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Craig L.

Stiegemeier, ABB TRES North America Technology & Marketing Director, February 2009

NRECA TechAdvantage 2009 Substation Transformer Maintenance Best Practices / Condition Based Actions
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 1

Power Transmission & Distribution Products Scope of Power Equipment Services

Transformers >70% of installed power transformers are ABB legacy Risk assessment and life extension Advanced diagnostics and testing Factory repair and remanufacturing High Voltage Breakers Support capability for 60-70% of installed base Refurbishment and retrofit Advanced diagnostics radiography and SF6 leak detection Low- and Medium-Voltage Switchgear Over 1 million breakers in service in US Refurbishment, retrofit, roll-in replacement breakers Protection & Control assessment and upgrades
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 2

ABB Transformers Worldwide Global Experience Local Support

Consistently high-quality transformers available from many factories world-wide The combined experience of 700 years of transformer manufacturing Asea Ansaldo BBC GE, USA & CA Kuhlman Moloney EB/National Industri Strmberg Westinghouse And more .... The worlds largest transformer manufacturer More than 6 billion USD revenues worldwide in 2008 More than 15,000 employees >200,000 MVA per year in Power Transformers >400,000 MVA per year in Distribution Transformers >50 Factories in 28 countries Service support teams available 24 hours a day
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 3

World Map ABB Transformer Factories 2009

Norway Steinkjer Norway Drammen Ireland Waterford Canada Edmonton Canada Quebec City Canada Varennes USA South Boston USA Bland USA - Jefferson City USA St Louis USA Alamo USA Crystal Springs Egypt 10th of Ramadan Saudi Arabia Riyadh India Baroda Spain Cordoba China Shanghai China Zhongshan Vietnam Hanoi Thailand Bangkok Switzerland Geneve Spain Bilbao Spain Zaragosa Switzerland Zurich Germany Brilon Germany Bad Honnef Germany Roigheim Germany Halle Sweden Ludvika Sweden Pitea Finland Vaasa Russia Khotkovo Sweden Mjolby Sweden Figeholm Poland Lodz Italy Legnano Italy Monselice Turkey Istanbu China Hefei South Korea Chonan-si

China Chongquing

Singapore Singapore Tanzania Arusha Columbia Pereira

Peru Lima

Brazil Guarulhos South Africa Pretoria South Africa Booysens Australia Perth

Australia Darra

Brazil Blumenau

South Africa Cape Town

56 Factories in 28 Countries 56 Factories in 28 Countries Sales to 130 Countries Sales to 130 Countries
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 4

New Zealand New Plymouth

Transformer Remanufacturing & Engineering Services TRES Portfolio Overview

Engineering Solutions MTMProgram - Asset Management; Engineering Solutions & Studies Design, Thermal, Condition & Life Assessments, etc. Diagnostic and Assessment Services, including performing field or factory testing and test result analysis Field Service and Retrofit Preventative and Corrective Maintenance Engineered Retrofit/Repair Solutions LTC & Cooling System Refurbishment & Retrofit Transportation, Relocation & Logistics Services Installation & Commissioning Services Technical Assistance and Training Replacement and Spare Parts Factory & Site Repair/Remanufacturing Repair to original performance Remanufacture to achieve higher ratings, eliminate problems or lower losses All types, including Industrial/Specialty As-new or better life expectation
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 5

Transformer Remanufacturing & Engineering Services TRES Localized Services, Global Support

Edmonton (SPT Repair, Field Service) Varennes (LPT Repair, Field Service) Brampton (Field Service, Engineering) St. Louis (MPT Repair, Field Service, Engineering) Crystal Springs (Field Service) South Boston (SPT Repair, Field Service) Nashville (Field Service)

San Luis Potosi Mexico City

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 6

Substation Transformer Maintenance Best Practices Execute The Plan Understanding Transformer Stresses, Failure Modes and Aging
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 7

Transformer Maintenance Best Practices Intelligence Based Transformer Services

Maintenance Actions Should be Driven by Transformer Condition Basic Message: Time is a Factor, but by far not the only Factor Today We Will Cover: Transformer Lifecycle Support How Transformers Break Maintenance Actions to Extend Transformer Life Field Service Support Actions Transformer Improvement Actions Actions to Improve the Condition of Key Components Options When Everything is not Okay Advanced Diagnostics SFRA, DFR, Advanced DGA Transformer Assessments Design Studies, 3D Field Simulation
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 8

Core Form Transformer

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 9

Why Should You Be Concerned? Aging Transformers and Accessories

Doble Statistics on Transformer Failures
43% winding insulation 16% load tap changers 19% bushings

How many failures are caused by: poor maintenance? short circuits? overloading?

