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Cuvinte cheie: 5-Factor model, depresia major, Zuckerman-Kuhlman Chestionarul de Personalitate.

Depression influences personality measures like Eysenck's Big Three, Costa and McCrae's Big Five or Cloninger's Seven Factor models, and might also affect Zuckerman-Kuhlman's Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ), an alternative five-factor model. Depresia influene msuri cum ar fi personalitatea lui Eysenck Big Three, Costa i McCrae lui Big Five sau Cloninger lui apte modele Factor, i ar putea afecta, de asemenea, Zuckerman-Kuhlman lui Chestionarul de Personalitate (ZKPQ), o alternativ de cinci factor de model. The authors therefore tested ZKPQ in 85 patients suffering from major depression and in 82 healthy subjects in order to clarify this effect. Autorii testat, prin urmare, ZKPQ la 85 de pacieni care sufer de depresie major i n 82 de subieci sntoi, n scopul de a clarifica n acest sens. Depressive mood was measured with Plutchik - van Paag's Depression Inventory (PVP). starea de spirit depresive a fost msurat cu Plutchik - van Paag lui Depresie Inventory (PVP). Patients scored significantly higher on PVP, NeuroticismAnxiety and Aggression-Hostility, but lower on Activity and Sociablity than did healthy volunteers. Pacienii marcat semnificativ mai mare pe PVP, NeuroticismAnxiety i agresivitate-ostilitate, dar mai mici cu privire la activitatea i Sociablity decat voluntarii sntoi. In the general sample (N = 167), Neuroticism-Anxiety and Aggression-Hostility scores were positively correlated, while the Sociability score was negatively correlated with the PVP score, These results indicate that when the clinical significance relating to personality traits in patients is interpreted, depressive mood must also be considered. n eantionul general (N = 167), nevrozeianxietate i agresivitate-ostilitate scoruri au fost corelate pozitiv, n timp ce scorul Sociabilitatea a fost negativ corelat cu scorul de PVP, Aceste rezultate indic faptul c, atunci cnd semnificaia clinic referitoare la trsturi de personalitate la pacienii este interpretat , starea de spirit depresive trebuie s fie, de asemenea, luate n considerare. One of the 5-factor models measuring personality is Zuckerman-Kuhlman's Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ, Zuckerman, Kulhman, Joireman, Teta, & Kraft, 1993). Una din cele 5 modele de msurare a factorului de personalitate este Zuckerman-Kuhlman lui Chestionarul de Personalitate (ZKPQ, Zuckerman, Kulhman, Joireman, teta, si Kraft, 1993). Five scales in ZKPQ are described as: Impulsive Sensation Seeking, NeuroticismAnxiety, Aggression-Hostility, Activity and Sociability (for a brief description of these scales, see Table 1). Cinci balana n ZKPQ sunt descrise ca: impulsive Sensation Seeking, nevrozei-anxietate, agresivitate-ostilitate, de activitate i Sociabilitatea (pentru o descriere succint a acestor scale, a se vedea tabelul 1). The contents of these scales overlap with those described in Eysenck's Big Three (Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychoticism), those in Costa and McCrae's Big Five (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and those in Cloninger's Seven Factor models (Novelty seeking, Harm avoidance, Reward dependence, Persistence, Self-directness, Cooperativeness and Self-transcendence) (Cloninger & Svrakic 2000; Ostendorf & Angleitner 1994; Zuckerman et al. 1993). Coninutul acestor scale se suprapun cu cele descrise n Eysenck lui Big Three (nevrozei, Extraversion i Psychoticism), cei din Costa i Big McCrae's Five (nevrozei, Extraversion, Deschiderea de a experimenta, agreabil i Contiinciozitate), i cele din Cloninger lui apte modele Factor ( Noutatea caut, evitarea Harm, dependena Reward, Persistena, Self-sinceritate,

