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Introduction:

Size reduction is a fundamental unit operation having important applications in pharmacy. It helps in improving solubility and bioavailability, reducing toxicity, enhancing release and providing better formulation opportunities for drugs. In most of the cases, size reduction is limited to micron size range, for example, various pharmaceutical dosage forms like powder, emulsion, suspension etc. Drugs in the nanometer size range enhance performance in a variety of dosage forms. Advantages of nanosizing (i) increased surface area, (ii) enhanced solubility, (iii) increased rate of dissolution, (iv) increased oral bioavailability, (v) more rapid onset of therapeutic action, (vi) less amount of dose required, (vii) decreased fed/fasted variability, (viii) decreased patient-to-patient variability.

Nanotechnology is the study, design,creation, synthesis, manipulation, andapplication of materials, devices, andsystems at the nanometer scale (Onemeter consists of 1 billion nanometers).

Pharmaceutical Systems

Nanotechnology

Based

Pharmaceutical nanotechnology provides two basic types of nanotools viz. nanomaterials and nanodevices, which play a key role in realm of pharmaceutical nanotechnology and related fields. Nanomaterialsare biomaterials used, for example, in orthopedic or dental implants or as scaffolds for tissue-engineered products. Their surface modifications or coatings might greatly enhance the biocompatibility by favoring the interaction of living cells with the biomaterial. These materials can be sub classified into nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials. Nanocrystalline materials are readily manufactured and can substitute the less performing bulk materials. Raw nanomaterials can be used in drug encapsulation, bone replacements, prostheses (artificial mechanical devices to replace body parts lost in injury and or by birth e.g. artificial limbs, facial prosthetics and neuroprosthetics etc.), and implants. Nanostructured materials are processed forms of raw nanomaterials that provide special shapes or functionality, for example quantum dots, dendrimers, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. Nanodevicesare miniature devices in the nanoscale and some of which include nano- and micro-electromechanical systems (NEMS/ MEMS), microfluidics(control and manipulation of micro or nanolitre of fluids), and microarrays(different kind of biological assay e.g. DNA, protein, cell, and antibody ). Examples include biosensors and detectors to detect trace quantities of bacteria, airborne pathogens, biological hazards, and disease signatures and some intelligent machines like respirocytes

Table: 2 Brief descriptions of nanosystems (Nahar et al., 2006) Types Nanosystems Polymeric nanoparticles of Size 10-1000 nm Characteristics Biocompatible, biodegradable, offer complete Applications

Excellent carrier controlled sustained delivery drugs. and modified nanoparticles can be used for active and passive delivery of bioactives. of Stealth surface for and

drug protection

Nanocrystals Quantum dots

29.5 nm

Semi conducting material synthesized with III-V element; ; narrow UV II-VI

Long multiple cell;

term color DNA

imaging of liver and hybridization, Size receptor Bright endocytosis; labeling breast of cancer HeR
2

column immunoassay;

between 10-100 mediated fluorescence,

emission, Broad marker

excitation surface and high photo cancer cells stability

of

Carbon nanotubes

0.53 nm diameter and 201000 nm length

Dendrimer

<10 nm

Third allotropic crystalline form of carbon sheets either single layer (single walled nanotube, SWNT) or multiple layer (multi-walled nanotube, MWNT). These crystals have remarkable strength and unique electrical properties (conducting, semi conducting, or insulating) Highly branched, nearly monodisperse produced controlled polymerization; three parts branch surface

Functionalizatio n enhanced to solubility, penetration cell as cytoplasm carrier for

and to nucleus, gene delivery,

peptide delivery

Long circulatory, controlled delivery of

polymer system bioactives, by targeted delivery bioactives main macrophages, core, liver targeting and of to

