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Proceedings of the 37th European Microwave Conference

A Dual-Band Bandpass Filter By Interleaving Heterogeneous Stepped-Impedance Resonators

Yi-Ming Chen#1, Sheng-Fuh Chang*2, Chia-Chan Chang*3, Cheng-Yu Chou#4
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University 168 University Rd., Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, 621 1 4 * Department of Electrical Engineering, Department of Communication Engineering, Center for Telecommunication Research, National Chung Cheng University 168 University Rd., Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, 621 3
2 #, TEL: 886-5-2720041 In this approach, the multiple controllable resonance modes of SIR are used to generate two passbands. In this paper, a new dual-band generation method is proposed. Two different types of SIRs are interleaved to form a compact bandpass circuit. Each fundamental resonant mode of SIRs is utilized for a band. Hence each passband can be optimally designed. Additionally, multiple transmission zeros will be found distributed near passbands and in-between passbands. Therefore, the stopband and intra-band rejection are very high.

II. CIRCUIT DESIGN The schematic diagram of the proposed dual-band bandpass filter by interleaving heterogeneous types of step-impedance I. INTRODUCTION resonators is shown in Fig. 1. One of resonators, henceforth The multi-band operation of an RF transceiver has been named as Type-A SIR, is a stepped-impedance resonator with widely required for rapidly-growing wireless and mobile one end short-circuited and the other end open-circuited, communications. Such the parallel architecture can be realized while the second type of resonator, named as Type-B SIR, is with the combination of two single-band receive and transmit another stepped-impedance resonator open-circuited at both by global systems for mobile communications (GSM) and ends. The lengths of Type-A and Type-B SIRs are different wireless code division multiple-access (WCDMA) application. such that their resonant frequencies are different. Thus, passive components, such as dual-band bandpass filter, play a key role which must have a new feature of two A. Concept of dual-band generation by interleaving heterogeneous SIRs simultaneous passbands at separated centre frequencies with In this proposed circuit, Type-A SIR is carefully designed adequate out-of-band suppression. Design of dual-band bandpass filters has drawn intensive to resonate at the lower passband frequency fL and Type-B research upon the request for dual-band RF transceivers [1]- SIR resonates at the upper passband frequency fU. When [7]. Miyake et al. [3] used the low-temperature co-fired frequencies is at fL , Type-A SIR is resonant and Type-B SIRs ceramic process to form a dual-band bandpass filter by are below resonance, acting as the input and output coupling stacking two separated bandpass filters with an extra matching circuits, as shown in Fig 2(a). Thus, the first-order bandpass network to combine input and output ports. Quendo et al. [4] filter is formed. Later we will show that the spurious passband employed three open stubs, creating three separated of Type-A SIR can be moved higher than three times of fL by transmission zeros to form dual-band. Similar approach controlling the impedance ratio rA (=Z2A / Z1A). At the upper passband fU, Type-B SIRs are resonating and proposed in [5] used a notch circuit on a broadband filter to Type-A is out of resonance. Hence, the original circuit is divide a broadband bandpass into two separated bands. equivalent to two resonating Type-B SIRs with tapped Another remarkable dual-band approach, proposed by [6]-[7], coupling at input and output ports, as shown in Fig. 2(b) utilized a monotype stepped-impedance resonator (SIR). where Type-A SIR presents as another inter-coupling between

AbstractA dual-band bandpass filter by interleaving heterogeneous stepped-impedance resonators is presented. Two types of stepped-impedance resonators are designed to have different fundamental resonant frequencies, one for the lower passband and the other for the upper passband. When these two SIRs are properly interleaved, dual passbands can be obtained. This dual-band generation mechanism is distinct from the conventional dual-band generation by using a single type of SIR. A demonstrated circuit was designed at 2.4 GHz and 5.2 GHz. The simulated and measurement results show that the insertion loss less than 1.2 dB and 1.7 dB at operating bands, respectively. Four transmission zeros at 1.8 GHz, 3.8 GHz, 5.8 GHz and 8 GHz are obtained, which significantly improve the stop-band rejection.

978-2-87487-001-9 2007 EuMA


October 2007, Munich Germany

Type-B SIRs. The spurious passband of Type-B SIR can also be moved higher than three times of fU by controlling its step impedance ratio rB ( = Z1B / Z 2 B ). Therefore, conceptually two desired passbands can be obtained by interleaving Type-A and Type-B stepped-impedance resonators.


> 3 f0 A

Type-B SIR



> 3 f 0B S21



> 3 f0 A > 3 f0B

Type-A SIR


Z 2 A , 2 A

Z1 A ,1A





rA = Z 2 A Z1 A

Fig. 2 Dual-band generation (a) effective circuit to generate the lower passband, (b) effective circuit to generate the upper passband, (c) dual-band generation by interleaving combination

B. Resonance Modes of SIRs The resonance condition of Type-A SIR has been obtained in [8], cited as below: tan 1 A tan 2 A = rA (1)

Z 2 B , 2B

Z1B , 1B

rB = Z1B Z 2 B
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of proposed dual-bandpass filter, (a) complete circuit, (b) Type-A SIR, (c) Type-B SIR.

