Starting the Debate (based on the rules)
Scoring the students’ performance

3 Post-activity Conclusion
Reviewing the debate

3.4.4 Observation

The researcher observed the activities during the implementation of the

debate technique; the main points that were observed in this step refer to the students’

activities and improvements.


46

3.4.5 Analysis and Reflection

In this part, the researcher evaluated the effect of the implementation of

the debate during the action. The data obtained are analyzed using descriptive

manner. The researcher want describe data existing to give information about

improving speaking skill through debate. The data concerning the students speaking

proficiency are calculated by using FSI model. With this data the researcher want

describe the students progress in their speaking ability.

Based on the students answer to the questionnaire, researcher analyzes the

data by using percentage technique. The sum of the student’s response of one item

(question) is divided by the number of students and multiplied by 100%.

The sum of the students’ responses of one item X 100%

The number of students

And from the observation checklist the researcher calculate inn terms of the

number of “yes” and “no” answer. From the data obtained using there kinds of

technique, researcher wants to give interpretation toward the data.


47

CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS

This chapter presented the finding of the research refer to the

implementation of debate technique to improve the students ability in speaking skill

thought action research. These activities covered preliminary study, and the phases

planning, implementation, observation and reflection in classroom action research.

4.1 Preliminary Study

At the beginning of this study, the researcher conducted a preliminary study

during the teaching learning process of speaking. In this research the researcher found

the factual condition in the class related to the speaking problems like students have

low motivation in speaking, lack of confidence, difficulties in expressing the ideas.

In order to know, the prior condition of the students’ speaking skill. The

researcher conducted the observation class on June 1st 2010. It covered 35 students of

fourth semester of English Department in the academic year 2009/2010 which has 12

students of this class and take as the subject of this research under certain
48

considerations. The observation was oral communication by giving simple topic or

title like “That Pacaran (go steady) give motivate to our study in Campus”. The

students had opportunity to express their ideas. During the activity the researcher

observed the students the students’ ability in speaking.

The result of the observation showed that the most of the students found

some problem during communication in English orally because the students are lack

of confidence to speak English. This can be proved by the fact that most of the

students tend to preserve in silence during the discussion activities because they are

afraid of making mistakes.

Table 4.1 the result of the prior Observation Students’ Speaking Proficiency

No The name of the Students Meeting


1 11
1 Irenious Joddas 42 42
2 Maria Yasinta Dere 42 42
3 Bernabas. D. ngampu 36 36
4 Niko Angga.I 36 36
5 Ahmad Farid 45 45
6 Liberta 45 38
7 Hartina 45 38
8 Melania. F. Rosa 42 51
9 Applyana. H 51 59
10 Nopen 48 69
11 Rofiatus 53 48
12 Suparman 50 46

The table indicates that the average the result score had not met the criteria,

because no the students could achieve the level between” 3 to 3 + of Holler’s

speaking Proficiency Measurement. The result was not satisfying because all of the
49

students had minimum passing score (Based on the total score converted in the

Ollers’ Conversion)

According to the result of the observation from that the students’ ability in

speaking is low; here the researcher implemented the strategy in order to improve the

students’ ability in speaking skill trough debate technique.

The implementation of the action was presented by describing the activities

in the cycle of the research. The procedures of this action research consist of four

steps; they are planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. Those steps

were presented below:

4.2 Classroom Action Research.

All the data collected during the implementation of classroom action

research are presented by describing the action in every cycle of the research. The

procedures of this action research refer to model of Kemish and Mc Tanggart (Mc

Niff) which consist of four steps; they are planning, implementation, observation, and

reflection.

4.2.1 Cycle 1

This research started with the cycle I, in this cycle the researcher evaluated

the process whether the action need to be continued to the next action or stopped.

Cycle I was conducted from June 1st, 2010 which was done in six meeting (one

meeting 2 hours 50 minutes). The data on the cycle I was presented bellow;
50

4.2.1.1 Planning of the Action

Designing the debate strategy, the researcher developed the lesson plan and

designed the instructional materials and media. The instructional materials were

dealing with choosing of the topic, a simple of steps and rules of the debate. Also

providing any references and the media used were clock for timing, white board for

writing the motion and the names of each speaker of two teams. Dictionary can help

the students to translate Indonesian into English or on other hand. During this stage,

the division of the students into groups was also managed, one group consisted of

three students and the 12 students were divided into four group

The lesson plans were designed for three meeting in which each meeting

was focused on the use of group work as the manifestation of the debate in the

classroom. Before giving the copied text prepared by the researcher the students were

brainstorming for a few minutes to think of what they would discuss about.

The division of students into groups was done considering the number of the

students the different speaking ability of the students and the characters to be acted

out in the debate were important to be included in the debate activity. The member of

each groups were made heterogeneous in term of their achievement in English and

also based on the result of the observation in the preliminary study. The groups were

fixed for every meeting. The purpose was to make the students’ feel comfortable

among members of the group.


51

During the preparation, the researcher observed the condition and the

characteristic of fourth semester of English Department of IKIP Budi Utomo Malang

by asking the students about the implementation of debate technique used in teaching

speaking class. Here the researcher chooses the Australasia system based on the

principle and features. The principles of the Australasia of debate as follows;

The principle of debate;

a. Debate is able to motivate students to be actively involved in

learning class.

b. Debate is able to encourage students to communicated in English

c. Debate is able to develop a positive interaction among the

students

d. Debate is able to improve student’s speaking skill ability in

English

e. Debate is able to give the students opportunities to initiate oral

communication

f. Debate is able to ask students think critically.

For selecting debate the teacher concerned with the focus of improving

speaking skill by all of indicator from the criteria of success. Thus it was expected

that debate could increase the students’ self confidence and motivation to speak

English even in the form of simple expressions. The kinds of debate with the

procedures for cycle I was presented in table 4.2

Table 4.3 the procedures of Teaching and Learning Activities through the

debate for cycle 1.


52

No Stages Activities

1. Pre-activities Warming up
Greeting and checking the attendance list
Explaining the objective of the lesson
Introducing the debate Australasian System
Explaining the procedure of the debate
Free- Debate

2. Main-activity Implementation of the Debate


Grouping the Students
Determine the topic
Giving time to discuss (case building)
Starting the Debate (based on the rules)
Scoring the students’ performance

3 Post-activity Conclusion
Reviewing the debate

The module consist of specific instructional, the kind of debate, the time

allocation and the procedures of teaching learning activities by using Australasia

debate system. In applying the debate activity, the time allotment for the debate was

two (2) minutes for each debater to give argument in one session.

The topic for the first meeting “that Pacaran (go Steady) give motivate to

our study in Campus. The teaching learning process was focused on the way true, and

the negative team as an opposition team rebuttal to the positive team. Each team tried

to have evident in order to support their team opinion. The purpose of the debate in

the first meeting is to improve speaking skill of students and to motivate to the

students to brave to speak. In the first meeting the researcher gave the simple topic

and in the process of the debate the researcher did not focus on the grammar.
53

After finishing the design, the researcher prepared the instructional materials

and media to be used in teaching and learning process.

