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A

WATER

RESOURCES

TECHNICAL

PUBLICATION

ENGINEERING

MONOGRAPH

No.

3

-,

_

~. Y

PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’
PUBLICATION ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’

Steel,Pensthcksy-,’

r

;

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’ 6F Tt-tE INTERIOR

BUREAU,

OF

RECL-AMATI-ON

,-

.

No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’ 6F Tt-tE INTERIOR
No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’ 6F Tt-tE INTERIOR
No. 3 -, _ ~. Y Steel,Pensthcksy-,’ r ; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ’ 6F Tt-tE INTERIOR

The

lower

ends

of

the

penstocks

at

Shasta

Dam

emerge

from

conerefa

nnckors

and

pbcnge

into

the

-

.

I

pozus~ho~csc

A WATER RESOURCES TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior
A WATER RESOURCES TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior
A WATER RESOURCES TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior

A WATER

RESOURCES TKZHNICAL

PUBLICATION

A WATER RESOURCES TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l

hrginooring

Monograph

No.

3

RESOURCES TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l BUREAU OF
RESOURCES TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l BUREAU OF
RESOURCES TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l BUREAU OF
RESOURCES TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l BUREAU OF
RESOURCES TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l BUREAU OF
RESOURCES TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l BUREAU OF

United

States

Department

of the

Interior

TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l BUREAU OF RECLAMATION

l

BUREAU

OF

RECLAMATION

TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l BUREAU OF RECLAMATION
TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l BUREAU OF RECLAMATION
TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l BUREAU OF RECLAMATION
TKZHNICAL PUBLICATION hrginooring Monograph No. 3 United States Department of the Interior l BUREAU OF RECLAMATION
As the Nation’s principal conservation   agency, the Department   of the
As the Nation’s principal conservation   agency, the Department   of the

As

the

Nation’s

principal

conservation

 

agency,

the

Department

 

of

the

interior

has

responsibility

 

for

most

of

our

nationally

 

owned

public

’ lands

and

natural

 

resources.

This

includes

fostering

 

the

wisest

use

of

our

land

and

water

resources,

protecting

our

fish

and

wildlife,

preserv-

ing

the

environmental

 

and

cultural

values

of

our

national

parks

and

historical

places,

and

providing

for

the

enjoyment

of

life

through

out-

door

recreation.

 

The

Department

essessei

our

energy

and

mineral

~resources

and

works

to

assure

that

iheir

development

 

is in

the

best

~ interests

of

all

our

people.

The

Departmerit

 

also

has

a major

respon-

1sibility

for

American

Indian

reservation

communities

and

for

people

who

live

in tsland

Territories

under

U.S.

Administration.

 
Territories under U.S. Administration.   ENGINEERING MONOGRAPHS are prepared and used by the

ENGINEERING MONOGRAPHS are prepared and used by the technical staff of the Bureau of Reclamation. In the interest of dissemination of re- search experience and knowledge, they are made available to other inter- ested technical circles in Government and private agencies and to the general public by sale through the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

of Documents, Govern- ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. First Printing: 1949 Revised: 1959 Revised: 1966

First Printing:

1949

Revised:

1959

Revised:

1966

Reprinted:

1977

Reprinted:

1986

Revised: 1966 Reprinted: 1977 Reprinted: 1986 U.S. GOVERNMENT WASHINGTON PRINTING : 197’7 OF’FICE

U.S.

GOVERNMENT

WASHINGTON

PRINTING

:

197’7

OF’FICE

Revised: 1966 Reprinted: 1977 Reprinted: 1986 U.S. GOVERNMENT WASHINGTON PRINTING : 197’7 OF’FICE
Preface THIS MONOCRAPH will solution of problems assist designers in the in design and construc-
Preface THIS MONOCRAPH will solution of problems assist designers in the in design and construc-

Preface

Preface THIS MONOCRAPH will solution of problems assist designers in the in design and construc- This

THIS

MONOCRAPH

will

solution

of

problems

assist

designers

in

the

in

design and construc-

This edition now represents the contributions

of many individuals

in the Penstocks and Steel

tion of safe penstocks which may be fabricated

Pipe Section,

Mechanical

Branch,

Division of

in accordance with modern manufacturing

Design,

on the

staff

of

the

Chief

Engineer,

procedures. Certain rules relative to materials,

Denver,

Colo.

stresses, and tests might be considered un-

This monograph is issued to assist designers

necessarily conservative. Safety is of para-

in the solution of problems involved

in

the

de-

mount importance, however, and penstocks designed and constructed according to these

sign and construction of safe and economical

rules have given

satisfactory

service through

welded steel penstocks. Because of the many

requests for

informa-

years of operation.

tion

concerning

Bureau

of

Reclamation

de-

Welded Steel Penstocks presents information

signed and built penstocks, a comprehensive

concerning modern design and construction

bibliography

has been added in the back.

