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J. Wardenier, J.A. Packer, X.-L. Zhao and G.J. van der Vegte

HOLLOW SECTIONS IN STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS

J. Wardenier, J.A. Packer, X.-L. Zhao and G.J. van der Vegte HOLLOW SECTIONS IN STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS

ISBN 978-90-72830-86-9

© CIDECT, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010

The publisher and authors have made careful efforts to ensure the reliability of the data contained in this publication, but they assume no liability with respect to the use for any application of the material and information contained in this publication.

Printed by Bouwen met Staal

Boerhaavelaan 40

2713 HX Zoetermeer, The Netherlands

P.O. Box 190

2700

AD Zoetermeer, The Netherlands

Tel.

+31(0)79 353 1277

Fax

+31(0)79 353 1278

E-mail info@bouwenmetstaal.nl

ii

PREFACE

The global construction market requires a world-wide coordination of product-, testing-, design- and execution- standards, so that contracts for delivery of products and for engineering- and construction services can be agreed on a common basis without barriers.

The mission of CIDECT is to combine the research resources of major hollow section manufacturers in order to create a major force in the research and application of hollow steel sections world wide. This forms the basis of establishing coordinated and consistent international standards.

For the ease of use of such standards, it is however necessary to reduce their content to generic rules and to leave more object-oriented detailed rules to accompanying non-conflicting complementary information, that have the advantage to be more flexible for the adaptation to recent research results and to be useable together with any international code.

The book by J. Wardenier, J.A. Packer, X.-L. Zhao and G.J. van der Vegte "Hollow sections in structural applications" is such a source, developed in an international consensus of knowledge on the topic. It incorporates the recently revised design recommendations for hollow sections joints of the International Institute of Welding, IIW (2009) and CIDECT (2008 and 2009). Both are consistent with each other and are the basis for the Draft ISO standard for Hollow Section Joints (ISO 14346) and may form the basis for future maintenance, further harmonisation and further development of Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-8), AISC (ANSI/AISC 360) and the CISC recommendations.

For the use together with EN 1993-1-8 and ANSI/AISC 360, both being based on the previous IIW (1989) recommendations, the main differences to these rules are highlighted.

The authors are all internationally recognized experts in the field of tubular steel structures, three of them having been chairmen of the IIW-Subcommission XV-E on "Tubular Structures" since 1981. This committee is the pre-eminent international authority producing design recommendations and standards for onshore tubular structures.

This book should therefore be an invaluable resource for lecturers, graduate students in structural, architectural and civil engineering, explaining the important principles in the behaviour of tubular steel structures. It is also addressed to designers of steel structures who can find in it the special items related to the use of hollow sections, in particular joints, their failure modes and analytical models as supplements to more general design codes.

Aachen, Germany, August 2010

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.h.c. Gerhard Sedlacek

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This book gives the background to design with structural hollow sections in general and in particular for joints to hollow sections. For the latter, the recently updated recommendations of the International Institute of Welding (IIW, 2009) and CIDECT (2008 and 2009) are adopted.

The background to design recommendations with the relevant analytical models is especially important for students in Structural and Civil Engineering, whereas the design recommendations themselves serve more as an example. Since the available hours for teaching Steel Structures, and particularly Tubular Structures, vary from country to country, this book has been written in a modular form. The presentation generally follows European codes, but the material is readily adapted to other (national) codes.

Since the first edition of this book was used not only by students but also by many designers, this second edition was needed due to the recent update of the recommendations by IIW and the subsequent revision of the CIDECT Design Guides Nos. 1 and 3 in 2008 and 2009.

The new IIW (2009) recommendations and the revised CIDECT Design Guides Nos. 1 and 3 (2008 and 2009) are consistent with each other and are the basis for the Draft ISO standard for Hollow Section Joints (ISO 14346). Although the current Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-8, 2005) and AISC (2010) recommendations are still based on the previous IIW (1989) and CIDECT (1991 and 1992) recommendations, it is expected that in the next revision these will follow the new IIW and CIDECT recommendations presented in this book.

Besides the static design recommendations and background for hollow section joints, information is given for member design in Chapter 2, composite structures in Chapter 4, and fire resistance in Chapter 5. These chapters fully comply with the latest versions of the Eurocodes (EN 1993 and EN 1994). Further, fatigue design of hollow section joints is covered in Chapter 14.

We wish to thank our colleagues from the IIW Sub-commission XV-E "Tubular Structures" and from the CIDECT Project Working Group and the CIDECT Technical Commission for their constructive comments during the preparation of this book.

We are very grateful that Prof. J. Stark and Mr. L. Twilt were willing to check Chapters 4 and 5 respectively on composite members and fire resistance.

Appreciation is further extended to the authors of CIDECT Design Guides Nos. 1 to 9 and to CIDECT for making parts of these Design Guides or background information available for this book.

Finally, we wish to thank CIDECT for the initiative to update this book.

Delft, The Netherlands, September 2010

Jaap Wardenier Jeffrey A. Packer Xiao-Ling Zhao Addie van der Vegte

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CONTENTS

1.

Introduction

1

1.1

History and developments

1

1.2

Designation

2

1.3

Manufacturing of hollow sections

2

2.

Properties of hollow sections

9

2.1

Mechanical properties

9

2.2

Structural hollow section dimensions and dimensional tolerances

10

2.3

Geometric properties

11

2.4

Drag coefficients

14

2.5

Corrosion protection

14

2.6

Use of internal void

15

2.7

Aesthetics

15

3.

Applications

29

3.1

Buildings and halls

29

3.2

Bridges

29

3.3

Barriers

29

3.4

Offshore structures

30

3.5

Towers and masts

30

3.6

Special applications

30

4.

Composite structures

37

4.1

Introduction

37

4.2

Design methods

37

4.3

Axially loaded columns

37

4.4

Resistance of a section to bending

39

4.5

Resistance of a section to bending and compression

39

4.6

Influence of shear forces

39

4.7

Resistance of a member to bending and compression

39

4.8

Load introduction

41

4.9

Special composite members with hollow sections

41

5.

Fire resistance of hollow section columns

49

5.1

Introduction

49

5.2

Fire resistance

50

5.3

Unfilled hollow section columns

52

5.4

Concrete filled hollow section columns

53

5.5

Water filled hollow section columns

55

5.6

Joints

56

6.

Design of hollow section trusses

65

6.1

Truss configurations

65

6.2

Joint configurations

65

6.3

Limit states and limitations on materials

66

6.4

General design considerations

67

6.5

Truss analysis

68

7.

Behaviour of joints

75

7.1

General introduction

75

7.2

General failure criteria

77

7.3

General failure modes

77

v

7.4

Joint parameters

77

8.

Welded joints between circular hollow sections

81

8.1

Introduction

81

8.2

Modes of failure

81

8.3

Analytical models

81

8.4

Experimental and numerical verification

83

8.5

Basic joint strength formulae

83

8.6

Evaluation to design rules

84

8.7

Other types of joints

85

8.8

Design charts

86

8.9

Relation to the previous recommendations of IIW (1989) and CIDECT (1991)

87

8.10

Concluding remarks

87

9.

Welded joints between rectangular hollow sections

103

9.1

Introduction

103

9.2

Modes of failure

103

9.3

Analytical models

104

9.4

Experimental and numerical verification

106

9.5

Basic joint strength formulae

106

9.6

Evaluation to design rules

107

9.7

Other types of joints or other load conditions

107

9.8

Design charts

109

9.9

Concluding remarks

109

10.

Welded joints between hollow sections and open sections

129

10.1

Introduction

129

10.2

Modes of failure

129

10.3

Analytical models

129

10.4

Experimental verification

131

10.5

Evaluation to design rules

131

10.6

Joints predominantly loaded by bending moments

131

11.

