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Reg.
No.

MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(A constituent Institute of Manipal University, Manipal-576104) FIRST SEMESTER B.E. END-SEMESTER MAKE UP EXAMINATION JULY 2009 SUBJECT: ENGINEERING PHYSICS (PHY101/102)

Time: 3 Hrs.

Max. Marks: 50

Note:

Answer any FIVE FULL questions. Each question carries 10 marks

Answer all the sub questions of a main question in a continuous sequence.

Draw neat sketches wherever necessary.

Physical Constants:

Speed of light in vacuum

Mass of proton / neutron Boltzmann constant

Permittivity of vacuum Permeability of vacuum

Any missing data may suitably be assumed.

10
10
12
10

= 3.00

=

=

=

1.67

1.38

8.85

= 4

27

10 8 m/s

kg 23 J/ K F/m

10 7 H/m

 Electron charge = 1.60 Electron mass = 9.11

= Rydberg constant = 1.10

Planck’s constant

6.63

10
10

19 C

31 kg 10 34 J.s 10 7 /m

Avogadro constant = 6.02 10 23 /mol

1. (a) (i) Explain the formation of interference fringes at an air wedge and hence obtain an expression for the fringe width. Account for the nature of the fringes.

(ii) An air wedge formed by an insulated copper wire with glass plate of length 10

cm. The system is illuminated normally by light of wavelength 600 nm. 20 fringes are obtained per centimeter. After removing the insulation the fringes are obtained again. The number of fringes decreased by 5/cm. Calculate the thickness of the

insulation.

(b)Obtain an expression for the Intensity distribution due to diffraction at multiple

slits and hence arrive at the grating equation.

(3+2=5 marks)

5marks.

2. (a) Obtain an expression for the Fermi level in an n-type semiconductor. Show that at low temperature the density of electrons in the conduction band is proportional

to the square root of donor concentration.

(b) In a Newton’s rings experiment, the radii of two adjacent dark rings are

observed to be respectively equal to 4.0mm and 4.38mm. The radius of curvature

of the lens is 6.4m. Find the ordinal numbers of the rings and the wavelength of

3 marks

©In a single slit diffraction pattern the distance between the 1st minimum on the right and the 1st minimum on the left is 5.2 mm. The screen on which the pattern

is displayed is 82.3 cm from the slit and the wavelength is 546 nm calculate the

slit width.

the incident light used.

5marks.

2marks.

Page 1 of 2

3.

(a)

(i) What are ‘Half period Zones’ as applied to a plane wave front? Explain

4.

how the wave theory accounts for the rectilinear propagation of light as an

approximation?.

(ii) Linearly polarised light of wavelength 525nm strikes at normal incidence, a

wurzite crystal (μo=2.356, μe=2.378), cut with its faces parallel to the optic axis.

What is the smallest possible thickness of the crystal if the emergent o-ray and e-

rays combine to form linearly polarised light?

(b)In a particular dispersive medium, the phase velocity of matter waves gets doubled when the wave length is halved. What is the group velocity of matter

waves in terms of the phase velocity?

(c ) Explain the origin of continuous X-rays and derive Duane-Hunt

relation.

2mark

3 marks

3 marks

2 marks

(a) What is Hall-effect. Derive an expression for the charge carrier density in

 terms of hall-coefficient. 3 marks (b) Describe the construction and working of a He-Ne laser. 4 marks

(c ) Determine the resistivity of Ge at 300K (i) in intrinsic condition (ii) with

donor impurity of 1 in 10 7 atoms (iii) with acceptor impurity of 1 in 10 8 .

3 marks

5. (a) Obtain an expression for the numerical aperture of an optical fiber in terms of

refractive indices of the core and cladding and then arrive at the condition for ray

propagation.

(ii) The angle of acceptance of an optical fiber is 30° when kept in air. Find the

angle of acceptance when it is in a medium of refractive index 1.33. 2 marks

3 marks

(b) The ratio of population of two energy levels wavelength of light emitted at 300K.

(c ) Electrons with energies of 1.0eV and 2.0eV are incident on a barrier 10.0eV

high and 0.050nm wide.(i) Find their respective transmission probabilities.

(ii) How are these affected if the barrier is doubled in width.

is

1.059 10 -30 . Find the 2 marks

3 marks

6. (a)Describe Davisson and Germer experiment and explain how it eshtablished the

proof for the wave nature of electrons.

4 marks

an energy gap of 0.7eV.calculate the

probability of occupation of an energy state at a level kT above the bottom of the

conduction band at 100ºC.

(b)

An

intrinsic

semiconductor

has

2 marks

(c ) Calculate the position of the Fermi level for pure silicon at 300K if the electron concentration is 2x10 15 / m 3 . Given that, for silicon, the energy gap is

1.1eV and the effective mass for electron is 0.31m o , where m o is the free electron

mass.

