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Gender Mainstreaming in JICA and Japans ODA

Yumiko TANAKA Senior Advisor on Gender and Development, JICA

28 June 2011

The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Gender Mainstreaming in Japans ODA

ODA Charter 2003 ODA Mid-Term Plan

(Gender, Health, Education, Climate Change, Peace Building, etc.)

National Dev. Plans MDGs, CSW, CEDAW, etc.

Sector Initiatives/Policies

Development Programs/Projects

Policy on Gender/WID in Japans ODA

Progress since 1990s

1995: WID Initiative announced by Government of Japan at Beijing Conference

1999: Basic Law for a Gender-equal Society (including international cooperation on WID/Gender) 2000: Basic Plan for Gender Equality (2001-2005) (including international cooperation on WID/Gender) 2003: New ODA Charter (including promotion of gender equality in Japans ODA) 2005.Feb. Medium-Term Policy on ODA updated (including gender equality promotion and evaluation) 2005 March: GAD Initiative announced by Government of Japan at Beijing+10 Conference held in New York 2005.Dec: Second Basic Plan for Gender Equality (2006-2010) (including international cooperation on WID/Gender)

Gender Equal Society (respect for human rights, diversity & social inclusion)

Gender Mainstreaming in all Sectors Policy/Program Institutional Mechanism Procedure, etc.

Empowerment of all the stakeholders & Social Groups, both men and women, of various ages, ethnicity, Caste, religion, etc.

Gender Programming, Planning, Implementation, M & Evaluation at all levels: District, Blocks, Sectors, Villages (gender/social analysis, gender impact assessment, gender statistics, gender budgeting, etc.)

Capacity Development : Knowledge, skills, confidence , communication, negotiation, etc. (Professional Training, Gender training, Guidelines, Manuals, etc.

Structure of JICA

(as of October 2008)

JICAs Background for Gender Mainstreaming

1990: Study Group on Assistance for Women in Development set up in JICA with external gender experts (Recommendations to the JICA President made in 1991) 1991: Office for the Promotion of Environment/WID (Planning Department)
1994: Manual on Integrating WID Considerations into Development Programs developed 1997: Advisory WID Council (later Gender Council) consisting of external advisors by then JICA President

1999: Issue-based Advisory GAD Committee

2002: Issue-based Guidelines: Gender Mainstreaming/WID developed

2003: Report on Gender Mainstreaming in ODA 2003: JICA turned into an independent administrative institution (as of 1 October)( 2003: JICAs Mid-Term Objectives (Oct.2003-March 2007) (promotion of gender equality as one of the target to be achieved)

2004: JICAs organizational reform (as of 1 April) and Gender Equality Promotion Team (GEPT) established in Planning Department of JICA HQs 2008: New JICA set up merging with a part of JBIC (as of 1 October)
2008: Gender Equality Division in Public Policy Dept Deputy Director of Planning Department 2011: Office for Gender Equality and Poverty Reduction

Responsibilities for Gender Mainstreaming (GM)

JICA Planning Department Responsible for overall GM Organize Meetings of MGs and GFP Collaboration Office for Gender Equality
Management of Gender Projects Pre-Appraisal consultations (3 schemes) Advocacy/Training ,Country Gender Profiles, etc.

External Relations Gender Council

Academics, NGOs, etc. advising with a global gender perspective

Committee on GAD
Academics, UN Officers, NGOs, etc, advising on specific gender issues

Advice and Feedback Each Department Implementation of gender-integrated prj Assignment of Gender Persons, GFP Annual GM Reports/Submission Personnel Dept: Institutional/organizational GM
Planning Gender Council

Committee Each Dept.