Table 4.4 the activities of Australasian Debate System in cycle I

Meeting/ date Activities Topic


1 Debate practice (free without THBT Pacaran (go
steady) give motivate to
regulation)
1|6| 2010 our study in Campus
Introduction of the debate Australasia debate
system
II Debate practice THB That sex education
should be given to the
4|6| 2010
students
III Debate practice THBT Abortion should
be legalized
8|6| 2010
IV Debate practice THBT Indonesia should
legalize Poligami.
11|6 2010
V Debate practice THBT Watching TV is
good for children
15|6| 2010
VI Debate practice THBT We should get
married young
18|6| 2010

4.2.1.2 Implementation

The researcher implemented the stage based on the teaching and learning

process and the schedule. The implementation of the Australasia debate system for

cycle I consist of six meetings. The implementation for each as explained below;
54

1). Cycle 1

The cycle I which is covered 6 meeting and started from June 1st, 2010

which the topic of the planning of the action above. The teaching and learning was

conducted based on the teaching scenario was presented as follows;

a). Meeting

a. Pre-Activity

At the beginning of the action, the teacher opened the class by greeting and

checking the attendance list. The teacher informed to the class that the class was

selected for action research. In order to make the research running well the teacher

made a commitment with the students that during the process of action research they

were not allowed to have permission. After that, he gave explanation about the

research and the role of both the researcher and the students during the research

The teacher started with the brainstorming activity. It was used to know the

prior knowledge of the students related to the topic. To encourage the students’

motivation, the teacher asked some question regarding to the previous lesson such as

debate itself. Then, the teacher conducted free-debate, it mean debate without roles or

regulation. Here, the students have opportunities to convey their opinion and

argument

The purpose of the debate was to know the prior ability of the speaking

students. Then the teacher discuss, asked some question to the students based on free

debate process.
55

b .Main Activity

After focusing the topic, the researcher introduced the Australasia debate,

the objectives of the lesson and the procedure of the debate. The implementation of

the debate aimed to stimulate the students to speak without having burden because

one of the characters of the debate was relaxed and enjoyable.

At the first meeting, teacher decided the group to government (positive) and

opposition (Negative) which each groups consist of four debaters namely first

speaker, second speaker, third speaker and reply speaker.

After deciding the group or divided the 12 students into 4 teams, because

one team consists of three students the teacher determined the same topic that want

used be debate.

Even though the topic had been applied according to the procedures, the

researcher gave the time to each to discuss (case building) for fifteen minutes before

the team the Australasia debate.

Before the starting the debate the teacher asked the students refer to the

topic discussed whether ready or not. When the students were ready to debate the

teacher also prepared the total score converted in the Ollers’ Conversion.

c. Post activity

In post activity, teacher conclude and give input to the students regarding to

the debate activity with the consideration that the activity better than before, the

teacher asked the students about the difficulties during the debate process.
56

4.2.1.3 Observation

During the application of the technique the researcher observed and

analyzed. At the beginning of the action, the researcher found some problem that he

saw the students were not too active during their debate. They tend to read the text in

delivering their speech, they still got difficulties to express their ideas and also when

they gave rebuttal to their opponent’s team. Their manner, when they delivered their

speeches was still shy and afraid to express their opinions and also for the other

groups.

After analyzing the teaching and learning result in speaking skill of four

meeting based on the result of the observation checklist, the field not and the

interview with the students, the researcher and the collaborator draw a conclusion that

the strategy needs to be improved on the next cycle because the result had not met

the criteria of success, because no students could achieve the level between 3 to 3 +

of Oller’s speaking Proficiency Measurement that showed their pronunciation,

frequently unintelligible, their grammar almost entirely inaccurate except in stock

phrase. So the implementation of the debate strategy did not yet give satisfactory

result on the increasing of the students speaking skill. This unsatisfactory result could

be examined from the achievement of each of the indicator set up.

Based on the finding in this cycle, the researcher and the collaborator agreed

to move the next cycle and increased the strategy to solve the students’ problems on

speaking skill by considering the following points; they often got difficulties in

delivering opinions, rebuttal, pronouncing words correctly. Debate system that using

a team work, so a team actually should work together to support their team’s case
57

argument. Furthermore, by having a good cooperation in one team work, it could

achieve a good debate in the presentation activities. It was necessary to set the time

appropriately for each of the activities done. It included how to manage enough time

for practicing and how to use some expression to rebuttal.

4.2.1.4 Analysis and reflection

To evaluate the result of the improvement in cycle 1, the researcher made a

reflection through the analysis of the obtained data. The analysis was on the basis of

the obtained data from the observation form, and score converted in the Ollers’

Conversion

a. Analysis of the teaching and Learning Process

From the result of the data analysis, it was found that the students had low

in learning process by actively participating in debate technique besides that the

students could not satisfied in their speaking ability in more comfortable.

However, it must be admitted that there were still some weakness and error

found during the conversation in applying debate especially concerning grammar,

express their ideas, giving rebuttal to opponent team’s opinion.

b. Reflection

The researcher found that the result was not satisfactory yet, it happened

because first, most the students had no much background knowledge of the motion of

the debate, second the students were difficult to deliver and express their ideas,

besides that they got difficulties in giving rebuttal to opponent team’s opinion. The
58

students often reluctant and discourage to speak. But the implantation of debate in

cycle 1 did not meet the criteria of success. So it was necessary to conduct cycle 11

as the improvement of cycle 1. Based on the average score of the observation; the

average score of the result had not met the criteria of success, because no the students

could achieve the level between “3 to 3 + of Oller’s speaking Proficiency

Measurement.

Table 4.5 the Observation Result of the Students in Cycle 1.

Table: 4.5 the students’ FSI Level based on the total score after being

converted in the Ollers’ Conversion Table in Cycle 1.

No The Name of the Students Cycle I


Meeting
II III IV
1 Irenious Jodas 55 55 57

2 Maria Yasinta. Dere 55 55 57

3 Bernabas. D. Ngampu 44 44 46

4 Niko. Angga 52 55 55

5 Ahmad Farid 55 55 57

6 Liberta 52 52 57

7 Hartina 55 55 57

8 Melania. F. Rosa 52 44 46

9 Applyana 55 50 55

10 Nopen 44 44 53

11 Rofiatus 50 50 55

12 Suparman 44 44 46
59

The meeting Total score FSI Level Number of the Students


43-52 2 8

53-63 2+ 4

11 64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ _
43-52 2 7

111 53-63 2+ 5

64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ _
1V 43-52 2 3

53-63 2+ 9

64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ _

Based on the finding of this cycle, the researcher concluded that some

improvement was made by the used of Australasia debate in the teaching and learning

activities especially on increasing the students’ learning and providing an enjoyable

learning atmosphere. But there were some aspect on the implementation of the debate

that still need to be revised and improved such as in delivering opinion, rebuttal,

pronouncing words, case the motion and also debate system using a team work, so a

team actually should work together to support their team’s argument. So, debate by

having a good cooperation in one team work.


60

Furthermore, the action for cycle 1 did not meet all criteria of success yet.

Thus, the researcher concluded that the activity in cycle 1 needed to be continued to

the next cycle 2.

