Washington County Public Schools
2009 ‐2010
Addition and Subtraction Basic Fact Strategies
Office of Elementary Education Draft
20092010
Office of Elementary Education
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2009 ‐2010
Table of Contents 

Page Numbers 

Basic Fact Philosophy 
36 

Description of Addition Math Fact Strategies 
7 

 
Parent Letters: Description of Addition Math Fact Strategies 
912 
Classroom Math Fact Assessments 
1325 

Grade Level Expectations 
2627 

Roll Out of Strategies in the Primary Grades 
2829 

Roll Out of Strategies in the Intermediate Grades 
3035 

Addition Strategies 

OneMoreThan and TwoMoreThan Facts 
3676 

 Drill of Efficient Methods and Strategy Selection 
77 

 Use of Flash Cards 
7880 

 Turn Around Facts 
8087 

 Beginning Exploration of Subtraction as Think Addition 
8890 

Facts with Zero 
9199 

Doubles 
100132 

Doubles + 1 
133152 

Inside Doubles 
153179 

MakeTen Facts 
180214 

Strategy Selection/Strategy Retrieval 
215228 

Subtraction Strategies 

Strategies for Subtraction Facts 
229242 

Triangular Relationship Cards 
242243 

OneMoreThan and TwoMoreThan Subtraction Facts (Think Addition) 
244249 

Doubles Subtraction Facts (Think Addition) 
250256 

Doubles + 1 Subtraction Facts (Think Addition) 
257261 

Inside Doubles Subtraction Facts (Think Addition) 
262267 

Make Ten Subtraction Facts (Think Addition) 
268276 

Additional Strategies for Subtraction Facts 
277281 

Center Bag Support 
282293 

Washington County Public Schools Monthly Fact Program 
294301 
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Basic Fact Philosophy
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Basic Fact Philosophy
2009 ‐2010
Mastery of basic facts means that a child can give a quick response (in about 3 seconds) without resorting to nonefficient means, such as counting.
All children are able to master the basic facts—including children with learning disabilities. Children simply need to construct efficient mental tools that will help them.
Development of Efficient Strategies
An efficient strategy is one that can be done mentally and quickly. The emphasis is on efficient. If drill is undertaken when counting is the only strategy available, all you get is faster counting.
Two Approaches to Fact Strategies
You need to plan lessons or short activities in which specific strategies are likely to be developed. There are two basic types of lessons suggested for this purpose. The first is to use simple story problems designed in such a manner that students are most likely to develop a strategy as they solve it. These are worthwhile tasks that do not require a full period to do and discuss. Rathmell, Leutzinger, and Gabriele (2000) suggest a simple story problem and discussion in a 5 to 10 minute period to start every day. Their teachers report that students develop and use a variety of effective strategies for mastering basic facts. In the discussion of these solution methods, you can focus attention on the methods others have developed.
A second possible approach is a bit more direct. A lesson may revolve around a special
collection of facts for which a particular type of strategy is appropriate. You can discuss how these facts might all be alike in some way, or you might suggest an approach and see
if students are able to use it on similar facts.
There is a huge temptation simply to tell students about a strategy and then have them practice it. Though this can be effective for some students, many others will not personally relate to your ideas or may not be ready for them. Continue to discuss strategies invented in your class and plan lessons that encourage strategies.
Drill of Efficient Methods and Strategy Selection
It is important here to make a distinction between drill and practice. Practice refers to problembased activities in which students are encouraged to develop (invent, consider, try—but not master) flexible and useful strategies that are meaningful. The types of lessons just described can be thought of practice lessons. Whether from story problems
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or from consideration of a collection of similar facts, students are wrestling with the
development of strategies that they can use themselves.
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Drill refers to repetitive nonproblembased activity. Drill activity is appropriate for children who have a strategy that they understand, like, and know how to use but have not yet become facile with it. Drill with an inplace strategy focuses student’s attention on that strategy and helps to make it more automatic.
Drill plays a significant role in fact mastery, and the use of oldfashioned methods such as flash cards and fact games can be effective if used wisely.
Avoid Premature Drill
It is critical that you do not introduce drill too soon. Suppose that a child does not know the 9 + 5 fact and has no way to deal with it other than to count fingers or use counters. These are inefficient methods. Premature drill introduces no new information and encourages no new connections. It is both a waste of time and frustration to the child. Drill should only be used when an efficient strategy is in place.
Overview of the Approach
For each particular strategy, from development to eventual drill when the strategy is well understood, the general approach for instruction is very similar.
Make Strategies Explicit in the Classroom
As has been discussed, your students will develop strategies as they solve word problems or as they investigate a category of facts you present. When a student suggests a new strategy, be certain that everyone else in the room understands how it is used. You can ask another student to explain what the student has just shared with the class. This requires students to attend to ideas that come from their classmates. Then, explore with the class to see what other facts would work with the student’s suggested strategy.
Don’t expect to have a strategy introduced and understood with just one word problem or one exposure such as this. Try on several successive days problems in which the same type of strategy might be used. Children need lots of opportunities to make a strategy their own. Many children will simply not be ready to use an idea the first few days, and then all of the sudden something will click and a useful idea will be theirs.
It is a good idea to write new strategies on the board or make a poster of strategies students develop. Give the strategies names that make sense. (Doubles and add on more set. Helen’s idea. Use with 3s. Include an example.)
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No student should be forced to adopt someone else’s strategy, but every student should
be required to understand strategies that are brought to the discussion.
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Drill Established Strategies
