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CNR 23-01-09

CONSTRUCTION NORMS AND REGULATIONS OF MONGOLIA CLIMATE AND GEOPHYSICAL EVIDENCE/PARAMETERS FOR CONSTRUCTION
Effective from the 1st of July, 2009 1. GENERAL REGULATION

1.1. The present construction code (norms and regulations) shall be followed to develop and redevelop (renew) master and partial plans of the capital city, regional main centers and sub-centers, soums, settlements/localities and other urban development of Mongolia, environmental assessments, engineering investigations, feasibility studies and structural design works. 1.2. Climate and geophysical parameters which are not included in the code shall be obtained from the Institution or Agency for Meteorology, Hydrology and Environment Monitoring. 1.3. When designing a building in new area and in newly acquired land, designer shall obtain the basic parameters from the nearest meteorological station or observation post and design parameters from the relevant authority. 2. BASIC CLIMATE PARAMETERS

2.1. Design ambient air temperature to be used in the design of building and structures 2.1.1. Average monthly, annual and multi-annual ambient air temperatures of cities, soums and other settlements shall be taken from Table 1. 2.1.2. Design temperature values to be used in the design and calculations for construction shall be selected as per Tables 4 to 7. 2.1.3. Long time series of meteorological station data for 25 70 year design temperature shall be calculated by a linear equation using shorter time series of station/post data values for 10 25 year according to the methodology. The parameters shall be selected as per Table A. Design ambient air temperature to be used in the design and calculations for construction in an area where any meteorological station doesnt exist or climate and geophysical parameters are indefinite shall be determined by following formulae, repeatedly examining characteristics of the local climate. The formulae include: a. Average temperature of the coldest 5 days (1) b. Average temperature of the coldest day (2)

CNR 23-01-09 c. Average temperature of the coldest 3 days (3) d. Design temperature of ventilation system (4) e. Average daily temperature during the warmest period (5) Where: average multi-annual temperature of the coldest month (January in Mongolia) , , and regional constants of design temperature to be dependent on the local specificity. The region where the locality belongs to shall be correctly selected by a detailed examination. The constant value for the region shall be selected as per Table A. average multi-annual temperature of the warmest month (July in Mongolia) Table A Values of Regions I , II , and III IV

See the original text in Mongolian

2.2.

Air/atmospheric humidity and precipitation

2.2.1. Parameters of air humidity and precipitation shall be taken from Table 9. 2.2.2. Designer shall follow Instructions on thunder protection design for buildings and structures /CR 43-103-08/ and use the wind, snow and temperature loads in accordance with Loads and actions /CNR 2.01.07-90/ and the construction moisture region as per Figure 13. 2.2.3. Rainfall on (or wetting of) vertical surfaces of buildings shall be applied as per Table 10. 2.3. Wind

2.3.1. Parameters of direction frequency of winds occur in April peak windy season, average speeds of wind directions, average monthly and annual wind speeds shall be taken from Tables 16 and 17. Maximum design wind speed and wind pressure shall be used as per Table C considering correspondence to figure of the relevant region.

CNR 23-01-09 2.4. Sunshine and sun rays

2.4.1. Parameters of sunshine in Mongolia as well as horizontal rays and direct and compound rays on building walls shall be selected as per Tables 11 to 13. 2.5. Design parameters (enthalpy) of ambient air

2.5.1. Design parameters (enthalpy) of ambient air to be used in calculations for ventilation and heating technics for construction in urban and settled areas shall be selected by each A, B and C parameters of cold and warm seasons in a year as provided in Table 8. 2.5.2. If there is no enthalpy parameter applicable to the area, it shall be obtained from a scientific and research institute for meteorology and hydrology. 2.5.3. Air/atmospheric pressure shall be applied as per Table 8. 3. GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS

3.1. Soil surface temperature by month and year shall be selected as shown in Table 18. 3.2. Monthly and annual soil temperature in depth of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.4 and 3.2m shall be used as per Table 19. 3.3. Penetration (rate) of -30C to +25C in depth of ground, parameter of 0C soil temperature, penetrating period of -30C to +25C in particular depth and number of warmer days shall be applied as per Tables 20 to 22. 3.4. Normative depth of freezing and thawing in cities, soums and other settlements shall be taken from Table 23. 4. CLIMATE ZONES AND REGIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION PLANNING IN MONGOLIA

4.1. Figure 16 in which climate zones to be used in construction design and planning are shown shall be applied to the design of various functions of buildings, structures and technologies. 4.2. Interpretation to the figure of climate zoning for construction is shown in Table B. 4.3. The number of climatic region in which the city, soum or settlement belongs to shall be adopted as per column 7 in Table 5. 4.4. Tables 1 to 18 show summary of applicable division into climatic regions and distribution map to be used as basic and additional/optional parameters for construction, technical and technological purpose. 4.5. Figure 8 shows division into 4 regions of firing/heating period observed in Mongolia. The division into regions and their design and normative parameters shall be used in quantity estimation and normalization of heating technics, fuels