4.2.2. Cycle 2

The cycle 2 was carried out in order to evaluate the next process whether the

action need to be continued to the next action or stopped. Cycle 2 was conducted

from June 18th, 2010, up to July 28th, 2010 which was done in six meetings (1 meeting

equal 2 hours 50 minutes)

4.2.2.1 Planning of the action

According to the evaluation in the first cycle that the implementation of the

Australasia debate system had not met the criteria of success yet. The researcher

designed that focused on the instructional material and the way of implementing the

debate strategy. The revision was concentrated in creating the situation where the

students were able to speak fluently and improved the standard score. So in cycle 11

researcher changed the way of presenting the material. In cycle 11 the researcher

gave 6 motions that were current topic and were interesting, after that asked students

to choose three motions that would be presented. Besides the researcher drilled their

pronunciation and gave more expression that often be used in debate. And also in this

cycle the researcher and the collaborator gave example how to have a good manner in

debating it could make the students have high spirit, high motivation, and high

confidence. Besides that the researcher advised the students to find articles that
61

related to the motions that they were going to debate it in the next debates either from

magazines, newspaper, internet or other resources to support the arguments during the

debate.

In this cycle the procedure of teaching and learning activities was set up 3

stages; pre-activity, Main-activity, and post-activity during the process in cycle 2.

The cycle 2 was conducted six meeting were covered six topic. The procedure of

teaching and learning process was shown in Table 4.6 the Activities of Australasia

Debate System for cycle 11

Meeting/ date Activities Topic


1 Debate practice That Arema’s celebrations are

18|6 2010 injurious

11 Debate practice That Not make a date in the

20|6 2010 campus


111 Debate practice THBT Ariel and Luna Maya

22|6 2010 should not be expelled from

LUX’S Ads.
1V Debate practice THBT Ariel, Luna Maya and

24|6 2010 Cut Tari should be jailed


V Debate practice THBT Barack Obama would

26|7 2010 not give any significant

contribution in Indonesia
VI Debate practice THBT students should not

28|7 2010 bring HP (mobile phone) to

school
62

In cycle 2 the researcher defined the learning objectives which focused on

the principle of debate; to motivate students to be actively involved in teach class, to

encourage students to communicate in English, to develop a positive interaction

among the students.

In order to reach the criteria of success, the researcher concerned with the

focus of improving speaking skill.

4.2.2.2 Implementation

The implementation of cycle 2 was continued based on the reflection of the

previous cycle. The implementations of the Australasia debate system for cycle 2

consist of 6 meetings. The implementation for each meeting as explained below;

1). Cycle 2

The cycle 2 covered 6 meeting which conducted from June 18th, 2010, up to

July 28th , 2010 which was done in six meetings (1 meeting equal 2 hours 50

minutes). The teaching and learning scenario was presented as follows:

Meeting

a. Pre-Activity

Before starting the activity in cycle 2 the teacher opened the class by

greeting, asking the condition of the students and checking the attendance list. The

teacher informed to the class that the class would like to continue the debate with the

real Australasia form the action research. In order to make the research running well
63

the teacher made a commitment with the students that during the process they were

not allowed to have permission. After that, the researcher gave explanation about the

research and the role of both the researcher and the students during the research for

cycle 2.

The teacher started with the brainstorming activity. It was used to know how

far the students understand for the prior knowledge of the students related to the

topic. To encourage the students’ motivation, the teacher asked some question

regarding to the previsions lesson such as debate itself.

b. Main Activity

In this part the teacher explained and reviewed the Australasia debate, the

aim and the procedure of the debate. The explanation of the debate aimed to stimulate

the students more understand and motivated them to speak without having burden

because one of the characteristic of the debate was relaxed and enjoyable.

After giving explanation the teacher ask the students to have the group to be

government (positive) and opposition (negative) which each groups consist of 3

debaters namely first speaker, second speaker, third speaker and reply speaker would

be burdened by one of the debaters.

c. Post activity

In this part, the teacher asked the students/ debaters after applying the

topics about in order to know whether the students understand or not what they had

been talking about. Here, the researcher reviewed and advised for each debater and
64

gave input in order to motivate the students did the debate better then before. And

also teacher made conclusion regarding to the debate activity and he always asked to

the students for the difficulties during the debate process.

4.2.2.3 Observation

In doing the observation the researcher observed the student’s speaking

activities in the classroom while they were practicing the use of Educational Debate

technique. He tried to find out the condition that might appear during the speaking

activity. The researcher provided observation form, field note, direct observation and

direct observation. In direct observation, the researcher directly observed the activity

and made notes. In the indirect observation, the researcher gave the students

observation check-list. Furthermore, the quantitative data were obtained from the

observation from result and field note of the students’ activities toward the

implementation of the debate.

The sources of data were students of IKIP Budi Utomo Malang by using the

strategy namely debate Australasia system. It was functioning as the target of the

action.

During the process of debate in Cycle 2, the researcher also evaluated the

students by using observation form in order to identify the students’ improvement on

speaking. From the result obtained during the implementation of the debate in cycle

2, the researcher concluded that the implementation of Australasia debate system will

be continued in cycle 3 because in improving speaking skill through debate did not

meet all criteria of success yet. Even though, some students had met the indicators,
65

while the important objective of the debate was encouraging the students to practice

English actively in teaching and learning process especially on increasing the

students’ speaking skill, and more self confident, providing enjoyable learning

atmosphere, in cycle 2 some students could reach the maximum.

4.2.2.4 Analysis and Reflection

To evaluate the result of the improvement in Cycle 2, the researcher made a

reflection through the analysis obtained data. The analysis was on the basis of the

obtained data from observation form, field note, direct observation and direct

observation.

a. Analysis of the Teaching and Learning Process.

From the result of the data analysis, the implementation of the debate in

cycle 2 improved better then the previous action. It was proved by the result of the

criteria of success below. And the important thing that it was found that the students

had positive attitude in learning process by actively participating in debate technique.

Thus, the technique was able to give a good effect on the students besides that the

students could practice their speaking ability in more comfortable. The students

showed great enthusiasm to get turns as the speaker and willing to brave speak. The

researcher still gave the tolerance to students who have some weakness and error

found during the conversation in applying debate especially concerning the grammar

and pronunciation, accent, fluency. A part from the mistakes, the students could give

response when another team gave the statement. It was in the form of simple

expression the students could give a description or explaining.


66

b. Reflection

Related to the observation the researcher made some conclusion that based

on the implementation of the debate in cycle 2 which consist of six meetings. It was

found that the students learning motivation was interested and their speaking ability.

The data showed that Australasia debate system could improve students’

motivation, self confident, and bravery in speaking during the teaching and learning

process. it could be proved during the implementation o the debate.

Based on the data collected the researcher found that.

Table 4.7 the Observation Result of the Students in Cycle 11.

No The Name of the Students Cycle II


Meeting
V VI VII
1 Irenious Joddas 76 76 76

2 Maria Yasinta Dere 72 73 73

3 Bernabas. D. Ngampu 67 71 71

4 Niko Angga. I 72 74 74

5 Ahmad Farid 76 76 76

6 Liberta 72 74 74

7 Hartina 76 76 76

8 Melania. F. Rosa 67 71 71

9 Apllyana. H 72 76 76

10 Nopen 69 72 72
67

11 Rofiatus 72 73 74

12 Suparman 67 71 71

Table: 4.7 the students’ FSI Level based on the total score after being

converted in the Ollers’ Conversion Table in Cycle 1I.

The meeting Total score FSI Level Number of the

Students
43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

V 64-72 3 9

73-82 3+ 3
43-52 2 _

VI 53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 3

73-82 3+ 9
VII 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 3

73-82 3+ 9

Based on the obtained data from the Conversion Table the researcher found

that the average score of time of the students’ ability in speaking in cycle 2 did not

meet the criteria of success yet. Because only nine students were able to reach in level

3+. (See Table 47)


68

Based on the findings of this cycle, the researcher concluded that some

improvement was made by the used of Australasian debate in the teaching and

providing an enjoyable learning atmosphere. But there were some aspect on the

implementation of the debate that still need to be revised and improved such as

pronouncing words, accent, fluency debate strategy.