When 1A=2A, the electric length of the fundamental resonance mode becomes

2 A = tan 1 rA .


By using the similar approach, the resonance condition of Type-B SIR can be derived, giving rB tan 2 B + tan 1B = 0 (3)

For a special case of 1B = 22 B , the electric length of the fundamental resonance mode becomes


improve the stopband rejection and the spurious passbands are higher than 10.6 GHz. The measurement results show that the insertion losses are less than 1.2 dB at 2.47 GHz and 2.1dB at 5.2 GHz, The higher resonance modes can be solved from (1) and (3). Figure 3 shows the relationship of resonant frequencies of respectively. The measured return losses are greater than 17dB and 20dB at both bands. Four transmission zeros are Type-A and Type-B SIRs with respect to the impedance ratio, measured. The measurement results agree very well with the where rA = 1 rB . It shows that the spurious passbands can be simulation prediction. moved more than three times of the lower passband frequency if rA < 1. This property can be utilized to increase the stopW2 S band suppression.

2 B = tan 1 1 +

2 . rB


Normalize Spurious Resonasnt Frequency( fs/ f0 )

5.0 Type-A Type-B

L1 L2







Fig. 4 Dimensions of the designed 2.45-GHz dual-band bandpass filter, L1=10.8 mm, L2=6.5 mm, L3=5 mm W1=1.8 mm, W2=0.2 mm, S=0.2mm.

2.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Impedance Ratio rA= 1 / rB

Fig. 3 Resonant frequencies with respect to the impedance ratio of Type-A and Type-B SIR

III. SIMULATION AND MEASUREMENT RESULTS A dual-band bandpass filter with the lower passband at 2.4 GHz and the upper passband at 5.2 GHz was designed. A Ro4003C substrate with a relative dielectric constant of 3.38, a loss tangent of 0.0027, and a substrate thickness of 0.81 mm is used. According to Fig. 3, the impedance ratio rA= 1/rB =0.4 is selected to remove the spurious passbands higher than 10 GHz. The microwave simulator IE3D [10] is then employed to include the layout discontinuity and non-adjacent coupling effects. The final circuit layout and dimensions are indicated in Fig. 4, where L1=10.8 mm, L2=6.5 mm, L3=5 mm W1=1.8 mm, W2=0.2 mm, and S=0.2 mm. The microstrip line L3 is used to improve the input and output return loss. The photograph of dual-band filter is illustrated in Fig. 5. The simulation and measurement results are drawn in Fig. 6. The simulation insertion losses are 1.1 dB at 2.4 GHz and 1.7 dB at 5.2 GHz. The return losses are 18 dB at 2.4 GHz and 25 dB at 5.2 GHz. The first transmission zero at 1.8 GHz is found near the lower passband and the second 5.8-GHz transmission zero is found near the upper passband. These near passband transmission zeros dramatically increase the band transition rate. The third transmission zero at 3.8 GHz enhances the inter-band rejection. The forth transmission zero at 8 GHz

Fig. 5 Photograph of the fabricated dual-band bandpass filter.

0 Insertion and Return Losses (dB) -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency (GHz)
Simulation Measurment

Fig. 6 Measurement and simulation results of designed 2.4/5.2-GHz dualband bandpass filter.


IV. CONCLUSIONS A new dual-band generation method for a dual-band bandpass filter is presented, where two different types of stepped-impedance resonators are interleaved. Type-A stepped-impedance resonator consists of one open-circuited microstrip stub connected to another short-circuited stub, where both stubs have the characteristic impedance ratio of rA. This resonator is designed for the lower passband at fL. TypeB SIR is composed of two open-circuited microstrip stubs with the characteristic impedance ratio of rB, which is designed for the upper passband at fU. When Type-A is resonating at fL, Type-B is below resonance and used as input/output coupling. On the other hand, when Type-B is resonating at fU, Type-A SIR presents as another inter-stage coupling. Therefore, dual-band response is generated when Type-A and Type-B SIRs are properly interleaved together. A 2.4/5.2-GHz bandpass filter was implemented for validating the proposed method. Simulation and measure results agree very well, which demonstrate that the insertion loss is 1.2 dB at 2.47 GHz and 2.1 dB at 5.2 GHz. The return losses are better than 17 dB at both bands. Four transmission zeros are observed. One at 1.8 GHz is helpful to increase the lower passband selectivity. The second transmission zero at 3.8 GHz helps to increases the inter-band rejection. The third at 5.8 GHz increases the upper-band selectivity. And the fourth transmission zero at 8 GHz dramatically enhances the high stop-band rejection. The spurious passbands are above 10 GHz. The promising performance demonstrates the validity of proposed dual-band generation method.
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