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A Comparison of Active Power Filter Control Methods in Unbalanced and Nonsinusoidal Conditions

G.D. Marques
SecqBo de Miquinas ElCctricas e Electrdnica de Potzncia IST, AV. Rovisco Pais, 1096 Lisboa, Portugal gmarques @alfa.ist.utl.pt
Abstract - Active power filters are used to eliminate current harmonics near nonlinear loads. This paper evaluates four different methods of determining the compensating current for a shunt active filter that is working under nonsymmetrical conditions. The methods compared are the Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory, the Modified Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory, the Synchronous Reference Frame Theory and the Modified Synchronous Reference Frame Theory. The comparison is based on simulation results. In balanced sinusoidal source voltages, the difference between the results obtained by the four methods are of minimum importance. For unbalanced and nonsinusoidal source voltage Conditions, the results obtained by the methods referenced are quite different. The synchronous reference frame method had shown the best choice for all situations studied in this paper.

paper compares four control methods to obtain the compensating current under non-sinusoidal and asymmetric conditions. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes succinctly the four methods that will be compared in this paper. The comparison is presented in section 3 with the help of a simulation program. The results obtained with the four above mentioned methods will be compared in symmetrical and in non-symmetrical conditions. The nonlinear load to be compensated is a three-phase diode bridge. Non-symmetrical conditions are studied in two different cases. In the first situation, the load is asymmetric and the voltage remains symmetric. In the second situation the non-symmetrical conditions are obtained when the three-phase voltage system has a direct and an inverse component. The conclusion is presented in section 4. 11. ACTIVE POWER FILTER CONTROL METHODS

I. INTRODUCTION The majority of power consumption has been drawn by linear loads. Modern loads typically contain power electronic devices. The current drawn by these modern devices is non-sinusoidal and therefore contains harmonics. Shunt active filters were proposed as a means of removing current harmonics. In an active power filter, a controller determines the harmonics that are to be eliminated. The output of this controller is the reference of a three-phase current controlled inverter. Fig. 1 illustrates the principle of a shunt active filter. The nonlinear load is connected to the power system and is supplied by the nonsinusoidal current .i The active power filter is connected , in parallel to the mains, on the point of common coupling PCC, and supplies the current harmonics needed to maintain the source current sinusoidal. Traditionally active power filters are studied under sinusoidal and symmetrically voltage conditions. This

Shunt active power filters inject ac currents on the network. An outer controller determines the reference ac currents that should be injected and thus compensated. A three-phase voltage inverter with current regulation is then used to inject the compensating current into the power line. There are some different methods for implementing the detection of harmonic currents. These methods were studied in symmetrical conditions in the literature. The aim of this paper is to qualitatively determine the differences between four of those methods for a three-phase system with unbalanced system of voltages and loads. A. PqMethod The p q theory [l], also known as the instantaneous reactive power theory, defines the active and reactive power as:

Power System

Active Power Filter

Non-Linear Load Where x denotes currents or voltages. When there is no neutral point i,=O, then:

Fig. 1. Principle of an active power filter

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pjld]
where

(4)

[y]=[e.-ec e; -e;

%-ec][] e;,-e;.

The ap currents can be obtained by the p and q using:

Now the determinant is:

A=e:+ei
The instantaneous active and reactive power p and q can be decomposed into an average and an oscillating component.

As in the p q method, the reference currents can be calculated using the same criteria as on the p q method.

P = Pav

+ Pos

9 = 4av + 40s

(7)

i,*= -(i,

* + ih)

The compensating reference currents are calculated to compensate the instantaneous reactive power and the oscillating component of the instantaneous active power.

The ap components can be calculated using the ap transformation.

so:
Pc = Pos
4c 4 L

C. Synchronous referenceframe method


(8)
In the synchronous reference frame method [3], the load current is transformed into the conventional rotating frame dq. If 8 is the transformation angle, the transformation is defined by:

In this case the source transmits only the non-oscillating component of the active power. Whence

Ps = PLav

4s

=o

(9)

The reference source currents, using (5),are:

The compensating reference currents are:


.*
.

.*

(19)
Where x denotes voltages or currents. In the synchronous reference frame, 0 is a time variant angle that represents the angular position of the reference frame. This reference franne is rotating at constant speed in synchronism with the three-phase ac voltages. To implement the synchronous reference frame method some kind of synchronizing system should be used. In [4] and [SI a phase-locked loop (PLL) is used for the implementation of the this method. The fundamental current of the dq components is now a dc value. The harmonicis appear like ripple. Harmonic isolation of the dq transformed signal is achieved by removing the dc offset. T,his is accomplished using a high pass filter (HPF). The reference currents are obtained with an inverse transformation. Fig. 2 illustrates a block diagram of the dq synchronous reference frame method. Three is no need to supply voltage information for a SRF based controller. However the phase position angle must be determined in some way.