Furthermore, the action for cycle 2 did not meet all criteria of success yet.

Even though, some students were active and more self confident to speak during the

implementation of the debate technique. Thus, the researcher concluded that the

activity in cycle 2 has not met the criteria of success and it was needed to be

continued to the next cycle 3 to reach the criteria of success

4.2.3.1 Planning of the Action

The researcher did this action based on the evaluation in second cycle that

had not met the criteria of success yet. The researcher made some revision on the use

of debate. The revision was focused on the pronouncing words, accent, manner, and

debate strategy. The revision was concentrated in creating the situation where the

students were able to brave to speak and improved the standard score.

In this cycle the module/ lesson plan covered the specific instructional

objectives, the topic, the instructional media, and the procedure of teaching and

learning activities was set-up in 3 stages; pre-activity, Main-activity and post activity

during the process in cycle 3. The cycle 3 was conducted in six meeting to cover six

topics.

Table 4.8 the activities of Australasian Debate system for cycle 3


69

Meeting/ date Activities Topic


1 Explaining the Final Debate

28|6 2010 Debate. That watching TV make bad

Debate Perform. effect to the Children


11 Debate practice That we should get married

30|6 2010 young

111 Debate practice That Stop Super Deal Quiz

1|7 2010
1V Debate practice That Luna. Maya and Cut Tari

2|7 2010 Should be jailed


V Debate practice Play Boy Indonesia is not

3|7 2010 Pornography


VI Debate practice That we should not make date In

5|7 2010 Campus

In cycle three the researcher defined the learning objectives which focused

on the principles of debate; to motivate students to be actively involved in learning

class; to encourage to communicate in English, to develop a positive interaction

among the students, to improve student’s speaking skill ability in English, to give the

students opportunities to initiate oral communication and ask students think critically.

In order to reach the criteria of success the teacher concerned with the focus

of improving speaking skill. Thus, it was expected that in cycle 3 the teaching and

learning of debate could increase the students’ more self confidence and motivation

to speak more than in cycle 2 and the students were to perform the real debate

although in the form of simple expression.


70

4.2.3.2 Implementation

The implementation of cycle 3 was revised based on the reflection of the

previous cycle. At the third cycle consist of six meeting too. The researcher presented

the implementation of action by describing the activity. The description of the

implementation of the teaching and learning process of the third cycle was presented

as follows;

1). Cycle 3

Cycle 3 had six meeting which conducted from June 28th, 2010 to July 5th,

2010. The researcher applied the action the action based on the teaching and learning

scenario as follows;

a). Meeting

a. Pre-Activity

Before starting the lesson in cycle 3 the teacher opened the class by

greeting, asking the condition of the students and checking the attendance list. To

make research running well the teacher made a commitment with the students that

during the process they were not allowed to have permission. After that, the

researcher gave explanation about the research and the role of both the researcher and

the students during the research for cycle 3.

The teacher started withy the brainstorming activity. It was used to know

how far the students understand for the prior knowledge of the students related to the
71

topic. To encourage the students’ motivation, the researcher asked some question

regarding to the previous lesson such as debate itself.

b. Main Activity

In this part the teacher explained and reviewed the Australasian debate, the

aim and the procedure of the debate. The explained of the debate aimed to stimulate

the students more understand and motivated them to speak without having burden

because one of the characteristic of the debate was relaxed and enjoyable.

After that, the teacher ask the students to have the group to be government

(positive) and opposition (negative) which each groups consist of 3 debaters namely

first speaker, second speaker, third speaker and reply speaker would be burdened by

one of the debaters.

After forming the group, the researcher gave the time to each team to

discuss (case building) for thirty minutes before applying the topic for the debate.

Before starting the debate the teacher asked the students refer to the topic

discussed. When the students were ready to perform the debate the teacher prepared

for scoring by using FSI Table.

c. Post Activity

After finishing the activity, the teacher reviewed the topics and gave input in

order to motivate the students in performing the debate better. And also teacher made

conclusion regarding to the debate activity and he always asked to the students for the

difficulties during the debate process and closed the meeting.


72

4.2.3.3 Observation

This part would talk about instruments concerned with data collection,

sources of data and technique of analysis for collected data. The researcher also

provided observation form, field note to register all the activity during the process.

Furthermore, the quantitative data were obtained from the observation from result and

field note of the students’ activities toward the implementation of the debate.

The sources of data were Students of English Department IKIP Budi Utomo

Malang by using the strategy namely debate Australasia system. It was functioning as

target of the action. He tried to find out the condition that might appear during the

speaking activity.

During the process of the debate in cycle 3, the researcher evaluated the

students by using observation form in order to identify the students’ improvement on

speaking. From the result obtained during the implantation of the debate in cycle 3,

the researcher concluded that implementation of Australasian debate system will be

stop in cycle 3 because in improving skill through debate had met all criteria of

success.

4.2.3.4 Analysis and Reflection

To evaluate the result of the improvement in cycle 3, the researcher made

reflection through the analysis of the obtained data. The analysis was on the basis of

the obtained data from the observation form and field note.

a. Analysis of the Teaching and Learning Process


73

From the result of the data analysis, the implementation of the debate in

cycle 3 improved better then the previous action. It was proved by the result of

criteria of success below. And the important thing that it was found that the students

had positive attitude in learning process by actively participating in debate technique

especially concerning the grammar, accent, manner and pronunciation. Besides that

the students could practice their speaking ability in more comfortable. The students

showed great enthusiasm to get turns as the speaker and willing to brave to speak.

The researcher still gave the tolerance to students who have some weakness and error

found during the conversation in applying debate especially concerning the grammar,

accent, manner and pronunciation. A part from mistakes, the students could give

response when another team gave the statement. It was in the form of simple

expression the students could give a description or explaining.

b. Reflection

Related to the observation the researcher made some conclusion that based

on the implementation of the debate in cycle 3 which consist of six meeting. It was

found that their speaking ability improved as showed by increasing the score obtained

from the data observation forms, field note to determine the criteria of success.

The data showed that Australasian debate could improve students’

motivation, self confidence, and bravery in speaking during the teaching and learning

process. It could be proved during the implement6ation o the debate.

Based on the data collected, the researcher found that;

Table 4.9 the Observation Result of the Students in Cycle 3


74

No The Name of the Students Cycle III


Meeting
VIII IX X
1 Irenious Joddas 76 82 82

2 Maria Yasinta Dere 78 78 78

3 Bernabas. D. Ngampu 76 78 78

4 Niko Angga. I 76 78 78

5 Ahmad Farid 78 82 82

6 Liberta 78 78 78

7 Hartina 76 82 82

8 Melania. F. Rosa 72 76 76

9 Apllyana. H 76 76 78

10 Nopen 72 76 76

11 Rofiatus 76 78 78

12 Suparman 76 76 78

Table: 4.10 the students’ FSI Level based on the total score after being

converted in the Ollers’ Conversion Table in Cycle III.

