MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(A constituent Institute of Manipal University, Manipal576104) FIRST SEMESTER B.E. ENDSEMESTER MAKE UP EXAMINATION JULY 2009 SUBJECT: ENGINEERING PHYSICS (PHY101/102)
Time: 3 Hrs.
Max. Marks: 50
Note:
Answer any FIVE FULL questions. Each question carries 10 marks
Answer all the sub questions of a main question in a continuous sequence.
Write specific and precise answers.
Draw neat sketches wherever necessary.
Physical Constants:
Speed of light in vacuum
Mass of proton / neutron Boltzmann constant
Permittivity of vacuum Permeability of vacuum
Any missing data may suitably be assumed.
= 3.00
=
=
=
1.67
1.38
8.85
= 4
^{2}^{7}
10 ^{8} m/s
kg ^{2}^{3} J/ K F/m
10 ^{7} H/m
Electron charge 
= 1.60 

Electron 
mass 
= 9.11 
= Rydberg constant = 1.10
Planck’s constant
6.63
^{1}^{9} _{C}
^{3}^{1} kg 10 ^{3}^{4} J.s 10 ^{7} /m
Avogadro constant = 6.02 10 ^{2}^{3} /mol
1. (a) (i) Explain the formation of interference fringes at an air wedge and hence obtain an expression for the fringe width. Account for the nature of the fringes.
(ii) An air wedge formed by an insulated copper wire with glass plate of length 10
cm. The system is illuminated normally by light of wavelength 600 nm. 20 fringes are obtained per centimeter. After removing the insulation the fringes are obtained again. The number of fringes decreased by 5/cm. Calculate the thickness of the
insulation.
(b)Obtain an expression for the Intensity distribution due to diffraction at multiple
slits and hence arrive at the grating equation.
(3+2=5 marks)
5marks.
2. (a) Obtain an expression for the Fermi level in an ntype semiconductor. Show that at low temperature the density of electrons in the conduction band is proportional
to the square root of donor concentration.
(b) In a Newton’s rings experiment, the radii of two adjacent dark rings are
observed to be respectively equal to 4.0mm and 4.38mm. The radius of curvature
of the lens is 6.4m. Find the ordinal numbers of the rings and the wavelength of
3 marks
©In a single slit diffraction pattern the distance between the 1st minimum on the right and the 1st minimum on the left is 5.2 mm. The screen on which the pattern
is displayed is 82.3 cm from the slit and the wavelength is 546 nm calculate the
slit width.
the incident light used.
5marks.
2marks.
…Page 1 of 2
3.
(a)
(i) What are ‘Half period Zones’ as applied to a plane wave front? Explain
4.
how the wave theory accounts for the rectilinear propagation of light as an
approximation?.
(ii) Linearly polarised light of wavelength 525nm strikes at normal incidence, a
wurzite crystal (μo=2.356, μe=2.378), cut with its faces parallel to the optic axis.
What is the smallest possible thickness of the crystal if the emergent oray and e
rays combine to form linearly polarised light?
(b)In a particular dispersive medium, the phase velocity of matter waves gets doubled when the wave length is halved. What is the group velocity of matter
waves in terms of the phase velocity?
(c ) Explain the origin of continuous Xrays and derive DuaneHunt
relation.
2mark
3 marks
3 marks
2 marks
(a) What is Halleffect. Derive an expression for the charge carrier density in
terms of hallcoefficient. 
3 marks 