In 1999, Hartford Steam Boiler Insurance projected:

2% annual failure rate of existing installed base of transformers by the end of 2008 5% failures by the year 2013!!!!

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 10

Stresses Acting on Power Transformers Understanding These Allows Development of an Effective Maintenance Plan for Your Transformer
Mechanical Stresses Forces between conductors, leads and windings due to overcurrents or fault currents caused by short circuits and inrush currents

Thermal Stresses Due to local overheating, overload currents and leakage fluxes when loading above nameplate ratings; malfunction of cooling equipment

Dielectric Stresses Due to system overvoltages, transient impulse conditions or internal resonance of windings

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 11

Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers Due to: Short Circuits / Through Faults, Motor Starting
A short circuit gives rise to: Mechanical forces Temperature rise The transformer must be designed so that permanent damage does not take place Electromagnetic forces tend to increase the volume of high magnetic flux, causing mechanical forces that force: Inner winding to reduced radius Outer winding towards increased radius Winding height reduction

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 12

Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers Radial forces result in:

Inner Winding Buckling of inner windings Outer Winding Increased radius for outer windings

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 13

Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers Axial forces cause:

Stress mechanical withstand limits of insulation and support materials Increase risk of tilting

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 14

Risk: Short Circuit Forces & Stress Failures Through faults often Initiate Transformer Failures
Many older designs have insufficient margin for todays fault currents Loose coils due to aging can cause failures Normal aging results in brittle insulation and increased failures Even brief overloading may cause significant aging Oxygen in the oil can double the aging rate Moisture in the insulation increases aging rate 2-5 times depending on the amount of moisture

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 15

Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers Short Circuit Failure Example:

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 16

Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers Mechanical Risk: Short Circuit Forces & Stresses
Little Risk of Failure

Design Margin

Slight Risk of Failure

Each different design has its own performance characteristics

High Risk of Failure

Design #1 Design #2 Design #3 Design #4

HV Radial HV Axial LV Radial LV Axial (Hoop) (tipping or (Buckling) (tipping or crushing) crushing)

LTC Winding Radial (Buckling)

LTC Winding Axial (tipping)

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 17

Thermal Stresses in Power Transformers Maximum Loading is Limited by Thermal Limits

Loading is primarily limited by highest permissible temperatures in the transformer, especially within the windings Temperature limits are based on: Expected lifetime The risk for oil vaporization Permissible temperatures are generally expressed as temperature rises above ambient Ambient temperature is defined by current standards, but local conditions can vary significantly In accordance to Standards: Winding temperature rise 65 K Top oil temperature rise 65 K Hot spot temperature rise 65 K
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 18

Thermal Stresses in Power Transformers Winding Temperature Rise and HS Calculation

Hot spot calculation
Winding hot spot Top oil rise
pe r co p

oi l

o il


hot spot rise

Tan k



Winding average rise

Copper over winding oil gradient

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 19


Bottom oil



Copper over tank oil gradient



Thermal Stresses in Power Transformers Thermography What and Why?

Thermography is a method of inspecting electrical and mechanical equipment by obtaining heat distribution pictures. Most components in a system show an increase in temperature when malfunctioning By observing the heat patterns in operational system components, infrared thermography can be used to detect: loose connections unbalanced load and overload conditions component deterioration Oil flow and oil level problems Criteria for Evaluating Infrared Measurements Faults are often identified by comparing heat patterns in similar components operating under similar loads The temperature rises of all objects above a reference point are recorded Severity of hotspots are evaluated in regards to how high they are above the reference temperature

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 20

Thermal Stresses in Power Transformers Thermal Scans are Valuable

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 21

Thermal Scan Value Example Loose Bushing Terminal Connection

When there is a loose connection at the terminal from the bushing to the bus work, it will lead to overheating of the bushing top terminal when under load. The thermograph will show the bushing terminal as hot, while the body of the porcelain will show normal temperatures.