Welded overlap joints

141

11.1

Introduction

141

11.2

Modes of failure

141

11.3

Analytical models for RHS overlap joints

141

11.4

Analytical models for CHS overlap joints

143

11.5

Analytical models for overlap joints with an open section chord

143

11.6

Experimental and numerical verification

143

11.7

Joint strength formulae

144

12.

Welded I beam-to-CHS or RHS column moment joints

151

12.1

Introduction

151

12.2

Modes of failure

151

12.3

Analytical models

151

12.4

Experimental and numerical verification

153

12.5

Basic joint strength formulae

153

12.6

Concluding remarks

154

13.

Bolted joints

161

13.1

Flange plate joints

161

13.2

End joints

161

13.3

Gusset plate joints

162

13.4

Splice joints

162

vi

13.5

Beam-to-column joints

162

13.6

Bracket joints

163

13.7

Bolted subassemblies

163

13.8

Purlin joints

163

13.9

Blind bolting systems

163

13.10

Nailed joints

163

14.

Fatigue behaviour of hollow section joints

175

14.1

Definitions

175

14.2

Influencing factors

175

14.3

Loading effects

176

14.4

Fatigue strength

177

14.5

Partial factors

177

14.6

Fatigue capacity of welded joints

177

14.7

Fatigue capacity of bolted joints

179

14.8

Fatigue design

180

15.

Design examples

193

15.1

Uniplanar truss of circular hollow sections

193

15.2

Uniplanar truss of square hollow sections

197

15.3

Multiplanar truss (triangular girder)

197

15.4

Multiplanar truss of square hollow sections

199

15.5

Joint check using the joint resistance formulae

199

15.6

Concrete filled column with reinforcement

200

16.

References

209

Symbols

221

CIDECT

229

vii

viii
viii

viii

1. INTRODUCTION

Design is an interactive process between the functional and architectural requirements and the strength and fabrication aspects. In a good design, all these aspects have to be considered in a balanced way. Due to the special features of hollow sections and their joints, it is here even of more importance than for steel structures of open sections. The designer should therefore be aware of the various aspects of hollow sections.

Many examples in nature show the excellent properties of the tubular shape with regard to loading in compression, torsion and bending in all directions, see Figs. 1.1 and 1.2. These excellent properties are combined with an attractive shape for architectural applications (Figs. 1.3 and 1.4). Furthermore, the closed shape without sharp corners reduces the area to be protected and extends the corrosion protection life (Fig. 1.5).

Another aspect which is especially favourable for circular hollow sections is the lower drag coefficients if exposed to wind or water forces. The internal void can be used in various ways, e.g. to increase the bearing resistance by filling with concrete or to provide fire protection. In addition, heating or ventilation systems sometimes make use of the hollow section columns.

Although the manufacturing costs of hollow sections are higher than those for other sections, leading to higher unit material cost, economical applications are achieved in many fields. The application field covers all areas, e.g. architectural, civil, offshore, mechanical, chemical, aeronautical, transport, agriculture and other special fields. Although this book will be mainly focused on the background to design and application, in a good design not only does the strength have to be considered, but also many other aspects, such as material selection, fabrication including welding and inspection, protection, erection, in service inspection and maintenance.

One of the constraints initially hampering the application of hollow sections was the design of the joints. However, nowadays design recommendations exist for all basic types of joints, and further research evidence is available for many special types of joints.

Based on the research programmes carried out, CIDECT (Comité International pour le Développement et l'Etude de la Construction Tubulaire) has published Design Guides Nos. 1 to 9 for use by designers in practice. Since these nine Design Guides are all

1

together too voluminous for educational purposes and do not give the theoretical background, it was decided to write this book especially to provide background information for students and practitioners in Structural and Civil Engineering.

This book is written in a limit states design format (also known as LRFD or Load and Resistance Factor Design in the USA). This means that the effect of the factored loads (the specified or unfactored loads multiplied by the appropriate load factors) should not exceed the factored resistance of the joint or member. The factored resistance expressions, in general, already include appropriate material and joint partial safety factors (γ M ) or joint resistance (or capacity) factors (). This has been done to avoid interpretation errors, since some international structural steelwork specifications use γ M values 1,0 as dividers (e.g. Eurocodes), whereas others use values 1,0 as multipliers (e.g. in North America and Australia). In general, the value of 1/γ M is almost equal to .

1.1 HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENTS

The excellent properties of the tubular shape have been recognised for a long time; i.e. from ancient time, nice examples are known. An outstanding example of bridge design is the Firth of Forth Bridge in Scotland (1890) with a free span of 521 m, shown in Fig. 1.6. This bridge has been built up from tubular members made of rolled plates which have been riveted together, because at that time, other fabrication methods were not available for these sizes.

In the same century, the first production methods for seamless and welded circular hollow sections were developed. In 1886, the Mannesmann brothers developed the skew roll piercing process (Schrägwalzverfahren), shown in Fig. 1.7, which made it possible to roll short thick walled tubulars. This process, in combination with the pilger process (Pilgerschrittverfahren, Fig. 1.8), developed some years later, made it possible to manufacture longer thinner walled seamless hollow sections.

In the first part of the previous century, an Englishman, Whitehouse, developed the fire welding of circular hollow sections. However, the production of welded circular hollow sections became more important after the development of the continuous welding process in 1930 by the American, Fretz Moon (Fig. 1.9). Especially after the Second World War, welding processes have been perfected, which made it possible for hollow sections to be easily welded

together.

The end cutting required for fitting two circular hollow sections together was considerably simplified by the development of a special end preparation machine by Müller (Fig. 1.10).

For manufacturers who did not have such end cutting machines, the end preparation of circular hollow sections remained a handicap.

A way of avoiding the connection problems was the

use of prefabricated connectors, e.g. in 1937 Mengeringhausen developed the Mero system. This system enabled the fabrication of large space structures in an industrialized way (Fig. 1.11).

In 1952, the rectangular hollow section was developed

by Stewarts and Lloyds (now Corus Tubes). This section, with nearly the same properties as the circular hollow section, enables the connections to be made by straight end cuttings.

In the fifties, the problems of manufacturing, end preparation and welding were all solved and from that point of view the way to a successful story was open. The remaining problem was the determination of the strength of unstiffened joints.

The first preliminary design recommendations for truss connections between circular hollow sections were given by Jamm in 1951. This study was followed by several investigations in the USA (Bouwkamp, 1964; Natarajan & Toprac, 1969; Marshall & Toprac, 1974), Japan (Togo, 1967; Natarajan & Toprac, 1968), and Europe (Wanke, 1966; Brodka, 1968; Wardenier, 1982; Mang & Bucak, 1983; Puthli, 1998; Dutta, 2002).

Research on joints between rectangular hollow sections started in Europe in the sixties, followed by many other experimental and theoretical investigations. Many of these were sponsored by CIDECT.

Besides these investigations on the static behaviour,

in the last 25 years much research was carried out on

the fatigue behaviour and other aspects, such as concrete filling of hollow sections, fire resistance, corrosion resistance and behaviour under wind loading.

2

1.2 DESIGNATION

The preferred designations for structural applications are:

- Circular hollow sections (CHS)

- Rectangular hollow sections (RHS)

- Square hollow sections (SHS)

In Canada and the USA, it is common to speak about Hollow Structural Sections (HSS), whereas in Europe also the term Structural Hollow Sections (SHS) is used.

1.3 MANUFACTURING OF HOLLOW SECTIONS

As mentioned, hollow sections can be produced seamless or welded. Seamless hollow sections are made in two phases, i.e. the first phase consists of piercing an ingot and the second step considers the elongation of this hollow bloom into a finished circular hollow section. After this process, the tube can go through a sizing mill to give it the required diameter. More information about other processes, most of them based on the same principle, is given by Dutta (2002).

