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PREPOZITIA

Este de trei feluri:

- de loc - de miscare - de timp

1. Prepozitia de loc
Se foloseste cu verbe statice: to be/to stay/to exist/to stand, etc. in in, la, pentru spatii mari Ex: I live in Bucharest.

at in, la, pentru spatii reduse Ex: I live at Sinaia. within in cadrul, pentru suprafete restranse Ex: A lot of words have been said within these walls. against rezemat impotriva Ex: The man is against the wall. Ex: We are against them.

on pe (pozitia pe o suprafata) Ex: The book is on the table. Pentru apropiere: - imediata: next to, close to, beside - apropiere: near, near by, by Pozitia pe verticala: over deasupra under dedesubt (fara raportare la un punct fix)

above deasupra below dedesubt (cu raportare la un punct fix) Ex: above zero, below the water level underneath punctul cel mai de jos on top of punctul cel mai de sus (prin atingere) Ex: The green book is underneath. (este cea mai de jos carte) Pozitia pe orizontala: in front of in fata behind in spate (pentru lucruri pentru a indica pozitia) Ex: The tree is in front of the house. after dupa before inainte (pentru oameni, pentru a indica ordinea) Ex: Im before you at the queue. (to queue = a se aseza la coada) between intre 2 among printre (mai mult de 2)

2. Prepozitia de miscare

se foloseste numai cu verbe de miscare to la, catre (pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go to school.

towards la, catre (nu pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go towards office. Into in (pp patrunderea intr-un spatiu) Ex: Put the bag into the house.

Onto pe (pp miscarea pe o suprafata orizontala;se pune ondaca sta)The cat is running onto the floor. along de-a lungul (pp miscarea pe o suprafata plana si lunga) Ex: Im walking along the beech. through prin (pp traversare si patrundere) Ex: I walk through the park. across traversare (nu si patrundere) about prin (arata o miscare nedefinita) around in jurul (pp o miscare circulara) out of pp iesirea dintr-un volum off pp desprinderea de o suprafata Ex: I run across the street. Ex: I walk about town (prin oras, fara un tel precis) Ex: I dance around the fire. Ex: Get out of my house. Ex: The plane takes off.

up-and-down in sus si in jos pe un plan vertical Ex: The children run up-and-down the stairs. from de la, de pe, din Ex: Take it from my bag.

past langa (pp apropierea imediata prin miscare) Ex: I drive past the university (si nu near the university!, pt ca sunt in miscare)

3. Prepozitia de timp
in pentru ani, lunile anului, anotimpuri, perioade ale vietii (in my childhood), in anumite momente ale zilei (in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening) at pentru ora (at 10 oclock), in anumite momente ale zilei (at noon, at midday, at midnight, at dusk), pentru varsta (at the age of 15), mesele zilei (at lunch time), cu week-end (at the week-end) si in sarbatori (at Christmas) on cu zilele saptamanii (on Sunday), data (on the 15th of June) si sarbatorile (on Christmas day cand este vorba de ziua de Craciun, nu de toata perioada) before si after inainte si dupa, cu raportare la un punct fix by nu mai tarziu de Ex: Try to arrive by ten. during in timpul over in timpul, dar pe perioade scurte Ex: Read it over the week-end.

throughout / althrough de-a lungul, dar pe o prioada lunga de timp Ex: Althrough the years. Diferentiere intre prepozitii in time cu ceva timp inainte on time la fix

in the end finally, in cele din urma in pentru ceva cu care esti imbracat Ex: A woman in trousers. as pentru rol, functie, pozitie Ex: I work as a teacher. (I am a teacher) on in legatura cu, folosit academic Ex: Give me a book on Economics. due to datorita (doar dupa to be) Ex: My success is due to her.

at the end la capatul (urmeaza un substantiv) with pentru o trasatura fizica A woman with long hair. like pentru comparatie Ex: I talk like a teacher. (I am an engineer) about despre Ex: Lets talk about sex. owing to datorita (restul inafara de to be) Ex: Owing to my work I succeeded.

over across pp traversarea peste un obstacol traversare pe jos Ex: Im over the ocean. (cu avionul) Ex: Im across the ocean. (cu barca) despite dupa urmeaza CD (niciodata sub.) Ex: Despite the bad weather I left. in spite of dupa urmeaza genitiv Ex: In spite of the bad weather I left.

made of recunosc materialul Ex: made of gold made from deduc ceva elemente Ex: the cake is made from cocoa made with recunosc 1 element Ex: a chocolate made with milk (dar laptele nu este elementul de baza) in in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening at at dawn, at midnight on pentru orice moment al zilei atunci cand exista un atribut Ex: In the morning At night dar On a fine day dar On a starry night

Pentru mijloace de locomotie by cu orice mijloc de transport, daca nu este determinat Ex: by car, by bus, by plane (dar on foot!) in pentru autovehicule, daca sunt determinate Ex: in my fathers car, in the car that you bought me on pentru toate celelalte in afara de autovehicule daca sunt determinate Ex: on my fathers plane, on the tube/subway/underground