 

methods for pressure vessels applied to pen-

Included

in

this

publication

is an informa-

stocks for hydroelectric powerplants. The data

tive

abstract

and list

of

descriptors,

or

key-

are based on some 40 years experience in pen-

words, and “identifiers.”

 

The

abstract

was

stock construction

tion.

penstocks in service today were designed and constructed.

issued in

Be-

cause of the continuing interest in penstock design, the monograph has been revised and updated to incorporate present day practice.

by the Bureau

of Reclama-

During

this

period many of the largest

was first

of

P.

J.

Bier.

Welded Steel Pmstocks

1949 under the authorship

prepared as part of the Bureau of Reclamation’s

program

of

of indexing

water

and retrieving

the litera-

The

descriptors were selected from the Thesauw of Descriptors, which is the Bureau’s standard

for listings

Other recently published Water Resources Technical Publications are listed on the inside back cover of this monograph.

ture

resources

development.

of keywords.

Technical Publications are listed on the inside back cover of this monograph. ture resources development. of
Contents PWC 111 Report Introduction on Welded Steel Penstocks -- - ---------------_- Location and Arrangement
Contents PWC 111 Report Introduction on Welded Steel Penstocks -- - ---------------_- Location and Arrangement

Contents

Contents PWC 111 Report Introduction on Welded Steel Penstocks -- - ---------------_- Location and Arrangement -
Contents PWC 111 Report Introduction on Welded Steel Penstocks -- - ---------------_- Location and Arrangement -

PWC

111

Report

Introduction

on Welded

Steel

Penstocks

--

-

---------------_-

Location

and Arrangement

-

--

---

-

--

-_-

Economic

Studies

-

-

-

--

--

Head Losses in Penstocks Effect of Water Hammer

 

-

-

--

-_-_--

--

-

1

1

5

5

11

Pressure Rise in Simple Conduits

- 12

14

17

17

17

19

23

26

26

27

33

33

33

z 34

Pipe Shell

--

-

-

-------

-

Temperature

Stresses

 

Longitudinal

Stresses Caused by Radial Strain

 

-----_

Beam Stresses

 

-

-------

supports -- ----------_--------_-----------------------------------

 

Expansion

Joints

-

-

-

--

-

Bends, Branch Outlets, Pipe Bends

and Wyes

 
 

-

-

----------

Branch

Outlets

and Wyes

 

-

-

Penstock Accessories

-

-----

For Installation

For

Operation

and Testing

and Maintenance

Design of Piers and Anchors General

--_

-------------------------------------

Support

Piers

--_-----^------------------------------------

34

34

Piers --_-----^------------------------------------ 34 34 Anchors
Piers --_-----^------------------------------------ 34 34 Anchors
Piers --_-----^------------------------------------ 34 34 Anchors

vi

CONTENTS

Materials

--

---

-_-_-_--

~~~~-~-~~~~~~~~~

Steel Plates

Flanges,

---_-_- Valves, and Other

--_-_--~-~-~~-~~---~--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Appurtenances

_-

Fittings,

Fabrication

Structure

----

-

and Arrangement

_-

- -

--------------

-_

----------

-

 

Nondestructive

Inspection

of Welds

---_-_-_--_-

--

Preheating

and Postweld

Heat Treatment

-_-

Installation

-_-

-

---_--

 

-~~~-~--~~~~~~

 

Handling

-_----_-

--

-

~~~-----~~-~

Placing and Welding

--

--

--_--_--

---------

 

Hydrostatic

Test

-_-_-_-_--_--_----

 

----

Specifications

and Welding

Control

 

-

-_-_-

-

-_---_-

 

Specifications -

 

-

--_-

--------

Welding

Control

_-

-

-

-

Weld

Tests

 

-

---_-

----

-~~~~~~-~~

Corrosion

Control for Penstocks

--

-

-

-

-_-_---_-_

A

Selected

Bibliography

 

rnd

References

 

-

-

--------

Coder

and

Standards

 

--

--

-

-_----_

Appendix

-_----_---_-_-------

-

----

-_-

-

-_--

Absract

_---

-------_-

 