Nowadays, welded hollow sections with a longitudinal weld are mainly made employing either electrical resistance welding processes or induction welding processes, shown in Fig. 1.12. A strip or plate is formed by rollers into a cylindrical shape and welded longitudinally. The edges are heated, e.g. by electrical resistance, then the rollers push the edges together, resulting in a pressure weld. The weld protrusion on the outside of the tube is trimmed immediately after welding.

Rectangular hollow sections are made by deforming circular hollow sections through forming rollers, as shown in Fig. 1.13. This forming process can be done hot or cold, using either seamless or longitudinally welded circular hollow sections. Although it is common practice to use longitudinally welded hollow sections, for the very thick sections, seamless sections may be used.

Square or rectangular hollow sections are sometimes made by forming a single strip to the required shape and closing it by a single weld, preferably in the middle of a face.

Large circular hollow sections are also made by rolling plates through a so-called U-O press process shown in Fig. 1.14. After forming the plates to the required

shape, the longitudinal weld is made by a submerged arc welding process.

Another process for large tubulars is to use a continuous wide strip, which is fed into a forming machine at an angle to form a spirally formed circular cylinder, see Fig. 1.15. The edges of the strip are welded together by a submerged arc welding process resulting in a so-called spirally welded tube.

More detailed information about the manufacturing processes and the limitations in sizes can be obtained from Dutta (2002).

Fig. 1.1 Reeds in the wind Fig. 1.3 Airport Bangkok, Thailand 4 Fig. 1.2 Bamboo

Fig. 1.1 Reeds in the wind

Fig. 1.1 Reeds in the wind Fig. 1.3 Airport Bangkok, Thailand 4 Fig. 1.2 Bamboo Fig.

Fig. 1.3 Airport Bangkok, Thailand

4

Fig. 1.1 Reeds in the wind Fig. 1.3 Airport Bangkok, Thailand 4 Fig. 1.2 Bamboo Fig.

Fig. 1.2 Bamboo

Fig. 1.1 Reeds in the wind Fig. 1.3 Airport Bangkok, Thailand 4 Fig. 1.2 Bamboo Fig.

Fig. 1.4 Ripshorster Bridge, Germany

Fig. 1.5 Paint surface for hollow sections vs open sections Fig. 1.7 Skew roll piercing

Fig. 1.5 Paint surface for hollow sections vs open sections

Fig. 1.5 Paint surface for hollow sections vs open sections Fig. 1.7 Skew roll piercing process
Fig. 1.5 Paint surface for hollow sections vs open sections Fig. 1.7 Skew roll piercing process

Fig. 1.7 Skew roll piercing process (Schrägwalzverfahren)

Fig. 1.7 Skew roll piercing process (Schrägwalzverfahren) Fig. 1.6 Firth of Forth Bridge, Scotland Fig. 1.8

Fig. 1.6 Firth of Forth Bridge, Scotland

(Schrägwalzverfahren) Fig. 1.6 Firth of Forth Bridge, Scotland Fig. 1.8 Pilger process (Pilgerschrittverfahren) 5

Fig. 1.8 Pilger process (Pilgerschrittverfahren)

5

welded CHS welded CHS welding rollers welding rollers heating heating forming rollers forming rollers coil
welded CHS
welded CHS
welding rollers
welding rollers
heating
heating
forming rollers
forming rollers
coil
coil
heating
heating

Fig. 1.9 Fretz Moon process

coil coil heating heating Fig. 1.9 Fretz Moon process Fig. 1.11 Mero connector Fig. 1.10 End

Fig. 1.11 Mero connector

heating Fig. 1.9 Fretz Moon process Fig. 1.11 Mero connector Fig. 1.10 End cutting machine Welded

Fig. 1.10 End cutting machine

Welded CHS Welded CHS Welded CHS Pressure rollers Pressure rollers Pressure rollers inductor inductor inductor
Welded CHS
Welded CHS
Welded CHS
Pressure rollers
Pressure rollers
Pressure rollers
inductor
inductor
inductor

Fig. 1.12 Induction welding process

6

Fig. 1.13 Manufacturing of rectangular hollow sections Fig. 1.14 Forming of large CHS Fig. 1.15

Fig. 1.13 Manufacturing of rectangular hollow sections

Fig. 1.13 Manufacturing of rectangular hollow sections Fig. 1.14 Forming of large CHS Fig. 1.15 Spirally

Fig. 1.14 Forming of large CHS

Fig. 1.13 Manufacturing of rectangular hollow sections Fig. 1.14 Forming of large CHS Fig. 1.15 Spirally

Fig. 1.15 Spirally welded CHS

7

8

8

2. PROPERTIES OF HOLLOW SECTIONS

2.1 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Hollow sections are made of similar steel as used for other steel sections, thus in principle there is no difference in mechanical properties.

Tables 2.1a and 2.2a show, as an example, the mechanical properties according to the European standard EN 10210-1 (2006) for hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain structural steels. The cold formed sections are given in EN 10219-1 (2006): Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain structural steels (see Tables 2.1b and 2.2b). As shown, the requirements of EN 10210-1 and EN 10219-1 are almost identical.

Hollow sections can also be produced in special steels, e.g. high strength steel with yield strengths up to 690 N/mm 2 or higher, weathering steels and steel with improved or special chemical compositions, etc.

Generally, the design of members is based on the yield strength. In this chapter the recommended γ M0 and γ M1 factors of 1,0 are adopted for the design yield strength f yd .

In statically indeterminate structures, sufficient deformation capacity or rotation capacity is required for redistribution of loads. In this case, yielding of members or yielding in the joints may provide the required rotation capacity. A tensile member made of ductile steel can be brittle if a particular cross section is weakened, e.g. by holes, in such a way that this cross section fails before the whole member yields. It is therefore required that yielding occurs first. This shows that the yield-to-ultimate tensile strength ratio is also important, especially for structures with very non-uniform stress distributions, which is a situation that occurs in tubular joints. Some codes, such as Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1, 2005), specify the following requirement for the minimum ratios:

f

u

f yd

1,1

(2.1a)

The IIW (2009) recommendations and many offshore codes require a higher ratio between f u and f yd :

9

f

u

f

yd

1,25 or

f

yd

f

u

0,8

(2.1b)

This is only one aspect for ductility. In the case of impact loading, the steel and members should also behave in a ductile manner. Hence, Tables 2.1a and 2.2a also give requirements based on the standard Charpy test to ensure adequate notch toughness.

Nowadays, more refined characterisation methods exist to describe the ductility of cracked bodies, e.g. the CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement) method. These characterisation methods are generally used for pressure vessels, transport line pipes and offshore applications, which are beyond the scope of this book.

Another characterisation is sometimes required for thick walled sections which are loaded in the thickness direction. In this case, the strength and ductility in the thickness direction should be sufficient to avoid cracking, called lamellar tearing, see Fig. 2.1. This type of cracking is caused by non metallic manganese-sulphide inclusions. Thus, if the sulphur content is very low or the sulphur is joined with other elements such as calcium (Ca), such a failure can be avoided. Indirectly this is obtained by requiring a certain reduction of area R AZ in the tensile test. For example, R AZ = 35 means that in the tensile test the cross sectional area at failure has been reduced by 35% compared to the original cross sectional area.

In most structural steel specifications the minimum required yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation and the Charpy V-notch values are specified. Design standards or specifications give further limitations for the f u /f y ratio, whereas depending on the application, more restrictive requirements may be given related to CTOD values or the properties in the thickness direction (Z quality).

Another aspect is the effect of cold forming on the mechanical properties of the parent steel. In the case of cold forming of hollow sections, the yield strength and to a lesser extent the ultimate tensile strength are increased, especially in the corners, as shown in Fig. 2.2. Further, the yield-to-ultimate tensile ratio is increased and the elongation slightly decreased.