CNR 23-01-09 and heating components. Also Table 7 shall be used for the particular city, soum or settlement. 4.6. In addition to rainfall and total precipitation parameters, maximum intensity distributions shown in Figure 9 and wetting rate of vertical surfaces of building (range/rate of making a vertical surface of building wet) shown in Table 10 shall be used in the construction design as well as engineering systems/networks. 4.7. Harsh winter and severe climate condition, in other words winds and minimum temperature observed in Mongolia have direct impacts on technologies and human activities. Figure 11 and its parameters shall be used/considered in Mongolia. Figure 12 and its regional parameters shall be applied to design and planning works as well as problem solving for mitigation of human being bioclimatic and weather conditions, proper utilization of resources, tourism, recreations and sanatoriums and other health-related activities. 4.8. When calculating heating technics for construction and assessing microclimate conditions in operating period of construction, division into regions by moisture/humidity which is calculated for construction using design parameters of ambient air shall be applied. Air/atmospheric humidity for construction in Mongolia shall be taken into account using the division into regions as well as the parameters shown in Figure 13. 4.9. Design and planning works to prevent buildings, structures, cities, soums, settlements and people from lightning/thunders shall be developed using Climate map for thunders (Figure 14) and parameters in it. 4.10. Figure 15 in which regions divided by occurring frequency and quantity of deposits/moraines/sleets, glaciations and hoar (hoarfrosts) are shown shall be applied to the design of buildings and power, communication and other aerial lines in Mongolia as well as their operations and protections. 4.11. Properly locating and positioning buildings and structures within construction planning and architectural design in Mongolia is a critical factor of urban development. For this reason, parameters shown in Figure 17 which is a diagram, executed by complex climate method, assists to select proper locations of buildings and structures and Figure 19 which is a solar latitude diagram shall be applied. 4.12. Climatic regions of soil freezing and thawing in Mongolia (Figure 18) and its parameters shall be applied to select locations of founding structures of buildings, drains and water supply systems and sewerage systems, design underground and ground buildings and structures and plan and carry out quarry and topsoil removal works etc.

CNR 23-01-09 4.13. Figures 19 and 21 to 28 shall be applied to calculations including construction locations, master plans of cities and regions, regional plans and heating technics for buildings. 4.14. Metal components and preventions of them from atmospheric corrosion shall be based on Figure 20. 4.15. Calculations of water collection (catchment) on roads, bridges, dams and roofs shall be based on Figure 29 and calculations of snow load on roofs and horizontal surfaces of buildings shall be based on Figure 30. Figure 31 shall be applied to calculations of heating technics and strength analysis of buildings and structures. Note: 1. Design temperature for buildings and structures to be constructed in Ulaanbaatar shall be -37C, average temperature of the coldest 5 days. 2. As for construction moisture, Mongolia shall be considered as a dry zone and Figure 13 shall be applied to design, scientific research and testing works.

Maximum design wind speeds of each regions, m/s Regions Altitude, m Wind speed occurs once a year

Once every 5 years

Once every 10 years

Once every 20 years

CNR 23-01-09

CNR 23-01-09

Tables and Figures

CNR 23-01-09

Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. General regulation Basic climate parameters Geophysical parameters Climate zones and regions for construction planning in Mongolia Table 1. Average monthly and annual ambient air temperatures Table 2. Absolute maximum ambient air temperature Table 3. Absolute minimum ambient air temperature Table 4. Daily mean and absolute maximum ambient air temperatures Table 5. Design temperatures to be used in constructions and technologies

10. Table 6. Parameters of design temperature supply for buildings and technics during winter time 11. 12. 13. Table 7. Design parameters of firing/heating period Table 8. Design parameter (enthalpy) of ambient air Table 9. Atmospheric humidity and precipitation amounts

14. Table 9a. Pressure of water vapor in the ambient air (water vapor pressure of the ambient air) 15. Table 10. Wetting rate of building walls (vertical surfaces) due to rainfall (rate of rainfall (wetting) on vertical surface of buildings) 16. Table 11. Average multi-annual monthly sums of sunshine duration

17. Table 12. Average monthly and annual compound sun rays on horizontal surfaces of buildings 18. Table 13. Average monthly and annual compound sun rays on building walls (vertical surfaces) 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Table 14. Direct sun rays on horizontal surfaces of buildings Table 15. Direct sun rays on building walls (vertical surface) Table 16. Frequency of wind direction and windless period Table 17. Average monthly and annual wind speed Table 18. Average monthly soil surface temperature

CNR 23-01-09 24. Table 19. Average monthly soil temperature

25. Table 20. Amount/rate and period of penetration of 0, 10, 15, 20 and 30C into the ground 26. Table 21. Parameter of 0C soil temperature

27. Table 22. Penetrating period of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30C into the particular depth of the ground and the number of warmer days than the values 28. Table 23. Normative depth of seasonal freezing and thawing of soil frosts which is determined from multi-annual climate resources of urban and settled areas 29. Climate maps and diagrams applicable to (to be applied to) buildings, structures and technologies