Metallic nanoparticles

<100 nm

Gold and silver Drug and gene colloids, small very delivery, highly size sensitive

resulting in high diagnostic

surface available n, stable Polymeric micelles 10-100nm Block

area assays, thermal for ablation and radiotherapy enhancement Long circulatory, target high active passive delivery, diagnostic value Long circulatory, offer delivery peptide passive active of protein, and good and specific and drug

functionalizatio

amphiphiliccop olymer micelles, drug entrapment, payload, biostability

Liposome

50-100 nm

Phospholipid vesicles, biocompatible, versatile, entrapment easy

efficiency, offer gene,

various.other malignant cells

Engineering of Pharmaceutical Nanosystems


Most of the nanosystems discussed above are not very efficient in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to non-specific uptake by reticulo endothelial system (RES); opsonization, aggregation and poor biocompatibility associated with them. However, manipulations in their size and surface by biocompatible polymers, hydrophilic polymers and some site-specific ligands render them efficient delivery vehicle for various drugs and utilized for various biomedical applications. Some examples of such manipulations are discussed below.

1 Functional nanosystems: Modification in properties by incorporation, adsorption or covalent coupling by moieties like polymers and/or ligands to nanoparti cles surface is known as surface functionalization. Some commonly used tools for surface modification are polymers, carbohydrates, endogenous substances/ligands, peptide, protein, nucleic acid and polysaccharides. These tools make the nanosystemsa intelligent tools and confer a large varieties of properties like higher biostability, lower aggregation and high target specificity in comparison to conventional nanosystems. Various nanosystems like polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots etc. have been successfully functionalized for efficient use in biomedical area.

2 Multifunctional nanosystems:

Multifunctional nanosystems could be developed in following ways: a.Multifunctionality imparted to core: Simultaneous delivery of two or more therapeutic active moieties, Containing contrast enhancer; and Containing permeation enhancer b.Multifunctioality imparted to surface: Steric stabilization by PEG(poly ethylene glycol) in order to modify circulation time, and Use of targeting moiety c. Multfunctionality imparted to material: By use of thermal sensitive, pH and stimuli sensitive biomaterials.

25 Ways Nanotechnology is Revolutionizing Medicine


Technology is shrinking at a rather rapid rate. As a result, more and more advancements are taking place at the cellular, molecular and atomic level at the nanoscale. With scientific understanding growing, it is becoming possible to engineer the smallest devices and applications to help in a variety of fields. One of the fields that is likely to benefit greatly from nanotechnology is medicine. Nanotechnology is especially important to medicine because the medical field deals with things on the smallest of levels. Additionally, the small nano devices that are being developed right now can enter the body and look around in ways that large humans can only dream of. Here are 25 ways that nanotechnology is revolutionizing medicine:

Nanobots:
These devices have great potential for medical uses. These smallest of robots could be used to perform a number of functions inside the body, and out. They could even be programmed to build other nanobots, increasing cost efficiency. Device that uses nanobots to monitor the sugar level in the blood. 1. Nanocomputers: In order to direct nanobots in their work, special computers will need to be built. Efforts to create nanocomputers, as well as the movement toward quantum computing, are likely to continue to provide new processes and possibilities for the science of medicine.

2. Cell repair: Damage to the cells of the body can be very difficult to repair. Cells are so incredibly small. But nanotechnology could provide a way to get around this. Small nanobots or other devices could be used to manipulate molecules and atoms on an individual level, repairing cells.

3. Cancer treatment: There are hopes that the use of nanotechnology could help in cancer treatment. This is because the small, specialized functions of some nanodevices could be directed more precisely at cancer cells. Current technology damages the healthy cells surrounding cancer cells, as well as destroying the undesirables. With nanotechnology, it is possible that cancer cells could be targeted an destroyed with almost no damage to surrounding healthy tissue.

4. Aging: Nano devices could be used to erase some of the signs of aging. Already, laser technology can reduce the appearance of age lines, spots and wrinkles. With the help of powerful nanotechnology, it is possible that these signs could be done away with completely.