If the standards, e.g. EN 10210-1 and EN 10219-1, specify the properties at a particular cross section location based on the finished product, these properties have been already partly taken into account. Thus, this generally applies in Europe.

However, some standards outside Europe specify the material properties of the parent material. In this case,

the

increased yield strength can be taken into account

for

design. A small corner radius produces a small

cold formed area with a large cold forming effect and

consequently a large increase in yield strength, while

a large corner radius does just the opposite.

According to research work of Lind & Shroff (1971), the product of area and increase in yield strength can approximately be taken as constant. Lind & Shroff

assumed that in every corner of 90the yield strength

of the parent material f yb is increased over a length of

7t to the ultimate tensile strength of the parent

material f u . The total increase over the section 4(7t)t(f u

- f yb ) can be averaged over the section, resulting in a design yield strength f ya , as shown in Fig. 2.2.

It is noted that the cold formed sections should satisfy the requirements for minimum inside corner radius to guarantee sufficient ductility, see Table 2.3 for fully aluminum killed steel (steel with limited Si content).

Part 10 of Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-10, 2005) specifies the material selection. Here, a permissible thickness can be determined based on a reference temperature, the steel grade and quality and the stress level. The reference temperature covers, besides the air temperature, also cold forming effects, strain rate, etc. However, the current rules cannot be adopted to cold formed hollow sections because the determination of the effect of cold forming for cold formed hollow sections is not yet clearly specified. Based on the data obtained by Soininen (1996), Kosteski et al. (2003), Björk (2005), Kühn (2005), Puthli & Herion (2005) and Sedlacek et al. (2008), presently a proposal is being worked out for an amendment of EN 1993-1-10. In this proposal of CEN/TC 250/SC 3-N 1729 (2010), it is recommended that for cold formed hollow sections according to EN 10219, the procedure for hot formed material can be used provided that for the cold forming effects the reference temperature is reduced by T cf . For CHS, T cf varies from 0 C to 20 C depending on the thickness and the d/t ratio. For RHS with steel qualities according to EN 10219, T cf varies from 35 C to 45 C depending on the thickness and the ratio between the inside corner radius and the thickness. For cold formed hollow sections with Charpy impact strengths significantly exceeding the requirements of EN 10219, a lower value of T cf is allowed.

10

2.2 STRUCTURAL HOLLOW SECTION DIMENSIONS AND DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES

The dimensions and sectional properties of structural hollow sections have been standardised in EN (EN 10210-2, 2006; EN 10219-2, 2006) and ISO standards (ISO 657-14, 2000; ISO 4019, 2001) for hot finished and cold formed structural hollow sections respectively.

The two applicable standards in Europe are EN 10210-2 (2006) "Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels – Part 2:

Tolerances, dimensions and sectional properties" and EN 10219-2 (2006) "Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels – Part 2: Tolerances, dimensions and sectional properties". However, the majority of manufacturers of structural hollow sections do not produce all the sizes shown in these standards. It should be further noted that other sizes, not included in these standards, may be produced by some manufacturers.

The majority of the tolerances given in EN 10219-2 are the same as those in EN 10210-2, see Tables 2.4a and 2.4b.

Internationally, the delivery standards in various countries deviate considerably with respect to the thickness and mass tolerances (Packer, 1993). In most countries besides the thickness tolerance, a mass tolerance is given, which limits extreme deviations. However, in some production standards, e.g. in the USA, the thickness tolerance is not always compensated by a mass tolerance. This has resulted in associated design specifications which account for this, by designating a lower "design wall thickness" of 0,9 or 0,93 times the nominal thickness t. In Eurocode 3, where design is based on nominal thicknesses, the thickness tolerances in EN 10210-2 and EN 10219-2 are (partly) compensated by the mass tolerance. It is foreseen that in the next revision these tolerances will be tightened.

Although the circular, square and rectangular hollow sections are the generally-used shapes; other shapes are sometimes available. For example, some tube manufacturers deliver the shapes given in Table 2.5. Of these, the elliptical hollow sections have become more popular for architectural designs. These shapes are not dealt with further in this book. However, more information about elliptical hollow sections can be found in Bortolotti et al. (2003), Chan & Gardner (2008), Choo et al. (2003), Martinez-Saucedo et al.

(2008), Packer et al. (2009b), Pietrapertosa & Jaspart (2003), Theofanous et al. (2009), Willibald et al. (2006) and Zhao & Packer (2009).

2.3 GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES

2.3.1 Tension

The design capacity N t,Rd of a member under tensile loading depends on the cross sectional area and the design yield strength, and is independent of the sectional shape. In principle, there is no advantage or disadvantage in using hollow sections from the point of view of the amount of material required. The design capacity is given by:

N

t,Rd

Af

yd

(2.2)

If the cross section is weakened by bolt holes or slots, the net cross section should also be checked, in a similar way as for other sections, e.g. according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-8, 2005):

N

t,Rd

A

net

f

u

M2

0,9

(2.3)

where the partial safety factor M2 = 1,25.

The factor 0,9 may vary from country to country depending on the partial factor M used. Where ductile behaviour is required (e.g. under seismic loading), the yield resistance shall be less than the ultimate resistance at the net section of fastener holes.

2.3.2 Compression

For centrally loaded members in compression, the critical buckling load depends on the slenderness λ and the section shape.

The slenderness λ is given by the ratio of the buckling length b and the radius of gyration i.

 

b

i

(2.4)

The radius of gyration of a hollow section (in relation to the member mass) is generally much higher than that for the weak axis of an open section. For a given length, this difference results in a lower slenderness for hollow sections and thus a lower mass when compared with open sections.

11

The buckling behaviour is influenced by initial eccentricities, straightness and geometrical tolerances as well as residual stresses, non-homogeneity of the steel and the stress-strain relationship.

Based on extensive investigations by the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCS) and CIDECT, "European buckling curves" (Fig. 2.3 and Table 2.7) have been established for various steel sections including hollow sections. They are incorporated in Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1, 2005).

The reduction factor shown in Fig. 2.3 is the ratio of the design buckling capacity N b,Rd to the axial plastic capacity.

 

N

b,Rd

N

pl,Rd

where:

f b,Rd =

N b,Rd

A

f

b,Rd

f

yd

The non-dimensional slenderness by:

    E where: E  E   f y
 
E
where:
E
E  
f
y

(Euler slenderness)

 

(2.5)

(2.6)

is determined

(2.7)

(2.8)

The buckling curves for the hollow sections are classified according to Table 2.6. Most open sections fall under curves "b" and "c". Consequently, for the case of buckling, the use of hot formed hollow sections generally provides a considerable saving in material.

Fig. 2.4 illustrates, for a buckling length of 3 m, a comparison between the required mass of open and hollow sections for a given load. It shows that in those cases in which loads are small, leading to relatively slender sections, hollow sections provide a great advantage (considerably lower use of material). However, if loads are higher, resulting in low slenderness, the advantage (in %) will be less.

The overall buckling behaviour of hollow sections improves with increasing diameter- or width-to-wall

thickness ratio. However, this improvement is limited by local buckling. To prevent local buckling, d/t or b/t limits are given e.g. in Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1, 2005), see Table 2.7. In the case of thin walled sections, interaction between global and local buckling should be considered.

In addition to the improved buckling behaviour due to the high radius of gyration and the enhanced design buckling curve, hollow sections can offer other advantages in lattice girders. Due to the torsional and bending stiffness of the members in combination with joint stiffness, the effective buckling length of compression members in lattice girders can be reduced (Fig. 2.5). Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) recommends an effective buckling length for hollow section brace members in welded lattice girders equal to or less than 0,75, in which represents the system length, see also Rondal et al. (1992).

For chords, 0,9 times the system length for in-plane buckling or 0,9 times the length between the supports for out-of-plane buckling, is taken as the effective buckling length.

