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TEST 1 Paper1 at the beginning (0). Example: 0 A technical B fake AB cD © unreat Reading and Use of English (1 hour 30 minutes) For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example D artificial which are (3) A ushering B leading A. served B fought ‘A applauded B_delighted A considered Believed A. extent B point A. bothered B upset A association —_B alliance A eternal B persistent moving attended claimed perceived part interrupted semblance enduring Towards the end of October, volunteers begin selling (0) (1) «ss. up to Remembrance Sunday, around November 11", The flowers remind us of those who (2) their country in armed conflict, while their sale also raises money for those affected by war. ~ The red poppy _ Poppy flowers. These are worn in the time The red poppy is officially known as Papaver rhoeas, and is one of hundreds of varieties of poppy, many of by gardeners. Among farmers, however, Popaver rhoeas is (4) (5)... because its seeds can lie dormant in the soil for up to 100 years until the earth is (6) . example, by a tractor ploughing the fields. The (7) ........ with remembrance began when the bombing of First World War battlefields brought buried Poppy seeds to the surface, allowing them to flower in great numbers. The powerful image was used in a war poem by John McCrae in 1915, and the red poppy remains a(n) (8) commencing contributed prized contemplated degree disturbed correspondence tenacious ‘a. weed. This is in ... symbol over a century later. Paper 1 Reading and Use of English For questions 9-16, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. ‘There is an example at the beginning (0). Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS. oi (Nf fo Optical illusions Optical illusions are usually broken down (0)........./NTQ........ three groups. Physiological illusions, for example, are when too much light or too much of one colour influences our understanding of 9) __ we see next, Literal (or physical) illusions include rainbows, where the image is different to what created it. Cognitive illusions happen when our brains cannot make sense of what (10) esses SUN, (11) cases understand what causes some illusions, we need to think about how we see. (ur eyes feed light and shapes into the brain, (12)... then calls on our memory to help interpret them. The brain needs to define reality based (13) sau What it already knows. If | it is not a shape that the brain is familiar (14)... we might see something different, (15) of the shapes the brain is programmed to recognise is the human face, and that explains why we sometimes imagine that we can see a face in the clouds, on the moon, in the i shadows, or anywhere (16) that does not actually contain a face. This phenomenon is called pareidolia, Lisa TEST 1 Paper 1 Reading and Use of English For questions 17-24, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). ‘Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS. Example: [O[N[A[t[U]R [ATL Managing from the middle WS (0) oo. oo. MATURAL to assume that the senior managers of a company should take the credit for any success. What's also true is that it’s usually the CEO's (17) soso that's called for when things go seriously wrong The MOst (18) ...e-ssnssnsssessesnee positions, however, are often held BY (19) oscssssessesseesensen and middle managers, who are the link between top management and the lower levels. This makes them (20) sssesseee placed to monitor and act upon the (21) voces ‘and weaknesses they observe in the workforce. Unfortunately, the valuable contribution made by workers at lower and intermediate levels frequently goes (22). oe . leading to dissatisfaction. Recent research reveals that employees who leave their jobs are (23)... blaming their immediate superiors, rather than senior management for their (24) crrcrrsenneenies If companies don’t want to lose valuable ‘employees, they need to look closely at what goes on in the middle NATURE RESIGN INFLUENCE SUPERVISE IDEAL STRONG REWARD INCREASE HAPPY 10 Paper 1 Reading and Use of English For questions 25-30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the jyord given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and six words, including the word given. Here is an example (0). Example: 0 Peter struggled to adapt to life in the city. USED Peter had difficulty in “ sew ving in the city ‘The gap can be filled with the words ‘getting used to', so you write: Example GETTING USED TO Write only the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS. 25. The majority of young visitors to the festival found it very exciting, CAUGHT Most young Visitors ..s.n:ssesessseetnee ssosesses @xcitement of the festival If I didn't write them down, | would never remember important dates and times. UNLESS [never remember important dates and times 27. Wearing something white or reflective makes you more visible to car drivers. LIKELY You are .... or reflective. .. by car drivers if you wear something white 28. Driving a car is something to avoid while you're taking this medicine. ouGHT You a car while you're taking this medicine. 29. They don’t give free bus passes to students any more. LONGER Free bus passes . to students, 30 Thanks to you, we managed to do it. SUCCEEDED We .. doing it without you, " them down. Lisa TEST 1 Paper 1 Reading and Use of English You are going to read an article about the design and usage of stairs. For questions 31-36, choose the answer (A, B, Cor D) which you think fits best according to the text. In praise of the humble sta' You have probably never given too much thought to the stairs in your home but there is considerably more to this architectural feature than at first appears. To begin with, stairs have an interesting history bound up with the need to avoid a variety of unfavourable conditions on the ground including the danger posed by flooding, animals and other humans. Evolving from naturally-occurring footholes helping us to climb rocks and hills, through primitive ladders to quickly get into trees, the staircase made its first appearance in the home with the construction of the first two-storey houses. That was possibly as far back as 10,000 years ago. Kee} There are many guidelines concerning staircase construction. For ease of comprehension