When you are comfortable that children are able to use a strategy without recourse to physical models and that they are beginning to use it mentally, it is time to drill it. You might have as many as ten different activities for each strategy or group of facts. File folder or boxed activities can be used by children individually, in pairs, or even in small groups. With a large number of activities, children can work on strategies they understand and on the facts that they need the most.
Flashcards are among the most useful approaches to fact strategy practice. For each strategy, make several sets of flash cards using all the facts that fit that strategy. On the cards, you can label the strategy or use drawings or cues to remind the children of the strategy.
Teaching Student Centered Mathematics K3 John Van De Walle Pages 9498
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Math Strategy Descriptions
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Description of Addition Math Fact Strategies
OneMoreThan and TwoMoreThan Facts This strategy is used for facts
that have a 1 or a 2 as one of it’s addends (example: 8 + 2). Out of the 100 addition facts students will learn, 36 fall under the onemorethan and twomorethan facts. In
these situations, students simply count up 1 or 2 from the greatest addend. be the only situation where students “count” to find their answer.
This should
Facts with Zero 19 facts have zero as one of the addends. Although these facts seem to be the simplest of all, some students will overgeneralize the idea that answers to addition are bigger. Putting these facts into real life situations oftentimes help the students to reinforce the zero rule.
Doubles There are only 10 doubles facts. These facts are relatively easy to learn and become a powerful way to learn many other facts. Examples of double facts include: 5 + 5, 3 + 3, 6 + 6. Dice from board games are good visuals to use to help students remember their double facts.
Near Doubles Near doubles are also called the “doublesplusone” facts and include all combinations where one addend is one more than the other. There are 18 of these facts. When students realize that these are facts that have addends with a difference of 1 (1 + 2), (3+ 4), (5 + 6) etc. they simply double the smaller addend and add 1.
Inside Doubles Inside doubles or “doubles plus two” facts focus on facts that have 2 addends that are separated by 2 numbers. Some examples are: (5 + 7), (4 + 6), (7+ 9). Once the students are able to recognize these facts, they are able to look at the number that falls between the 2 addends and double it to find the answer. For example: 5 + 7, the number that comes between the 2 numbers is 6. The student doubles the number to find the answer (6 + 6 = 12).
MakeTen Facts These facts all have at least one addend of 8 or 9. One strategy for these facts it to build onto the 8 or 9 and up to 10 and then add on the rest. For 6 + 8, start with 8, then 2 more makes 10, and that leaves 4 more for 14. Information gathered from
Teaching Student Centered Mathematics Grades K3, John Van De Walle
The attached parent letters can be used to communicate with parents about the various strategies. The second letter can be sent home with students as a homework guide. The first column can be used to show the level at which the child is currently working. Centers can be sent home as homework to support that particular strategy.
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Dear Parents, In the weeks to come, our class will be focusing on learning our addition and subtraction math facts. I wanted to make you aware of some of the strategies we will be using so that you can help to reinforce these same strategies at home.
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1. OneMoreThan and TwoMoreThan Facts This strategy is used for
facts that have a 1 or a 2 as one of it’s addends (example: 8 + 2). Out of the 100 addition facts students will learn, 36 fall under the one morethan and twomorethan facts. In these situations, students
simply count up 1 or 2 from the greatest addend.
only situation where students “count” to find their answer.
This should be the
2. Facts with Zero 19 facts have zero as one of the addends. Although these facts seem to be the simplest of all, some students will overgeneralize the idea that answers to addition are bigger. Putting these facts into real life situations oftentimes help the students to reinforce the zero rule.
3. Doubles There are only 10 doubles facts. These facts are relatively easy to learn and become a powerful way to learn many other facts. Examples of double facts include: 5 + 5, 3 + 3, 6 + 6. Dice from board games are good visuals to use to help students remember their double facts.
4. Near Doubles Near doubles are also called the “doublesplusone” facts and include all combinations where one addend is one more than the other. There are 18 of these facts. When students realize that these are facts that have addends with a difference of 1 (1 + 2), (3+ 4), (5 + 6) etc. they simply double the smaller addend and add 1.
5. Inside Doubles Inside doubles or “doubles plus two” facts focus on
Some
facts that have 2 addends that are separated by 2 numbers.
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examples are: (5 + 7), (4 + 6), (7+ 9). Once the students are able to recognize these facts, they are able to look at the number that falls between the 2 addends and double it to find the answer. For example:
5 + 7, the number that comes between the 2 numbers is 6. The student doubles the number to find the answer (6 + 6 = 12).
6. MakeTen Facts These facts all have at least one addend of 8 or 9. One strategy for these facts it to build onto the 8 or 9 and up to 10 and then add on the rest. For 6 + 8, start with 8, then 2 more makes 10, and that leaves 4 more for 14.
Subtraction facts prove to be more difficult than addition. This is especially true when children have been taught subtraction through a “countcountcount” approach; for 13 – 4, _{c}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{t} 13, _{c}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{t} _{o}_{f}_{f} 5, _{c}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{t} what’s left.
1. Subtraction as ThinkAddition The main strategy that will be used with subtraction facts is subtraction as “think addition”. When done in this thinkaddition manner, the child uses known addition facts to find the answer. When your child sees 9 – 4, you want them to think spontaneously, “Four and what makes nine?”
If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me. I look forward to working with you and your child on this new and exciting adventure!
Sincerely,
*Information gathered from Teaching Student Centered Mathematics Grades K3, John Van De Walle
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Dear Parents, We are continuing to practice our addition and subtraction math facts. Your child will be bringing home activities to help reinforce their current focus.
2009 ‐2010
Your child has mastered the following strategies (M). Your child is currently working on this strategy (C).
(M) 

