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Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), a colourless, water-soluble synthetic resion employed principally in the treating of textiles and paper. PVA is unique among polymers (chemical compounds made up of large, multipleunit molecules) in that it is not built up in polymerization reactions from singleunit precursor molecules known as monomers. Instead, PVA is made by dissolving another polymer, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), in an alcohol such as methanol and treating it with an alkaline catalyst such as sodium hydroxide. The resulting hydrolysis, or alcoholysis, reaction removes the acetate groups from the PVAc molecules without disrupting their long-chain structure. The chemical structure of the resulting vinyl alcohol repeating units is:

The story of toy slime's development dates back to the beginning of the twentieth century when the science of synthetic polymers was being determined. During the 1920s, Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger laid the groundwork for our modern understanding of polymer science. He suggested a new molecular model for polymers; one of long, chain-like molecules and not aggregates or cyclic compounds as previously thought. In 1928, his models were confirmed by Meyer and Mark. These two scientists studied the dimensions of natural








Staudinger's models were widely accepted and extensive development of synthetic polymers began in earnest. Manufacturers have sold polymeric play materials like slime for years. They are known to not only amuse children and adults, but also help in the development of dexterity and creativity. The earliest of these toys were moldable materials like modeling clay. The need for improved and varied play materials led to the development of silly putty in the 1950s. Glow-in-thedark silly putty was subsequently introduced. During the 1980s, various slime-type toys were introduced. These products were made from such materials as polyvinyl alcohol, guar gums, or even fortified milk.

Physical Properties:Glass transition temperature: 85oC. Amorphous density at 25oC: 1.26 g/cm3. Crystalline density at 25oC: 1.35 g/cm3. Molecular weight of repeat unit: 44.00 g/mol.

Physical Properties:Appearance: White free-flowing granules. Odor: Mild odor. Solubility: Moderately soluble. Specific Gravity: 1.19 - 1.31 pH:

Aqueous solution is neutral or slightly acid.

Stability and Reactivity of Polyvinyl alkohol

Stability: Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Hazardous Decomposition Products: Complete combustion will emit carbon dioxide and water when heated to decomposition. Incomplete combustion gives in addition carbon monoxide and oxidation products, including organic acids, aldehydes and alcohol. Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur. Incompatibilities: Strong oxidizers. Conditions to Avoid: Heat, flame, ignition sources, dusting and incompatibles.

Chemical properties
When the reaction is allowed to proceed to completion, the product is highly soluble in water and insoluble in practically all organic solvents. Incomplete removal of the acetate groups yields resins less soluble in water and more soluble in certain organic liquids. PVA is used in sizing agents that give greater strength to textile yarns and make paper more resistant to oils and greases. It is also employed as a component of adhesives and emulsifiers, as a water-soluble protective film, and as a starting material for the preparation of other resins. By reaction with butyraldehyde (CH3CH2CH2CHO) and formaldehyde (CH2O), PVA can be made into the resins polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and polyvinyl formal (PVF).

PVB, a tough, clear, adhesive, and water-resistant plastic film, is widely used in laminated safety glass, primarily for automobiles. PVF is used in wire insulation. The following is a selection of items (artistic styles or groups, constructions, events, fictional characters, organizations, publications) associated with "polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)"

Polyvinyl alcohol is completely water soluble and thus is used as a thickener in some suspensions and emulsions. Although usually amorphous, it can be drawn into a semicrystalline fiber. However, the melting point of the crystallites is above the thermal degradation temperature.

Uses of polyvinyl alkohol

Polyvinyl alcohol is used as a lubricant for the relief of symptoms of dry eye and for artificial eyes. It is a type of artificial tears. It is used as a substitute for tears in people that do not produce enough of their own and as a lubricant for artificial eyes. A lack of tears will cause the eyes to become dry, red and painful. In general this drug is used to lubricate the eye to relieve dryness and irritation in people who do not produce enough tears (dry eye conditions). It is also used as a lubricant for artificial eyes. Benefits of being on this drug can include relief from the symptoms of dry conditions of the eye and the associated discomfort.

Listed below are the typical uses of polyvinyl alcohol:

Relief of the symptoms of dry eyes and eye irritation associated with a lack of tear production As a lubricant for artificial eyes On occasion your doctor may prescribe this medicine to treat a condition not on the above list. Such conditions are listed below.