--

35

35

37

37

37

39

42

42

42

43

44

45

45

45

45

45

47

47

48

51

3 7 37 37 39 4 2 42 42 4 3 44 45 45 45 45

LIST OF FIGURES

2 42 42 4 3 44 45 45 45 45 45 47 47 48 51 LIST

Number

PSLW

1. The 30-foot-diameter

lower

Arizona

and Nevada penstock and

outlet

nels at Hoover

special penstock tunnels.

headers were installed

Dam.

in two

of the diversion

tun-

The upper headers were installed in

The tunnels were not backfilled

 

with the exception of the inclined portions

.

intake

towers

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

leading from the .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2. At

Anderson

Ranch Dam,

 

the

 

15-foot-diameter

penstock

 

and

 

outlet header were installed

 

tunnel,

 

which

was not backfilled

3. General plan and typical Glen Canyon Dam

.

.

.

in the diversion .

.

profile of 15’-O’-diameter .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

penstocks at

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

4. Mass concrete of Kortes Dam encased the g-foot-diameter pen- stocks, which were installed as the concrete was placed

5. The 15-foot-diameter in the concrete

penstocks at Shasta Dam were embedded

of the dam at the upstream

ends and were

exposed above ground between dam and powerplant

.

.

.

.

.

2

3

3

4

4

were embedded of the dam at the upstream ends and were exposed above ground between dam

CONTENTS

vii

CONTENTS v i i Numbo Pans 6. The full length of the %foot-diameter . Powerplant lies

Numbo

Pans

6.

The full

length of the %foot-diameter

.

Powerplant

lies above ground

.

 

.

.

penstock at Marys Lake .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

,

7.

Economic diameter

 

of steel penstocks when plate thickness is a

function

of

 

the head

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

8.

Economic diameter

 

of steel penstocks when plate thickness is a

function

of the

 

head

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

,

9.

Friction

losses in welded steel pipe based on Scobey’s formula

for

6-year-old pipe and nonaggressive

 

waters

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

.

10.

Losses for

various

 

values of 5

 

ratios

 

and deflection angles up

to900

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

11.

Head losses in 90° pipe bends as determined

for

various

R

ratios

5

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

12.

Loss coefficients for divided flow through

small tees and branch

 

outlets as determined

 

for various flow ratios

 

&a.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

Q

 

13.

Water-hammer

 

values for

 

uniform

 

gate motion

 

and complete

 

closure

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

14.

Equivalent

stress diagram

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

15.

A graphical illustration

 

of heads and stresses determined

 

for

the hydrostatic

 

testing

 

of the

 

Shasta penstocks

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

16.

The Shoshone River siphon crosses the river

 

on a 150-foot span

 

17.

Moments and deflections developed in a pipe precisely full,

 

using

various types of supports

 

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

 

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

18.

Formulae and coefficients for the computation

of stresses in ring

 

girders

as developed for

 

stiffener

 

ring

 

analyses

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

19.

20.

Formulae

and coefficients for the computation

girders

due to earthquake

loads

.

.

and column support

Typical ring girder

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

of stresses in ring . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

21.

Typical

rocker

support.

ment

during

grouting

 

The angle yoke is used only for .

.

.

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

aline-

.

.

.

.

.

22.

Typical

sleeve-type expansion joint

 

.

.

 

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

23.

Flexible sleeve-type expansion joint with

 

two stuffing boxes used

to permit

 

longitudinal

 

temperature

 

movement

and trans-

 

verse deflection

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

,

.

 

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

24.

Constant

the

diameter

diameter

 

bend with

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

.

the radius

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

of the bend five times .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

25.

Bend reducing in diameter

 

from

 

9 feet to 8 feet,

the

radius equal

to four

times the smaller

 

diameter

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

26.

Computation

method for determining

.

poundpipebend

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

true

.

.

.

.

 

pipe angle in a com- .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

27.

Loading

diagrams

 

for

 

the

 

development

 

of

 

reinforcement

 

of

branch outlets

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

.

 

.

.

 

.

 

.

.

.

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

28.

Loading

diagrams

 

for the development of reinforcement

of wye

 

branchesinpenstocks

 

29.

Typical

internal

 

and external

 

reinforcement

 

for a branch outlet

 

30.

Installation

of a piezometer

 

connection in shell of penstock for

10

11

11

15

16

18

20

21

22

23

24

25

25

25

26

27

28

29

30

32

turbine

performance

tests

33

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

21 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 turbine performance tests
21 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 turbine performance tests
V s i i CONTENTS Nwllbw 31. Typical manhole designed for inspection and maintenance  

Vsii

CONTENTS

Nwllbw

31.