The meeting Total score FSI Level Number of the

Students
43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

VIII 64-72 3 2

73-82 3+ 10
43-52 2 _
75

IX 53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ 12
43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

X 64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ 12

According to the data obtained in the Conversion Table there is a progress at

the eight to the nine meeting. Their FSI level is between 3 and 3+ in the eight

meeting, there are two students in level 3 and ten students in level 3+. In the nine till

ten meeting their FSI level is 3+. There is no one left in level 2+. At the end of

meeting the students in level 3+ increased there are twelve students in level 3+. It

means that they are able to use English as their means of communication in their daily

life and they can participate effectively in a speaking activity talking about topic

concerning with social life, professional and practicing things. At the level the

students can participate effectively in most formal or informal conversation about

certain social topics and practical things with sufficient accuracy in grammar, accent,

manner, pronunciation and vocabulary.

Based on the finding of this cycle, the researcher concluded that the

improvement was made by the use of Australasia debate in the teaching and learning

activities. The improvement could be identified from the achievement of the criteria

of success:
76

First, the students were active during the teaching and learning process. It

was identified by the students’ participation in debate perform actively and based on

the result of the observation form in cycle 3. Second, the students become more

confident to give response and argument also express their ideas when the students

got his turn to speak to perform debate. Furthermore, the action for cycle 3 had met

all criteria of success. The students were active and have more self confident to speak

during the implementation of the debate technique. Thus, the researcher concluded

that the activity would be stopped in cycle 3.

4.3 The Data from the Daily Assessment

In order to know that the Australasian Parliamentary Debate can give a

positive effect on students’ speaking ability, the researcher measured the student’s

speaking progress based on their daily assessment. The researcher used Oller’s

speaking proficiency measurement. In this part of study researcher was helped by

speaking lecturer to take the score. There were 7 meetings and researcher took the

students’ score in every meeting. In every meeting he gave scores based on their

accent, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension. By doing the daily

assessment researcher could get the data and know the students’ speaking progress. It

used to find out whether the technique can improve the students’ speaking ability or

not. The students’ speaking progress can be seen in total score, from the first meeting

until the seventh meeting.

Based on the Oller’s Conversion Table the researcher then put the total

score into the table so it will be easy to see the students speaking’ progress. (See
77

appendix 6). From the conversion Table (appendix 6) we can see that the students’

proficiency is experiencing some progress.

At the first meeting their FSI level is between 2 until 2+. Based on the

Conversion Table, there are eight students in level 2 and four students in level 2+.

FSI level defines that the students in level 2 and 2+ they are able to satisfy routine

social demands and limited work requirements. They can handle with confidence but

not facility most social situations including introduction and casual conversation

about current as well as work, family and auto biographical information.

According to the data obtained in the Conversion Table there is a progress at

the eight to the nine meeting. Their FSI level is between 3 and 3+ in the eight

meeting, there are two students in level 3 and ten students in level 3+. In the nine till

ten meeting their FSI level is 3+. There is no one left in level 2+. At the end of

meeting the students in level 3+ increased there are twelve students in level 3+. At the

level the students can participate effectively in most formal or informal conversation

about certain social topics and practical things with sufficient accuracy in grammar,

accent, manner, pronunciation and vocabulary


78

CHAPTER V

DISCUSSION OF THE FINDING

This chapter presented the summary of finding and the discussion of the

implementation result of Australasia debate technique to improve speaking skill at

English Department of IKIP Budi Utomo Malang.

5.1 Summary of the Finding.

The Australasia debate technique is a simple strategy, and applicable to

several important for educational objectives. Through the debate students are able to

improve their ability in recognizing their behaviors for handling difficult situation.

And they have ability to response the situation and condition in speaking process.

Debate is able to force and motivate the students brave to speak English,

debate technique carry out them an appealing set of activities because by doing this

action the students are interested and enjoy it, they are not realized that perform the

debate can motivate them in speaking process.

The research had objective to improve the students speaking skill through

the debate technique. And the most important thing that by using Australasia debate

is to practice to communicate in English during the teaching and learning process.

The research had objective to improve the students speaking skill through

the debate technique. And the most important thing that by using Australasia debate

is to practice to communicate in English during the teaching and learning process.


79

The debate Australasia system was selected based on the objective of language

learning. For example; to motivate students to involve actively in teaching class, to

encourage students to communicate in English, to develop a positive interaction

among the students, the students become more self confidence to convey or express

their ideas in English, the students are able to have bravery to express their opinion.

Before applying the Australasia debate in teaching and learning process, the

researcher observed that most of the students were passive. They did not have bravery

to speak, they were afraid of make mistakes, they were afraid of being laughed by

their friends and they did not have self confidence in expressing their ideas. So they

needed a conductive class to practice their ability in speaking where they were able to

enjoy the language without any burdened to communicate in English.

Based on the result of the students’ performance during cycle 1, cycle 2, and

cycle 3, it could be concluded that debate of Australasia system could improve the

students’ speaking skill. It could be proved with the prior observation form result of

students, observation form result of students in cycle 1, 2 and 3. It could be said that

there were a number of improvement refer to the students’ speaking skill.

Based on the researcher’s observation, during the application of the

technique, almost all the students were actively in the speaking activity. All of the

students (12) stated that most of the students talked and the majority of the students

(9) stated that they spoke spontaneously without reading any text. They needed only

the outline of their speech. And some of the students (3) need to read the material

during presenting the speech in the middle of the debate. Even though they still got

difficulties in presenting their speech; they had tried very hard to present the speech
80

in the debate using English. They felt got a great deal to talk. It was stated by all

students in the class. They felt that got opportunity to tell their ideas freely because

based on the researcher’s observation most of the students said that their ideas were

not limited.

All the indicator of the criteria of success had been fulfilled as follows:

a. The results of the students were actively involved during the teaching and

learning. Their response toward the implementation of the debate had positive

impact of their speaking skill. The students were more active and motivated to

communicate after the implementation of the Australasia debate.

b. The students became more self confidence to make rebuttal and the students

braved to speak or express their ideas in front of the class.

c. The students were happy and enjoyed in learning speaking by using debate

system and finally the average of the score result in cycle 3 had fulfilled the

criteria of success.

5.2 Discussion

Based on the reflection and the data obtained from the cycle, the researcher

concluded some points concerning with the advantages of the implementation of the

debate technique.

a. The variations of teaching strategies were needed to improve speaking skill and

solve the problem of the students’ low speaking ability. Australasia debate

system, the one of the strategy that was able to solve the problem during the

teaching and learning process of speaking. Debate could create the varieties of
81

learning activity, provide enjoyable learning atmosphere and were able to

increase the students’ learning motivation and facilitate the students to

communicate.

b. Moreover, the debate strategy could be applied based on several proficiency

levels, intermediate, advance or students who ever got English basic before. It

could be adapted based on the difficulty of the motion or topics. Australasian

debate formation was useful to help the learners go to communicate. With the

Australasia debate formation students could practice and have to force to speak

up.

With the reference to the procedure of the implementation of Australasia

debate, researcher stated the importance parts as presented. After selecting the kind of

the debate namely Australasia debate system determining its procedures, the

researcher designed how to apply the modules or lesson plan to the students. The

researcher also prepared the media, for example whiteboards, and another media to be

used in teaching and learning process.

The teaching and learning strategy was presented in lesson plan or module

that covered the procedure of debate in details; pre-activity was an activity before

doing the debate, the teacher gave brainstorming in order to know the students’ prior

knowledge about the topic that they wanted to debate. After that the teacher provided

the team for debate based on the topic.