Benzene :- What is its symbol, and its structure? This was a significant problem in the 19th century, and the story of its resolution has been well covered elsewhere. Anyway, the nature of benzenes reactions are familiar enough and lead to the notion of delocalisation of electrons around the ring. Firstly how should this be represented, and secondly.

Definition of Benzene:It is a simplest aromatic hydrocarbon (see aromatic compound), parent substance of a large class of chemical compounds. The chemical formula is C6H6; IUPAC NAME:- Benzene Other Name :- Benzol cyclohexa-1,3,5-triene

physical property :The chemical compound benzene (C6H6) is a colorless, flammable, aromatic hydrocarbon, that is a known

carcinogen. It boils at 80.1C and melts at 5.5C. Benzene has a heat of vaporization of 44.3 kJ/mol and a heat of fusion of 9.84 kJ/mol. Produced by hydrogen reduction of some allotropes of carbon, or from petroleum, it is used in the creation of drugs, plastics, gasoline, synthetic rubber, napalm and dyes.
molecular formula Molar mass Appearance Density Melting point Boiling point Solubility in water C6H6 78.11 g mol1 Colorless liquid 0.8765(20) g/cm3 [1] 5.5 C, 279 K, 42 F 80.1 C, 353 K, 176 F 1.8 g/L (15 C) [2][3][4]


0.652 cP at 20 C

Dipole moment


Chemical properties:- Halogen atoms replace a hydrogen - Bromo, Chloro, Floro ex.

H Br H H | | | | HCCCCH | | | | H Br H H 2,2-dibromobutane

Cl | Cl C Cl | Cl tetrachloromethane

Alcohols: -OH or hydroxyl group - change the ending to -ol ex.


H | H C OH | H methanol CH3OH

H OH H | | | HC C C | | | H H OH

H H H | | | C C CH | | | H H H

2,3-hexanediol CH3CH(OH)CH(OH)CH2CH2CH

- oxygen atom double bonded to a carbon - change the ending to -one ex.

H H H H O H H H H H | | | | || | | | | | HCCCCCCCC C CH | | | | | | | | | H H H H H H H H H 5-decanone CH3CH2CH2CH2COCH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Definition & Histry of Benzene:-

Benzene is one of the most fascinating molecules. The structure of this molecule eluded chemists until 1865 when Friedrich August Kekul proposed that it consisted of a hexagonal ring with a carbon atom at each vertex. Every student of Organic Chemistry has heard the story of how the structure appeared to Kekul in a dream in which he saw chains of carbon atoms dancing in circles like a snake chasing its own tail. Alas, benzene is both toxic and carcinogenic. In fact, it might be considered "the mother of all carcinogens," as a large number of carcinogens have structures that include benzene rings. (See the link below for the explanation of this.) I recall my Organic Chemistry professor joking about how he used to "practically bathe in benzene up to the elbows" when he would use it in his research (presumably before it was identified as a carcinogen). He predicted that this would probably lead to his demise. He was right--he died due to leukemia several years ago.

INTRODUCTION Rhodamine 6G is an excellent laser or forensic light source dye. It can be dissolved in water or solvent to be used as a liquid dye in solution staining or it can be introduced into magnetic powder to form a fluorescent magnetic powder. Rhodamine 6G is a chemical compound and a dye. It is often used as a tracer dye within water to determine the rate and direction of flow and transport.

Rhodamine 6G Chloride powder mixed with methanol, emitting yellow light under green laser illumination Rhodamine 6G-based dye laser. The dye solution is the orange fluid in the tubes

Rhodamine 6G Chloride powder mixed with methanol, emitting yellow light under green laser illumination Rhodamine 6G-based dye laser. The dye solution is the orange fluid in the tubes

Molecular Formula of Rhodamine 6G

Refractive index
The refractive index or index of refraction of a substance is a measure of the speed of light in that substance. It is expressed as a ratio of the speed of light in vacuum relative to that in the considered medium.[note 1] The velocity at which light travels in vacuum is a physical constant, and the fastest speed at which energy or information can be transferred. However, light

travels slower through any given material, or medium, that is not vacuum. (See: light in a medium). A simple, mathematical description of refractive index is as follows: n = velocity of light in a vacuum / velocity of light in medium

two important right angle triangles involved in determining the refractive A ray of light from the sodium source is the hypotenuse of one right angle triangle (in the air), and the same ray of light forms the hypotenuse of another right angle triangle in the glass. The angle made by the ray of light in the air to that of the reference light (the normal), is the angle of incidence, and the angle made by the ray of light in the glass to the same normal, is the angle of refraction. It is the ratio of the sines of both these angles that is the refractive index of the block of glass.

lock of glass.