Typical manhole designed for inspection and maintenance

 

.

.

.

.

.

32.

33.

34.

Typical

Resolution of forces on pipe anchors

Typical

monolithic

pier construction

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

concrete anchor

.

for rocker supports . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

34

36

37

36.

Shop

fabrication

of large diameter

penstock

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

,

.

.

38

36.

Shop

joints

are welded with

 

automatic

equipment

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

39

37.

Radiographic

inspection

 

of welds is performed

using portable

.

.

.

is accomplished by heating in an en-

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

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.

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.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

38.

X-ray

Postweld

equipment

.

heat treatment

closed furnace

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

40

42

39.

Transporting

large wye-branch

into

place

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

43

4G. Penstocks

being placed, showing temporary

support

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

43

41.

Penstocks installed

concrete

.

.

.

.

.

in Flaming

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Gorge Dam are encased in mass .

44

LIST OF TABLES

Number

1. Basic conditions

for including

 

the effects of water

 

hammer

 

in

 

the design of turbine

 

penstocks

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

,

.

.

13

2. Testing methods

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

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.

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.

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.

.

.

.

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.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

41

Report

on Welded

Steel

Penstocks

Report on Welded Steel Penstocks Introduction A penstock is the pressure conduit between the turbine upstream

Introduction

A penstock is the pressure

conduit

between

the turbine

upstream from the turbine. The open water

can be a surge tank, river, canal, free-flow

tunnel, or a reservoir.

to conserve safe to prevent

failure which would result in loss of life and

hydraulically

available head, and structurally

scrollcase and the first open water

Penstocks should be as

efficient

as practical

property.

many materials, but the strength and flexibil-

ity

pressure fluctuations met in turbine operation.

Penstocks

can

be

fabricated

of

of

steel make it best suited for

the range of

The

design

and

construction

of

pressure

vessels, such as penstocks, are governed by ap- propriate codes which prescribe safe rules and practices to be followed. Until a special pen- stock code is formulated, steel penstocks should be constructed in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels, issued by the Ameri- can Society of Mechanical Engineers, herein- after referred to as the ASME code. This code is subject to periodic revision to keep it abreast of new developments in the design, materials,

construction, and inspection of pressure vessels. Present design standards and construction practices were developed gradually, following the advent of welded construction, and are the result of improvements in the manufacture of welding-quality steels, in welding processes and procedures, and in inspection and testing of welds.

LOCATION

AND ARRANGEMENT

penstocks

will be determined by the type of dam, location

of intake and outlet works,

dam and powerplant, and method of river

diversion used during construction. At dams

tunnels for diversion of the river flow

relative location of

The location

and arrangement

of

requiring

during construction, the penstocks may be

diversion has been

discontinued and the intake of the tunnel has

been plugged.

the 30-foot lower Arizona

and outlet headers at Hoover Dam as shown in figure 1, and for the l&foot penstock header at Anderson Ranch Dam as shown in figure 2.

placed in the tunnels

after

This arrangement

was used for

and Nevada penstock

Anderson Ranch Dam as shown in figure 2. placed in the tunnels after This arrangement was
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet

POWER

PLANT

POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet
POWER PLANT FXGUXE l.-The SO-fooGdia?neter &now Arieona and Nevada penstock and outlet

FXGUXE

l.-The

SO-fooGdia?neter

&now

Arieona

and

Nevada

penstock

and

outlet

keadem

were

in&u&d

in

two

of

the

diversion

 

tunnels

at

Hoover

Dam.

The

upper

headere

were

installed

in

special

penstock

tunnels.

The

tunnels

were

not

backfilled

with

the

exception

of

the

inclined

portion

leading

from

the

intuke

tower.

backfilled with the exception of the inclined portion leading from the intuke tower.

WELDED STEELPENSTOCKS

3

Outlet

No

pipe

S----.

used to provide the required watertightness in the concrete and at the contraction joints. Figure 4 shows the g-foot penstocks which are embedded in Kortes Dam. Penstocks embedded in concrete dams, en- cased in concrete, or installed in tunnels back- filled with concrete may be designed to transmit some of the radial thrust due to internal water pressure to the surrounding concrete. More generally, such penstocks are designed to with- stand the full internal pressure. In either case,

the shell

provide the rigidity required during fabrica- tion and handling, and to serve as a form for the concrete. Embedded or buried penstock shells also should be provided with adequate stiffeners or otherwise designed to withstand

any anticipated external hydrostatic or grout- ing pressures. At Shasta Dam the upstream

of the 15-foot penstocks are embedded

in the dam, while the downstream

SECTION

P. I. Horimtol

Sta

bend---’ - El. 3810

1sto6.03

PLAN

Anderson Ranch Dam, the l&foot-d&am-

should

be

of

sufficient

thickness

to

FIWRE 2.-At

eter penstock and outlet header were installed in the diversion tunnel, which wae not backwed.