Mastered 

(C) 

Currently 
Strategy and Description 

Working On 

OneMoreThan and TwoMoreThan Facts This strategy is used for facts that have a 1 or a 2 as one of it’s addends (example: 8 + 2). Out of the 100 addition facts students will learn, 36 fall under the onemorethan and two morethan facts. In these situations, students simply count up 1 or 2 from 

the greatest addend. 
This should be the only situation where students 

“count” to find their answer. 

Facts with Zero 19 facts have zero as one of the addends. Although these facts seem to be the simplest of all, some students will over generalize the idea that answers to addition are bigger. Putting these facts into real life situations oftentimes help the students to reinforce the zero rule. 

Doubles There are only 10 doubles facts. These facts are relatively easy to learn and become a powerful way to learn many other facts. Examples of double facts include: 5 + 5, 3 + 3, 6 + 6. Dice from board games are good visuals to use to help students remember their double facts. 

Near Doubles/Doubles + 1 Near doubles are also called the “doublesplus one” facts and include all combinations where one addend is one more than the other. There are 18 of these facts. When students realize that these are facts that have addends with a difference of 1 (1 + 2), (3+ 4), (5 + 6) etc. they simply double the smaller addend and add 1. 

Inside Doubles Inside doubles or “doubles plus two” facts focus on facts that have 2 addends that are separated by 2 numbers. Some examples are: 