5. Heart disease: There is a possibility that nanobots could perform a number of heart related functions in the body. The repair of damaged heart tissue is only one possibility. Another option is to use nano devices to clean out arteries, helping unclog those that have buildup due to cholesterol and other problems.

6. Implanting devices: Instead of implanting devices as we have seen in some cases, it might be possible to send a nanobot to build the necessary structures inside the body.

7. Virtual reality: Doctors could explore the body more readily with the help of a nanobot injection. Creating a virtual reality that would help medical professionals and others learn could help make some operations more real and provide practice ahead of time.

8. Gene therapy: Nanotechnology would be small enough to enter the body and even redesign the genome. This would be a way to alter a number of conditions and diseases. However, the human genome would need to be understood a little better for truly advanced gene therapy. However, nanobots would be qualified for swapping abnormal genes with normal genes and performing other functions.

9. Drug delivery: Systems that automate drug delivery can help increase the consistency associated with providing medication to those who need it. Drug delivery systems can be regulated using nanotechnology to ensure that certain types of medications are released at the proper time, and without the human error that comes with forgetting to take something.

10.Nanotweezers: These devices are designed to manipulate nanostructures. These can be used to move nano devices around in the body, or position them prior to insertion. Nanotweezers are usually constructed using nanotubes.

11.Stem cells: Nanotechnology can actually help adult stem cells morph into the types of cells that are actually needed. Studies showing how nanotubes can help adult stem cells turn into function neurons in brain damaged rats.

12.Bone repair: It is possible to accelerate bone repair using nanotechnology. Nanoparticles made up of different chemical compositions can help knit bones back together, and can even help in some cases of spinal cord injury.

13.Imaging: Nanotechnology can provide advancements in medical imaging by allowing a very specific and intimate peek into the body. Nano devices result in molecular imaging that can lead to better diagnosis of a variety of diseases and conditions.

14.Diabetes: Instead of having to draw blood to test blood sugar level, nanotechnology is providing a way for diabetics to use lenses to check their blood sugar. These nanocomposite contact lenses actually change color to indicate blood sugar level.

15.Surgery: We already have robotic surgeons in some cases, but nanosurgery is possible using some lasers, as well as nano devices that can be programmed to perform some surgical functions. Being able to perform surgery at the smallest level can have a number of benefits for long term medicine.

16.Seizures: There are nanochips being developed to help control seizures. These chips are meant to analyze brain signals, and then do what is needed to adjust the brain so that epilepsy could be better controlled.

17.Sensory feedback: For those who have lost feeling in their body, it is possible to use nanotechnology to increase sensory feedback. Nanochips provide the opportunity for electrical impulses to be intercepted and interpreted.

18.Limb control: Prosthetics continue to advance, and nanotechnology is likely to help revolutionize the way paralysis is handled. There are some attempts to use nanochips that can help those who have lost limb control use their minds to send signals to provide a certain amount of motion.

19.Medical monitoring: You might be able to increase your ability to monitor your own body systems with the help of nanotechnology. Small nanochips implanted in your body could monitor your health and systems, and then send you feedback to your computer or other device.

20.Medical records: In addition to monitoring your own body systems, nanotech can be used to send information to your health care providers, and increase the efficiency of electronic medical records.

21.Disease prevention: Having a nano device in your body could actually help prevent diseases. With proper programming, it should be possible to help you avoid some diseases, repairing problems before they become serious issues. They may even be able to help prevent chronic diseases.

22.Prenatal: There are a number of ways that nanotechnology can help in terms of prenatal diagnosis. Being able to get inside the uterus and even inside the fetus without causing trauma can be beneficial to prenatal health, and nanotechnology can also help potentially repair problems in the womb.