here, | wil mit the jargon to two technical terms: the rise and the going. The first of these is fairly self-evident. It refers 09 to the height of an individual step or stair, which should be between 13.5 and 22 cm. The second term is the distance from front to back of a step or stair, and this needs to be between 22.3 and 34 cm, These figures vary depending on the intended usage, for example, in a private residence, a public building or ‘as an emergency escape route, There are regulations governing everything from minimum permitted 13 headroom, incline, width of stairs, type of material used, space to be allowed behind doors, and height of handrails. Guidelines also cover the lighting of the staircase, the strength of construction, and even 15 the shape and size of the handrail In many cases, open staircases are not encouraged because you can see through them, which might distract you. There is also the possibility of a foot or a walking stick going through the gap. For longer staircases, it is recommended that a continuous flight of stairs is avoided. This can be done by including one or more changes of direction or, at the very least, including a small landing area around every 8-12 steps. As well as allowing for resting while ascending, it means that falls caused through tiredness could be avoided, and any fall that did occur could be limited to a shorter distance. In his incredibly comprehensive two-volume book, The Staircase, John Templer examines all these details and much more besides Avoiding the risk of falls is an integral part of staircase design. What happens if the regulations and guidelines are not met, apart from any legal implications, is that the safe use of the staircase is, compromised, Here, Templer is extraordinarily thorough in his examination of the reasons behind accidents and what can be done to avoid them. It is a valuable area of research since, in the UK alone, around 15,000 people annually are involved in falls on stairs or steps in the home. Templer looks into the finer points of the reasons behind this, such as the way people approach stairs and the different ways in which people use them depending on their age and level of physical ability. The development of the spiral or helical staircase can be better understood when we look at the construction of towers and castles. A tall, thin building simply does not have the floor space for traditional stair design. It is believed by many that spiral staircases in fortified constructions were always built so that they turned in a clockwise direction as you ascended. The reason given is that if you were to need to defend such a building from above, the added space to your right would allow you to use your sword more easily. Conversely, those charging up the staircase would have much less room to wield a weapon (unless they were left-handed). While al this is true and, as attractive as such a theory sounds, there are more than enough examples of staircases ascending in an anticlockwise direction to cast doubt Paper 1 Reading and Use of English cn it. Such staircases in modern homes definitely have their disadvantages. The rise tends to be higher, requiring more effort, and the going is unequal, narrowing towards the centre pole or well. Allin all, the potential for a fall is somewhat greater with this type of staircase. So much for the practical point of view. One of the key reasons for people installing a spiral staircase is that they find them attractive to look at. Many people believe that a nicely-constructed spiral staircase adds value to their home. This is extended to other types of staircase. Ornate, ultra-wide or otherwise | crafted staircases make a statement in luxury houses. The trade-off is, of course, the dead space they 46 create but wherever opulence is a priority, one of the first internal features to be embellished is the staircase. 31 32 33 34 35 36 What does the writer say about modern stairs in the first paragraph? ‘A. There is nothing particularly complicated about them. B They no longer have anything to do with keeping us safe. C They were inspired by both natural and man-made earlier forms. D_ Their invention made two-storey houses possible. Which of the following words is used to emphasise the number of guidelines in staircase construction? A jargon (line 9) B self-evident (line 9) governing (line 13) Deven (line 15) In the third paragraph, the writer mainly focuses on A safety considerations common to all types of staircase. B difficulties handicapped people face when using stairs. staircase falls caused by lack of attention, D staircases that are of a non-standard construction. The writer praises Templer’s ‘A. ability to convey his passion for staircases. B__ in-depth analysis of the subject of staircases. decision to warn people of the dangers of staircases. D__ commitment to preventing all kinds of accidents in the home, Regarding spiral or helical staircases, the writer is unconvinced that ‘A any space can be gained by installing them in modern homes. B the direction they turned in offered a defensive advantage C they were routinely constructed in a certain way for a reason. D__ they can increase the resale value of a house. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word ‘dead!’ in line 46? A. unusable B unimpressive quiet D dangerous 3 LLSal Paper 1 Reading and Use of English You are going to read four extracts from articles in which experts discuss the design and symbolism of flags. For questions 37-40, choose from the experts A-D. The experts may be chosen more than once, A. William Ayrton, Historian and Vexillologist In vexillology ~ the study of flags - there is a widespread belief that flags should be simple and distinctive. This means not overcomplicating the design with lettering or emblems. I do not hold with the belief that a country’s flag is something to be upgraded according to the whims of the time. Whatever the original colour scheme and design is, they represent principles at the founding of a nation and, as such, should be immutable. Where I would tolerate revision is following legal changes in borders or administration, or when retrospective recognition is given to indigenous peoples. In these cases, what the country does is of far greater significance than the symbol that