Main activity, here the researcher introduced the debate Australasia system

to the class in cycle 1, 2, and 3. During the implementation of the debate the teacher

did as facilitator who gave guidance about the procedure of the Australasia debate.
82

During the process of explanation the teacher showed the slide about the Australasia

debate procedure. Also the teacher gave a model how to applied debate by involving

in the group of debate. In group formation the teacher asked the students to make

group which consist of 3 debaters each team represented as first, second, third and

reply speaker.

In this part the students participated in debate implementation actively. They

were motivated to apply the debate during freely, relaxed and enthusiastic. They

looked confidence enough to speak in front of the class because the debate regulation

forces the debaters in turn to express their opinion although in simple expression.

Moreover, the students seemed to have no problem in applying the debate. Since, it

was allowed them to make mistakes in speaking process.

In general, the action for cycle 1 worked well, even though there were some

aspects to be considered the process of the debate as follows;

1. During the process of the debate, a few students still made

mistakes especially in grammar, accent, pronunciation and

understanding. This usually happened when they had to give or

express their ideas. Meanwhile, in the term of grammar, accent,

pronunciation and understanding the researcher made correction at the

end of the action.

2. The researcher selected the group member in balance between

active and passive students. The purpose was to make the action enjoy

and lively. So, the teacher gave tolerate to students who made mistakes

as long as their English understand able and comprehensible. Because


83

the main focused was on fluency than accuracy in order to motivate

the students to use the target language as a means of communication.

The strength of applying the debate strategy was to improve the students’

speaking ability. The improvement of the students’ could be examined from the data

analysis obtained.

Before implementing the debate strategy, researcher found that students

encounter some difficult to express their opinion in English. From the data obtained

we knew only in level 2 and 2+, no the students could achieve the level between” 3

to 3 + of Holler’s speaking Proficiency Measurement from observation form and the

average of observation form did not reached the target of standard score.

Moreover, the obtained data also showed that the main factors that affected

the students’ ability in speaking English. They did not confidence while standing in

front of their friends to speak English, they did not brave to convey their ideas, they

were afraid in making mistakes in speaking, and sometime they could not response to

another quickly.

On the other hand, after implementing the debate technique the students’

speaking ability showed an improvement. The evidence during the reflection proved

that the debate strategy could improve the students’ speaking skill. It could be seen

from the observation form, note and FSI Level.

In comparison to the students’ speaking skill prior to the implementation of

the action, the data showed that the students had improvements. Based on the Oller’s
84

Conversion Table 5.1 we can see that the students’ proficiency is experiencing some

progress.

Table 5.1 The Total scores of the students’ speaking proficiency

The Name of the CYCLE

No Students 1 II III

II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X


1 Irenious Joddas 55 55 57 76 76 76 76 82 82
2 Maria Yasinta Dere 55 55 57 72 73 73 78 78 78
3 Bernabas. D. N. 44 44 46 67 71 71 76 78 78
4 Niko Angga. I 52 55 55 72 74 74 76 78 78
5 Ahmad Farid 55 55 57 76 76 76 78 82 82
6 Liberta 52 52 57 72 74 74 78 78 78
7 Hartina 55 55 57 76 76 76 76 82 82
8 Melania. F. Rosa 52 44 46 67 71 71 72 76 76
9 Applyana 55 50 55 72 76 76 76 76 78
10 Nopen 44 44 53 69 72 72 72 76 76
11 Rofiatus 50 50 55 72 73 74 76 78 78
12 Suparman 44 44 46 67 71 71 76 76 78

Table 5.2 the students’ FSI Level based on the Total score after being converted in

the Ollers’ Conversation Table.

The Meeting Total Score FSI Level Numbers of Students


II 43-52 2 8

53-63 2+ 4

64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ _
III 43-52 2 7

53-63 2+ 5
85

64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ _
IV 43-52 2 3

53-63 2+ 9

64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ _
V 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 9

73-82 3+ 3
VI 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 3

73-82 3+ 9
VII 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 3

73-82 3+ 9
VIII 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 2

73-82 3+ 10
IX 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 _
86

73-82 3+ 12
X 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ 12

Beside the time duration researcher also tried to evaluate based on the FSI

Table during the process of debate. The researcher got the data from FSI Table that

showed the students’ improvement in their speaking. The data in cycle 1 showed that

average score level between “2 to 3+” no the students could achieve the level

“between” “3 to 3+” of Oller’s Speaking Proficiency Measurement. It mean that the

process of debate implementation for cycle 1 did not reached the standard score based

on criteria of success because the average score in category below average (<63) even

some students got (53) poor. While, the obtained data from cycle 2 the average score

level between “ 3” because only nine students were able to reach in level 3+. Here the

students’ improvement in their speaking showed. In cycle 3 the obtained data was the

average between 3 and 3+ and there are two students in level 3 and ten students in

level 3+. In the nine till ten meeting their FSI Level is 3+. There is no one left in

Level 2+.

Furthermore, it could be said that the students were more active and

motivated to speak in English after applying the debate. Thus, the criteria of success

had been fulfilled in cycle 3 so the researcher stopped the action. Based on the

evidence above, researcher concluded that the study had proved that the
87

implementation of Australasian debate technique could improve speaking skill of

students of English Department IKIP Budi Utomo Malang. The most important

characteristic of Australasia debate system were creating the teaching and learning

process relaxed, enjoyable atmosphere to react spontaneously without nervous. The

debate was able to motivate students to communicate in English, brave to speak and

create self confidence of the students.

Considering that some experts had done the research concerning the

advantages of the Australasia debate system technique, this had answered the

problem of speaking at English Department IKIP Budi Utomo Malang, that

Australasia debate system is one of the technique that could be used to improve

speaking skill of the students of English Department IKIP Budi Utomo Malang. And

Australasia debate system formation is one of the techniques that could be used to

force to speak. Besides that the students are motivated to speak or communicate in

English.

CHAPTER VI

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

In this last chapter, after having done the analysis, the researcher will

present the conclusion and suggestion.

6.1 Conclusion
88

Based on the research finding from the action conducted in three cycles at

the fourth semester of English Department IKIP Budi Utomo Malang in academic

year 2009|2010, the following conclusion can be drawn as the answer of the question

of the study. First based on the daily assessment the Australasia debate system can be

used as alternative technique in teaching speaking, because this technique can

improve the students’ speaking skill of the fourth semester of English Department

IKIP Budi Utomo Malang in academic year 2009|2010. It is seen after three cycle of

the strategy applied compared with the preliminary study. In the preliminary study,

most of the students got difficulties to speak English. They had limited chance to

speak in the classroom, had limited vocabulary, lacked of group activities and faced

with psychological burdens such as afraid of making mistakes and shy to speak

English in front of the class. Meanwhile, after three cycle of the action most of the

students are actively involved during teaching and learning speaking process through

debate. They are able to express their ideas; opinion and feeling able to perform their

performance without being afraid of making mistakes and able to work in group

cooperatively.

Second the students have positive response towards the use of the

Australasia debate in learning speaking. According to the students the impact of

working in teams or group during debate actively has given them a good chance to

share the ideas and help each other that makes them brave in speaking English. There

are some group’s activities that the students feel effective during debate to increase

their speaking skill.


89

Third, the combination between a good technique, good preparation and an

interesting material or motion or called topic of the debate will make the students

enthusiastic in the following the speaking activity.

Fourth, there is significant improvement in the students’ speaking

proficiency while and after they use the Australasia debate. From FSI Level, it shows

that the students have a sufficient competence to conduct or participate in a

conversation or discussion.