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 22

Thermal Scan Value Example Blocked Oil Flow in Radiators

In case of a malfunction that stops or restricts the flow of oil through a radiator, this will show up on an infrared scan. The image will reveal dim areas where the oil flow is restricted and brighter areas where normal oil flow is taking place

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 23

Thermal Scan Value Example Low oil Level in Transformer or Bushing

If a transformer (or especially a bushing) has a low oil level, a thermograph will show a dim image for the region without oil and a much brighter image in the areas with oil

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 24

Thermal Stresses in Power Transformers Loss distribution in the tank wall caused by LV current

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 25

Thermal Stresses in Power Transformers Thermal Risk: Intensive Aging

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 26

Thermal Stresses in Power Transformers Thermal Risk: Intensive Aging

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 27

Insulation Life Evaluation - Results

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 28

Intelligence Based Maintenance Practices The best designed and manufactured transformer . . .
Must withstand severe mechanical strain Is subjected to extended high temperatures or load conditions and limited by the current condition of its cooling system May experience unusually high or frequent overvoltages

A condition based periodic maintenance plan and diagnostic tools are available from ABB to identify when the transformer is at an unusually high failure risk if operation is continued

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 29

Transformer Condition Must Determine Maintenance Practices Curves are Determined by Maintenance Actions or Inactions

Actual Withstand

Design Withstand

Field action or factory repair

Incidents Failure

Actual Stress

Normal Life Expectancy
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 30

Extended Life


Diagnostic Techniques for Power Transformers Highly Effective On-line Actions are Best





1. Excitation Current 2. Low-voltage impulse 3. Frequency response analysis 4. Leakage inductance measurement 5. Capacitance GAS-IN-OIL ANALYSIS 6. Gas chromatography 7. Equivalent Hydrogen method


OIL-PAPER DETERIORATION 8. Liquid chromatography-DP method 9. Furan Analysis HOTSPOT DETECTION 10. Invasive sensors 11. Infrared thermography OIL ANALYSIS 12. Moisture, electric strength, resistivity, etc. 13. Turns ratio


PD MEASUREMENT 14. Ultrasonic method 15. Electrical method 16. Power Factor and Capacitance 17. Dielectric Frequency Response

ABB Service Handbook for Transformers, Table 3-1, Page 72

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 31

[1] OFF-S = equipment out of service at site, OFF-L = equipment out of service in laboratory, ON = equipment in service [2] H=High, M=Medium, L=Low

Actions to Verify Health of Power Transformers Preventive Maintenance Action Options

Transformer General Oil tests General external inspection DGA of transformers and Tap Changers Dielectric tests (power factor, Dielectric Frequency Response (DFR)) Mechanical Structure/Condition of Coils Leakage Reactance test 10kV AC excitation Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) Low Voltage Excitation test Degree of Polymerization (DP) Internal CTs - Test ratio and polarity Tap Changers ratio, contact condition, timing, sequence, alignment, lubrication, oil condition, mechanical fatigue/damage, wiring, contactors, switches, gauges, indicators Bushings visual inspection, thermal imaging, dielectric testing (power factor, capacitance, Dielectric Response)
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 32

Preventive Maintenance Actions Monthly Maintenance Recommendations

Check and record the ambient temperature. Check and record the transformer liquid temperature and note the maximum value since the last reading. Check and record the transformer winding temperature and note the maximum value since the last reading. Check and record the transformer load current and note the maximum value since the previous reading. Check and record the line voltage and note any variation from rated value since the previous check. For transformers equipped with Sealedaire, check and record the reading of the pressure-vacuum gauge. If the gauge remains at or near zero when the oil temperature varies, the transformer should be checked for leaks. This is an important maintenance check which will verify the integrity of the transformer seal. Review this months results and confirm either normal or abnormal trending
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 33