(b) 
Describe the construction and working of a HeNe laser. 
4 marks 
(c ) Determine the resistivity of Ge at 300K (i) in intrinsic condition (ii) with
donor impurity of 1 in 10 ^{7} atoms (iii) with acceptor impurity of 1 in 10 ^{8} .
3 marks
5. (a) Obtain an expression for the numerical aperture of an optical fiber in terms of
refractive indices of the core and cladding and then arrive at the condition for ray
propagation.
(ii) The angle of acceptance of an optical fiber is 30° when kept in air. Find the
angle of acceptance when it is in a medium of refractive index 1.33. 2 marks
3 marks
(b) The ratio of population of two energy levels wavelength of light emitted at 300K.
(c ) Electrons with energies of 1.0eV and 2.0eV are incident on a barrier 10.0eV
high and 0.050nm wide.(i) Find their respective transmission probabilities.
(ii) How are these affected if the barrier is doubled in width.
is
1.059 10 ^{}^{3}^{0} . Find the 2 marks
3 marks
6. (a)Describe Davisson and Germer experiment and explain how it eshtablished the
proof for the wave nature of electrons.
4 marks
an energy gap of 0.7eV.calculate the
probability of occupation of an energy state at a level kT above the bottom of the
conduction band at 100ºC.
(b)
An
intrinsic
semiconductor
has
2 marks
(c ) Calculate the position of the Fermi level for pure silicon at 300K if the electron concentration is 2x10 ^{1}^{5} / m ^{3} . Given that, for silicon, the energy gap is
1.1eV and the effective mass for electron is 0.31m _{o} , where m _{o} is the free electron
mass.
4 marks …Page 2 of 2
MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(A constituent Institute of Manipal University, Manipal576104) FIRST SEMESTER B.E. ENDSEMESTER EXAMINATION – NOVEMBER. 2008 SUBJECT: ENGINEERING PHYSICS (PHY101/102)
Time: 3 Hrs.
Max. Marks: 50
Note:
Answer any FIVE FULL questions. Each question carries 10 marks Answer all the sub questions of a main question in a continuous sequence. Write specific and precise answers. Draw neat sketches wherever necessary.
Physical Constants:
Speed of light in vacuum Mass of proton / neutron Boltzmann constant Permittivity of vacuum Permeability of vacuum
Any missing data may suitably be assumed.
= 3.00 × 10 ^{8} m/s = 1.67 × 10 ^{−}^{2}^{7} kg = 1.38 × 10 ^{−}^{2}^{3} J/ K = 8.85 × 10 ^{−}^{1}^{2} F/m = 4π × 10 ^{−}^{7} H/m
Electron charge = 1.60 × 10 ^{−}^{1}^{9} C Electron mass = 9.11 × 10 ^{−}^{3}^{1} kg Planck’s constant = 6.63 × 10 ^{−}^{3}^{4} J.s Rydberg constant = 1.10 × 10 ^{7} /m Avogadro constant = 6.02 × 10 ^{2}^{3} /mol
1. (a) Explain why the Newton’s rings are circular. Obtain an expression for the diameter of Newton’s n ^{t}^{h} dark ring obtained by the reflected light. Show that the diameters of Newton’s dark rings are proportional to square root of natural
numbers.
(b) Explain how a zone plate acts like a convergent lens. Obtain an expression for
its focal length.
4 marks
3 marks
(c) Monochromatic light of wavelength 538 nm falls on a slit of width 25.2μm.
The distance from the slit to a screen is 3.48 m. Consider a point on the screen 1.13 cm from the central maximum. Calculate (i) the angle of diffraction (ii) the ratio of intensity at this point to the intensity at the central maximum. 3marks.
2. (a) Assuming suitable expressions for density of states and Fermi distribution function, show that the number of electrons per unit volume in the conduction band of an intrinsic semiconductor is given by N _{c} exp {(E _{c} E _{F} ) / kT}, where N _{c} = [2(2 π m _{c} kT) ^{3}^{/}^{2} / h ^{3} ] m _{c} is the effective mass of the electron ,and E _{c} is the energy at the bottom of the conduction band. 5marks.
(b) Obtain the equation for polarization ellipse and hence discuss various types of
polarization. 
5 marks 
….Page 1 of 2 
3.
(a)
Derive the expression for the intensity distribution of a monochromatic light
beam diffracted at a double slit.
(b) Explain group velocity and phase velocity and obtain the relation between
them.
(c )The bulk ntype and ptype materials of a particular germanium junction have
conductivities of 10 ^{4} mhos / m and 10 ^{2} mhos / m respectively, at 300 K. Find the
contact potential difference across the junction. Given that density of either carrier
4 marks
3 marks
is 2.5 x 10 ^{1}^{9} / m ^{3} , μ _{n} = 0.38 m ^{2} / Vs and
μ _{p} = 0.18 m ^{2} / Vs
3 marks
4. 
(a) Explain Halleffect. Derive an expression for the charge carrier density in 