4 marks Page 2 of 2

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Reg.
No.

MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(A constituent Institute of Manipal University, Manipal-576104) FIRST SEMESTER B.E. END-SEMESTER EXAMINATION – NOVEMBER. 2008 SUBJECT: ENGINEERING PHYSICS (PHY101/102)

Time: 3 Hrs.

Max. Marks: 50

Note:

Answer any FIVE FULL questions. Each question carries 10 marks Answer all the sub questions of a main question in a continuous sequence. Write specific and precise answers. Draw neat sketches wherever necessary.

Physical Constants:

Speed of light in vacuum Mass of proton / neutron Boltzmann constant Permittivity of vacuum Permeability of vacuum

Any missing data may suitably be assumed.

= 3.00 × 10 8 m/s = 1.67 × 10 27 kg = 1.38 × 10 23 J/ K = 8.85 × 10 12 F/m = 4π × 10 7 H/m

Electron charge = 1.60 × 10 19 C Electron mass = 9.11 × 10 31 kg Planck’s constant = 6.63 × 10 34 J.s Rydberg constant = 1.10 × 10 7 /m Avogadro constant = 6.02 × 10 23 /mol

1. (a) Explain why the Newton’s rings are circular. Obtain an expression for the diameter of Newton’s n th dark ring obtained by the reflected light. Show that the diameters of Newton’s dark rings are proportional to square root of natural

numbers.

(b) Explain how a zone plate acts like a convergent lens. Obtain an expression for

its focal length.

4 marks

3 marks

(c) Monochromatic light of wavelength 538 nm falls on a slit of width 25.2μm.

The distance from the slit to a screen is 3.48 m. Consider a point on the screen 1.13 cm from the central maximum. Calculate (i) the angle of diffraction (ii) the ratio of intensity at this point to the intensity at the central maximum. 3marks.

2. (a) Assuming suitable expressions for density of states and Fermi distribution function, show that the number of electrons per unit volume in the conduction band of an intrinsic semiconductor is given by N c exp {-(E c -E F ) / kT}, where N c = [2(2 π m c kT) 3/2 / h 3 ] m c is the effective mass of the electron ,and E c is the energy at the bottom of the conduction band. 5marks.

(b) Obtain the equation for polarization ellipse and hence discuss various types of

 polarization. 5 marks ….Page 1 of 2

3.

(a)

Derive the expression for the intensity distribution of a monochromatic light

beam diffracted at a double slit.

(b) Explain group velocity and phase velocity and obtain the relation between

them.

(c )The bulk n-type and p-type materials of a particular germanium junction have

conductivities of 10 4 mhos / m and 10 2 mhos / m respectively, at 300 K. Find the

contact potential difference across the junction. Given that density of either carrier

4 marks

3 marks

is 2.5 x 10 19 / m 3 , μ n = 0.38 m 2 / Vs and

μ p = 0.18 m 2 / Vs

3 marks

 4. (a) Explain Hall-effect. Derive an expression for the charge carrier density in terms of hall-coefficient. 3 marks (b) Obtain the relationship between Einstein’s coefficients in relation to LASERS. 4 marks . (c ) A three level laser emits laser light at a wave length of 550 nm. (i) What will be the ratio of the population of the upper level of energy E 2 to that of lower level of energy E 1 at T=300K. (ii) At what temperature the ratio of population will be half? 3 marks 5. (a) Solve Schrödinger’s equation for a particle in an infinitely deep potential well. 4 marks

(b) Obtain an expression for numerical aperture in terms of refractive index of

core and cladding of an optical fiber.

2marks

(c) A tungsten target (z = 74) is bombarded by electrons in an X-ray tube. (i)

What is the minimum value of the accelerating potential that will permit the

production of K β lines of tungsten?

is the value of λ min ? (iii) Calculate λ Kβ and λ Kα (wavelengths of K β and K α lines). The K, L and M atomic X-ray levels of tungsten are 69.5, 11.3 and 2.3 keV

respectively.

(ii) For this same accelerating potential what

4 marks

6. (a) Obtain an expression for electrical conductivity of a conductor. How it gets modified in the case of (i) an intrinsic semiconductor, (b) a p-type semiconductor

 and (c) an n-type semiconductor. 4 marks (b) Explain the variation of conductivity in an intrinsic semiconductor. 2 marks (c ) (c ) Calculate the permitted energy levels of an electron trapped in a box of

width 10.0 Aº. What is the probability of finding the electron within an interval of

1 Aº at the centre of the box at minimum energy state?

☺☺☺☺☺

4 marks ….Page 2 of 2

Reg.
No.

MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(A constituent Institute of Manipal University, Manipal-576104) SECOND SEMESTER B.E. END-SEMESTER EXAMINATION MAY 2009. SUBJECT: ENGINEERING PHYSICS (PHY101/102)

Time: 3 Hrs.