Preventive Maintenance Actions Quarterly Maintenance Recommendations

Check and record the readings on all indicating instruments, such as the liquid level of the main tank, all oil-filled compartments, top oil temperature, and winding temperature. The maximum reading and the present reading should be noted on the temperature indicators. If the transformer is equipped with an Inertaire oil preservation system, check and record the tank pressure and the remaining pressure in the nitrogen bottle feeding the system. Examine the piping to the coolers or radiators and all bolted pipe joints for signs of oil leakage. Tighten any loose fittings and repair any oil leaks. Examine the coolers or radiators for accumulation of dirt and foreign material that might impede airflow. The coolers or radiators can be cleaned by directing a stream of low-pressure water over the surfaces. On FOA coolers, the water should be directed to the front (exhaust) side of the cooler to wash any dirt toward the rear(intake). Be certain the fans are shut off before starting any cleaning operation. The frequency of cleaning will vary depending on the conditions at the installation site Annual cleaning is generally sufficient, but installation subjected to salt spray or heavy dust and dirt or other contamination will require a more frequent schedule. Inspect the control cabinet for any of the following conditions: Control-circuit voltage problems Collections of dirt or gum Excess heating of parts (evidenced by discoloration of metal parts, charred insulation, or odor) Binding or sticking of moving parts Corrosion of metal parts Remaining wear allowance on contacts Excess slam on pickup Proper contact pressure Loose connections Condition of flexible shunts Worn or broken mechanical parts Excessive arcing in opening circuits Excessive noise in ac magnets Evidence of dripping water or liquids falling on controls Operation, including proper functioning of timing devices and sequencing of devices Review these results and confirm either normal or abnormal trending
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 34

Preventive Maintenance Actions Annual Maintenance Recommendations

If the transformer is equipped with forced oil cooling, check the oil circulating pumps, noting any unusual noise or flutter of the oil flow gauge. Evidence of noise, uneven oil flow, unbalanced phase current, or heating of the pump motor may require removal of the pump from the transformer. Disassembly and inspection procedures are given in the pump instruction leaflet. If the transformer is equipped with air cooling, examine the fans to ensure that there is no debris covering them or between the blades. Check to make sure that each fan is operational and that the blade rotation is correct. If the cooling banks are staged, check that the proper set of fans come on for each stage. Measure line currents on the fan motor and check for any imbalances. Examine the pump valves for evidence of leaking around the gland seals. Close and open the flapper-operating arm. There should be some restriction to the flapper arm movement if the packing is properly tightened. Tighten the gland nut if necessary to eliminate any leaks. Take oil samples from the main tank and any other oil-filled compartment, such as the load tap changer. Perform general oil quality analyses on the oil sample. Oil samples may also be taken at this time for gas-in-oil or metal particle analysis. If any test results are questionable, contact ABB. Perform insulation resistance tests on each winding to the other winding and to ground and from all windings to ground and compare with the previous test values. Measure the insulation power factor and compare with previous test values. Contact the Technical Support Section if any of the tested values vary significantly from the initial tests. Examine all bushings, arresters, and all the interconnecting hardware for contamination and signs of electrical tracking. Clean any contaminated areas with a soft cloth and suitable solvent, then wipe the area dry. Perform power factor and capacitance measurement on the bushings and compare the values to the test results made when the transformer was installed. If the transformer is equipped with a load tap changer, inspect the tap changer as noted in the tap changer instruction leaflet. Detailed information for the inspection procedures and the frequency of inspection is supplied as part of the transformer instruction book. Inspect any breathers and small screen openings in pressure-relief valves or a pressure-vacuum breather to be certain they are clean and in operating condition. If the transformer is equipped with a COPS oil-preservation system, remove the expansion tank breather and check for oil leakage into the bladder. The procedure for making this inspection is explained in the instruction leaflet for the oil preservation system. Examine the paint finish, particularly around welded joints and on accessory items such as the radiators, coolers, and associated piping. Check for paint peeling or cracking and evidence of rust. Clean the affected areas by wire brushing, then wipe with a clean dry cloth. Paint the area with the touch-up primer and finish coat supplied in the transformer details shipment box. De-energize the auxiliary power source and inspect the control devices in the control cabinet. Remove grease, oil, or other contaminants with a lint-free cloth moistened in a nonflammable cleaning fluid. Do not soak the parts with the cleaner, but use just enough to loosen grease or dirt so that it can be wiped off. For cleaning small parts, a small paintbrush dipped into the cleaning solution is good for getting into corners and crevices. Repair or replace any broken or malfunctioning parts, tighten all loose connections, and eliminate any oil or water leaks into the compartment. More frequent inspections may be needed in heavily contaminated installations.
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 35