23.Individual medicine: Nanotechnology is moving toward making medicine more personal. Being able to accurately work up your genome can help health providers more precisely pinpoint the

proper treatments and tweak a treatment plan according to your individual needs and responses. 24.Research: Nanotechnology is advancing medical research, providing the tools that can help us learn more about the body and how it functions, as well as providing insight into chemistry and physics, which provide the building blocks for the body. Ref (mritechnicianschools.net)

Applications of nanotechnology

1. Drug delivery
One application of nanotechnology in medicine currently being developed involves employing nanoparticles to deliver drugs, heat, light or other substances to specific types of cells (such as cancer cells). Particles are engineered so that they are attracted to diseased cells, which allows direct treatment of those cells. This technique reduces damage to healthy cells in the body and allows for earlier detection of disease. Ref(understandingnano.com) Examples Nanoparticles
o

The nanoparticle carrying the TNF tends to accumulate in cancer tumors but does not appear to accumulate in other regions of the body, which limits the toxic effects of TNF on healthy cells. CytImmune uses a combination of two techniques to target the TNF-carrying nanoparticle to cancer tumors. First, the nanoparticle is designed to be too big to exit most healthy blood vessels, however some blood vessels located at the site of tumors are leaky, allowing the nanoparticle to exit the

blood vessel at the tumor site. The second technique involves the TNF molecules binding to the tumor. The fact that they had to get all these details right, determine the right size, a way to hide the nanoparticle from the immune system as well as choosing a targeting molecule to bind to the cancer turmor, gives you some idea as to why it has taken a while to go from research concept to clinical testing. TNF has been shown to be most effective when administered with other chemotherapy drugs.Therefore, now that the phase 1 trial involving 16 patients is over, CytImmune is planning a phase 2 trial with Aurmine combined with other chemotherapy drugs. They are also performing pre-clinical testing of another combination in which TNF, PEG-THIOL and a chemotherapy drug called paclitaxel is bound to the surface of the nanoparticle. Three other treatments are under development using nanoparticles combined with TNF and other chemotherapy drugs. It will take a while to bring these treatments through all the phases required for qualification with the FDA, however it is exciting that they have progressed from the realm of research papers to trials that will lead to targeted treatment for patients. Ref (Understandingnnano.com)

Oral shots If you hate getting shots, you'll be glad to hear that oral administration of drugs that currently are delivered by injection may be possible in many cases. The drug is encapsulated in a nanoparticle which helps it pass through the stomach to deliver the drug into the bloodstream. There are efforts underway to develop oral administration of several different drugs using a variety of nanoparticles. A company which has progressed to the clinical testing stage with a drug for treating systemic fungal diseases is

BioDelivery Sciences, which is using a nanoparticle called a cochleate.

BioDelivery Sciences Announces Initial Results of Phase 1 Clinical Study of Bioral Amphotericin B

BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc. (Nasdaq: BDSI) announced initial results of a Phase 1 study assessing the tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of Bioral Amphotericin B, BDSIs lead product candidate utilizing the companys Bioral drug delivery technology. The patented bioral drug delivery technology encapsulatetes a drug(inthis case , anti fungal agent amphotericin B)in a lipid crystal to facilitate the oral administration of drugs otherwise given by injection . Amphotericin B is widelyused for the treatment of various systemic fungal infections such as candidiasis .its use is limited by its availability only as an intravenous product . Encapsulation of amphotericin B with the Bioralteschnology provides a potential opportunity to administer the drug orally Forty eight healthy voulunterrs participated in a study, with sixteen recruited for each of three groups .in each group , twelve volunteers received a single dose of Bioral Amphotericin B and four received a placebo. Amphotericin B plasma concentrations were measured over a period of fourteen days. The study identified doses that were well tolerated with no meaningful changes in laboratory safety valuesincluding those associated with renal functions The preliminary pharmacokinetic evaluation also revealed that plasma concentrations were comparable to those seen in prior animal toxicology studies using the same formulations. In previous animal studies conducted by BDSI, doses used in toxicolosy studies have been shown to produce measureable tissue concentrations and efficacy against fungal infections candidiasis and aspergillosis this study provides the impotant initial support for us to progress the clinical development of BioralAmpjotericin B said David Blum, MD, Vice president of Clinical Reasearch and Medical Affairs of BDSI.We plan to conduct additional pharmacokinetic studies in

healthy Voulunteers followed by Phase 2 studies in infected patients. Additionally, we look forward to presenting the detailed results of this study at an upcoming scientific meeting