(5 + 7), (4 + 6), (7+ 9). Once the students are able to recognize these facts, they are able to look at the number that falls between the 2 addends and double it to find the answer. For example: 5 + 7, the number that comes between the 2 numbers is 6. The student doubles the number to find the answer (6 + 6 = 12). 
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MakeTen Facts These facts all have at least one addend of 8 or 9. One strategy for these facts it to build onto the 8 or 9 and up to 10 and then add on the rest. For 6 + 8, start with 8, then 2 more makes 10, and that leaves 4 more for 14.
Subtraction as ThinkAddition The main strategy that will be used with subtraction facts is subtraction as “think addition”. When done in this think addition manner, the child uses known addition facts to find the answer. When your child sees 9 – 4, you want them to think spontaneously, “Four and what makes nine?”
Thank you for your support in this area.
Sincerely,
*Information gathered from Teaching Student Centered Mathematics Grades K3, John Van De Walle
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Math Fact Assessments
Developing fact fluency and quick recall of basic facts is very similar to being on a successful dieting program. In order to lose weight, you need to eat healthy, exercise regularly and assess your progress through weighing yourself on the scale. The same is true for developing fact fluency! Extensive amount of time needs to be spent working with and applying basic fact strategies, as well as reasoning and mental strategies. In order to determine the effectiveness, assessment plays a key role. In contrast, assessing continuously without more time spent developing strategies is ineffective. That is like a person who knows about the dieting program, doesn’t eat healthy or exercise, but constantly weighs themselves and wonders why they are not losing weight.
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Fact Strategy Assessments
2009 ‐2010
The attached fact strategy assessments and student tracking chart were developed so that teachers can diagnose which strategies the students have mastery of and which strategies still need to be explored.
These assessments should not be used as practice sheets. They should be used sparingly only to diagnose the strategies that students have and have not mastered.
There are two sets of assessments included in this packet. The first set focuses on one strategy per page. The second set includes all strategies in order starting with the most basic of strategies and working up to the most complex.
To determine time limits for each assessment, teachers should calculate 34 seconds per fact.
“If there is any defensible purpose for a timed test of basic facts it may be for diagnosis—to determine which combinations are mastered and which remain to be learned.”
Teaching Student Centered Mathematics
John A. Van De Walle Page 119
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Name
One More Than
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
2009 ‐2010
One More Than
Write the answers as fast as you can.
5 
+ 1 = 
4 + 1 = 
5 
+ 1 = 
4 + 1 = 
2 
+ 1 = 
1 + 1 = 
2 
+ 1 = 
1 + 1 = 
1 
+ 8 = 
1 + 7 = 
1 
+ 8 = 
1 + 7 = 
6 
+ 1 = 
3 + 1 = 
6 
+ 1 = 
3 + 1 = 
1 
+ 3 = 
1 + 9 = 
1 
+ 3 = 
1 + 9 = 
Name
One More Than
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
One More Than
Write the answers as fast as you can.
5 
+ 1 = 
4 + 1 = 
5 
+ 1 = 
4 + 1 = 
2 
+ 1 = 
1 + 1 = 
2 
+ 1 = 
1 + 1 = 
1 
+ 8 = 
1 + 7 = 
1 
+ 8 = 
1 + 7 = 
6 
+ 1 = 
3 + 1 = 
6 
+ 1 = 
3 + 1 = 
1 
+ 3 = 
1 + 9 = 
1 
+ 3 = 
1 + 9 = 
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Facts with Zero
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
2009 ‐2010
Facts with Zero
Write the answers as fast as you can.
5 
+ 0 = 
0 + 1 = 
5 
+ 0 = 
0 + 1 = 
0 
+ 2 = 
0 + 5 = 
0 
+ 2 = 
0 + 5 = 
8 
+ 0 = 
0 + 8 = 
8 
+ 0 = 
0 + 8 = 
4 
+ 0 = 
7 + 0 = 
4 
+ 0 = 
7 + 0 = 
0 
+ 6 = 
1 + 0 = 
0 
+ 6 = 
1 + 0 = 
Name
Facts with Zero
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
Facts with Zero
Write the answers as fast as you can.
5 
+ 0 = 
0 + 1 = 
5 
+ 0 = 
0 + 1 = 
0 
+ 2 = 
0 + 5 = 
0 
+ 2 = 
0 + 5 = 
8 
+ 0 = 
0 + 8 = 
8 
+ 0 = 
0 + 8 = 
4 
+ 0 = 
7 + 0 = 
4 
+ 0 = 
7 + 0 = 
0 
+ 6 = 
1 + 0 = 
0 
+ 6 = 
1 + 0 = 
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Two More Than
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
2009 ‐2010
Two More Than
Write the answers as fast as you can.
4 
+ 2 = 
1 + 2 = 
4 
+ 2 = 
1 + 2 = 
2 
+ 6 = 
2 + 2 = 
2 
+ 6 = 
2 + 2 = 
8 
+ 2 = 
2 + 3 = 
8 
+ 2 = 
2 + 3 = 
3 
+ 2 = 
7 + 2 = 
3 
+ 2 = 
7 + 2 = 
2 
+ 4 = 
2 + 9 = 
2 
+ 4 = 
2 + 9 = 
Name
Two More Than
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
Two More Than
Write the answers as fast as you can.
4 
+ 2 = 
1 + 2 = 
4 
+ 2 = 
1 + 2 = 
2 
+ 6 = 
2 + 2 = 
2 
+ 6 = 
2 + 2 = 
8 
+ 2 = 
2 + 3 = 
8 
+ 2 = 
2 + 3 = 
3 
+ 2 = 
7 + 2 = 
3 
+ 2 = 
7 + 2 = 
2 
+ 4 = 
2 + 9 = 
2 
+ 4 = 
2 + 9 = 
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Doubles
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
2009 ‐2010
Doubles
Write the answers as fast as you can.
2 
+ 2 = 
4 + 4 = 
2 
+ 2 = 
4 + 4 = 
5 
+ 5 = 
0 + 0 = 
5 
+ 5 = 
0 + 0 = 
1 
+ 1 = 
3 + 3 = 
1 
+ 1 = 
3 + 3 = 
6 
+ 6 = 
9 + 9 = 
6 
+ 6 = 
9 + 9 = 
8 
+ 8 = 
7 + 7 = 
8 
+ 8 = 
7 + 7 = 
Name
Doubles
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
Doubles
Write the answers as fast as you can.
2 
+ 2 = 
4 +4 = 
2 
+ 2 = 
4 +4 = 
5 
+ 5 = 
0 + 0 = 
5 
+ 5 = 
0 + 0 = 
1 
+ 1 = 
3 + 3 = 
1 
+ 1 = 
3 + 3 = 
6 
+ 6 = 
9 + 9 = 
6 
+ 6 = 
9 + 9 = 
8 
+ 8 = 
7 + 7 = 
8 
+ 8 = 
7 + 7 = 
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Doubles Plus One
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
2009 ‐2010
Doubles Plus One
Write the answers as fast as you can.
5 
+ 6 = 
6 + 7 = 
5 
+ 6 = 
6 + 7 = 