Effective Analysis Depends on Design Understanding Oil Expansion / Oil Preservation Systems

Gas Space




Buchholz Relay


Buchholz Relay

I Non-conservator type Gas-blanketed

II Conservator type with bleeder bag (COPS Sealed)

III Conservator type with open expansion tank (COPS Open)

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 36

Oil is the Life Blood of a Transformer Maintenance/Oil Sampling Tips

When taking oil samples for moisture in oil, take sample when transformer temperature is over 60oC. If the unit is a COPS or free breather, dont forget to check oxygen inhibitor content. If unit is a COPS with breather, dont forget to check the bag for leaks. If oil is degassed, establish a new baseline for Furan content. Pumps should be replaced or refurbished every 10 years. Dont forget to check condition of coolers. You can lose cooler efficiency which will accelerate transformer ageing.

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 37

Why Test at Every Outage? Every Test Establishes a Baseline for Comparison
Establishment of a trend is a key to prevent this kind of result

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 38

When Routine Checks Identify a Problem . . . On-Site Services Can Improve Reliability
Engineering Assessments (MTMP) Advanced Diagnostic Testing Bushing Replacement Tap Changer Services or Retrofit Unit Uprates / Cooling Systems Upgrades COPS tank modifications Control system upgrade Internal Inspections Insulation system maintenance Reblocking / rewedging Biodegradable fluid retrofills Partial or full winding replacement

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 39

Condition Understanding Allows Identification of Possible Options for Reducing Risk

System Actions: Modifying auto-reclosing practice Measures for reducing close-in faults Fault overcurrent limiters Neutral reactor application (system applicability) Transformer Service/Replacement Actions: Proactive maintenance practices Advanced diagnostics testing On line monitoring Relocating units Factory winding upgrade Need for spare transformers

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 40

A Thorough Condition Evaluation Should Include Possible Risk Mitigation for Urgent Ranked Transformers

ID #


Serial Number


Reasons for Higher Risk

Possible Risk Mitigation Actions [L1] = ASAP, [L2] = 1 Yr. [L3] = 2 - 3 Yrs., [L4] = 3 5 Yrs

AR 2


Federal Pacific

Through-Fault failure, dielectric failure

Investigate for possible PD including installing Hydran [L1] Perform Acoustic PD measurements [L1] Increase DGA sampling to trend H2 production [L1] Perform complete oil screening test from samples taken when transformer is hot [L1] Condition Assessment [L2] SFRA test [L2] Review PF and capacitance history [L2] Implement measures to reduce number of through faults such as tree trimming [L2] Limit auto-reclosing to 1 reclose [L3]

BA 5



Possible Arcing in the tap changer compartment

Resample oil in tap changer for DGA. If Acetylene is confirmed, then remove from service and perform internal inspection on LTC compartment [L1].

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 41

Upgrade Task
1. Replacing the oil in the transformers with new oil with lower charging tendency. This will reduce the risk of streaming electrification failure.

Reduced ROF,%

Increased Insulation Life, Years

Estimated Cost


2. Replacing the cooling system with a new, more efficient system. This will reduce the risk of a forced outage due to component failure and lower the oil temperatures in the transformer. Lower oil temperatures will reduce the future aging rate and also reduce the hot spot temperatures, thus reducing the risk of catestrophic failure caused by the overheating condition. The new cooling system will have to take into account the risk of streaming electrification caused by excessive oil velocity in the windings. 3. Removing the sound enclosure This will improve the cooling efficiency somewhat and allow better diagnostic measurement of the tank wall temperatures using infrared thermography.