Polymer Nanoparticle for Oral Anticancer Drug Delivery

One of the problems that cancer patients face is that many of the most potent anticancer therapies can be administered only by injection, which means that cancer patients must travel to receive their medication. But thanks to a new type of nanoparticle developed by researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, future cancer patients may be able to receive their medication in pill form.

The result of nearly a decade of research and development, CytImmune scientists have engineered a variety of new nano-scale drug entities, formulating the optimal structures for binding potent anti-cancer agents which synergize with TNFs biological actions to its core platform. To preserve the commercial value of CytImmunes product pipeline, each successive development program builds upon previous discoveries and attacks cancer with unique mechanisms of action. CytImmunes lead clinical compound, Aurimune (CYT-6091), and earlier stage candidates have the potential to be used in multiple

types of solid tumors -- either as monotherapies or in combination with existing standards of care -- as its therapies are independent of tumor specific biochemistry and, therefore, do not depend on the type of cancer treated. CytImmuneintends to bring Aurimune(CYT-6091) and earlier stage drug candidates through the FDA regulatory process and enter into strategic relationships with major pharmaceutical companies for territories outside North America. The Company has more than 60 issued and pending patents for its colloidal gold nanotechnology and 11 issued and pending patents for its mAb technology in the US, EU, Japan and Canada. If approved for use, the market potential for CytImmunes compounds is significant; as they not only treat the acute illness, but also once under control, shift the treatment paradigm to managing cancer as a chronic disease with little or no impact on quality of life. Table: Applications of various nanosystems in cancer therapy Nanosystem Carbon nanotubes Applications in cancer therapeutics DNA mutation detection, disease protein biomarker detection Controlled release drug delivery, image contrast agents Improved formulation for poorly-soluble drugs MRI and ultrasound image contrast agents, targeted drug delivery, permeation enhancers, reporters of apoptosis, angiogenesis, etc. Tumor-specific imaging, deep tissue thermal ablation Disease protein biomarker detection, DNA mutation detection, gene expression

Dendrimers

Nanocrystals Nanoparticles

Nanoshells Nanowires

detection Quantum dots Optical detection of genes and proteins in animal models and cell assays, tumor and lymph node visualization.

2. Therapy Techniques
y Buckyballs may be used to trap free radicals generated during an allergic reaction and block the inflammation that results from an allergic reaction.

Nanoshells may be used to concentrate the heat from infrared light to destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to surrounding healthy cells. For a good visual explanation of nanoshells, click here. Nanospectra Biosciences has developed such a treatment using nanoshells illuminated by an infrared laser that has been approved for a pilot trial with human patients.

Nanoparticles, when activated by x-rays, that generate electrons that cause the destruction of cancer cells to which they have attached themselves. This is intended to be used in place radiation therapy with much less damage to healthy tissue. Nanobiotix has released preclinical results for this technique.

Aluminosilicate nanoparticles can more quickly reduce bleeding in trauma patients by absorbing water, causing blood in a wound to clot quickly. Z-Medica is producing a medical gauze that uses aluminosilicate nanoparticles.

Nanofibers can stimulate the production of cartilage in damaged joints.

Nanoparticles may be used, when inhaled, to stimulate an immune response to fight respiratory virsuses.

3. Diagnostic and Imaging Techniques


y Quantum Dots (qdots) may be used in the future for locating cancer tumorsin patients and in the near term for performing diagnostic tests in samples.