Organizational Structure for Gender Mainstreaming

M. Directors Meeting
For Gender Mainstreaming, Chaired by Vice President

External Resource Deputy DG, Planning Department: gender policies

MDs attend the Meeting

Advisory Committee

Office for Gender Equality

Project management

on Gender and Development (Academics, UN staff, NGO,etc)

Task Force on Networking

Submission of Annual Gender Mainstreaming reports Overseas Offices & Branches Gender Mainstreaming

Internal Resource

Depts at HDQ

18 Domestic Centers (1RC)

Gender Officers
(Gender Focal Persons)

Male & female officers in each dept./office

Categories of JICA Gender Projects

Category A: Gender Equality Promotion Projects

These projects have promotion of gender equality and womens empowerment, as their primary objectives, including policy formulation, capacity development and institutional support. They address the strategic gender interests. Category B: Women Targeted Projects Women are the main beneficiaries and participants. These projects mainly address meeting womens practical needs. Category C: Gender Integrated Projects These projects do not have gender equality and womens empowerment as their main and explicit objectives, but require measures to be taken to tackle with existing gender biases in planning and Implementation stages.

Examples of Projects
Category A:

Afghanistan (MoWA:eonomic empowerment and poverty reduction), Cambodia (MoWA), Nepal (Gender Mainstreaming and Social Inclusion), Thailand (Trafficking), Bangladesh (MoW), etc. Category B: Nigeria (Activation of Womens Center), Honduras (Micro Credit), Yemen (Girls Education), Philippines (TESDA Womens Skill Training Center), etc. Category C: Tanzania (Rice Production), India (Reproductive Health), Jordan (Reproductive Health), Pakistan (Persons with Disability), Thailand (Disaster Prevention), Nepal (Community Forestry), Guatemala (Agriculture)

Number of Women Targeted Projects and Gender Equality Projects in JICA



Number of Projects



Women Targeted Projects Gender Equality Projects

0 2001 2002 2003 2004 Year 2005 2006 2007

Major Roles of Office for Gender Equality

Implement/Manage women targeted projects with country offices and Area Departments 2. Implement/Manage gender equality promotion projects with country offices and Area Departments 3. Advise on all the projects (for technical cooperation, grant aid and loans) and JICA country programs with a gender perspective at the formulation/appraisal stage (Promote gender as cross-cutting development issue) 4. Develop Gender Mainstreaming Guidelines for JICA

5. Planning/implementation of gender trainings for: JICA Staff Volunteers and their Coordinators JICA experts/consultants 6. Coordinate internal Task Force of Gender Mainstreaming (with Planning Dept.) 7. Preparation of country-specific information database: Gender Profile 8. Collaborate with external committee on gender and development (with Planning Dept.) 9. Collaborate with other donor organizations.

developed in 2002 , revised in 2009 (presently being revised to include more gender issues and global perspectives) People-centred socio-economic development Sustainable Development

Issue-based Guidelines: Gender Mainstreaming/WID

Gender Equality & Womens Empowerment Poverty

Integration of gender concerns at institutional and policy-levels Strengthen womens participation at all levels of project implementation, including decision making Capacity building Improve womens access to goods and services Education
Good Governance


Human Rights




MOWA provides training for poor women in Kabul

Solidarits: Women-led pilot livelihoodimproving microproject for women

Womens Economic Empowerment in Bamiyan

SCRCSO: Fruit industry development project for women SCRCS: Fruit industry project for women:2 SCRCS: Fruit industry development project for women:3

Solidarities: Improving livelihoods of vulnerable through goat raising and churning machine project for women in Yakawlangphase 2

WDC AKDN: Improving Economic Capacity of Women and Strengthening Womens CDCs

RSDO: Improved Sheep Raising in Panjab and Waras

Womens Development Center in Bamiyan (by Grassroots Grant of Japan)

Kaka Koot village FCDC

No gender concerns in Phase 1

More than 60-70 % of rice production work done by women.

No women participated in training on Agri. Machinery. Only about 20% in other courses.

Agr. Extension Model of Kilimanjaro Agr. Training Center (KATC) in Phase 2

Extension by Farmers

Key Farmer 20 Interm.
Village leaders Extension Workers Provincial engineers

Farmers 100

Ordinary Farmers 200


1. 20 Key Farmers trained in each pilot site 2. 20 Key Farmers teach 5 Intermediate Farmers (100 in total) 3. 100 Intermediate Farmers teach 2 ordinary farmers (200 in total) (Women were selected as 50% of Key Farmers and Intermediate Farmers, as gender quota.)
Source Jiro Aikawa

Participation of both men and women

Making women to easily speak out

Joint OJT for both men and women