These reductions are also based on the fact that the chord and brace members are generally not fully optimised. If for example the chord would be fully utilized with different members for every panel then these reductions would not be allowed.

Laterally unsupported compression chords of lattice girders (see Fig. 2.6) have a reduced buckling length due to the improved torsional and bending stiffness of the tubular members (Baar, 1968; Mouty, 1981). These factors make the use of hollow sections in girders or trusses even more favourable.

2.3.3 Bending

In general, I and H sections are more economical under bending about the major axis (I max larger than for hollow sections). Only in those cases in which the design resistance in open sections is largely reduced by lateral buckling, hollow sections offer an advantage.

It can be shown by calculations that lateral instability is not critical for circular hollow sections, square hollow sections and for the most commonly used rectangular hollow sections with bending about the strong axis. Table 2.8 shows allowable span-to-depth ratios for the most commonly used sections (EN 1993-1-1, 2005). According to a study of Kaim (2006)

these limits can be taken considerably larger.

It is apparent that hollow sections are especially favourable compared to other sections if bending about both axes is present.

Hollow sections used for elements subjected to bending can be more economically designed by using plastic design. However, then the sections have to satisfy more restricted conditions to avoid premature local buckling. Like other steel sections loaded in bending, different moment-rotation behaviour can be observed.

Fig. 2.7 shows various moment-rotation diagrams for a member loaded by bending moments.

The moment-rotation curve "1" shows a moment exceeding the plastic moment M pl and a considerable rotation capacity. Moment-rotation curve "2" shows a moment exceeding the plastic moment capacity M pl , but after the maximum, the moment drops immediately, so that little moment-rotation capacity exists. Moment-rotation curve "3" represents a capacity lower than the plastic moment capacity, which, however, exceeds the yield moment capacity M el . In the moment-rotation curve "4" the capacity is even lower than the yield moment capacity M el and failure is by elastic buckling. The effect of the moment-rotation behaviour is reflected in the classification of cross sections as shown in Fig. 2.8 and Table 2.7. The cross section classification is given in limits for the diameter- or flat width-to-thickness ratio.

The limits are based on experiments and can be expressed as:

d

t

235

c

f yd

for CHS

b

t

3

h  

t

3

c

for RHSc

c

for RHSc

(2.9)

(2.10a)

(2.10b)

with f yd in N/mm 2 and c depending on the section class, the cross section and the loading. For RHS, it is conservatively assumed that the width of the "flat" is equal to the external width b or depth h of the RHS minus 3t.

12

The cross section classes 1 and 2 can develop the plastic moment capacity up to the given b/t or d/t limits with bi-linear stress blocks, whereas the moment capacity of the cross section classes 3 and 4 is based on an elastic stress distribution (see Fig. 2.8). The difference between the cross section classes 1 and 2 is reflected in the rotation capacity. After reaching the plastic moment capacity, the cross section class 1 can keep this capacity after further rotation, whereas the capacity of the cross section class 2 drops after reaching this capacity. As a consequence, the moment distribution in the structure or structural component should be determined by elastic analysis for structures made of sections with cross section classes 2, 3 or 4. For structures made of sections with cross sections in class 1 a plastic moment distribution can be adopted, but an elastic moment distribution is still permissible (and in some countries more common).

For a class 1 beam fully clamped at both ends and subjected to a uniformly distributed loading q, the plastic moment distribution implies that after reaching the plastic moment capacity at the ends, the beam can be loaded until a further plastic hinge occurs at mid span (see Fig. 2.9).

For the class 4 cross section, the maximum stress is determined by local buckling and the stress in the outer fibre is lower than the yield strength f y . Alternatively, an effective cross sectional area based on the yield strength may be determined.

Detailed information about the cross sectional classification is given by Rondal et al. (1992).

Research by Wilkinson & Hancock (1998) showed that especially the limits for the side wall slenderness of RHS need to be reduced considerably. E.g. for class 1 sections, they suggest reducing the Eurocode 3 limits (EN 1993-1-1) for the side wall slenderness to:

(h

2t

2r)

t

70

with

b

2t

2r

t

5(b

2t

2r )

30

6t

(2.11)

For r = t, this can be simplified to:

h

t

77

0,83

b

t

with

b

t

34

(2.11a)

In the absence of shear forces or if the shear forces

13

do not exceed 50% of the shear capacity V pl,Rd , the effect of shear may be neglected and the bending moment capacity about one axis is given by:

M

M

M

c,Rd

c,Rd

c,Rd

W

pl

f

yd

W

el

f

yd

W

f

eff yd

for cross section classes 1 or 2

(2.12)

for cross section class 3

(2.13)

for cross section class 4

(2.14)

When the shear force exceeds 50% of the shear capacity, combined loading has to be considered, see Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1).

2.3.4 Shear

The elastic shear stress in circular and rectangular hollow sections can be determined with simple mechanics by:

 

V S Ed f yd  2 I t 3
V
S
Ed
f yd
2 I t
3

(2.15)

Fig. 2.10 shows the elastic stress distribution. The

design capacity based on plastic design can be easily

determined based on the Huber-Hencky-Von Mises criterion by assuming the shear yield strength in those

parts of the cross section active for shear.

V pl,Rd

A

v

where:

f yd

3
3

A

v

A

b

h

h

for RHS

(2.16)

(2.17)

(or just 2 h t) with V in the direction of h.

A v

2 A for CHS

(2.18)

2.3.5 Torsion

Hollow sections, especially CHS, have the most effective cross section for resisting torsional moments, because the material is uniformly distributed about the

polar axis. A comparison of open and hollow sections of nearly identical mass in Table 2.9 shows that the torsional constant of hollow sections is about 200 times that of open sections.

The

design

described by:

described by:
described by:
described by:

M

t,Rd

W

t

f

yd

3
3

capacity

for

torsional

For circular hollow sections:

W

t

2I

t

d

t

2

where:

I

t

4

d

tt

3

(d

t) t

moments

is

(2.19)

(2.20)

(2.21)

For rectangular hollow sections (Marshall, 1971):

W

t

I

t

t

2

A

m

A

where:

I

t

A

A

m

2

4A

t

m

t

A

3

3

A

2

h

m

b 2r 4 

m

m

b h r 4 

m

m

2

m

(2.22)

(2.23)

(2.24)

(2.25)

F or thin walled rectangular hollow sections, eq. (2.22) can be approximated by:

W

t

2h

m

b

m

t

(2.26)

T he first term in eq. (2.23) is generally only used for

open sections. However, research by Marshall (1971)

showed that the given formula provides the best fit with the test results.

T he exact, more complicated equations for the cross sectional properties are given in EN 10210-2 (2006) and EN 10219-2 (2006).

2 .3.6 Internal pressure

The circular hollow section is most suitable to resist an internal pressure p.

T he design capacity per unit length, shown in Fig.

2.11, is given by:

p

f yd

2t

d

2t

(2.27)

In eq. (2.27), = 1,0, but for transport pipelines, the M0 value may be considerably larger than for other cases, depending on the hazard of the product, the effect of failure on the environment and inspectability. The design capacities for RHS sections subjected to internal pressure are much more complicated; reference can be made to the Deutscher Dampfkesselausschuβ (1975).

M0

2.3.7 Combined loadings

Various combinations of loadings are possible, e.g. tension, compression, bending, shear and torsion.

Depending on the cross s ectional classification, various interaction formulae should be applied. Reference can be made to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1). It is beyond the scope of this book to deal with all possible formulae; however, the interaction between the various loads in the cross section can be based on the Huber-Hencky-Von Mises stress criterion (Roik & Wagenknecht, 1977). For the member checks, other interaction formulae apply, see e.g. EN1993-1-1.

2 .4 DRAG COEFFICIENTS

hollow sections,

have a striking advantage for use in structures exposed to fluid currents, i.e. air or water. The drag coefficients are much lower than those of open sections with sharp edges, see Fig. 2.12 (Schulz, 1970; CIDECT, 1984; Dutta, 2002).

