Sunteți pe pagina 1din 4

1.

Naming TWO NON-METALS Binary Compounds of Two Nonmetals Given Formula, Write the Name The Greek System A binary compound is one made of two different elements. There can be one of each element such as in CO or NO. There can also be several of each element such as BF<sub3< sub=""> or OCl2.</sub3<> This lesson shows you how to name binary compounds from the formula when two nonmetals are involved. The four formulas above are all examples of this type. Important point to remember: NO metals (which act as the cation) are involved. That means one of the nonmetals will be acting in the positive role while the other is negative. In fact, you do not even need to know the charges, since the formula comes right from the element names and their prefixes. Be aware that heavy use of Greek number prefixes are used in this lesson.Here are the first ten: one monosix hexatwo diseven heptathree trieight octafour tetranine nonafive pentaten deca2. Naming HYDROGEN AND A NON-METAL Converting Formulas to Names Memorized Names Some binary covalent compounds, such as water, H2O, and ammonia, NH3, are known by common names that chemists have used for years. There is no systematic set of rules underlying these names, so each must simply be memorized. Organic compounds, like methane, CH4, ethane, C2H6, and propane, C3H8, are named by a systematic procedure that you might learn later in your chemical education, but for now, it will be useful to memorize some of their names and formulas also. water - H2O methane - CH4 propane - C3H8 ammonia - NH3 ethane - C2H6 Systematic Names You can recognize binary covalent compounds from their formulas, which contain symbols for only two, nonmetallic elements. The general pattern of such formulas is A aBb, where A and B represent symbols for nonmetals, and a and b represent subscripts (remember that if one of the subscripts is absent, it is understood to be 1). For example, because nitrogen and oxygen are nonmetallic elements, the formula N2O3 represents a binary covalent compound. Follow these steps to write the names for binary covalent compounds. If the subscript for the first element is greater than one, indicate the identity of the subscript using one of the prefixes listed below . We do not write mono- at the beginning of a compounds name. Example: We start the name for N2O3 with di-.

Attach the selected prefix to the name of the first element in the formula. If no prefix is to be used, begin with the name of the first element. Example: We indicate the N2 portion of N2O3 withdinitrogen. Select a prefix to identify the subscript for the second element (even if its subscript is understood to be one).Leave the "a" off the end of the prefixes that end in "a" and the o off of mono- if they are placed in front of an element whose name begins with a vowel (oxygen or iodine). Example: The name of N2O3 grows to dinitrogen tri-. Write the root of the name of the second element in the formula as shown below. Example: The name of N2O3 becomes dinitrogen triox-. Add -ide to the end of the name. Example: The name of N2O3 is dinitrogen trioxide. Prefixes Roots of the Nonmetals 1 - mon(o) H - hyd 2 - di C - carb 3 - tri N - nitr 4 - tetr(a) P - phosph 5 - pent(a) As - arsen 6 - hex(a) O - ox 7 - hept(a) S - sulf 8 - oct(a) Se - selen 9 - non(a) F - fluor 10 - dec(a) Cl - chlor Br - brom I - iod Exceptions Hydrogen atoms always form one covalent bond, and halogen atoms (group 17 or 7A) usually form one bond. Thus hydrogen reacts with halogens to form compounds with the general formula of HX, with the X representing the halogen. Because this is common knowledge among scientists and science students, these compounds are often named without prefixes. For example, HF can be named hydrogen fluoride or hydrogen monofluoride. Likewise, HCl can be named hydrogen chloride or hydrogen monochloride, HBr can be named hydrogen bromide or hydrogen monobromide, and HI can be named hydrogen iodide or hydrogen moniodide. For similar reasons, H2S can be named hydrogen sulfide or dihydrogen monosulfide. Converting Names to Formulas The first step in writing formulas when given the systematic name of a binary covalent compound is to recognize the name as representing a binary covalent compound. It will have one of the following general forms. prefix (name of nonmetal) prefix (root of name of nonmetal)ide (e.g. dinitrogen pentoxide) or (name of nonmetal) prefix (root of name of nonmetal) ide(e.g. carbon dioxide) or (name of nonmetal) (root of nonmetal) ide (e.g. hydrogen fluoride) Follow these steps for writing formulas for binary covalent compounds when you are given a systematic name. Notice that they are the reverse of the steps for writing names from chemical formulas. Write the symbols for the elements in the order mentioned in the name.