Where i,ymisp are ideal source currents, and iLa, iLp are the measured values of the load currents.

B. Modified pq method
The modified pq method is presented in [ 2 ] .The active power p and reactive power q are defined respectively as:

p = e,i,

+ e$,, + e,i,
(13)

q = e;i, + e$,, + e;ic

Where e(,, e,, ec lag eo, e,, and ec respectively by 90 degrees. For a three wire system,

i,

+ ih + ic = 0
From ( 1 2) and (1 3),

(14)

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pq Method

IL2

-4
e

/ I ." I / I" " r

" " r

Fig. 2. Principle of the synchronous reference frame method

D. Modified synchronous reference frame method


The modified synchronous reference frame, is presented in [6], [7]. It is presented and named the instantaneous idiq method. This method is similar to the synchronous reference frame method, Fig.2. The transformation angle is now obtained with the voltages. The major difference is that the speed of the referential is no longer constant. It varies instantaneously depending of the waveform of the three-phase voltage system. Let 0 be the transformation angle (variable in time). This angle is computed using the ac voltages using (20) and (21).

2-20
0

- - - ..

_ I _

- -

- 8 -

0.005

0.01 Time

[SI

0.015

0.02

Fig. 3. Source currents obtained in symmetrical conditions.

In this method, no synchronizing circuit is needed.

111. COMPARISION BETWEEN THE FOUR METHODS


To evaluate the performances of the various methods, several simulations were performed. The load used is a three-phase diode rectifier. In the first situation, a sinusoidal and symmetrical ac voltage system is studied. In the second case, a non-symmetrical load and a symmetrical voltage was used. In the third situation, unsymmetrical voltage and load conditions were considered. A 220V direct sequence voltage, and a 50V inverse sequence voltage and a null zero-sequence voltage were used. A. Symmetrical load and source The results obtained in this case are presented in fig. 3. The ac line currents presented are the reference source currents obtained by the methods referenced. The influence of the APP on the PCC voltage was not considered. It is possible to conclude that the differences between the four methods in symmetrical conditions under sinusoidal voltage waveforms are of minor importance. The best method is the synchronous reference frame method that exhibits practically sinusoidal currents. The source currents in the other methods are almost sinusoidal

but there are some points, during the commutation of the diodes, where some imprecision occur. That is due to the influence of the commutation on the voltage waveform.
B. Unsymmetrical load and symmetrical source voltage

The results obtained in the previous subsection are dependent on the voltage waveform. It was verified in several situations that those results are still valid when the load is unbalanced.

C. Unsymmetrical load and source voltage

I ) Load waveforms: On the point of common coupling the voltage is the one shown on fig. 4. The a
voltage component is considerably higher than the component. The influence of the commutation of the diodes is clearly visible. The currents on the load are presented in fig. 5. These waveforms are common to all methods studied.

2 ) Results obtained with p q Methods: The results obtained with the pq method are presented in fig. 6, 7, 8 and 9. Fig. 6 shows the APF compensating currents while fig. 7 shows the source currents obtained. The source current spectra for both methods are presented in Fig. 8 and 9.

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PCC Voltages
6001
I

pq Method
I

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

Modified pq Method

-600:

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

Time Is]

Fig. 4. Voltages on the point of common coupling Load currents


25

-25l 0

I
0.005

1
0.01

1
0.015 0.02

T" [s]

Fig. 5 . Load currents D q Method Harm. order Harm. order Fig. 8. Spectra of the source currents @9 method).

18.7

16- .

14. .
12. .

g10. . m 8-.

6 -.
0.005

Time [SI Modified pq Method

0.01

0.01 5

0.02

4-

. .

2-

10

00

Harm. order Fig. 9. Spectra of the source currents (modified p q method).

The p q method has a poor performance from the harmonics point of view. The source currents are not sinusoidal. However, Fiig. 8, the amplitude of each harmonic is practically the same in a and in p components. The behavior of the modified p q method is different. The a and p components are very different, Fig. 9. To the voltage a component, the higher component, corresponds a lower CL current component, and conversely. The better characteristic, from the point of view of harmonics, obtained with the modified p q method is due to the waveform of the determinant (6) and (17) under

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x105

pq Method

performance in respect of harmonics, but has a better performance in respect to the unbalance.
Synchronous Reference Frame Method

Z2o _ _ _ _ _ _ : . . . . . . ; . . . . . . ; . . . . .

0.005

0.01 Time [SI

0.015

0.02

Fig. 10. Waveform of the determinant of the p q method.

_ _ _ _ - _ _ - - . _ - -

-2-

- - .

_ I _

~.

_ I . .

. .

. I _ .

.-

- -

-3 0

0.005

0.01 Time [SI

0.015

0.02

LL q-20

_ _ .. '_. . . . 1 . . ..
0.005

_ - - __ _ - - _
8

Fig. I 1. Waveform of the determinant of the modified p q method.

