\

=
= =
inv
i
i
S
i i
inv L S
i
c i
i
R
v
i
C C
i i i
C
i
dt
dv 1
(5)
where, v
i
/R
i
represents dielectric losses in capacitor C
i
. The
next stage of the proposed energy conversion link is a single
phase high frequency quasisquare wave controlled inverter.
In this inverter circuit, controlled switches are labeled as S
1
,
S
2
, S
3
, and S
4
. When either pair of switches S
1
S
2
or S
3
S
4
is
ON, the mathematical equation for inverter current (i
inv
) is
expressed as:
( )
p inv
inv p inv inv i
inv
L L
i R i R v
dt
di
+
=
(6)
When neither pair of switches S
1
S
2
or S
3
S
4
is ON, the
inverter current flows through the antiparallel diodes. In this
case, Equation (6) changes to represent the dynamics of the
inverter circuit. The new dynamic equation is given below:
( )
p inv
inv p inv inv i
inv
L L
i R i R v
dt
di
+
=
(7)
If neither pair (S
1
S
2
or S
3
S
4
) of switches is ON and the
inverter current (i
inv
) becomes negative, its derivative (di
inv
/dt)
is set to zero to represent inverter dynamics.
The quasisquare wave switching signals for a singlephase
inverter are generated by comparing a high frequency (20
kHz) sinusoidal wave with a signal corresponding to the peak
supply voltage (V
s
), which is computed using:
( )
2 2 2
3
2
sc sb sa s
v v v V + + =
(8)
When switching signals for quasisquare wave inverter are
obtained by comparing representative of V
s
with the 20 kHz
sinusoidal signals, a feed forward control of singlephase high
frequency inverter is obtained. Also, for the multiple loop
control system, the high frequency sinusoidal signal is
compared with a signal voltage (V
c
= f(V
s
, V
L
)) consisting of a
weight function obtained from peak supply voltage and peak
of load voltage (V
L
). The peak load voltage is computed as
below:
( )
2 2 2
3
2
Lc Lb La L
v v v V + + =
(9)
If the instantaneous value of the 20 kHz sinusoidal wave is
greater than the peak control voltage (V
c
= f(V
s
, V
L
)),
switches S
1
S
2
are turned on. If the instantaneous value of
negated sinusoidal wave is greater than the peak control
voltage (V
c
= f(V
s
, V
L
)), switches S
3
S
4
are turned on.
In Equations (6) and (7), R
inv
i
inv
represents losses in the
singlephase quasisquare wave inverter, and R
P
and L
P
are
transformer leakage resistance and inductance, respectively.
When the switches S
1
S
2
are either currently ON or have
just turned OFF, the primary transformer current is the same
as the inverter input current. When the switches S
3
S
4
are either
currently ON or have just turned OFF, the primary
transformer current is the negated inverter input current. The
current appearing at the secondary side of the high frequency
transformer is represented by the product of the turn ratio and
the primary current. The output of the transformer feeds a
singlephase diode rectifier, which is the second intermediate
stage in the proposed energy conversion link. The
mathematical equation of the rectified voltage at the output of
singlephase diode rectifier is represented as:
dc
inv
inv
dc
dc
C
i
R
v
i
dt
dv
2
2
sec
=
(10)
where, i
inv2
is the input current of the threephase DCAC
inverter. The quantity, v
dc
/R
inv2
, represents dielectric loss in the
inverter capacitor C
dc
. The input current of the threephase
inverter can be expressed in terms of the switching states (SA,
SB, SC) and output currents of the inverter (
La
i' ,
Lb
i' , and
Lc
i' ).
Lc Lb La inv
i SC i SB i SA i ' + ' + ' =
2
(11)
The final stage of the high frequency link is the three
phase inverter with the following mathematical equations:
f
Lc Lc f c
Lc
f
Lb Lb f b
Lb
f
La La f a
La
L
v i R e
dt
i d
L
v i R e
dt
i d
L
v i R e
dt
i d
'
=
'
'
=
'
'
=
'
(12)
In Equation (12), v
La,Lb,Lc
are the three phase voltages at
PCC, i'
La,Lb,Lc
are the threephase output currents from the
inverter, and e
a,b,c
are the three phase PWM voltages at the
inverter pole points a, b, and c. The PWM voltages at the
inverter pole points could be expressed in terms of the
inverters DC bus voltage and switching states (SA, SB, SC)
as follows:
) 2 (
3
) 2 (
3
) 2 (
3
SC SB SA
v
e
SC SB SA
v
e
SC SB SA
v
e
dc
c
dc
b
dc
a
+ =
+ =
=
(13)
The switching states (SA, SB, and SC) are generated by
comparing a threephase 60 Hz sinusoidal wave
( )
* * *
and , ,
Lc Lb La
v v v