The calculation is preformed in three steps:

The first calculation determines the actual distance traveled by the ray of light in the air and in the glass. This is the hypotenuse of the two right angle triangles Step One: The first calculation determines the actual distance traveled by Distance the ray of light in the air and in the glass. This is the hypotenuse traveled of the two right angle triangles by light rays Step The final step in the calculation sequence is to determine the Three: ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence / sine of the angle of Calculate refraction. the n = Sine I / Sine R refractive Where n is the refractive index index Sine I is the sine of the angle of incidence, and Sine R is the sine of the angle of refraction.

Bending Light:If you have ever half-submerged a straight stick into water, you have probably noticed that the stick appears bent at the point it enters the water (see Figure 1.) This optical effect is due to refraction. As light passes from one transparent medium to another, it changes speed, and bends. How much this happens depends on the refractive index of the mediums and the angle between the light ray and the line perpendicular (normal) to the surface separating the two mediums (medium/medium interface) (See Figures 2a and 2b.) Each medium has a different refractive index (see list below.) The angle between the light ray and the normal as it leaves a medium is called the angle of incidence. The angle between the light ray and the normal as it enters a medium is called the angle of refraction.

Refractive Index (Index of Refraction):Refractive Index (Index of Refraction)is a value calculated from the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in a second medium of greater density. The refractive index variable is most commonly symbolized by the letter n or n' in descriptive text and mathematical equations.

As presented in the figure above, a wavefront incident upon a plane surface separating two media is refracted upon entering the second medium if the incident wave is oblique to the surface. The incident angle ((1)) is related to the refraction angle ((2)) by the simple relationship known as Snell's law:

n1 sin(1) = n2 sin(2)
Where n represents the refractive indices of material 1 and material 2 and are the angles of light traveling through these materials with respect to the normal. There are several important points that can be drawn from this equation. When n(1) is greater than n(2), the angle of refraction is always smaller than the angle of

incidence. Alternatively when n(2) is greater than n(1) the angle of refraction is always greater than the angle of incidence. When the two refractive indices are equal (n(1) = n(2)), then the light is passed through without refraction. In optical microscopy, refractive index is an important variable in calculating numerical aperture, which is a measure of the light-gathering and resolving power of an objective. In most instances, the imaging medium for microscopy is air, but high-magnification objectives often employ oil or a similar liquid between the objective front lens and the specimen to improve resolution. The numerical aperture equation is given by: NA (numerical aperture) = n sin() where n is the refractive index of the imaging medium and is the angular aperture of the objective. It is obvious from the equation that increasing the refractive index by replacing the imaging medium from air (refractive index = 1.000) with a low-dispersion oil (refractive index = 1.515) dramatically increases the numerical aperture. Discover how a beam of light is "bent" by refraction when it passes from one medium into another. Adjust the incident angle and color of the light wave and observe the effect these changes have on refraction. Snell's law was originally defined by the relationship between the incident angles and the ratio of the velocities of light in the two media. The refractive index or index of refraction is the ratio between the velocity of light (c) in free space (for all practical purposes, either air or a vacuum) and its velocity in a particular medium: n = c/

As the refractive index of a material increases, the greater the extent to which a light beam is deflected (or refracted) upon entering or leaving the material. The refractive index of a medium is dependent (to some extent) upon the frequency of light passing through,

with the highest frequencies having the highest values of n. For example, in ordinary glass the refractive index for violet light is about one percent greater than that for red light. A consequence of this phenomenon is that each wavelength experiences a slightly different degree of refraction when a heterogeneous light beam containing more than one frequency enters or leaves the medium. This effect is termed dispersion and is responsible for chromatic aberration in microscope objectives.