4. Converting the oil preservation system from inertaire to Constant Oil Preservation System (COPS). This will eliminate the need to have a nitrogen line going to each transformer and will keep the the oil in a degassed state. Oil with a lower gas content will not have the possibility of nitrogen bubble formation, which can lead to failure in the



ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 42

Advanced Diagnostic Testing Allows Determination of Condition Based Actions

For critical issues, state-of-the-art testing methods should be used to detect operating difficulties and pinpoint specific activities to speed restoration of service
Materials and Oil Testing

Metal in Oil Testing CCD Testing for Sulfur contamination Particle count Oxidation Inhibitor Testing Furanic Analysis Degree of Polymerization Testing
Advanced Diagnostics

Advanced DGA Acoustics FRA Measurements Dielectric Spectroscopy Field Induced Testing Recurrent Surge Testing

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 43

Advanced Diagnostic Testing Tests and Equipment Requirements

Tests Performed Advanced DGA Acoustics SFRA Measurements Dielectric Spectroscopy (DFR) Field Induced Testing Recurrent Surge Testing Equipment Available SFRA: Doble M5100 DFR: Programma (GE) IDA 200; PAX IDAX 206 Biddle/IREQ PD measuring equipment Used on production test floor Used on phase angle regulator tap changer replacement project PD localization equipment acoustic wall-mounted sensors
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 44

Advanced Diagnostic Testing Theres More To It Than Data Collection

Typically part of a field project Field technician performs the test Diagnostic Engineer analyzes the data Customer should be provided a clear report of findings

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 45

Frequency Response Analysis Diagnostic Benefits

Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) is a method of measuring the transfer function of the windings of a transformer The SFRA is a plot of the swept frequency response of the transformer circuit This circuit is comprised of the inductance and capacitance characteristic of the transformer winding being measured One key use of the measurement is to compare a winding's response to either similar windings (other identical phases or other identical transformers) or to previous measurements of that winding The comparison can detect unusual movement in the winding of the type experienced during hard transportation or an excessive through fault Changes in the transfer function reveal a wide range of failure modes, for example: Axial Winding Collapse Clamping Failure Hoop Buckling Shorted Turns
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 46

FRA Diagnostic Example Axial Collapse Identification

Axial winding collapse is likely to have the following characteristics:
Produced within a transformer winding due to excessive axial forces during a fault Windings shift relative to each other Gassing may result Transformer integrity is compromised Failure likely to be catastrophic if transformer continues in service

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 47

FRA Diagnostic Example Hoop Buckling Identification

Hoop buckling is produced within a transformer winding due to excessive compressive forces on inner windings during a fault.

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 48

FRA Diagnostic Example Hoop Buckling

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 49

FRA Diagnostic Example Clamping Failure

A clamping failure may be produced within a transformer winding due to bulk winding movement.

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 50

FRA Diagnostic Example Shorted Turns

Shorted turns in transformers are produced by turn-to-turn faults and may have the following characteristics: Adjacent turns lose paper and braze/weld together They result in a solid loop around the core

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 51

Dielectric Frequency Response Testing Power Factor at More Than 60 Hz


The DFR test is a series of power factor measurements at multiple frequencies. It provides more information about the dielectric behavior of the insulation system than a 60Hz test. The method can be used to diagnose the following conditions:
Moisture in the cellulose insulation High oil conductivity due to aging or overheating of the oil Chemical contamination of cellulose insulation Carbon tracking in cellulose High resistance in the magnetic core steel circuit



Hi Lo

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 52

Dielectric Frequency Response Testing Distinguishing Between Aged Oil and Moisture

Aged Oil, 0.5% Moisture


Good Oil 1.3% Moisture PF =. 00324

Tan D
0.010 0.001

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 53




60 100


Frequency, Hz

Dielectric Frequency Response Testing Fitting the Right Dielectric Parameters



Aged Oil, 0.5% Moisture Good Oil 1.3% Moisture PF =. 00324 Measured DR 0.7% Moisture