5 
+ 4 = 
6 + 5 = 
5 
+ 4 = 
6 + 5 = 

8 
+ 7 = 
9 + 8 
= 
8 
+ 7 = 
9 + 8 
= 
7 
+ 6 = 
4 + 5 = 
7 
+ 6 = 
4 + 5 = 

8 
+ 9 = 
7 + 8 = 
8 
+ 9 = 
7 + 8 = 
Name
Doubles Plus One
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
Doubles Plus One
Write the answers as fast as you can.
5 
+ 6 = 
6 + 7 = 
5 
+ 6 = 
6 + 7 = 

5 
+ 4 = 
6 + 5 = 
5 
+ 4 = 
6 + 5 = 

8 
+ 7 = 
9 + 8 
= 
8 
+ 7 = 
9 + 8 
= 
7 
+ 6 = 
4 + 5 = 
7 
+ 6 = 
4 + 5 = 

8 
+ 9 = 
7 + 8 = 
8 
+ 9 = 
7 + 8 = 
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Inside Doubles Doubles +2 Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
2009 ‐2010
Inside Doubles Doubles +2 Write the answers as fast as you can.
5 
+ 7 = 
6 + 8 = 
5 
+ 7 = 
6 + 8 = 

5 
+ 3 = 
6 + 4 = 
5 
+ 3 = 
6 + 4 = 

8 
+ 6 = 
6 + 8 
= 
8 
+ 6 = 
6 + 8 
= 
7 
+ 9 = 
4 + 6 = 
7 
+ 9 = 
4 + 6 = 

3 
+ 5 = 
7 + 5 = 
3 
+ 5 = 
7 + 5 = 

Name 
Name 
Inside Doubles Doubles +2 Write the answers as fast as you can.
Inside Doubles Doubles +2 Write the answers as fast as you can.
5 
+ 7 = 
6 + 8 = 
5 
+ 7 = 
6 + 8 = 

5 
+ 3 = 
6 + 4 = 
5 
+ 3 = 
6 + 4 = 

8 
+ 6 = 
6 + 8 
= 
8 
+ 6 = 
6 + 8 
= 
7 
+ 9 = 
4 + 6 = 
7 
+ 9 = 
4 + 6 = 

3 
+ 5 = 
7 + 5 = 
3 
+ 5 = 
7 + 5 = 
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Making Ten
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Name
2009 ‐2010
Making Ten
Write the answers as fast as you can.
9 
+ 5 = 
8 + 5 = 
9 
+ 5 = 
8 + 5 = 
4 
+ 8 = 
4 + 9 = 
4 
+ 8 = 
4 + 9 = 
9 
+ 4 = 
9 + 6 = 
9 
+ 4 = 
9 + 6 = 
8 
+ 4 = 
5 + 9 = 
8 
+ 4 = 
5 + 9 = 
6 
+ 9 = 
5 + 8 = 
6 
+ 9 = 
5 + 8 = 
Name 
Name 
Making Ten
Write the answers as fast as you can.
Making Ten
Write the answers as fast as you can.
9 
+ 5 = 
8 + 5 = 
9 
+ 5 = 
8 + 5 = 
4 
+ 8 = 
4 + 9 = 
4 
+ 8 = 
4 + 9 = 
9 
+ 4 = 
9 + 6 = 
9 
+ 4 = 
9 + 6 = 
8 
+ 4 = 
5 + 9 = 
8 
+ 4 = 
5 + 9 = 
6 
+ 9 = 
5 + 8 = 
6 
+ 9 = 
5 + 8 = 
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Student Tracking Chart
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Name Write the answer as fast as you can.
(1)
9 
+ 1= 
1 
+ 5= 
2 
+ 4= 
2 
+ 6= 
3 
+ 2= 
1 
+ 4= 
1 
+ 8= 
2 
+ 9= 
0 
+ 2= 
7 
+ 2 = 
Name Write the answer as fast as you can.
(3)
6 
+ 7= 
4 
+ 5= 
5 
+ 6= 
6 
+ 5= 
8 
+ 7= 
8 
+ 9= 
7 
+ 8= 
5 
+ 4= 
7 
+ 6= 
9 
+ 8= 
Name Write the answer as fast as you can.
(2)
1 
+ 1= 
8 
+ 8= 
4 
+ 4= 
5 
+ 5= 
9 
+ 9= 
7 
+ 7= 
6 
+ 6= 
2 
+ 2= 
3 
+ 3= 
0 
+ 0 
Name Write the answer as fast as you can.
_{(}_{4}_{)}
5 
+ 7= 
6 
+ 8= 
5 
+ 3= 
6 
+ 4= 
8 
+ 6= 
7 
+ 9= 
4 
+ 6= 
3 
+ 5= 
7 
+ 5= 
1 
+ 3= 
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Name Write the answer as fast as you can.
(5)
5 
+ 8= 
9 
+ 5= 
9 
+ 6= 
8 
+ 4= 
4 
+ 9= 
9 
+ 2= 
3 
+ 8= 
6 
+ 9= 
4 
+ 9 = 
9 
+ 3= 
Name Write the answer as fast as you can.
(7)
2 
– 1 = 
16 
– 8 = 
8 
– 4 = 
10 
– 5 = 
18 – 9 = 
14 
– 7 = 