Hollow sections, especially circular

2 .5 CORROSION PROTECTION

Structures made of hollow sections offer advantages with regard to corrosion protection. Hollow sections have rounded corners (Fig. 2.13) resulting in a better protection than that for sections with sharp corners. This is especially true for the joints in circular hollow sections where there is a smooth transition from one section to another. This better protection increases the protection period of coatings against corrosion.

S tructures designed in hollow sections have a 20 to 50% smaller surface to be protected than comparable structures made of open sections. Many

14

investigations, summarized by Tissier (1978), have been conducted to assess the likelihood of internal corrosion. These investigations, carried out in various countries, show that internal corrosion does not occur in sealed hollow sections.

Even in hollow sections which are not perfectly sealed, internal corrosion is limited. If there is concern about condensation in an imperfectly sealed hollow section, a drainage hole can be made at a point where water can drain by gravity.

2 .6 USE OF INTERNAL VOID

The internal void in hollow sections can be used in various ways, e.g. to increase the compressive resistance by filling with concrete, or to provide fire protection. In addition, heating or ventilation systems are sometimes incorporated into hollow section columns.

T he possibilities of using the internal space are briefly described below.

2 .6.1 Concrete filling

wall thicknesses are not

sufficient to meet the required load bearing resistance, the hollow section can be filled with concrete. For example, it may be preferable in buildings to have the same external dimensions for the columns on every floor. At the top floor, the smallest wall thickness can be chosen, and the wall thickness can be increased with increasing load for lower floors. If the hollow

If the commonly-available

section with the largest available wall thickness is not sufficient for the ground floor, the hollow section can be filled with concrete to increase the load bearing resistance.

A very important reason for using concrete filled

hollow sections is that the columns can be relatively

slender. Design rules are given in e.g. Eurocode 4 (EN 1994-1-1, 2004).

C oncrete filling of hollow sections contributes not only to an increase in load bearing resistance, but it also improves the fire resistance duration. Extensive test projects carried out by CIDECT and the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) showed that reinforced concrete filled hollow section columns without any external fire protection like plaster, vermiculite panels or intumescent paint, can attain a fire life of even 2 hours depending on the cross

section ratio of the steel and concrete, reinforcement percentage of the concrete and the applied load, see Fig. 2.14 (Twilt et al., 1994).

2 .6.2 Fire protection by water circulation

A nother method for fire protection of buildings is to use water filled hollow section columns.

T he columns are interconnected with a water storage tank. Under fire conditions, the water circulates by convection, keeping the steel temperature below the critical value of 450 C. This system has economical advantages when applied to buildings with more than about 8 storeys. If the water flow is adequate, the resulting fire resistance time is virtually unlimited.

In order to prevent freezing, potassium carbonate

(K 2 CO 3 ) is added to the water. Potassium nitrate is

used as an inhibitor against corrosion.

2 .6.3 Heating and ventilation

T he inner voids of hollow sections are sometimes used for air and water circulation for heating and ventilation of buildings. Many examples in offices and schools show the excellent combination of the strength function of hollow section columns with the integration of heating or ventilation systems. This system offers maximization of floor area through elimination of heat exchangers, a uniform provision of warmth and a combined protection against fire.

2 .6.4 Other possibilities

S ometimes hollow section chords of lattice girder bridges are used for conveying fluids (pipe bridge). In buildings, the rain water downpipes may go through the hollow section columns or in other cases electrical wiring is located in the columns. The internal space can also be used for prestressing a hollow section.

2 .7 AESTHETICS

A rational use of hollow sections leads in general to

structures which are cleaner and more spacious. Hollow sections can provide slender aesthetic columns, with variable section properties but flush external dimensions. Due to their torsional rigidity, hollow sections have specific advantages in folded structures, V-type girders, etc.

15

often made of hollow

Lattice construction, which is

sections directly connected to one another without any stiffener or gusset plate, is often preferred by architects for structures with visible steel elements. However, it is difficult to express aesthetic features in economic comparisons. Sometimes hollow sections are used only because of aesthetic appeal, see e.g. Fig. 2.15, whilst at other times appearance is less important.

Table 2.1a Hot finished structural hollow sections – Non-alloy steel properties (EN 10210-1, 2006)

Steel

Minimum yield strength (1) (N/mm 2 )

Minimum tensile strength (N/mm 2 )

Longitudinal (2) minimum elongation (%) on gauge

Charpy impact strength (10 x 10 mm)

designation

L

o

5,65

S o
S
o

t 16

16 < t 40

40< t 63

t < 3

3 t 100

3 < t 40

40 < t 63

Temp.

 

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

C

J

S235JRH

235

225

215

360-510

360-510

26

25

20

27

S275J0H

             

0

27

S275J2H

275

265

255

430-580

410-560

23

22

-20

27

S355J0H

             

0

27

S355J2H

355

345

335

510-680

470-630

22

21

-20

27

S355K2H

-20

40 (3)

(1) For thicknesses above 63 mm, these values are further reduced. (2) In transverse direction 2% lower. (3) Corresponds to 27 J at -30 C.

Table 2.1b Cold formed welded structural hollow sections – Non-alloy steel (EN 10219-1, 2006) – Steel properties different from EN 10210-1 (2006)

Steel designation

Minimum longitudinal elongation (%), all thicknesses, t max = 40 mm

S235JRH

24

(1)

S275J0H

20

(2)

S275J2H

S355J0H

 

S355J2H

20

(2)

S355K2H

 

(1)

For t > 3 mm and d/t < 15 or

elongation is 17%.

(2) For d/t < 15 or

h 12,5

b

2t

h 12,5

b

2t

the minimum elongation is reduced by 2 to 22%; for t 3 mm the minimum

the minimum elongation is reduced by 2 to 18%.

17

Table 2.2a Hot finished structural hollow sections – Fine grain steel properties (EN 10210-1, 2006)

 

Minimum yield strength (N/mm 2 )

Minimum tensile strength (N/mm 2 )

Minimum elongation (%) on gauge

Charpy impact

Steel

L

o

5,65

S o
S
o

strength (10 x 10 mm)

 

designation

   

t 65 mm

 

t 16

16 < t 40

40 < t 65

t 65

     

Temp.

 

mm

mm

mm

mm

Long.

 

Trans.

C

 

J

S275NH

           

-20

40

(1)

S275NLH

275

265

255

370-510

24

 

22

-50

27

S355NH

           

-20

40

(1)

S355NLH

355

345

335

470-630

22

 

20

-50

27

S420NH

           

-20

40

(1)

S420NLH

420

400

390

520-680

19

 

17

-50

27

S460NH

           

-20

40

(1)

S460NLH

460

440

430

540-720

17

 

15

-50

27

(1) Corresponds to 27 J at -30 C.

Table 2.2b Cold formed welded structural hollow sections – Fine grain steel (EN 10219-1, 2006) – Steel properties different from EN 10210-1 (2006)

   

Feed stock condition M (1)

Steel designation

Minimum tensile strength (N/mm 2 )

Minimum longitudinal elongation (%) (2)

S275MH

   

S275MLH

360

- 510

24

S355MH

   

S355MLH

450

- 610

22

S420NH

   

S420NLH

520

- 660

19

S460NH

   

S460NLH

530

- 720

17

(1) M refers to thermal mechanical rolled steels.

(2) For d/t < 15 or

h 12,5

b

2t

the minimum elongation is reduced by 2, e.g. from 24% to 22% for S275MH and S275MLH.