For low-head concrete dams, penstocks may be formed in the concrete of the dam. However, a steel lining is desirable to assure watertight- ness. In large concrete dams which have both transverse and longitudinal contraction joints, such as Glen Canyon Dam, steel penstocks are

portions

such as Glen Canyon Dam, steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks
such as Glen Canyon Dam, steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks

portions are

Glen Canyon Dam, steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan
Glen Canyon Dam, steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan

3. Outlet

Dam, steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and
Dam, steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and
Dam, steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and

popes

steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and typical
steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and typical
steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and typical
steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and typical
steel penstocks are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and typical

“-% Penstocks

are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and typical pro@ of I
are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and typical pro@ of I

PLAN

Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and typical pro@ of I s’-

are portions portions are 3. Outlet popes “-% Penstocks PLAN Fxeuavs.-G’ener~Jplan and typical pro@ of I
4 ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH NO. 3 -18’ Dia. air vent   FIGURE 4.-Mass concrete   of

4

ENGINEERING

MONOGRAPH

NO.

3

4 ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH NO. 3 -18’ Dia. air vent   FIGURE 4.-Mass concrete   of Kortes
4 ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH NO. 3 -18’ Dia. air vent   FIGURE 4.-Mass concrete   of Kortes

-18’ Dia.

air

vent

4 ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH NO. 3 -18’ Dia. air vent   FIGURE 4.-Mass concrete   of Kortes
 

FIGURE

4.-Mass

concrete

 

of Kortes

Dam

encased

 

the

g-foot-diameter

penstocks,

which

were

installed

as

the

concrete

was

placed.

 

FIGURE

S.-The

 

15-foot-diameter

 

pen-

stocks

at

Shasta

 

Dam

were

embedded

in

the

concrete

 

of

the

dam

at

the

up-

:Concrete

anchor

stream

end8

and

were

exposed

above

 

ground

between

dam

and

powerplant.

 

,-Main

unit

trashrack

‘--Penstock

oir

inlet

 

,-15-o”

Dia. main

I

unit

pensfocks

 

‘-Line

of

excavation

--I’

pensfocks   ‘-Line of excavation --I’ exposed above ground, between the dam and the powerplant, as

exposed above ground, between the dam and

the powerplant, as shown in figure 5. At other

of the penstock may

plants,

the entire

length

be situated

shows the %foot-diameter penstock at Marys Lake Powerplant.

above ground, as in figure 6, which

has two or more turbines

the question arises whether to use an individ-

ual penstock for

stock with

each turbine

units.

When a powerplant

a header

or

a single pen-

system to serve all

Considering only the economics of the penstock,

the single penstock with

usually be preferable; however, the cost of this item alone should not dictate the design.

Flexibility of operation should be given con-

sideration

tem the inspection or repair of the penstock

will require shutting down the entire plant. A

because with a single penstock sys-

a header system will

a header system requires

complicated branch connections and a valve

single penstock with

WELDED STEELPENSTOCKS

5

WELDED STEELPENSTOCKS 5 TYPICAL SECTION AT SUPPORT FIGURH B.-The full length of the d-foot-diameter pen- stock

TYPICAL SECTION AT SUPPORT

FIGURH B.-The

full length of the d-foot-diameterpen-

stock at Marys Lake Poweqdant

lies above ground.

ECONOMIC

STUDIES

a

turbine with the least possible loss of head

consistent with the overall economy of installa-

tion. An economic study

from a monetary standpoint, but the final di- ameter should be determined from combined engineering and monetary considerations. An

example would be an installation where

economic diameter would require the use of a surge tank for regulation, but a more economi- cal overall installation might be obtained by using a penstock considerably larger than the economic diameter, resulting in the elimination of the surge tank.

Voetsch and Fresen (1) l present a method of determining the economic diameter of a pen-

A penstock is designed to carry

water

to

will size a penstock

the

 

stock.

Figure

7

was

derived

from

their

to isolate each turbine.

Also, the trashracks

method,

and figure

8 is an example

of