Tan D
0.010 0.001

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 54




60 100


Frequency, Hz

Dielectric Frequency Response Testing DFR Signature Examples & Effectiveness

Dielectric Response Fingerprint Function Showing the Effect of High Moisture DFR Fingerprint of Chemical Contamination of the Windings

Normal Moisture(.7%) High Moisture(1.7%)











Frequency, Hz Surface Moisture in Paper - Moisture in Oil vs. Volume Moisture From DFR
Xfrmr # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Temp (o C) 23 28 23 23 13 27 27 Type GSU GSU GSU GSU 3-wdg Auto Auto Constr. Core Core Core Core Shell Core Shell Oil Cond (pS/m) 0.381 0.492 0.412 1.34 1.5 3 0.3 Moist by Oil Moist. by DR Sat (%wt) (%wt) 2.5 1.8 1.4 2.8 * 3.5 3.3 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 1.2 2 1

Frequency, Hz

Loading Limits Based On Moisture Content

Hottest Spot Temperature( C) 120 130 140 180

Cellulose Moisture (% ) 3.5 2.4 1.7 0.8

Overload Type

Overload Level with 40C Ambient 0% 6% 12% 40%

Normal Loading Planned O/L Beyond N/P Long Time Emergency (1-3 mo.) Short-Time Emergency ( -2hr)

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 55

Dielectric Frequency Response Signature Example Another Use: High Core Ground Resistance

XV to Ground

XV to Ground after Repair



Frequency, Hz 10



Dielectric Response Fingerprint Function caused by a High Core to Ground Resistance in Auxiliary Transformer
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 56

Degree of Polymerization DP Measures Insulating Paper Strength

Degree of polymerization is a measure of the number of intact chains in a cellulose fiber. It provides an indication of the ability of the transformer insulation to withstand mechanical force (due to through-faults, etc).

Cellulose Fiber Chain

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 57

Degree of Polymerization DP Factors affecting DP and Measurement Method

The DP of the insulation is affected by the following conditions: Moisture content Acidity of the oil Oxygen content Temperature The DP is measured by viscosity measurements according an ASTM method after dissolving the paper samples in cupriethylene diamine solvent. Paper samples must be taken from enough different areas in a transformer in order to get a profile of deterioration of the cellulose When combined with detailed design knowledge, measurements in one area of the transformer can give information on the condition of paper in inaccessible areas of the windings.
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 58

Degree of Polymerization DP Life Expectancy Based on DP and Other Factors

For long insulation life expectancy, it is important to keep the insulation dry, keep acidity and oxygen concentration of oil low and provide good cooling
10000.0 Dry & Clean (Insuldur) Acidic Oil (Insuldur) 1000.0 L ife E x p e c ta n c y (y e a rs ) 1% Water Content (Insuldur) 3-4% Water Content (Insuldur) 100.0



0.1 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Temperature [o C]

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 59

It is assumed that the DP of transformer insulation is approx. 1,000 at the start of life and approx. 200 at the end of life. This graph shows the expected life of thermally upgraded insulation (Insuldur) under various conditions.

Dissolved Gas Analysis Advanced DGA Diagnosis

Close observation of dissolved gases in the oil and other oil properties provides the most valuable information about transformer health ABBs Dissolved combustible Gas in oil Analysis tools takes the following into consideration: Gassing rates of increase for each key gas detected Historical trend of gassing Various ratios of key gases Estimated temperature of the hottest spot temperature Gas solubility depending on preservation system Concentration and ratios of carbon oxides Detailed design knowledge of the transformer, such as stray flux management, clamping and cooling system details.