Qdot Nanocrystals Qdot nanocrystals represent a truly enabling "nanotechnology" and offer revolutionary fluorescence performance including:
y

Long-term photostability for live-cell imaging and dynamics studies Brilliant colors for simple, single-excitation multicolor analysis Fixability for follow-up immunofluorescence after in vivo studies Narrow, symmetrical emission spectra for low interchannel crosstalk

Ref (Invitrogen.com)

Table: Approved nanoparticles as imaging agents and drug carriers Modality Imaging Agents Endorem Gadomer Compound superparamagn etic iron oxide nanoparticle Dendrimerbased MRI agents Albumin nanoparticle containing paclitaxel Status Market Phase III clinical trial Use MRI agent MRI agentcardiovascular

Drug delivery Abraxane

Market

Breast cancer

4. Anti-Microbial Techniques
One of the earliest nanomedicine applications was the use of nanocrystalline silver which is as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of wounds y Acticoat Antimicrobial Barrier Dressings

In 1998, NUCRYST Pharmaceuticals introduced the first commercially available product based on its platform nanocrystalline technology. Smith & Nephew's Acticoat antimicrobial barrier dressings with SILCRYST nanocrystals rapidly became a clinical and commercial success and promptly gained acceptance in burn centers across North America. Now the products are sold in 30 countries. Ref (nucryst.com) y A nanoparticle cream has been shown to fight staph infections. The nanoparticles contain nitric oxide gas, which is known to kill bacteria. Studies on mice have shown that using the nanoparticle cream to release nitric oxide gas at the site of staph abscesses significantly reduced the infection.

Burn dressing that is coated with nanocapsules containing antibotics. If a infection starts the harmful bacteria in the wound causes the nanocapsules to break open, releasing the antibotics. This allows much quicker treatment of an infection and reduces the number of times a dressing has to be changed.

Burn dressing that is coated with nanocapsules containing antibotics. If a infection starts the harmful bacteria in the wound causes the nanocapsules to break open, releasing the antibotics. This allows much quicker treatment of an infection and reduces the number of times a dressing has to be changed.

A welcome idea in the early study stages is the elimination of bacterial infections in a patient within minutes, instead of delivering treatment with antibiotics over a period of weeks. You can read about design analysis for the antimicrobial nanorobot used in treatments.

5.Cell Repair
Nanorobots could actually be programmed to repair specific diseased cells, functioning in a similar way to antibodies in our natural healing processes.

6. Analytical applications :

Table: Nanoenabled technologies, techniques and their analytical applications Technology Bioarrays and Biosensors DNA Chips Protein-Chips Glyco-Chips Cell-Chips Technique Nanofabrication Lab on Chip Nanotubes Application Nano-Objects Detection Electrochemical Detection Optical Detection Mechanical Detection

Pill on Chip Nanowires Nanofluidics Nanoparticles Nanostructured Surfaces Electrical Detection

Company Directory
Company BioDelivery Sciences Product Oral drug delivery of drugs encapuslated in a nanocrystalline structure called a cochleate Gold nanoparticles for targeted delivery of drugs to tumors Qdots for medical imaging Antimicrobial wound dressings using silver nanocrystals Bucky balls to block inflammation by trapping free radicals Nanoemulsions for nasal delivery to fight NanoBio viruses (such as the flu and colds) or through the skin to fight bacteria

CytImmune

Invitrogen

Smith and Nephew

Luna Inovations

NanoBioMagnetics

Magnetically responsive nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and other applications Nanoparticles that target tumor cells, when

Nanobiotix

irradiated by xrays the nanoparticles generate electrons which cause localized destruction of the tumor cells. AuroShell particles (nanoshells) for thermal destruction of cancer tissue Diagnostic testing using gold nanoparticles to

Nanospectra

Nanosphere

detect low levels of proteins indicating particular diseases Nanoparticles for improving the performance of drug delivery by oral or nasal methods Diagnostic testing using gold nanoparticles (biomarkers) Diagnostic testing using magnetic nanoparticles Medical gauze containing aluminosilicate