Cooperativeness i-transcenden Self) (Cloninger & Svrakic 2000; Ostendorf & Angleitner 1994; Zuckerman et al 1993).. ZKPQ has been explored in young college students in America (Zuckerman et al.), and in the general population in China (Wu et al., 2000) and in Germany (Ostendorf & Angleitner). ZKPQ a fost explorat n tineri studeni n America (Zuckerman et al.), Iar n populaia general n China (Wu et al, 2000.) i n Germania (Ostendorf & Angleitner). It was also tested in cocaine abusers (Ball, 1995) and cocaine misusing pregnant and postpartum women (Ball & Schottenfeld, 1997). Acesta a fost, de asemenea, testat n cei care abuzeaza cocaina (Ball, 1995) i cocain abuz de femeile gravide i postpartum (Ball & Schottenfeld, 1997). Higher Impulsive Sensation Seeking, Neuroticism-- Anxiety and Aggression-Hostility have been described for these psychopathological conditions. Mai mare impulsive Sensation Seeking, nevrozei - anxietate i agresivitate-ostilitate au fost descrise pentru aceste condiii psihopatologice. On the other hand, depression is associated with a number of personality factors (reviewed in Boyce & Mason, 1996). Pe de alt parte, depresia este asociata cu un numar de factori de personalitate (revizuit n Boyce i Mason, 1996). For instance, major depressive patients reported significantly higher scores on rigidity and harm avoidance and significantly lower scores on self-directness and cooperativeness (Kimura, et al., 2000). De exemplu, pacienii depresive majore au raportat scoruri semnificativ mai mari privind evitarea rigiditate i ru i scoruri semnificativ mai mici pe auto-sinceritate i cooperativeness (Kimura, et al, 2000.). Although dopamine, noradenaline and 5-HT can influence personality (Benjamin, Ebstein & Lesch, 1998; Cloninger, 1986; Cloninger, Przybeck, & Svrakic, 1991), the link between depression and aberrant personalities might have a common biological background, that is the lower 5-HT neuronal activity in the brain. Dei dopamina, noradenaline i 5-HT poate influenta personalitate (Benjamin, Ebstein & Lesch, 1998; Cloninger, 1986; Cloninger, Przybeck, si Svrakic, 1991), legtura dintre depresie i personaliti aberante ar putea avea un fundal comun biologic, care este activitate mai redus 5-HT neuronale din creier. Indeed, clinical trials offered a strong argument of an imbalanced 5HT neurotransmission in major depression, by showing that the depressive symptom was relieved by repeated treatment with drugs that block the reuptake or metabolism of serotonin (Grimsley & Jann, 1993). ntr-adevr, studiile clinice a oferit un argument puternic al unei neurotransmisiei 5HT dezechilibrat n depresie major, artnd c simptom depresiv a fost eliberat prin repetarea tratamentului cu medicamente care blocheaza metabolismul sau recaptare a serotoninei (Grimsley & Jann, 1993). As a consequence it is reasonable to hypothesize that depression can influence the measures of ZKPQ scales. Ca urmare, este rezonabil s ipoteza ca depresia poate influena msurile de cntare ZKPQ. Therefore, we tested ZKPQ in 85 patients with major depression and with 82 healthy volunteers. Prin urmare, am testat ZKPQ la 85 de pacieni cu depresie major i cu 82 de voluntari sntoi. In order to quantify the relationship between the depressive mood and ZKPQ scale scores, Plutchik - van Praag's Depression Inventory (PVP, Plutchik & van Praag, 1987) was also tested on in these subjects. n scopul de a cuantifica relaia dintre starea de spirit depresive i scoruri ZKPQ scar, Plutchik - Depresiunea van Praag lui Inventory (PVP, Plutchik & van Praag, 1987) a fost, de asemenea, testat pe la aceste subiecte.

METHOD METODA SUBJECTS SUBIECTELE One hundred and sixty-seven subjects were included in this study. O sut i aizeci i apte de subieci au fost incluse n acest studiu. Eighty-two healthy volunteers (48 women and 34 men; mean age 28.6 years old 9.8 SD, range 16-64) were recruited as controls, 85 patients (49 women and 36 men; mean age 30.0 8.7, range 17-57) were diagnosed as suffering from major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Optzeci i doi voluntari sntoi (48 femei i 34 brbai, cu vrsta medie de 28.6 ani vechi de 9.8 SD, gama 16-64) au fost recrutai ca controale, 85 de pacieni (49 femei i 36 brbai, vrsta medie 30.0 8.7, gama 17-57) au fost diagnosticate ca suferind de depresie major, n conformitate cu manualul de diagnosticare i statistic a criteriilor de Tulburri MintaleIV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). There were no statistically significant differences between age and gender distributions in the two groups. Nu au existat diferene semnificative statistic ntre vrst i distribuiile de gen n dou grupuri. Patients were free from any organic brain lesions and any types of personality disorder; they had no current generalized anxiety disorder, panic, phobic or obsessive-compulsive disorders, and no suicide risk necessitating immediate hospitalization. Pacienii au fost libere de orice leziuni cerebrale organice, precum i orice tipuri de tulburri de personalitate, nu aveau nici o tulburare de anxietate generalizat curent, panic, tulburri fobice sau obsesiv-compulsive, i nici un risc de sinucidere care necesit spitalizare imediat. In addition, subjects had been free from alcohol or drugs for at least 72 hours prior to the test. n plus, subiecii au fost libere de alcool sau droguri pentru cel puin 72 de ore nainte de test. All subjects gave their informed consent to be included in the study. Toi subiecii au dat consimmntul n deplin cunotin a fi incluse n studiu. INVENTORIES STOCURI Subjects were asked to answer 2 inventories on-site in a quiet room. Subiecii au fost rugai s rspund la dou stocurilor la faa locului ntr-o camer linitit. A brief overview of each inventory is described below: O scurt trecere n revist a fiecrei inventar este descris mai jos: A) ZKPQ. A ZKPQ). One point is given for each chosen item corresponding to personality traits. Un punct este dat pentru fiecare element ales corespunztoare trsturi de personalitate. The test provides five measurements (Table 1). Testul ofer cinci msurtori (tabelul 1). In addition, ten items of another scale of Dissimulation (Infrequency or Lie) were randomly inserted into the test body. n plus, zece articole de alt scal de disimulare (raritatea sau Lie) au fost inserate n mod aleatoriu corp de prob. Any score above 3 suggests either inattention to the content of the items and acquiescence or a very strong social desirability set; therefore, the scale was used as a test validity indicator for individuals (Zuckerman et al., 1993). Orice scor mai mare de 3 sugereaz fie neatentia la coninutul de elemente i consimmntul sau un necesitatea foarte puternic sociale stabilite, prin urmare, scara a fost folosit ca un indicator de valabilitate test pentru persoane fizice (Zuckerman et al, 1993.).

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