to a triangular carrier wave. The magnitude
of this 60 Hz sinusoidal wave is generated from a PI
controller. The input to the PI controller are the peak value of
the actual, V
L
(Equation 9), and reference, V
L
*
, load voltages.
The threephase unit magnitude sinusoidal signal is multiplied
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with the PI controller output to obtain the threephase
reference load voltages
( )
* * *
and , ,
Lc Lb La
v v v
.
The derivative of the threephase load voltages at the point
of common coupling (PPC) is computed from the unfiltered
( )
Lc Lb La
i
, ,
' and filtered (i
La,Lb,Lc
) output currents as stated below.
( )
( )
( )
Lc Lc
f
Lc
Lb Lb
f
Lb
La La
f
La
i i
C dt
dv
i i
C dt
dv
i i
C dt
dv
' =
' =
' =
1
1
1
(14)
Finally, these filtered output currents (i
La
, i
Lb
, and i
Lc
),
which are also load currents, can be determined from the
voltages at PCC and load parameters. Mathematical equations
for load currents (i
La
, i
Lb
, and i
Lc
) are given below:
L
Lc L Lc Lc
L
Lb L Lb Lb
L
La L La La
L
i R v
dt
di
L
i R v
dt
di
L
i R v
dt
di
=
(15)
In Equation (15), parameters R
L
and L
L
represent the three
phase load at the output of the highfrequency ACAC
converter link.
IV. CONTROL SYSTEMDETAILS
To accomplish a regulated 60 Hz sinusoidal voltage at the
output of the proposed link, the high frequency singlephase
inverter at the intermediate stage must be controlled into
quasisquare mode. To control switches S
1
, S
2
, S
3
, and S
4
,
quasisquare switching signals are generated. The duration of
ON period of the quasisquare switching signal depends upon
the peak magnitude of the source voltages (v
an
, v
bn
, and v
cn
).
Therefore, for lower value of the source voltages (v
an
, v
bn
, and
v
cn
), the ON period is higher, and for higher value of the
source voltages (v
an
, v
bn
, and v
cn
), the ON period is kept lower.
However, switching frequency of the quasisquare signal is
maintained at 20 kHz, which results in a reduced size of the
isolation transformer. The control of the ON period of quasi
square wave switching signal ensures a regulated voltage at
the input of threephase fourpole inverter, which is placed at
the output stage of the proposed energy conversion link.
Therefore, for changing values of voltage v
i
, the voltage v
dc
remains well within a desired range, resulting in a regulated
voltage at the output of the proposed link. Also, for changing
values of load currents (i
La
, i
Lb
, and i
Lc
), the quasisquare
control function should also depend upon the peak value of
output voltage (v
La
, v
Lb
, v
Lc
). Therefore, feed forward control
of the high frequency quasisquare singlephase inverter
exhibits two loops. The first loop depends upon the peak value
of the input voltages (v
sa
, v
sb
, and v
sc
), and the second loop
depends upon the output load voltages (v
La
, v
Lb
, v
Lc
). Though
not confirmed by results, as we are in a preliminary stage of
our research investigation, the second control loop, which is
based on the output load voltages (v
La
, v
Lb
, v
Lc
), is anticipated
to provide fast compensation for desired rise and fall in the
currents (i
La
, i
Lb
, and i
Lc
) for dynamic loads and/or any
combination of dynamic, static, and grid loads connected at
the output of the proposed link. The output stage of the
proposed link is controlled using 60 Hz threephase sinusoidal
modulating voltages and a 5 kHz carrier signal. Comparison
of the modulating voltages with a 5 kHz carrier signal
generates switching signals for the inverter devices (SW
1
,
SW
2
, SW
3
, SW
4
, SW
5
, and SW
6
).
V. MERITS OF ENERGY CONVERSION
The high frequency energy conversion link exhibits
numerous advantages. These are (a) improved power quality,
because current and voltage harmonics are of higher order and
can be easily filtered out, (b) higher frequency power
transformers become smaller, (c) smaller transformers lead to
lower power losses and lower temperature rise, (d) capacitors
needed to smooth out DC voltage are smaller at high
frequency, for example, capacitor at DC bus of output stage
inverter is chosen to be only 10uF, (e) energy storage devices
can be easily connected with the proposed high frequency
link, thereby increasing the reliability of the microgrid and