Table 2.3 Minimum inner corner radii of cold formed RHS according to EN 1993-1-8 (2005)

   

Maximum wall thickness t (mm)

 

r/t

Strain due to cold forming (%)

General

 

Predominantly static loading

Fatigue dominating

Aluminium-killed steel (Al 0,02%)

25

2

any

any

any

10

5

any

16

any

3,0

14

24

12

24

2,0

20

12

10

12

1,5

25

8

8

10

1,0

33

4

4

6

18

Table 2.4a Hot finished structural hollow sections – Tolerances (EN 10210-2, 2006)

Section type

 

Square/rectangular

Circular

Outside dimension

the greater of ± 0,5 mm and ± 1% (1)

the greater of ± 0,5 mm and ± 1% but not more than 10 mm

Thickness

Welded

 

-10%

Seamless

-10% and -12,5% at maximum 25% cross section

Mass

Welded

±

6% on individual lengths

Seamless

-6%; +8%

 

Straightness

0,2% of the total length and 3 mm over any 1 m length

Length (exact)

+10 mm, -0 mm, but only for exact lengths of 2000 to 6000 mm

Out of roundness

-

2% for d/t 100

Squareness of sides

90± 1

-

Corner radii

Outside

3,0t maximum

-

Concavity/convexity

±

1% of the side

-

Twist

2 mm + 0,5 mm/m (1)

-

(1) For elliptical hollow sections with h 250 mm, the tolerances are twice the values given in this table.

Table 2.4b Cold formed welded structural hollow sections (EN 10219-2, 2006) – Tolerances different from EN 10210-2 (2006)

Section type

 

Square/rectangular

 

Circular

Outside dimension

< 100 mm: the greater of ± 0,5 mm and ± 1% 100 mm h, b 200 mm: ± 0,8%

b

±

1%,

minimum ± 0,5 mm maximum ± 10 mm

b

> 200 mm: ± 0,6%

 
     

for d 406,4 mm:

 

5 mm: ± 10%

> 5 mm: ± 0,5 mm

   

t

5 mm: ± 10%

Thickness

Welded

t

t

t

> 5 mm: ± 0,5 mm

for d > 406,4 mm:

   

± 10% with maximum ± 2,0 mm

Mass

±

6%

±

6%

Straightness

 

0,15% of the total length and 3 mm over any 1 m

 

length

 
 

t

6 mm:

1,6 to 2,4t 2,0 to 3,0t

 

Outside corner radii (profile)

6 mm < t 10 mm:

-

t

> 10 mm:

2,4 to 3,6t

Concavity/convexity

maximum 0,8% with a minimum of 0,5 mm

-

Table 2.5 Special shapes available

 

Triangular

Hexagonal

Octagonal

Flat - oval

Elliptical

Half-elliptical

Shape

Shape
Shape
Shape
Shape
Shape
Shape

19

Table 2.6 European buckling curves according to manufacturing processes (EN 1993-1-1, 2005)

Cross section

Manufacturing process

Buckling curves

b b

b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b

Hot finished 420 N/mm 2 < f y 460 N/mm 2

a

0

Flange Flange Flange Flange Flange Flange Flange Flange Flange Flange Flange Flange t t t
Flange
Flange
Flange
Flange
Flange
Flange
Flange
Flange
Flange
Flange
Flange
Flange
t t
t
t t t
d d d d
d d
h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h
Web
Web
Web
Web
Web
Web
Web
Web
Web
Web
Web
Web
t t
t t t t t t t t
   

hh

Hot finished f y 420 N/mm 2

a

Cold formed

c

Table 2.7 Limits for b/t, h/t and d/t for cross section classes 1, 2 and 3 (EN 1993-1-1, 2005)

 

Class

 

1

 

2

   

3

   

f yd (N/mm 2 )

   

f yd (N/mm 2 )

   

f yd (N/mm 2 )

 

Cross

 

Considered

                         

section

Load type

element

235

275

355

460

235

275

355

460

235

275

355

460

     
        b  235 c f yd  3  
 

b

235 c f yd
235
c
f
yd

3

 

RHS

Compression

Top face

t

 

b/t (1)

 

c

= 33

   

c

= 38

   

c

= 42

 
   

36,0

33,5

29,8

26,6

41,0

38,1

33,9

30,2

45,0

41,8

37,2

33,0

     
        h  235 c f yd  3  
 

h

235 c f yd
235
c
f
yd

3

 

RHS

Bending

Side wall (2)

t

 

h/t (1)

 

c

= 72

   

c

= 83

   

c = 124

 
 

75,0

69,6

61,6

51,8

86,0

79,7

70,5

62,3

127,0

117,6

103,9

91,6

         

d c

235

 

CHS

Compression

t t t t
t
t t
t
CHS Compression t t t t t f yd

t

f

yd

d/t

and/or

     

bending

 

c

= 50

   

c

= 70

   

c

= 90

 
   

50,0

42,7

33,1

25,5

70,0

59,8

46,3

35,8

90,0

76,9

59,6

46,0

(1) For all hot finished and cold formed RHS, it is conservative to assume that the width-to-thickness ratio of the "flat" is

b - 2t - 2r

b

3

or

h - 2t - 2r

h

3

.

t

t

t

t

(2) Wilkinson & Hancock (1998) suggested reducing the Eurocode limits (EN 1993-1-1) for the side wall slenderness of RHS

considerably, e.g. for class 1 in a simplified form to:

h

t

77

20

0,83

b

t

with

b 34

t

.

Table 2.8 Allowable span-to-depth ratios L/(h-t) to avoid lateral buckling based on EN 1993-1-1 (2005)

     

L

b

t

h t

h

t

 
 

S235

S275

S355

S460

b b

0,5

73,7

63,0

48,8

37,7

b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b

F F F F F F F F F F F F lange lange lange
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
lange
lange
lange
lange
lange
lange
lange
lange
lange
lange
lange
lange
h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h
t t
t t t t t t t t
 

0,6

93,1

79,5

61,6

47,5

0,7

112,5

96,2

74,5

57,5

h h

0,8

132,0

112,8

87,4

67,4

0,9

151,3

129,3

100,2

77,3

 

1,0

170,6

145,8

112,9

87,2

Table 2.9 Torsional strength of various sections

 

Mass

Torsion constant I t (10 4 mm 4 ) or (cm 4 )

Section

(kg/m)

UPN 200 25,3 11,9

UPN 200

25,3

11,9

INP 200 26,2 13,5

INP 200

26,2

13,5

HEB 120  26,7 13,8

 

26,7

13,8

HEA 140  24,7 8,1

 

24,7

8,1

 

140 x 140 x 6  24,9 1475

24,9

1475

168.3 x 6 24,0 2017

168.3 x 6

24,0

2017

21

Fig. 2.1 Lamellar tearing Actual f y mean Actual Actual f mean mean f y

Fig. 2.1 Lamellar tearing

Actual f y mean Actual Actual f mean mean f y y after cold forming
Actual f y mean
Actual
Actual
f
mean
mean
f y
y
after cold forming
after cold forming
after cold forming

Fig. 2.2 Influence of cold forming on the yield strength for a square hollow section of 100 x 100 x 4 mm

1,00 1,00 00 0 0,75 0,75 0,50 0,50 0,25 0,25 0 0 0 0 0,5
1,00
1,00
00 0
0,75
0,75
0,50
0,50
0,25
0,25
0
0 0
0
0,5
0,5
1,0
1,0
1,5
1,5
2,0
2,0

Fig. 2.3 Eurocode 3 buckling curves (EN 1993-1-1, 2005)

22

Buckling stress (N/mm 2 2 ) )Buckling stress (N/mm
Buckling stress
(N/mm 2 2 ) )Buckling
stress (N/mm

Fig. 2.4 Comparison of the masses of hollow and open sections under compression in relation to the loading

open sections under compression in relation to the loading Fig. 2.5 Restraints for the buckling of

Fig. 2.5 Restraints for the buckling of a brace member

Fig. 2.5 Restraints for the buckling of a brace member Fig. 2.6 Bottom chord laterally spring

Fig. 2.6 Bottom chord laterally spring supported by the stiffness of the members, joints and purlins

23

M M pl pl M M el el M M e e
M M
pl pl
M M
el el
M M
e e

Fig. 2.7 Moment-rotation curves

pl pl M M el el M M e e Fig. 2.7 Moment-rotation curves Fig. 2.8
pl pl M M el el M M e e Fig. 2.7 Moment-rotation curves Fig. 2.8

Fig. 2.8 Stress distribution for bending

Fig. 2.9 Moment distribution in relation to the cross section classification

24

Fig. 2.10 Elastic shear stress distribution t t f tf yd t f yd yd

Fig. 2.10 Elastic shear stress distribution

t t f tf yd t f yd yd d - 2t
t
t
f
tf yd
t f yd
yd
d - 2t

Fig. 2.11 Internal pressure

t f tf yd t f yd yd d - 2t Fig. 2.11 Internal pressure Fig.