Max. Marks: 50

Note:

Answer any FIVE FULL questions. Each question carries 10 marks

Answer all the sub questions of a main question in a continuous sequence.

Draw neat sketches wherever necessary.

Physical Constants:

Speed of light in vacuum

Mass of proton / neutron

Boltzmann constant Permittivity of vacuum Permeability of vacuum

Any missing data may suitably be assumed.

10
10
12
10

= 3.00

=

1.67

=

=

1.38

8.85

= 4

27

10 8 m/s

kg 23 J/ K F/m

10 7 H/m

 Electron charge = 1.60 Electron mass = 9.11

= Rydberg constant = 1.10

6.63

Planck’s constant

10
10

19 C

31 kg 10 34 J.s 10 7 /m

10 23 /mol

 1. (a) Light from an extended source falls obliquely on a thin film of an optical medium. Find an expression for the effective path difference between the part of the ray reflected externally at the first surface and the part which suffers one reflection at the other face. when it is excessively thin? Why does the film appear black in reflected light 4 marks (b) Light of wavelengths λ 1 and λ 2 fall normally on the upper surface of a plano- convex lens which rests with its curved surface on a plane sheet of glass. It is found that the fifth bright due to wavelength λ 1 coincides with sixth dark ring due to λ 2 . Find (i) the wave length λ 2 (ii) the diameters of the tenth bright ring due to λ 1 and 20 th dark ring due to λ 2 . Given : λ 1 = 400 nm, Radius of curved surface of the lens = 120 cm. 3 marks (c) Suppose a beam of 5eV electrons strikes a potential energy barrier of height 6.0eV and thickness 0.70nm, at a rate equivalent to a current of 1000A. (a) How long would you have to wait – on an average – for one electron to be transmitted? 3 marks. 2. (a) Obtain an expression for the Intensity distribution due to Fraunhofer

diffraction at a double slit.

(b)

conduction band of a semiconductor.

(c ) What is the probability of finding an electron in the second quarter of a one-

4 marks.

Obtain an expression for the energy density of states at the bottom of the

4 marks.

dimensional potential well of infinite depth, in the ground state?

2 marks.

Page 1 of 2

3.

(a)

Obtain an equation for the Polarization ellipse. Discuss various polarization

states.

(b) The numerical aperture of an optical fibre is 0.2 when surrounded by air.

Determine the refractive index of its core. The refractive index of the cladding is

4 marks

1.59. Also find the acceptance cone half-angle when the fibre is in water.

Refractive index of water is 1.33.

(c ) A three level laser emits laser light at a wave length of 550 nm. (i) What will

be the ratio of the population of the upper level of energy E 2 to that of lower level of energy E 1 at T = 300K. (ii) At what temperature the ratio of population will be

3 marks

 half? 3marks. 4. (a) Explain the effect of temperature on electrical conductivity of (i) an intrinsic and (ii) an extrinsic semiconductor. 4 marks (b) Give the theory of LASERS as explained by Einstein using his A and B coefficients. 4 marks (c ) A rectangular plate of a semiconductor has dimensions 2.0 cm along y direction, 1.0 mm along z-direction. Hall probes are attached on its two surfaces parallel to x z plane and a magnetic field of 1.0 T is applied along z-direction. A current of 3.0 mA is set up along the x direction. Calculate the hall voltage measured by the probes, if the hall coefficient of the material is 3.66 Also, calculate the charge carrier concentration. 10 –4 m3/C. 2 marks 5. (a) Derive Bragg’s relation in the case of X-ray diffraction. Explain how it can be verified using Bragg’s spectrometer. (b) m, 4 marks 4.00 x 10 –4 / Ω The conductivity of intrinsic silicon is 4.17 x 10 –5 /Ω m and at 0 C and 27 C respectively. Determine the band gap energy of silicon. 4 marks (c ) Find the angular radius of the tenth fringe in a Michelson’s Interferometer when the central path difference (2d) is 1.50mm. Assume orange light of Krypton arc is ( λ = 605.780nm) used and that the interferometer is adjusted in each case so that the first bright fringe forms a maximum at the center of the pattern. 2 marks 6. (a) Solve Schrödinger’s equation for a particle in an infinitely deep one

dimensional potential well.

(b) The resistivities of the p-region and the n-region of a germanium p-n junction

4 marks

are 0.060 m and 0.040 m, respectively. Calculate the contact potential and the potential energy barrier. The intrinsic carrier density in germanium is 2.5 x

The mobility of electrons = 0.38 m 2 /V.s, The mobility of holes = 0.18

3 marks

m 2 /V.s. kT/e = 0.026 V at 300 K.

(c ) A point source of wavelength 500nm is placed 5.0 m away from the zone

plate whose central zone has the diameter 2.3 mm. Find the position of the

primary image.

10 19 / m 3 .

3 marks Page 2 of 2

  