Refractometer:A refractometer measures the extent to which light is bent (i.e. refracted) when it moves from air into a sample and is typically used to determine the index of refraction (aka refractive index or n) of a liquid sample. The speed of light in a vacuum is always the same, but when light moves through any other medium it travels more slowly since it is constantly being absorbed and reemitted by the atoms in the material. The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in another substance is defined as the index of refraction (aka refractive index or n) for the substance.

In most liquids and solids the speed of light, and hence the index of refraction, varies significantly with wavelength. (This variation is referred to as dispersion, and it is what causes white light moving through a prism to be refracted into a rainbow. Shorter wavelengths are normally refracted more than longer ones.) Thus, for the most accurate measurements it is necessary to use monochromatic light. The most widely used wavelength of light for refractometry is the sodium D line at 589 nm. If white light were used in the simple Abbe' refractometer optics shown in Figure , dispersion would result in the light and dark borderline being in different places for different wavelengths of light. As mentioned earlier, the speed of light in a substance is slower than in a vacuum since the light is being absorbed and reemitted by the atoms in the sample. Since the density of a liquid usually decreases with temperature, it is not surprising that the speed of light in a liquid will normally increase as the temperature increases. Thus, the index of refraction normally decreases as the temperature increases for a liquid (Table 1). For many organic liquids the index of refraction decreases by approximately 0.0005 for every 1 C increase in temperature. However for water the variation is only about -0.0001/C.

Diagram of Refractometer:-

Refractive index or Abbe number ( vd or ve ) can be measured at different wavelengths ranging from 450 to 1,100nm. The DR-M2 digitally displays measurement result of refractive index or Abbe number on the LCD. Measurement can be achieved by matching the boundary line with the intersection point of the cross hairs.

Item Company Catalog Number Price Temperature Range Quantity Resolution Brix Range Accuracy Measurement Wavelength

Multi-Wavelength Abbe Refractometer DR-M2 ATAGO USA, Inc. 1410 Get Quote 5 to 50C ea 0.0001 (RI), 0.1 (Abbe) NA 0.0002 nD (at 589nm) 450 to 1100 nm

Measurement Range

Refractive index 1.3277 to 1.7379 (Wavelength 450nm) Refractive index 1.3000 to 1.7100 (Wavelength 589nm) Refractive index 1.2912 to 1.7011 (Wavelength 680nm) Refractive index 1.2746 to 1.6843 (Wavelength 1100nm)

Minimum Indication

Refractive index 0.0001 Abbe number 0.1

Measurement Accuracy

Refractive index: +-0.0002 (With the attached test pieces at 589nm)

Wavelengh Range

From 450 to 1100 nm (with interference filters) (For measurments at wavelengths ranging from 681 to 1100nm, the Near Infrared Ray Viewer (Optional) is requires)

Measurment Temperature Range

5 to 50 degrees C

Output Terminal

For printer, DP-21 (A) (*optional)

Power Supply

AC100 to 240V 50/60Hz

Power Consumption



Refractometer: 13X29X31cm, 6.0kg Light Source Unit: 15X33X11cm, 3.0kg

The effects of annealing on the dynamical behavior of swelling for ultrathin polyacrylamide films deposited on silicon substrates have been studied using X-ray reflectivity technique. The spin coated polyacrylamide films of similar thicknesses were annealed at various temperatures below and above the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The electron density of the films was found to increase systematically on annealing. The swelling dynamics of the annealed films were found to have systematic dependence on the temperature of annealing. The interaction between the substrate and the polymer molecules was found to play important role in the swelling dynamics of the annealed films unlike our earlier observation with as coated films. The chain segments attached directly to the substrate were believed to have restricted freedom of movements compared to the ones that are at a distance from the substrate and relatively free. Accordingly, the dynamical behavior of swelling was modeled in terms of the combination of a free and a restricted component and was found to be in excellent agreement with the data. The diffusion coefficients corresponding to the restricted polymer segments were an order of magnitude smaller than those of the free segments and the fraction of the same was found to increase with annealing at higher temperatures. The overall reduction of swellability of the films was explained in terms of the increase of density of the films and the segmental attachment to the substrate on annealing.