terms of hallcoefficient. 
3 marks 

(b) Obtain the relationship between Einstein’s coefficients in relation to LASERS. 4 marks 

. 
(c ) A three level laser emits laser light at a wave length of 550 nm. (i) What will be the ratio of the population of the upper level of energy E _{2} to that of lower level of energy E _{1} at T=300K. (ii) At what temperature the ratio of population will be 

half? 
3 marks 

5. 
(a) Solve Schrödinger’s equation for a particle in an infinitely deep potential 

well. 
4 marks 
(b) Obtain an expression for numerical aperture in terms of refractive index of
core and cladding of an optical fiber.
2marks
(c) A tungsten target (z = 74) is bombarded by electrons in an Xray tube. (i)
What is the minimum value of the accelerating potential that will permit the
production of K _{β} lines of tungsten?
is the value of λ _{m}_{i}_{n} ? (iii) Calculate λ _{K}_{β} and λ _{K}_{α} (wavelengths of K _{β} and K _{α} lines). The K, L and M atomic Xray levels of tungsten are 69.5, 11.3 and 2.3 keV
respectively.
(ii) For this same accelerating potential what
4 marks
6. (a) Obtain an expression for electrical conductivity of a conductor. How it gets modified in the case of (i) an intrinsic semiconductor, (b) a ptype semiconductor
and (c) an ntype semiconductor. 
4 marks 

(b) 
Explain the variation of conductivity in an intrinsic semiconductor. 
2 marks 
(c 
) (c ) Calculate the permitted energy levels of an electron trapped in a box of 
width 10.0 Aº. What is the probability of finding the electron within an interval of
1 Aº at the centre of the box at minimum energy state?
☺☺☺☺☺
4 marks ….Page 2 of 2
MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(A constituent Institute of Manipal University, Manipal576104) SECOND SEMESTER B.E. ENDSEMESTER EXAMINATION – MAY 2009. SUBJECT: ENGINEERING PHYSICS (PHY101/102)
Time: 3 Hrs.
Max. Marks: 50
Note:
Answer any FIVE FULL questions. Each question carries 10 marks
Answer all the sub questions of a main question in a continuous sequence.
Write specific and precise answers.
Draw neat sketches wherever necessary.
Physical Constants:
Speed of light in vacuum
Mass of proton / neutron
Boltzmann constant Permittivity of vacuum Permeability of vacuum
Any missing data may suitably be assumed.
= 3.00
=
1.67
=
=
1.38
8.85
= 4
^{2}^{7}
10 ^{8} m/s
kg ^{2}^{3} J/ K F/m
10 ^{7} H/m
Electron charge 
= 1.60 

Electron 
mass 
= 9.11 
= Rydberg constant = 1.10
6.63
Planck’s constant
Avogadro constant = 6.02
^{1}^{9} _{C}
^{3}^{1} kg 10 ^{3}^{4} J.s 10 ^{7} /m
10 ^{2}^{3} /mol
1. 
(a) 
Light from an extended source falls obliquely on a thin film of an optical 

medium. Find an expression for the effective path difference between the part of 

the ray reflected externally at the first surface and the part which suffers one 

reflection at the other face. when it is excessively thin? 
Why does the film appear black in reflected light 4 marks 

(b) 
Light of wavelengths λ _{1} and λ _{2} fall normally on the upper surface of a plano 

convex lens which rests with its curved surface on a plane sheet of glass. It is found that the fifth bright due to wavelength λ _{1} coincides with sixth dark ring due to λ _{2} . Find (i) the wave length λ _{2} (ii) the diameters of the tenth bright ring due to λ _{1} and 20 ^{t}^{h} dark ring due to λ _{2} . Given : λ _{1} = 400 nm, Radius of curved surface of 

the lens = 120 cm. 
3 marks 

(c) 
Suppose a beam of 5eV electrons strikes a potential energy barrier of height 

6.0eV and thickness 0.70nm, at a rate equivalent to a current of 1000A. (a) How long would you have to wait – on an average – for one electron to be transmitted? 