distributed energy system.
VI. SIMULATION RESULTS
The MATLAB schematic to obtain simulation results of
the proposed energy conversion system is shown in Fig. 2.
Figs. 3 and 4 show the startup response of the ACAC
energy conversion link. Fig. 3 relates to the quasisquare
inverters modulating frequency to be 60Hz, whereas, Fig.4
pertains to 20 kHz modulation frequency of quasisquare
inverter. A quick comparison of the results provided in these
figures reveals that the proposed ACAC conversion link
offers superior performance at high frequency. At high
frequency charging is quite fast due to substantially reduced
values of passive elements (inductors and capacitors). Also,
transformer parameters are much smaller due to substantially
reduced size of the transformer core and winding length.
Therefore, it is anticipated that with the multi loop control
system, the proposed high frequency energy conversion link
will quickly regulate the output voltage and frequency for
changing load currents drawn by static and dynamic loads.
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0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
100
50
0
50
100
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
400
200
0
200
400
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
100
50
0
50
100
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
0
200
400
600
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
0
500
1000
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
500
250
0
250
500
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
200
100
0
100
200
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
20
10
0
10
20
Time(s)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
Fig. 3. Startup response of ACAC energy conversion system at 60Hz
operating frequency of quasisquare wave inverter; (a) input stage voltage for
phase a (van), (b) input stage phase a current (isa), (c) DC bus voltage (vi) at
output of front end rectifier, (d) voltage (vhf) across secondary winding of
transformer, (e) current (ihf) coming off secondary winding of transformer, (f)
DC bus voltage (vdc) voltage of output stage inverter, (g) threephase load
voltages (vLa, vLb, and vLc) at output stage, and (h) threephase load currents
(iLa, iLb, and iLc) at output stage
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
400
200
0
200
400
Time (s)
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
40
20
0
20
40
Time (s)
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01
50
25
0
25
50
Time (s)
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
200
0
200
400
600
800
Time (s)
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
0
200
400
600
Time (s)
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01
1000
500
0
500
1000
Time (s)
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
400
200
0
200
400
Time (s)
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
40
20
0
20
40
Time (s)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
Fig. 4. Startup response of ACAC energy conversion system at 20 kHz
operating frequency of quasisquare wave inverter; (a) input stage voltage for
phase a (van), (b) input stage phase a current (isa), (c) DC bus voltage (vi) at
output of front end rectifier, (d) voltage (vhf) across secondary winding of
transformer, (e) current (ihf) coming off secondary winding of transformer, (f)
DC bus voltage (vdc) voltage of output stage inverter, (g) threephase load
voltages (vLa, vLb, and vLc) at output stage, and (h) threephase load currents
(iLa, iLb, and iLc) at output stage
VII. CONCLUSION
The proposed high frequency ACAC (ACDCACDC
AC) energy conversion link has been investigated for its
possible deployment in the distributed energy resource
management. The proposed concept has been simulated in
MATLAB with four different operating frequencies (60 Hz,
600 Hz, 6 kHz, and 20 kHz) of the quasisquare inverter.
However, results only for 60Hz and 20 kHz have been
reported. A systematic investigation approach we adopted to
start from 60Hz and reach 20 kHz operating frequency has
resulted in a quite accurate mathematical model and control
system of the proposed energy conversion link. A detailed
mathematical model of all parts of the proposed energy
vhf
vLa,b,c
i hf
iLa,b,c
Vdc
Van, i sa
+