0.01 Time [SI

0.015

0.02

unbalanced conditions. Fig. 10 and Fig. 11 show the waveform of both determinants for this case.

Fig. 12. Compensating currents obtained w t the synchronous reference ih frame methods

3 ) Results obtained with the synchronous reference frame Methods: Fig. 12, 13, 14 and 15 present the results obtained with the synchronous reference frame methods. As the a0 active power filter currents are different, the source currents are also different. The best results, even when compared with the presented on the previous subsection, are obtained with the synchronous reference frame method. In this case the source currents are practically sinusoidal and balanced. The method is also insensitive to the perturbations on the voltage due to the nonlinear load, as the commutations of the diodes. The modified synchronous reference frame method has a good performance in respect to the peak value of the source currents but it is poor in respect to harmonics and unbalance. The source currents are far from the sinusoidal waveform. When compared with the modified p q method, the synchronous reference frame method has a lower

3-20
0

- -

- -

_ I _

- - -

- -

- 8 -

- - - .
0.02

0.005 0.01 0.015 Modified Synchronous Reference Frame Method

2-20
0

~ - - ~ - _ , _~ ~

- -

_ a _

- -

- 0.02

0.005

0.01 Time [SI

0.015

Fig. 13. Source currents obtained.

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Appendix Parameters used: R,,=lO Q, Ldc=.OIH, L,=.OOlH, R,=l!2 u,,=220v u@=5 ov


V. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Part of the costs related with the publication of this paper was supported by CAUTL,. VI. REFERENCES [I] Akagi, H. ; Kanazawa, Y. ; Nabae, A. Instantaneous Reactive Power Cornpensators Comprising Switching Devices Without Energy Storage Components, IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., vol. IA-20, no.3, MayIJune 1984, pp 625-630. [2] Komatsu, Y.;Kawabata, T. Experimental Comparison o f pq and Extension pq method for Active Power Filter European Power Electronics Conference EPE97 pp2.729-2.734, Trondheim, Norway
14-12. s

5 Harm. order

10

5
Harm. order

10

Fig. 14. Spectra of the source currents (SRF method).

2 10. a

86.

[3] S. Bhattacharya, D. M. Divan and B. Banerjee, Synchronous Frame Harmonics Isolator using Active Series Filter, European Power Electronics Conference EPE91 pp 3-030,3.035. Firenzi, Italy [4] P. Verdelho, G. D. Marques, An Active Power Filter and Unbalanced Current Compensator IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics vol. 44, NO3 June 1997, pp 321-328.

4.
200

Harm. order

Harm. order

Fig. 15. Spectra of the source currents (modified SRF method).

IV. CONCLUSION The comparison of four active power filter control methods was investigated in this paper. It is clear that under balanced and sinusoidal voltages these four methods gives similar results. The differences arrive when the voltage is perturbed by the load, i.e. when there are harmonics on the load. In this case the methods gives similar results but the synchronous reference frame method gives the best results. Under non-sinusoidal and unbalanced conditions, all methods give different results. The synchronous reference frame method is the best. It drives sinusoidal and balanced currents on the source and is insensitive to voltage perturbations. The modified reference frame method gives equal peak currents on the source but its waveform is far from the sinusoidal waveform. The modified pq method gives acceptable waveforms in respect to harmonics but is poor in respect to the voltage unbalance. The p q method gives good results in sinusoidal and balanced voltages but its performance is poor in respect to voltage unbalance. The source currents resulted are not sinusoidal but are balanced.

[5] P. Verdelho, G. D. Marques, Active Power Filter Control Circuit with Phase Locked Loop Phase Angle Determination PEMC98, Sep. 8-10, 1998 Praha.
[6] V. Soares, P. Verdelho, G. D. Marques, A control method for active power filters under unbalanced nonsinusoidal conditions Power Electronics and Variable speed drives PEVD96 Se,ptember, 23-25, pp120-124. [7] V. Soares, P. Verdelho, G. D. Marques, Active Power Filter Control Circuit Based on the Instantaneous Active and reactive Current id-iq Method Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Pesc97 St. Louis, Missouri, June 22-27, 1997, pp- 1096-1101. [8] S. D. Rourd, D.M.E. Ingram, An Evaluation of Techniques for Determining Active Filter Compensating Currents in Unbalanced Systems European Power Electronics Conference EPE97, pp 4.767, 4.772, Trondheim, Norway. [9] Leonard0 Pittrorino, Jacques du Toit, Johan Enslin, Evaluation of Converter Topologies and Controllers for Power Quality Compensators Under Unbalanced Conditions Power Electronics Specialists Conference PESC97 St. Louis, Missouri, June 22-27, 1997, pp- 11271133.

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