Finally, Australasia debate is able to give the students a great deal of chance

in practicing their speaking skill. It used useful for the students in terms of

communicate actively and current topics that relate to social problems of the debate

can be easily understood by the students that finally they can stimulate the students to

speak a lot, fluently and improve the students’ speaking skill.

6.2 Suggestion

After doing the observation, giving questionnaires and analyzing the data,

the researcher would like to give some suggestion.

1. In order to make the speaking class effective, teacher should advise

the students to read a lot of about articles, news, science and other

knowledge either from magazines, newspaper, internet or watch

television to make themselves well prepared in undergoing the

debate that finally it can make them able to speak fluently,

critically and more naturally.


90

2. All English teacher to apply the Australasia debate technique once

a while in the speaking class, since it is proven to be effective and

give advantages for the improvement of the students’ speaking

skill.

3. Every school, it is every advice to establish an English debate club

by using the Australasia debate system to give additional program

to students because it can make students because it can make

students feel more confidence to express their ideas as freely as

possible, furthermore it can improve the students’ speaking skill.

REFERENCES
91

Agustines, Helena I.R. (2004) the 2004 English Curriculum in A. Nutshell. A Papert
Presented at National Seminar. Saturday, 2 October 2004. Malang State
University

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 200. Mnajemen Penelitian. Jakarta. PT. Rhineka Cipta.

Byrne, Donn. Teaching oral English. London: Longman Group Ltd

Deparrtment Pendidikan Nasional. 2003. Debate berbahasa Inggris Parlement


Australasian. Instalasi Bahasa. PPPG Kejuruan Jakarta.

Driscoll, William. 2000. A Practical Guide to Educational Debate for Debaters,


Coach and Judge. The international Debate Educational Association.

English Debating Society University Indonesia. 1998. Guidelines for Debaters


(Australasia Parlemerntary). Depok. University Indonesia.

Freeman, Dianne Larseman. 1998. Teaching Technique in English as a Second


Language. Oxford University Press.

Finocchiaro, Marry. 1974. English as Second Language from Theory to Practice.


New York: Regents Publishing Company, Inc.

Kayfetz, Janet L. and Stice, Randy L. 1987. Academically Speaking. Boston,


Massachuseetts: Heinle & Heinle Publisher a Divition of Wadworth, Inc

Keith, Johnson and Morrow, Keith. 1978. Communicative in the Classroom


Application and Method for Communication Approach. London: Longman
Group Ltd

Littlewood, William. 1981. Communication Proficiency in the English as Foreign


Language (EFL) Class. Jakarta:Depdikbud

Newman, W.I 1989. Designing Tasks for the Communication Classroom. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.

Oller, John W. J.r 1979. Language Test at School. London: Longman Group Ltd.

Richards, J. C and Lockhart, Charles. 1996. Reflective Teaching in Second Language


Teaching Classrooms. Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J.C and Rodgers, T.S. 1986. Approaches and Method in Languages
Teaching. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J.C and Rodgers, T.S 2001. Approaches and Method in Languages
Teaching. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
92

Swanwick, alan and Erskine, Christopher, 1983. Australasian Debating Handbook.


Canberra: Australasian debating federation Press

The State Islamic University of Malang. 2005. Guidelines for East Java English
Debate Contest. Malang: Penerbit Universitas Islam Negeri Malang.

Wang, Rangxian. 1990. Focusing on Communicative Competence. Washington DC:


English Teaching Forum, Vol. XXVIII. No 1

Widdowson, H.G. 1978. Teaching Language as Communication. Oxford: Oxford


University Press.

http: || idw.idebate.org|ideastandar|ruleskarlopper|php|December 25th , 2010

http; || www.idebate.org|debate|what.php.December 25th , 2010

http; || www.idebate.org|debate|what. Php. December 25th, 2010

http; || www.idebate.org|resources|software|index.php. December 25th 2010

http; || www.idebate.org|teaching|debate format. Php. December 25th 2010

APPENDIX 1
KUESIONER
93

Peneliti telah mencoba memperkenalkan teknik debate “Australasian Debate

system” sebagai salah satu altrernatif untuk penagajaran speaking. Peneliti

mengharapkan bantuan anda meenjawab semua pertanyaan pada kuiesiner ini.

Kuiesiner ini bertujuan bukan menguji kemampuan anda untuk mendapatkan

informasi atau keterangan apakah teknik “Australasian Debate” dapat mendorong dan

memotivasi and untuk lebih aktif dalam kelas speaking.

Terimakasih atas kerjasama yang baik selama ini.

Berilah tanda silang (x) pada jawaban yang anda paling tepat.

1. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang tekhnik “Australasian Debate?

a. Sangat menarik

b. Menarik

c. Kurang menarik

d. Tidak menarik

2. Bagaimana menurut anda tentang penerapan teknik tersebut untuk kelas speaking?

a. Sangat mudah
b. Mudah
c. Sedang
d. Sulit

3. Anda menyukai teknik tersebut sebagai salah satu teknik dalam pengajaran
speaking?
a. Sangat suka
b. Suka
c. Kurang suka
d. Tidak suka
94

4. Teknik tersebut dapat membantu anda untuk mengeluarkan ide-ide anda dalam
kelas speaking?
a. Sangat membatu
b. Membantu
c. Kurang membantu
d. Tidak membantu

5. Tertariklah teman-teman anda dengan tekhnik ini?


a. Sangat tertarik
b. Tertarik
c. Kurang baik
d. Tidak tertarik

6. Menurut anda, perlukah siswa mengetahui tentang cara berdebate?


a. Sangat perlu
b. Perlu
c. Kurang pelu
d. Tidak perlu

7. Bagaimana topic-topik yang disajikan?


a. Sangat menarik
b. Menarik
c. Kurang menarik
d. Tidak menarik

8. Topic-topik yang dipilih membantu anda berperan aktif dalam proses Australasian
Debate?
a. Sangat Membantu
b. Membantu
95

c. Kurang membantu
d. Tidak membantu

9. Adanya “Motion atau Topic dalam setiap kegiatan “Debate” membantu anda dalam
mengungkapkan ide-ide atau pemikiran anda?
a. Sangat membantu
b. Membantu
c. Kurang membatu
d. Tidak membantu

10. Dengan topic-topic tersebut teman-teman anda terlihat antusias dalam mengikuti
kegiatan “Australasaian Debate”?
a. Sangat antusias
b. Antusias
c. Kurang antusias
d. Tidak antusias

11. Topic-topik tersebut sesuai dengan apa yang terjadi saat di masyarakat?
a. Sangat sesuai
b. Sesuai
c. Kurang sesuai
d. Tidak sesuai

12. Pengajar mendorong anda untuk berpartisipasi aktif dalam Australasian Debate?
a. Sangat mendorong
b. Mendominasi
c. Kurang mendorong
d. Tidak mendorong

13. Pengajar mendominasi kegiatan dalam penerapan teknik “Australasian Debate”?


96

a. Sangat mendorong
b. Mendominasi
c. Kurang mendominasi
d. Tidak mendominasi

14. Seringkah pengajar membetulkan kesalahan berbahas anda?


a. Sangat sering
b. Sering
c. Kurang sering
d. Tidak sering

15. Pengajar banyak memberi kesempatan bagi anda untuk mengeluarkan pendapat
anda?
a. Sangat banyak
b. Banyak
c. Kurang banyak
d. Tidak banyak