The electronic structure and film structure of poly(3hexylthiophene) (P3HT) have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES). As reported in previous works, XRD results show that the crystallinity of the film with regioregular P3HT is significantly improved by annealing at 170 C. The effects of annealing on the electronic structure strongly depend on the substrate and the degree of regioregularity of the P3HT polymer backbone. Even in the case of the regiorandom sample, annealing considerably changes the vacuum level energy, which is the result of changes in the conformation of the hexyl groups at the free surface of the film. The - and *band onsets uniformly shift downward by the annealing resulting in an increased hole-injection barrier at the electrode interface. The effects of annealing on the electronic structure of regioregular samples are more complex and depend on multiple factors. It is necessary to take into account variations in the - and *-band widths and the polarization energy to determine the effects of annealing. The former is associated with the conformation of the backbones of the polymer chains, and the latter is associated with the packing density of the conjugated polymer planes. The combination of these variations determines the effects of annealing on the electronic structure of the regioregular film. This is a possible reason for the strong dependence of the effects of annealing on the surface roughness of the substrate, since substrate roughness has a considerable effect on the morphology and crystallinity of regioregular P3HT films. The small mixing entropy of polymer blends means that even weak interactions can have a profound effect on the phase behaviour and surface segregation of components. We wish to exploit this process and prepare new materials with specific surface properties such as hydrophobicity or chemical reactivity without detriment to bulk properties such as physical strength or optical clarity. Clear analogies can be drawn between

the behaviour of surface-modifying polymers in blends and surfactants in solution. Both exhibit a critical micelle concentration at the point of maximum surface coverage, and micelle size is clearly linked to amphiphilic strength.1


In solvent casting and particulate leaching (SCPL), a polymer is dissolved in an organic solvent. Particles, mainly salts, with specific dimensions are then added to the solution. The mixture is shaped into its final geometry. For example, it can be cast onto a glass plate to produce a membrane or in a three dimensional mold to produce a scaffold. When the solvent evaporates it creates a structure of composite material consisting of the particles together with the polymer. The composite material is then placed in a bath which dissolves the particles, leaving behind a porous


The standard solvent casting method for

preparing particle/polymer composites is reviewed. Unless extraordinary conditions are used, the standard process is restricted to thin films because of difficulties (blistering) that occur during the solvent removal. These thin films have better dispersion and less clustering of the metal particle loading than if comparable materials

PROCEDURE:- Now, we will discuss the procedure of Make a polymer film

First of all we make a standard solution of solvent

polycarbonate For standard solution I take, 100 ml (chloroform) + 2 gm (polycarbonate) = standard solution After that we make dopant solution of solvent & dopant 100 ml (Benzene) + 10 mg (Rhodamine) = dopant solution Then we make sample (film of polycarbonate) for different doping percentage with help of mixture of 20ml standard solution and different percentage of dopant solution. This method are known as solution castig method.

Sample preparation:We take 2g polyvinyl alcohol in conical flask dissolve in 100ml water . And in another chemical flask take Rhodamine 6G dissolve in Benzene solution. Take 20ml polyvinyl alcohol solution & dope with different percentages of rhodamine 6G Take 20ml polyvinyl alcohol solution and add different % of Rhodamine 6G solution. We pour the solution into the Glass plate and allow the solvent to evaporate. After sometime we will get the polymer film.

Dopant polymer Vol. of polyvinyl Vol. of (%) alkohol Rhodamine6G Solution (ml) Solution (ml)

Vol. of Rhodamine6G Solution (microlitre)

2 1 0.5 0.1 0.05 0.001

20 20 20 20 20 20

0.2 0.1 0.05 0.01 0.005 0.001

200 100 50 10 5 1

After this we annealing the polyvinyl alcohol films in different tempture like 40^o,65^o , 90^o, 120^o And use of refractometer we find out the refractive index

GRAPH PLOTTING TECHNIQUE:These scan files open in MS EXCEL. Then we get data of absorption & transmission after that we use = mod(row(),2) command for sorting out the data , then we plot the graph between Wavelength vs & absoption for and Wavelength Transmission different

doping percentages.

Result:Plot the graph b/w Doping % Vs Refractive index violet -ll

green -l

green -II

green -III



Red II

Plot the graph B/w refractive indexVs wavelength:-

Result & analysis

Plot the graph b/w wavelength Vs refractive index

Plot the graph doping% vs refractive index