12 – 6 = 
4 – 2 = 

6 
– 3 = 
10 
– 5 = 
Name Write the answer as fast as you can.
(6)
10 – 1 = 
6 
– 5 = 

6 
– 4 = 
8 
– 6 = 
5 
– 2 = 
5 
– 4 = 
9 
– 8 = 
11 – 9 = 

2 
– 2 = 
9 
– 2 = 
Name Write the answer as fast as you can.
(8)
13 
– 7 = 
9 – 5 = 

11 
– 6 = 
11 
– 5 = 
15 
– 7 = 
17 
– 9 = 
17 
– 8 = 
9 – 4 = 

13 
– 6 = 
15 
– 8 = 
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Name
Write the answer as fast as you can.
(9)
12 
– 7 = 
14 
– 8 = 
8 – 3 = 
10 
– 4= 

14 
– 6 = 
16 
– 9 = 
10 
– 6 = 
8 – 5 = 

12 
– 5 = 
4 – 3 = 
Name Write the answer as fast as you can.
(10)
13 
– 8= 
14 
– 5= 
15 
– 6= 
12 
– 4 = 
13 
– 9 = 
11 
– 2= 
11 
– 8 = 
15 
– 9= 
13 
– 9= 
12 
– 3= 
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Grade Level Expectations
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Grade Level Expectations for Facts 

Kindergarten 
Kindergarten students begin to explore addition and subtraction during Unit 3 instruction. There should be no formal instruction with fact strategies. However, if a strategy emerges, teachers should openly discuss the strategy with the group. 
Students continue to develop meaning for addition and subtraction. 

Specific addition and subtraction strategy instruction begins during Unit 2. 

Grade 1 
A focus on strategies continues throughout the remainder of the year. 
Students use strategies to solve basic addition and subtraction facts. 

Students should be proficient with basic addition and subtraction facts by the end of the 2 ^{n}^{d} grade. 

Students are introduced to basic multiplication at the end of 2 ^{n}^{d} grade. 

Grade 2 
By the end of Grade 2, students should have mastered levels 15 of the basic math fact assessments. 
Grade 3 
Addition and Subtraction fact remediation/intervention begins with Unit 1 instruction. Third grade students are not formally introduced to multiplication and division facts until the beginning of December. This provides an opportunity for teachers to focus on addition and subtraction facts before students are formally introduced to multiplication and division. 
Students continue to explore and gain proficiency with multiplication and division facts throughout the remainder of the year. 

Students devote time to reviewing the basic multiplication and division facts. 

Grade 4 
Students should be proficient with basic multiplication and division facts by the end of the year. 
By the end of Grade 4, students should have mastered levels 610 of the basic math fact assessments. 

Interventions should be made for students still struggling with the basic facts. 

Grade 5 
Interventions should be made for students still struggling with the basic facts. 
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Addition and Subtraction Math Facts Roll Out in the Primary Grades (12 Grade)
This lesson was used with grade 2 students. This is an example of how teachers can work with students in the early grades to develop fact strategies.
Doubles + 1 TSW indentify efficient ways to solve addition facts.
Curricular Connection:

6.C.1.a (1 ^{s}^{t} Grade) Develop strategies for addition and subtraction basic facts such as: counting on, counting back, making ten, doubles, and doubles plus one 

6.C.1.a (2 ^{n}^{d} Grade) Demonstrate proficiency with addition and subtraction basic facts using a variety of strategies. 
Materials: 
Linker Cubes (1 base taped together for each child plus 20 additional cubes)
Number Cube Train Story Problem Sheet
Number Cube Train Response Sheet (3 half sheets stapled together)
Number Cube Exit Slip
Variety of addition fact cards
Marker
Chart Paper
Tape
Let’s Practice the Facts Center Activity
Procedures:
1. Introduce the students to the objective: Today we are going to look for easy ways to solve addition facts.
2. Display a variety of math fact cards for the students to view. Ask the students to choose a card and have them explain how they would solve that particular fact. Chart this information.
3. Tell the students that they will explore new strategies by solving story problems and looking for connections among the facts.
4. Students will choose 3 story problems to solve, build the number train to represent the number expression, and think of a way that that you could easily solve these facts.
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5. When they finish this exploration time, the partners should record how they would solve these facts on a sentence strip.
6. Bring the students back together. Collect 1 of their pictorial representations of their number train. Talk about what all the number trains have in common. Display the sentence strips. Engage students in conversations about how they would easily solve these facts.
7. Exit Ticket
Assessment and Evaluation:
Teacher Observation
Evaluation of partner work and exit slip
Fast Finishers: Let’s Practice the Facts Center Activity
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Addition and Subtraction Math Facts Roll Out in the Intermediate Grades (3 ^{r}^{d} Grade)
The following pages include notes and insights from a teacher’s experience with addition and subtraction math facts in the third grade setting. This account provides insight to intermediate teachers for how to address addition and subtraction facts in grades 3 – 5.
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Addition and Subtraction Math Facts Roll Out in the Intermediate Grades (3 ^{r}^{d} Grade)
2009 ‐2010
Date 
Description 