Nanotherapeutics

Oxonica

T2 Biosystems

Z-Medica

nanoparticles which help blood clot faster in open wounds. Nanoparticle enhanced techniques for delivery of siRNA Nanoparticle cream for delivery of nitric oxide gas to treat infection

Sirnaomics

Makefield Therapeutics DNA Medicine Institute

Diagnostic testing system

NanoViricides

Drugs called nanoviricides designed to attack virus particles Targeted drug delivery Drug delivery using lipsomes

NanoMedia Taiwan Liposome Traversa Therapeutics Nano Science Diagnostics

Delivery of siRNA molecules

Diagnostic testing system

Generations of nanotechnology development

Ref(crnano.org)

Future Prospects Nanotechnology

of

Pharmaceutical

Pharmaceutical nanotechnology is an emerging field that could potentially make a major impact on human health. Nanomaterials promise to revolutionize medicine and are increasingly used in drug delivery or tissue engineering applications. Newly developed hybrid systems seem promising for future applications in human. Functional and multifunctional approaches have tremendous potential in temporal and spatial controlled delivery of bioactives. A modular approach to construct delivery systems that combine targeting, imaging and therapeutic functionalities into nanoplateforms is emerging as intelligent concept. These multifunctional nanoplateforms would localize to target cells, enable diagnostics and subsequently deliver therapeutics with great precision. But such approaches to nanodevice construction are inherently complex. One very interesting and novel future strategy is to devise a nanomachine, which can detect and attack pathogen simultaneously, detect the change in molecular event during diseased state, and also monitor the efficacy of treatment. However such intelligent machine (also knows as nanorobots which can serves as mini onboard computer in human body) is very far reaching concept. In short, recent development, market realization of various pharmaceutical nanotools and global interest shown by scientists, governments and industries ensure that there is tremendous potential and scope of nanobased drug delivery system in near future. There is no doubt to presume that in next ten years market will be flooded with nano-enabled delivery devices and materials.

Conclusion
Pharmaceutical nanotechnology offers new tools, opportunities and scope, which are expected to have a great impact on many areas in disease diagnostics and therapeutics. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology has emerged as a discipline having enormous potential as carrier for spatial and temporal delivery of bioactives and diagnostics and provides smart materials for tissue engineering. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology is now wellestablished as specialized area for drug delivery, diagnostics, prognostic and treatment of diseases through its

nanoengineeredtools. Few nanotechnology based products and delivery systems are already in market. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology provides opportunities to improve materials, medical devices and help to develop new technologies where existing and more conventional technologies may be reaching their limits. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology raises new hope to pharmaceutical industries by providing new cutting age patentable technologies in view of revenue loss caused due to off-patent drugs. Scientific societies, industries and governments all over world are looking with great anticipation and contributing their best to clutch the potential of this technology. This technology has the potential to make significant contributions to disease detection, diagnosis, therapy, and prevention. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology could have a profound influence on disease prevention efforts because it offers innovative tools for understanding the cell as well as the differences between normal and abnormal cells. It could provide insights into the molecular basis of disease. However going towards bottom size increases the unknown health risk. However, some suggested initiative must be taken in order to exploit the advantage of this very fascinating and ever growing potential technology. Some of these are (i) identifying, defining and characterizing model nanomaterials, (ii) developing toxicity testing protocol, (iii) detecting and monitoring exposure level, (iv) assessing the impact of environment, (v) developing the biocompatible hybrid system. We still lack sufficient data and guidelines regarding safe use of these nanotechnology based devices and materials. There are several confounding unresolved issues, which warrant the application in its full bloom. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology is still in infancy. Some concerning issues like safety, toxicity hazards, bioethical issues, physiological and pharmaceutical challenges get to be resolved by the scientists.