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 60

Advanced DGA Diagnosis Results are Compared to Known Issues

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 61

Advanced DGA Diagnosis Condition Data Assessment Value

The history of the condition data is reviewed: Dissolved Gas in oil Analysis (DGA) Oil Quality (including moisture in cellulose) Furans Power Factor Increasing trends and abnormalities are explored
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Hydrogen (H2) Methane (CH4) Ethane (C2H6) Ethylene (C2H4) Acetylene (C2H2)

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 62

Conc. (ppm)

Advanced DGA Analysis Typical Problems Diagnosed using DGA Analysis

Overloaded transformers Overheating caused by problems with cooling systems Local overheating caused by blocked oil duct inside the transformer Overheating due to oil circulating pump problems (bearing wear, impeller loose or worn) Overheating due to circulating stray currents in the core, structure, and/or tank An unintentional core ground may cause heating by providing a path for stray currents. Bad connections in the leads or by a poor contact in the tap changer can cause a hotspot Discharges of static electrical charges that build up on shields or core and structures that are not properly grounded may cause hotspots that produce gassing Hotspots that may be caused by electrical arcing between windings and ground, between windings of different potential, or in areas of different potential on the same winding, due to deteriorated or damaged insulation Windings and insulation that may be damaged by faults downstream (through faults), causing large current surges through the windings Voltage surges caused by nearby lightning strike or switching surge or closing out of step may result in immediate arcing or arcing that develops later Aged insulation that may be damaged by a voltage surge. When this happens, clearances and dielectric strength are reduced. Partial discharges and arcing may develop. during a through fault and cause total mechanical and electrical failure High noise level (hum due to loose windings) can generate gas due to heat from friction
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 63

Load Tap Changers Maintenance Guidelines

Mechanical movement and arcing creates wear and tear Various tests, inspections, and/or adjustments are often made on the basis of load tap changer operations or elapsed time Wear is also dependant on the load being interrupted by the LTC Every LTC model is unique The specific transformer application even makes it more unique Consult the LTC & Transformer manufacturers instruction literature for information on each specific unit Maintenance Specific to Arc-in-Oil LTCs The arc-in-oil compartment will require thorough cleaning Attention must be given to mechanical wear and arcing contact wear - abrasive particles are in the oil Check resistors in resistance type LTC Maintenance Specific to Non-Oil Arcing LTCs The oil is expected to be found relatively clean Vacuum interrupters will have a wear gauge to check contact erosion Vacuum interrupters need to be pull tested to verify that the unit is still under vacuum and not oil filled Vacuum interrupters must be given an AC hi-pot test Perform Dynamic Voltage Excitation Test prior to returning to service
ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 64

Load Tap Changers Quality Check: Dynamic Voltage Excitation Test

The purpose of this test is to verify the correct operation of the load tap changer circuit. This includes the RV lead connections, P.A. lead connections, and the LTC assembly and mechanism timing
TEST PROCEDURE: This test is performed by applying a three phase voltage (240 or 480V) to the high voltage bushings Three single phase ANALOG voltmeters are connected to the LV bushings, phase to phase if delta connected or phase to neutral if wye connected The LTC mechanism is then hand cranked through all of its positions while monitoring the output voltages The voltmeters should be observed for signs of problems: The voltage falling to zero for any time period is an indication of a open circuit The volt meter moving in different directions during a tap change is an indication of RV or P.A. lead connection problems Any other changes in voltmeter readings which are different from one phase to the other

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 65

Many old LTCs are Still Supported OEM-Grade (or better) Parts and Services are still available for many old tap changers, including the following models:

General Electric
LR9 LR10 LR15 LR17 LR19 LR21 LR27 LR29 LR31 LR38 LR40 LR41 LR45 LR47 LR48 LR59 LR63 LR65 LR67 LR68 LR69 LR72 LR79 LR81 LR83 LR85 LR89 LR91 LR92 LR95 LR96 LR200 LR300 LR400 LR500 LR700



MA, -1,-2 MB, -1, -2 MC MH MJ

Federal Pacific
TC-15 TC-25 TC-515 TC-525 TC-546

Ferranti Packard
138RT32 25RT32 34RT32 69RT32

Allis Chalmers

McGraw Edison
220 397 500 550 996 V2A

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 66

LTC Condition Evaluation New Development


Tap-4 device

Current sensor

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 67

LTC Condition Evaluaiton Possible Malfunctions Diagnosed

ABB Group February 12, 2009 | Slide 68