16. Menurut anda dengan teknik “Australasian Debate” banyak membantu anda dalam
kegiatan berkomunikasi?
a. Sangat banyak
b. Banyak
c. Kurang banyak
d. Tidak banyak

17. Dengan teknik “Australasaian Debate” ini anda semakin termotivasi untuk lebih
aktif dalam kegiatan kelas speaking?
a. Sangat termotivasi
b. Termotivasi
c. Kurang termotivasi
97

d. Tidak termotivasi

18. Setelah mendapat pengajaran teknik “Australasian Debate” menurut anda perlukah
tekhnik ini tetap di terapkan bagi Mahasiswa IKIP Budi Utomo Malang?
a. Sangat perlu
b. Perlu
c. Kurang perlu
d. Tidak perlu

19. Anda merasa ada peningkatan kemampuan berkomunikasi dalam bahasa Inggris
setelah di beri pengajaran tentang “Australasian Debate”?
a. Sangat banyak
b. Banyak
c. Sedikit
d. Tidak ada

20. Setujukah anda bahwa teknik “Australasian Debate” akan berguna bagi anda suatu
hari nanati?
a. Sangat setuju
b. Setuju
c. Kurang setuju
d. Tidak setuju

APPENDIX 2

LESSON PLAN

Topic : Introduction to Australian Debate.


98

Level : Intermediate

Duration : 2x50 minutes

Media : handout,

Skill focus : Speaking,

Aims : by the end of the lesson students are able to:


1. Warming up| motivate strategies
a. How do you fell when you speak in front of your friends?
b. Free debate
2. Presentation.
Now we are going to practice about
3. Skill practice.
1. Students listen to the teacher
2. Students discusses and members the various factors
3. Each students present or express their ideas
4. Discuss and ask based on the module.
5. perform
4. Sum up
What have you learnt today?
5. Assessment
1. Why, according to the module, does it have such an effect?

2. would you mention the rules of the debate

6. Remarks.

7. Closing

APPENDIX 3
Kemampuan berbicara siswa akan diukur menggunakan model FSI

(pengukuran kemamapuan berbicara menurut Oller). Ada dua macam table, yaitu:
99

Weighing Table

Proficiency Description 1 2 3 4 5 6

Accent 0 1 2 2 3 4 ………..

Grammar 6 12 18 24 30 36 ……….

Vocabulary 4 8 12 16 20 24 ……….

Fluency 2 4 6 8 10 12 ……….

Comprehension 4 8 12 15 19 23 ……….

Total ………..

Conversion Table
Total Score (from Weighing Table) FSI Level
16.25 0+
26.32 1
33.42 1+
43.52 2
53.62 2+
63.72 3
73.82 3+
83.92 4
93.99 4

APPENDIX 5
The Total Scores of the Students’ Speaking Proficiency

The Name of the CYCLE


100

No Students 1 II III

II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X


1 Irenious Joddas 55 55 57 76 76 76 76 82 82
2 Maria Yasinta Dere 55 55 57 72 73 73 78 78 78
3 Bernabas. D. N. 44 44 46 67 71 71 76 78 78
4 Niko Angga. I 52 55 55 72 74 74 76 78 78
5 Ahmad Farid 55 55 57 76 76 76 78 82 82
6 Liberta 52 52 57 72 74 74 78 78 78
7 Hartina 55 55 57 76 76 76 76 82 82
8 Melania. F. Rosa 52 44 46 67 71 71 72 76 76
9 Applyana 55 50 55 72 76 76 76 76 78
10 Nopen 44 44 53 69 72 72 72 76 76
11 Rofiatus 50 50 55 72 73 74 76 78 78
12 Suparman 44 44 46 67 71 71 76 76 78

APPENDIX 6
The Students’ FSI Level based on the total score after being converted in the
Ollers’ Conversation Table.

The Meeting Total Score FSI Level Numbers of Students


II 43-52 2 8

53-63 2+ 4

64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ _
III 43-52 2 7

53-63 2+ 5

64-72 3 _
101

73-82 3+ _
IV 43-52 2 3

53-63 2+ 9

64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ _
V 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 9

73-82 3+ 3
VI 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 3

73-82 3+ 9
VII 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 3

73-82 3+ 9
VIII 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 2

73-82 3+ 10
IX 43-52 2 _

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ 12
X 43-52 2 _
102

53-63 2+ _

64-72 3 _

73-82 3+ 12

APPENDIX 7

The motions / Topics of the Debate

In cycle 1

1. THBT Pacaran (go steady) give motivate to our study in Campus


2. THBT Sex education should be legalized
3. THBT Abortion should be legalized
4. THBT Indonesia should legalize Poligami
5. THBT Watching TV is good for children
6. THBT we should get married young

In cycle II

1. THBT Arema’s Celebrations are injurious


2. THBT not makes a date in the Campus
3. THBT Ariel and Luna .M. should not be expelled from Lux’s add.
4. THBT Ariel, Luna. M. and Cut Tari should be jailed
5. THBT Barack Obama would not give any significance contribution in
Indonesia
6. THBT Students should not bring HP (Handphone) to school.
103

In Cycle III

1. THBT Watching TV makes bad effect to the children


2. THBT should legalize interfaith marriage
3. That Play Boy Indonesia is not pornography
4. That we should not make a date in Campus
5. That stops super Deal Quiz
6. Luna and Ariel should be jailed

APPENDIX 8

THE DEBATERS (THE TARGET STUDENTS)

IRENIOUS JODDAS

MARIA YASINTA DERE

BERNABAS.D. NGAMPU

NIKO ANGGA.I

AHMAD FARID

LIBERTA

HARTINA

MELANIA.F.ROSA

APLLYANA.H

NOPEN

ROFIATUS

SUPARMAN
104

Appendix 9
The Characteristic of the Applied Materials

No The Characteristic of the Materials The Number of Students

Yes No
1 The material are understandable 12 -

2 The material use daily vocabulary 12 -

3 The material are useful to the students 12 -

4 The material can be practical in daily life 9 3

5 The material can be found in daily life 11 1

6 The material may be expected by the students 10 2

The material is current topic

7 The material gives a chance to the students 12 -

8 The material insist the students express a new 12 -

9 idea 12 -
105

The material insist the students to read and

10 memorize 6 6

APPENDIX
The Data from Questioner

1. The Students’ Opinion About the Australasian parliamentary debate


No A B C D
1 83,5% 16,7% - -

2 25% 66,7% 8,3% -

3 66,7% 33,3% - -

4 75% 25% - -

5 33,3% 66,7% - -

6 75% 25% - -

11. The Students’ Opinion About the Topics


No A B C D
106

7 58,3% 41,7% - -

8 50% 50% - -

9 66,7% 33,3% - -

10 16,7% 83;3% - -

11 50% 50% - -

CURRICULUM VITAE

Susanto was born in Trenggalek (East Java) on the third march 1985. He is
the first son of a couple; Mr. Sumarno and Mrs. Winarsih. He is a lucky boy due to
his living in a harmony family which puts the education above all.

He graduate from SDN Jombok IV of sub district in Pule, Trenggalek in 1998,


SMPN I Pule in 2001 and SMA Karya Darma I Trenggalek in 2004, after graduated
from high school, he continued his study at IKIP Budi Utomo Malang and graduated
in 2008. Now he is an English lecture of IKIP Budi Utomo Malang.