Write subscripts indicated by the prefixes. If the first part of the name has no prefix, assume it is mono-. Remember that HF, HCl, HBr, HI, and H2S are often named without prefixes. You will also be expected to write formulas for the compounds whose nonsystematic names are listed above.
3. Naming HYDROXIDE AND A METAL Naming Ionic Compounds Key Concepts Positively charged ions are called cations Negatively charged ions are called anions The cation is always named first. Cations Cations can be metals or polyatomic ions The ammonium ion (NH4+) is an example of a polyatomic cation Hydrogen can also form a cation, H+, in which case the name hydrogen is used in naming. For metals that have only one possible charge (valency) the name of the metal is used. Examples are Group I metals (charge 1+), Group II metals (charge 2+), Aluminium (charge 3+), Zinc (charge 2+), Silver (charge 1+) For metals that can have more than one charge (valency) the name of the metal is succeeded by the valency in capital Roman numerals in brackets OR by using the suffix -ous for the lowest valency and -ic for the highest valency and sometimes with the Latinised name for the metal Element copper iron lead mercury tin Cation Cu Cu2+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Pb2+ Pb4+ Hg22+ Hg2+ Sn2+ Sn4+
+

Preferred Name copper (I) copper (II) iron (II) iron (III) lead (II) lead (IV) mercury (I) mercury (II) tin (II) tin (IV)

Other Name cuprous cupric ferrous ferric plumbous plumbic mercurous mercuric stannous stannic

Anions Anions can be a negatively charged element or a polyatomic ion Negatively charged elements have the suffix -ide Examples are oxide (O2-), sulfide (S2-), fluoride (F-), chloride (Cl-), bromide (Br-), iodide (I-), nitride (N3-), hydride (H-) Polyatomic ions which include oxygen in the anion have the suffixes -ate or -ite. "ate" means there is more oxygen in the anion than one ending in "ite"

Examples: sulfate (SO42-) has more oxygen than sulfite (SO32-), nitrate (NO3-) has more oxygen in the anion than nitrite (NO2-) Other examples are carbonate (CO32-), phosphate (PO43-) and permanganate (MnO4-) Exception: OH- is named hydroxide Examples Ionic Compounds containing ions of elements MgO CATION: Mg2+ is named magnesium as magnesium belongs to Group (II) and can only have one charge (valency) ANION: O2- is named oxide Name of compound is magnesium oxide FeS CATION: Fe2+ is named iron (II) or ferrous as iron can have a charge of either 2+ or 3+ ANION: S2- is named as sulfide Name of compound is iron (II) sulfide or ferrous sulfide LiH CATION: Li+ is named as lithium since lithium is a Group I metal and can have only one charge (valency) ANION: H- is named as hydride Name of compund is lithium hydride H2S CATION: H+ is named as hydrogen ANION: S2- is named as sulfide Name of compound is hydrogen sulfide Ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions NaOH CATION: Na+ is named as sodium (Group I metal) ANION: OH- is named as hydroxide Name of compound is sodium hydroxide CaCO3 CATION: Ca2+ is named as calcium (Group II metal) ANION: CO32- is named as carbonate Name of compound is calcium carbonate FeSO4 CATION: Fe2+ named as iron (II) or ferrous ANION: SO42- named as sulfate Name of compound is iron (II) sulfate or ferrous sulfate FeSO3 CATION: Fe2+ named as iron (II) or ferrous ANION: SO32- named as sulfite Name of compound is iron (II) sulfite or ferrous sulfite (NH4)3PO4 CATION: NH4+ named as ammonium ANION: PO43- named as phosphate Name of compound is ammonium phosphate