3 marks. 

2. 
(a) 
Obtain 
an 
expression 
for 
the 
Intensity 
distribution 
due 
to 
Fraunhofer 
diffraction at a double slit.
(b)
conduction band of a semiconductor.
(c ) What is the probability of finding an electron in the second quarter of a one
4 marks.
Obtain an expression for the energy density of states at the bottom of the
4 marks.
dimensional potential well of infinite depth, in the ground state?
2 marks.
…Page 1 of 2
3.
(a)
Obtain an equation for the Polarization ellipse. Discuss various polarization
states.
(b) The numerical aperture of an optical fibre is 0.2 when surrounded by air.
Determine the refractive index of its core. The refractive index of the cladding is
4 marks
1.59. Also find the acceptance cone halfangle when the fibre is in water.
Refractive index of water is 1.33.
(c ) A three level laser emits laser light at a wave length of 550 nm. (i) What will
be the ratio of the population of the upper level of energy E _{2} to that of lower level of energy E _{1} at T = 300K. (ii) At what temperature the ratio of population will be
3 marks
half? 
3marks. 

4. 
(a) 
Explain the effect of temperature on electrical conductivity of (i) an intrinsic 

and (ii) an extrinsic semiconductor. 
4 marks 

(b) 
Give the theory of LASERS as explained by Einstein using his A and B 

coefficients. 
4 marks 

(c ) A rectangular plate of a semiconductor has dimensions 2.0 cm along y direction, 1.0 mm along zdirection. Hall probes are attached on its two surfaces parallel to x z plane and a magnetic field of 1.0 T is applied along zdirection. A current of 3.0 mA is set up along the x direction. Calculate the hall voltage 

measured by the probes, if the hall coefficient of the material is 3.66 Also, calculate the charge carrier concentration. 
10 ^{–}^{4} m3/C. 2 marks 

5. 
(a) Derive Bragg’s relation in the case of Xray diffraction. Explain how it can 

be verified using Bragg’s spectrometer. 

(b) m, 
4 marks 4.00 x 10 ^{–}^{4} / Ω The conductivity of intrinsic silicon is 4.17 x 10 ^{–}^{5} /Ω m and at 0 C and 27 C respectively. Determine the band gap energy of silicon. 

4 marks 

(c 
) Find the angular radius of the tenth fringe in a Michelson’s Interferometer 

when the central path difference (2d) is 1.50mm. Assume orange light of Krypton arc is ( λ = 605.780nm) used and that the interferometer is adjusted in each case 

so that the first bright fringe forms a maximum at the center of the pattern. 

2 marks 

6. 
(a) 
Solve Schrödinger’s equation for a 
particle 
in 
an infinitely deep 
one 
dimensional potential well.
(b) The resistivities of the pregion and the nregion of a germanium pn junction
4 marks
are 0.060 m and 0.040 m, respectively. Calculate the contact potential and the potential energy barrier. The intrinsic carrier density in germanium is 2.5 x
The mobility of electrons = 0.38 m ^{2} /V.s, The mobility of holes = 0.18
3 marks
m ^{2} /V.s. kT/e = 0.026 V at 300 K.
(c ) A point source of wavelength 500nm is placed 5.0 m away from the zone
plate whose central zone has the diameter 2.3 mm. Find the position of the
primary image.
10 ^{1}^{9} / m ^{3} .
3 marks …Page 2 of 2
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