I decided I needed to take some time to work with the addition and 

Early September 
subtraction fact program outside of the primary setting. In the primary grades students were beginning to explore with these strategies and so the explorative lessons provided in the packet for each strategy proved to be a good starting point. However, I realized that by the time students reached the 3 ^{r}^{d} grade many students had a familiarity with the strategies but still struggled with fluency of the basic facts. So, I contacted a willing 3 ^{r}^{d} grade teacher and began to think about how things would roll out in a 3 ^{r}^{d} , 4 ^{t}^{h} , or 5 ^{t}^{h} grade classroom. I consider this approach to be more of an intervention with facts considering the expectation is that 2 ^{n}^{d} 

graders maintain fluency of the basic facts (+/) by the time they leave 2 ^{n}^{d} grade. 

When I began my work with the 3 ^{r}^{d} grade my goal was to have all students fluent by the time they began Unit 3 instruction (November 

22 
^{n}^{d} ) the multiplication/division unit. I was even hoping to have some 

students beyond +/ and moving into beginning explorations with x/ . 

decided the first thing I needed to do with the group of students was to assess their level of fact fluency. Perhaps I would be surprised at the level of fluency they maintained. So, although not a “set the world on fireget to know the class activity” I decided to make a packet of mini assessments to test the entire group on specific strategies (See Appendix). I labeled each assessment with a number instead of the I 

strategy: 

(1) one more than two more than 

Tuesday 
(2) doubles 

September 9, 2008 
(3) doubles + 1 (4) inside doubles (5) making ten 

(approximately 30 minutes) 
(6) thinkadditi on, one more than two more than 

(7) thinkaddition, doubles 

(8) thinkaddition, doubles + 1 

(9) thinkaddition, inside doubles 

(10) think addition, making ten 

I gave students 35 seconds (10 facts on each sheet x 3 seconds = 30 

seconds per assessment + an extra five seconds to get them started) from the time I said “go” to complete each assessment. When I called “time” it was understood that all pencils needed to go down on their desks. I only required students to work through level “8” because it was obvious that students were slowing down and not finishing the levels. I was prepared to give the multiplication/division preassessments if the class seemed as though they needed to move to that level. I thought perhaps some students would be ready to move onto multiplication and division since they were exposed to these operations in 2 ^{n}^{d} grade. 

I must admit, prior to entering the classroom, I was dreading giving the 
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September 9,
2008
(continued)
Wednesday
September 10,
2008
Thursday September 11,
2008
Tuesday
September 16,
2008
(1 hour class session)
Friday September 19,
students the packet of assessments. I was thinking that they were going to be really annoyed to have to work on this many facts and would kindly request that I never come back to their classroom again. However, the students really surprised me. They were enthusiastic and excited to “show me what they knew” about their basic facts. No one cried or begged not to continue. It really turned out to be a positive experience.
I
graded all of the assessment packets and determined a level for each
student. I allowed 1 mistake or 1 fact that was not completed to achieve mastery of a particular level. My first “time to think” moment occurred when students mastered a higher level of strategy and missed a lower level. For example, a student mastered doubles but not +1, + 2. Because the strategies run as part of a hierarchy this caused me to take pause and think about how to handle this. I decided that I would record the mastery for doubles on my assessment grid but have the student start with the lowest level. Then, when they mastered that level they would move past the doubles and onto the next level that they didn’t master. I recorded the results on the grid in the appendix. Teachers may have a better way to organize this data but for me this has worked well (so far). (See Appendix)
Using the data grid, I determined a strategy level for each student. Because this classroom already had fact practice as part of their daily homework, I decided to make up takehome center bags for each student for the strategy that they are working on. I included a parent letter (see
appendix), list of facts for that particular level (see appendix), a few games, and strategy flash cards for each bag (all items came from the fact packet).
I
returned to the classroom today with fact bags in hand excited to share
the activities with students. Before I handed out the bags I wanted to review the strategies. I went back through the hierarchy, provided a brief explanation and asked students to help me come up with facts that fit into each strategy. Then I passed out one flashcard (two sided commercial cards) to each student. I hung strategy cards around the room (151157) and asked the students to scatter to their corner. When they arrived there they were supposed to solve the fact and describe how they did it. Then, I asked them to move, if they could to another strategy card that helped them to solve their fact in a different way. Students who couldn’t move flipped their card to the other side to move to a different card. After we had plenty of time to reacquaint with the strategies I paired students up with a student focusing on the same strategy and passed out the bags and asked them to play a game from the bag. Students did a great job of reading the directions and playing their game with their partners. They were thrilled to be able to take the bags home to play with their parents. I told them to bring them back every day so that we would have them at school if we had some extra time to practice the facts.
Prior to arriving in the classroom I prepared a fact assessment for each child for the level they were working on throughout the week. I went ahead and made 50 copies of the original packet that I used originally to
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2008 
assess the students. I organized the assessments into levels and put them into a file box so that I could easily access the assessments each week. Gave the assessments for 35 seconds. Collected assessments and the strategy bags. 
(10 minutes) 