v
+

v
+

v
+

v +

v
+

v
Vdc+
Vdc 
G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G6
Pole_A
Pole_B
Pole_C
Pole_N
Threephase fourpole
DCAC Inverter
A_in
B_in
C_in
G1
G2
G3
G4
Pole1
Pole2
Si xpulse Rectifier & Singlephase
High Frequency Inverter
AIn
BIn
DC+
DC
Si ngl e Phase
Recti fier
>=
>=
K
Quasi Square Inverter
Output Vol tage Control
QuasiSquare Inverter
Frequency Control
Mux
Mux
Mux
High Frequency
Transformer
K
G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G6
Control System for 3Phase FourPole Inverter
+
i

+
i

+
i

+
i

+
i

Fig. 2. MATLAB schematic of developed simulation model of high frequency energy conversion system
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conversion link has been outlined including the multi loop
control scheme of the proposed energy conversion system and
simulated results are presented to establish the concept of a
high frequency conversion link applied to distributed energy
resource management.
VIII. REFERENCES
[1] P. T. Krein, X. Geng, and R. Balog, Highfrequency link inverter based
on multiplecarrier PWM, in Proc. 2002 IEEE Applied Power
Electronics Conf., pp. 9971003.
[2] I. Yamato, N. Tokunaga, Y. Matsuda, Y. Suzuki, and H. Amaro, High
frequency link DCAC converter for UPS with a new voltage clamper,
in Proc. 1990 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., pp. 749756.
[3] I. Yamato and N. Tokunaga, Power loss reduction techniques for three
phase high frequency link DCAC converter, in Proc. 1993 IEEE
Power Electronics Specialists Conf., pp. 663668.
[4] A. K. S. Bhat and S. B. Dewan, A novel utility interfaced high
frequency link photovoltaic power conditioning system, IEEE Trans.
Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 153159, Feb. 1988.
[5] P. K. Sood and T. A. Lipo, Power conversion distribution system using
a highfrequency AC link, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol.
24, no. 2, pp. 288300, March/April 1988.
[6] P. K. Sood, T. A. Lipo, and I. G. Hansen, A versatile power converter
for highfrequency link systems, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics,
vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 383390, October 1988.
[7] K. Tazume, T. Aoki, and T. Yamashita, Novel method for controlling a
highfrequency link inverter using cycloconverter techniques, in Proc.
1998 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., pp. 497502.
[8] M. Z. Ramli, Z. Salam, L. S. Toh, and C. L. Nge, A bidirectional high
frequency link inverter using centertapped transformer, in Proc. 2004
IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., pp. 38833888.
[9] Y. J. Song and P. N. Enjeti, A high frequency link direct DCAC
converter for residential fuel cell power systems, in Proc. 2004 IEEE
Power Electronics Specialists Conf., pp. 47554761.
IX. BIOGRAPHIES
Maryclaire Peterson (SM2003) was born in New Orleans, LA on March
30, 1981. She obtained a BS in Computer Engineering and an MS in
Computer Science from Tulane University, New Orleans, LA in 2003 and
2004 respectively.
In 2004, she joined the Ph.D program in Electrical Engineering at Tulane
University in the area of power electronics, renewable energy systems, and
control systems. In 2001, she joined the Army Corps of Engineerings, New
Orleans District as a Computer Science intern where she currently works in
the area of software development.
Brij N. Singh (M1992) was born at Shahpur Charki, UP, India on October
18, 1968. He has obtained BE Electrical Engineering from Madan Mohan
Malviya Engineering College, Gorakhpur, UP, India, ME Electrical
Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India,
and Ph.D. Electrical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
India in 1989, 1991, and 1996, respectively.
In 1996, he joined Department of Electrical Engineering, Quebec
University, Montreal, Canada as a Post Doctoral Fellow to work in the area of
Power Quality, Active Filters, and FACTS. In 1999, he joined Department of
Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal,
Canada as an associate researcher to work on power supplies for
telecommunication systems, computers, and electronic gadgets. In 2000, he
joined Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Tulane
University, New Orleans as an Assistant Professor. His area of research
includes power electronics, renewable energy systems, computational
intelligence, materials and sensors.
Dr. Singh is a member of several IEEE societies and a lifetime member
of IEEE Industrial Electronics and Power Electronics societies.
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