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OVERVIEW

Training is basically the act of imparting knowledge and upgrading the skills. It is basically the technique to improve and develop the skills that may be already been acquired or else to impart new knowledge or to make aware about new developments and technologies. Training is also even given for personal development of the employees and for their growth and advancement. In other words training improves, changes, and moulds the employees knowledge, skill, behaviour, aptitude and attitude towards the

requirements of the job and organization. Development is training people to acquire new horizons, technologies or viewpoints. It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive rather than reactive. It enables workers to create better products, faster services, and more competitive organizations. In this way, Development is a related process; it covers not only those activities, which improve job performance, but also those activities, which bring about growth of the personality, helps individuals in the progress towards maturity.

Training is one of the most important functions of the human resource, which is taken up in every organization to retain good and competent workforce as its main purpose is to:

 Improve the efficiency of the employees.  To motivate the employees.  To make them aware about new developments.  For effective utilization of resources.  For their personal growth and career development.

So, its the process of enhancing the knowledge and skills acquired by an employee to do a particular

TYPES OF TRAINING
The various trainings being conducted in various organizations are mainly categorized into two categories:. ON THE JOB TRAINING These basically include the program, which are being conducted in the workplace itself. So skills and knowledge are imparted through practical exposure to work that basically include induction training, job rotations, apprenticeship training, internship training etc.

OFF THE JOB TRAINING These programs are conducted other than at the actual workplace. These include theoretical concepts and demonstrations that follow the policy of classroom teaching to impart knowledge on the basic concepts. It basically includes lectures, seminars, conferences, case studies, roleplaying and other management games.

General Benefits from Employee Training and Development: -

1. Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees. 2. Increased employee motivation. 3. Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain.. 4. Reduced employee turnover. 5. Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training.

STEPS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

1. DEFINING A TRAINING PLAN AND HR STRATIGIES: The first and foremost step of the training and development process is defining and designing the training plan and training calendar for the entire year which are according to the corporate training and HR policies laid down by the corporate office and get revised every year. It basically defines what kinds of programs to be conducted, for whom to be conducted and what are the objectives and what are the strategies related to these.

HR STRATEGIES:  Identification of 500 workmen to be the core team for change.  Identification on basis of age, skills, educational qualifications, disciplinary records etc.  Identified workmen to be taken through training in three phases 1.Attitudinal. 2.Skills such as communication. 3.Team building.  Educate the trade union.  Combined program for union leader and shop floor supervisors.

2. IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS: As the training plans and budget is being prepared the next important step in training process is to identify training needs of the workforce. For this purpose a training need identification form is designed by the department according to the guidelines of the corporate/head office. This is designed separately for workers, supervisors, clerical and

management staff that are again categorized according to the levels.

3. DESIGNING AND CONDUCTING THE TRAINING PROGRAMS:

After the PDC department identifies the training needs, the next step of the training procedure is designing the training programs according to the needs. Different types of training programs are being conducted.

 Different types of training are:.

INHOUSE TRAINING PROGRAMS OUT HOUSE TRAINING PROGRAMS

4. FEEDBACK AND FOLLOW UP: As the programs are conducted there effectiveness is then measured through feedback of the participants and follow up done by their superiors.

To take the feedback of the participants those who have attended the program a feedback form is provided designed by the PDC department at the end of the program, which include the following:

 Rating and grading the different aspect of the topic covered in the program,  Suggestions to improve,  What kind of knowledge is gained by the participants while attending the program and  How can they use those skills in day-to-day activities?

TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS

What's Training Good for Anyway? There are good reasons to mandate training and development in your organisation and there are bad reasons for mandating training. There are ALSO good reasons for NOT training, in some circumstances, and bad reasons to refuse. Knowing what training can and cannot accomplish

enables you to make the right decisions at the right time, ensuring that your limited training dollars are used effectively. What Training Can Do:  Build a common understanding of the organisation's purpose.  Show management's commitment and loyalty to employees.  Development people so they can increase their responsibilities and contribute to the organisation in new ways.

What Training Cannot Do:  Training on its own, cannot change ineffective employees into effective ones.  Training is unlikely to address ALL the causes of poor performance.  Limited training also will not turn a poor supervisor or manager into an effective one, unless it is coupled with ongoing coaching. Training will not erase problems that occur as a result of poor structuring of work, mismatching of work with the person,