Sunday September 21, 
First thing I did was grade each assessment and recorded it on the grid. Then, I pulled all the parent letters out of each bag. I recorded “mastery” or “currently working on” on the parent letter. Then, I placed the letter into the appropriate strategy bag for that particular student. The student will work on this bag throughout the week. 
2008 

(15 minutes) 

Friday 
I will go back into the classroom every Friday to assess the students and rearrange the bags. 
September 26, 

2008 

(15 minutes) 
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One More Than Two More Than Facts
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OneMoreThan and TwoMoreThan Facts
2009 ‐2010
This strategy is used for facts that have a 1 or a 2 as one of it’s addends (example: 8 + 2). Out of the 100 addition facts students will learn, 36 fall under the onemorethan and twomorethan facts. In these situations,
students simply count up 1 or 2 from the greatest addend.
the only situation where students “count” to find their answer.
This should be
+ 
0 
1 2 
3 4 
5 
6 
7 
8 9 

0 
1 2 

1 
1 
2 3 
4 5 
6 
7 
8 
9 10 

2 
2 
3 4 
5 6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

3 
4 5 

4 
5 6 

5 
6 7 

6 
7 8 

7 
8 9 

8 
9 10 

9 
10 
11 
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OneMoreThan and TwoMoreThan Facts
Beginning Exploration
Ten Black Dots
Written by: Donald Crews
TSW solve a variety of addition facts with an addend of 1 or 2. TSW will identify similarities among the word problems and determine a rule to help solve these problems.
C.C. 6.C.1.a (1st Grade)
Materials:
Ten Black Dots, written by Donald Crews (1 ^{s}^{t} Grade Marilyn Burns Library)
Nine transparent containers for each pair of students
45 counters for each pair of students
Procedures:
1. Collect nine transparent containers. Clear cups labeled 09 would be an appropriate choice for this activity. With the help of the students, begin to line the cups up in order from 09. Ask the students questions such as How many bottles do I have now? How do
you know? Because I counted 3. What cup should be placed next? The four. How do you
know? Because 4 comes after 3. Continue this process until all the cups are lined up in the appropriate sequence.
2. Start this activity by reading a counting book to the students. Choose a book that
focuses on the sequence 010. This lesson uses the book Ten Black Dots by Donald Crews. However, any counting book can be used. If you choose a different book, you will need to alter the story problems for the students to explore. As you read, ask
volunteers to drop the number of counters into each cup as you read about that particular number.
3. At the end of the story, share some simple addition stories with the students. (See
examples on the attached page.) Students may build their own sets of cups to have available to them as they solve the problems.
4. Students will choose 3 or 4 stories from the attached sheet to solve. They will write a
number sentence to represent the story. Then, they will describe how they would solve the problem. Finally, they will look for similarities among the number sentences
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5. Bring the students together and discuss what they discovered throughout the
activity. Chart the variety of strategies they discussed. If the opportunity warrants it, name the strategy
2009 ‐2010
A/E Teacher Observation, Evaluation of Classwork and Exit Slip
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Ten Black Dots
Name
Directions: Choose three number stories. Use your numbered cups to solve the story problem. Answer the questions.
2 dots can make the eyes of keys that open locks. If we added 2 more dots how many dots would there be?
3 dots can make a snowman’s face. If we added 2 more dots to the face how many dots would there be?
4 dots can make seeds from which flowers grow. If we added 1 dot, how many
seeds would there be?
5 dots can make buttons on a coat. If we added 1 dot, how many buttons would
there be?
6 dots can make marbles that you hold. If we added 2 marbles, how many buttons would there be?
7 dots can make the spots on a snake. If we added 1 dot, how many dots would
there be?
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Draw a picture of your story problem here. 
How would you solve this sentence? 
What is the same about all of these number trains? 
Draw a picture of your story problem here. 
How would you solve this sentence? 

Draw a picture of your story problem here. 
How would you solve this sentence? 
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Ten Black Dots
Exit Ticket
Name
Write a different expression that could be solved in the same way that you solved the other three number expressions. Use words, numbers, or symbols to explain your thinking.
Ten Black Dots
Exit Ticket Name
Write a different expression that could be solved in the same way that you solved the other three number expressions. Use words, numbers, or symbols to explain your thinking.
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OneMoreThan and TwoMoreThan Facts Flip CardsPictorial
Copy the attached pages onto cardstock. Cut out the set of cards. Select a card. Fold back the flap that shows one dot so that students cannot see the dot. Ask the students to tell you how many dots they see. Counting should not be encouraged. Then fold the flap forward and ask the students to tell you how many dots there are in all. Always start with the larger number on the right so that students realize the importance of always starting with the largest addend.
OneMoreThan and TwoMoreThan Facts Flip CardsAbstract
Once the students have mastered the pictorial version of the flip cards, move onto the flip cards with the numeric digit.
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