Fig. 2.12 Wind flow for open and circular hollow sections

25

paint layers paint layers paint layers paint layers steel steel steel steel steel steel steel
paint layers
paint layers
paint layers
paint layers
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
corner protection for RHS
corner protection for RHS
corner protection for RHS
corner protection for RHS
and open sections
and open sections
and open sections
and open sections

Fig. 2.13 Painted corners of RHS vs. open sections

RHS 304,8x304,8x9,5 RHS 304,8x304,8x9,5 RHS 304,8x304,8x9,5 111 111 111 min. min. min. non- non- non-
RHS 304,8x304,8x9,5
RHS 304,8x304,8x9,5
RHS 304,8x304,8x9,5
111
111
111
min.
min.
min.
non-
non-
non-
120.
120.
120.
reinforced
reinforced
reinforced
steel fibre
steel fibre
steel fibre
concrete
concrete
concrete
reinforced
reinforced
reinforced
filling
filling
filling
concrete
concrete
concrete
filling
filling
filling
only
only
only
50min.
50min.
50min.
60.
60.
60.
RHS
RHS
RHS
14
14
14
min.
min.
min.
1650.
1650.
1650.
3150.
3150.
3150.
3150.
3150.
3150.
working load (kN)
working load (kN)
working load (kN)
fire life (min.)
fire life (min.)
fire life (min.)

Fig. 2.14 Fire resistance of concrete filled hollow sections

Fig. 2.15 Aesthetically appealing structures 27
Fig. 2.15 Aesthetically appealing structures 27

Fig. 2.15 Aesthetically appealing structures

27

Fig. 2.15 Aesthetically appealing structures 27
28

28

3. APPLICATIONS

The applications of structural hollow sections nearly cover all fields. Hollow sections may be used because of the beauty of their shape or to express lightness, while in other cases their geometrical properties determine their application. In this chapter, examples are given for the various fields and to show the possibilities of constructing with hollow sections.

3.1 BUILDINGS AND HALLS

In buildings and halls, hollow sections are mainly used for columns and lattice girders or space frames for roofs. In modern architecture, they are also used for other structural or architectural reasons, e.g. facades.

Fig. 3.1 shows a 10-storey building in Karlsruhe, Germany with rectangular hollow section columns 180 x 100. Special aspects are that the columns are made of weathering steel and are water filled to ensure the required fire protection. The columns are connected with water reservoirs to ensure circulation. Besides the fire protection, a further advantage is that due to the water circulation in the columns, the deformation of the building due to temperature differences by sunshine is limited.

Fig. 3.2 shows an example of lattice girder trusses used in a roof of an industrial building. For an optimal cost effective design, it is essential that the truss joints are made without any stiffening plates.

An especially appealing application is given in Fig. 3.3, showing a tree-type support of the airport departure hall in Stuttgart, Germany. For the joints, streamlined steel castings are used.

Fig. 3.4 shows the roof of the terminal of Kansai International Airport in Osaka, Japan with curved triangular girders of circular hollow sections.

Fig. 3.5 shows a dome under construction, whereas Fig. 3.6 illustrates a special application using columns and beams in the façade for ventilation assuring clean windows in the swimming pool.

Fig. 3.7 shows a very nice architectural application in Bush Lane House in the city of London, UK. The external circular hollow section lattice transfers the façade loads and the loads on the floors to the main columns. The hollow sections are filled with water for fire protection.

29

Very attractive applications can be found in the halls and buildings for the Olympic Games in Athens, e.g. Fig. 3.8.

Elliptical hollow sections are becoming more and more popular among architects and already several examples exist, see for example Fig. 3.9, the airport building in Madrid.

Nowadays, many examples of tubular structures are found in railway stations (Figs. 3.10 and 3.11) and roofs of stadia and halls (Figs. 3.12 to 3.14).

Indeed, as stated by one of the former CIDECT vice presidents, Jim Cran, at the Tubular Structures Symposium in Delft (1977) "The sky is the limit", whilst presenting beautiful applications of structural hollow sections.

3.2 BRIDGES

As mentioned in the introduction, the Firth of Forth Bridge is an excellent example of using the hollow section shape for structural applications in bridges. Nowadays, many modern examples exist (IISI, 1997). Figs. 1.4, 3.15 to 3.17 and 3.20 show various examples of pedestrian bridges; some of these are movable bridges.

Circular hollow sections can also be used as a flange for plate girders, as shown in Fig. 3.17 for a triangular box girder.

A very nice example of a road-pedestrian bridge is illustrated in Fig. 3.18, being a composite steel-concrete bridge with hollow sections for the arch and braces and a concrete deck.

Fig. 3.19 shows a railway bridge near Rotterdam, The Netherlands with circular hollow section arches.

3.3 BARRIERS

There are a few aspects which make hollow sections increasingly suitable for hydraulic structures, such as barriers. Due to environmental restrictions, the maintenance of hydraulic structures requires severe precautions, making durability an important issue. Structures of hollow sections are less susceptible to corrosion due to the rounded corners. Furthermore, especially circular hollow sections have lower drag coefficients, leading to lower forces due to wave loading. Fig. 3.21 shows a barrier with a support

structure of circular hollow sections. Fig. 3.22 shows the storm surge barrier near Hook of Holland with triangular arms made of circular hollow sections and a length (250 m) equal to the height of the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

3.4 OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

Offshore, many application examples are available; most of them in circular hollow sections. For the support structure, the jacket or tower, not only is the wave loading important, but also other aspects are leading to the use of circular hollow sections. E.g. in jackets, the circular hollow section piles are often driven through the circular hollow section legs of the jacket, thus the pile is guided through the leg. Sometimes the internal void is used for buoyancy. Further, the durability and easy maintenance in severe environments are extremely important.

Hollow section members are used in jackets, towers, the legs and diagonals in topside structures, cranes, microwave towers, flare supports, bridges, support structures of helicopter decks and further in various secondary structures, such as staircases, ladders, etc. Figs. 3.23 and 3.24 show two examples.

3.5 TOWERS AND MASTS

Considering wind loading, corrosion protection and architectural appearance, there is no doubt that hollow sections are to be preferred. However, in many countries, electric power transmission towers are made of angle sections with simple bolted joints.

Nowadays, architectural appearance becomes more important, while stringent environmental restrictions make protection and maintenance increasingly expensive. These factors stimulate designs made of hollow sections (Figs. 3.25 and 3.26).

3.6 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS

The field of special applications is large, e.g. along the roads, petrol stations (Fig. 3.27), sound barriers (Fig. 3.28), traffic information gantries (Fig. 3.29), guard rails, parapets and sign posts.

Further, excellent application examples are found in radio telescopes (Fig. 3.30), in mechanical engineering, cranes (Fig. 3.31) and roller coasters (Fig. 3.32).

30

In the agricultural field, glass houses (Fig. 3.33) and agricultural