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# ECE Formulas and Equations

## Name/Description Ohm's Law

Formula / Equation
V = IR; I = V/R; R=V/I where V and I are respectively the voltage across and current through a resistor with resistance R; P = VI = I2R = V2/R where P is the power dissipated Resistors in Series: Reff = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... + RN Resistors in Parallel: 1/Reff = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + ... + 1/RN Capacitors in Series: 1/Ceff = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 + ... + 1/CN Capacitors in Parallel: Ceff = C1 + C2 + C3 + ... + CN Inductors in Series: Leff = L1 + L2 + L3 + ... + LN Inductors in Parallel: 1/Leff = 1/L1 + 1/L2 + 1/L3 + ... + 1/LN C = q/V; q = CV; V=q/C where V and q are respectively the voltage across and charge in a capacitor with capacitance C; v = 1/C idt; i = C dv/dt where i is the current through the capacitor and v is the voltage across the capacitor i = 1/L vdt; v = L di/dt where i is the current through the inductor and v is the voltage across the inductor hfe = ic / ib; hFE = Ic / Ib where hfe/hFE are the ac and dc forward current transfer ratios, resp., ic and Ic are the ac and dc collector currents, ib and Ib are the ac and dc base currents; Gm = ic / Vbe where Gm is the mutual conductance, ic is the ac signal collector-emitter current, and vbe is the base-emitter voltage; note: voltage gain G = Gm x Rload hie = hfe / Gm where hie is the input resistance, which also equals the base input voltage divided by the base current Vp = Vpo + Vgs where Vgs is the gate-source voltage, Vp is the drain-source voltage that causes pinch off, Vpo is the drain-source voltage at which saturation begins when Vgs = 0; BVds = BVdso + Vgs where BVds is the breakdown voltage and BVdso is the breakdown voltage when Vgs = 0 NMOS: Vds = Vgs + Vth; PMOS: Vsd = Vsg - Vth; where Vds and Vsd are the drain-source and source-drain voltages needed for pinch-off, resp., Vgs and Vsg are the gate-source and source-gate voltages, and Vth is the MOSFET's threshold voltage A B = A + B; A + B = A B where A and B are digital logic states

Capacitance

Inductance

## Bipolar Transistor Formulas

JFET Formulas

MOSFET Formulas

de Morgan's Theorem

Inductive Reactance

X = 2 fL where X is the inductive reactance, L is the inductance, and f is the frequency of the signal; v = X Icos2 ft where v is the voltage across an inductance L if a sinusoidal current i = I sin 2 ft is passed through it, where I and f are the amplitude and frequency of the current, resp. Note: In an inductance, current lags the voltage by 90 deg. X = 1 / (2 fC) where X is the capacitive reactance, C is

Capacitive Reactance

the capacitance, and f is the frequency of the signal; i = Vcos2 ft/X where i is the current through an capacitance C if a sinusoidal voltage v = V sin 2 ft is applied across it, where V and f are the amplitude and frequency of the voltage, resp. Note: In a capacitance, the voltage lags the current by 90 deg.