represents it, and so they should override mere tradition and sentimentality. B Antonia Harris, Psychologist Flags can evoke a range of powerful emotions, from pride and loyalty to distaste and fear. That is because a flag is a potted representation of the ideals of a united group, not because there is anything intrinsically emotive about a flag. Colour symbolism is subjective and this needs to be borne in mind when designing flags. Natural associations make blue on a flag call to mind the sea or the sky, but blue also has psychological connotations linked to more recent cultural contexts, for example blue could represent misery or depression as in ‘blues music’ or ‘feeling blue’. There is no objective measure of colour symbolism, and this is why we should be prepared to change flags in order to move with the times. Politics and aspirations change all the time. If we want to be progressive, we cannot afford to remain bound to ancient ideals. C Alexander Bartos, Designer Periodically, organisations, groups, teams, towns and states take a decision to revamp their flags. This can also extend to countries, in order to take into account changes in politics from the archaic to the modern. | am against this because, from a designer's perspective, these changes often fail to take into account some abiding principles, such as simplicity of design and colour symbolism, which should be adhered to. If it absolutely has to happen, | feel that politicians and administrators should always bow down to the designers as, in my experience, their ideas of embellishment or amelioration are always in stark contrast with clarity of purpose. There are already more than enough mixed messages conveyed by ambiguous colours and symbols without further confusing the issue with emblems and badges. D_ Sonja Bergland, Political science lecturer Flags help establish the identity of a nation, and the colours and design have a meaningful symbolism. In the first place, | see nothing wrong with the flag representing a united people for generations. The finer details of that flag make no difference to me save for a very few occasions when what it represents might be antiquated, in which case | would make an exception and advocate change. For me, the colours and design of the flag come way down the list of considerations; alist headed by what | see as an anachronistic colonialist attitude. Placing a flag at the top of a mountain, on a disputed island close to the border with two nations or on the moon, should all be seen as acts of provocation. It is the arrogance and aggression in the name of a flag that | cannot condone. TEST 1 4 Paper 1 Reading and Use of English ‘Which expert has a different view to the others on the subject of routinely updating flags? shares Sonia Bergland’s opinion on the actions of a nation? expresses a different view to the others on the significance of colours on a flag? expresses a similar view to William Ayrton on adding too much detail to a flag? TEST 1 Paper 1 Reading and Use of English You are going to read an extract from a magazine article. Six paragraphs have been removed from the extract. Choose from the paragraphs A-G the one which fits each gap (41-46). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need touse, COOKING WITH A SOLAR OVEN solar oven is any kind of device that uses the sun to cook food. Its function is very simple - to harness or focus the energy from the sun. Here is an outline of the pros and cons of these devices, together with some information that will provide a better understanding of this method of cooking. (aa Looking at the bigger picture, think about our planet for a moment. As we all know, the production of electricity by traditional means causes horrifying air pollution as well as depleting natural resources of fossil fuels. Cooking directly with gas, oil or coal is hardly any better. Solar cooking bypasses all of these damaging consequences, which is a definite plus. faz] ‘The science behind solar cooking is not at all difficult to understand. As anyone who has ever experienced sunburn can tell you, the sun is hot but it usually just burns the surface of the skin. When it comes to cooking things like meat, burning the outside while not fully cooking below the surface is a recipe for disaster. So how do we use and control this powerful source of energy in cooking? There are ‘two main ideas to think about. a] a The other essential is trapping that heat energy so that the energy isn’t lost to the air or cooled. by the wind. Unlike a conventional oven, the enclosure needs to allow light in, so the best material to use is glass or some form of clear plastic. This creates its own kind of greenhouse effect, allowing the sun’s rays to enter, and a more stable cooking temperature can be maintained. a4] With so many models on the market and so many things to recommend them, why aren't we all using solar ovens? Well, firstly, you can't use them at night, obviously. They're not much use if it’s cloudy either. What you do need is lots of sun - preferably completely uninterrupted by cloud. And patience - you need lots of patience. [45 This brings us to another limitation - the food you can prepare in a solar oven. Baking and roasting are OK, while frying and grilling need a different type of cooker. Also, as we've said, the food is best cut up and this lends itself to soups and stews rather than steaks or more elaborate dishes. Recipes exist for solar-cooked versions of many dishes but you may have to compromise a little on taste, texture or appearance. fag] Despite these disadvantages, there's a lot to be said for solar cooking, particularly in countries where fuel costs test the means of many poor families. It’s a very satisfying moment when you produce a beautifully-cooked meal that has cost nothing to cook and has caused absolutely no damage to the environment Paper 1 ing and Use of English The first requirement is that we have to somehow concentrate the sunlight. This is a trick done with mirrors or, at least, with a reflective surface. You harness the sunlight hitting as large a reflective area as possible and then focus it on a smaller area. Many ovens use curved or parabolic mirrors so that the reflected heat is brought together into a more concentrated beam, ‘There's just one final drawback to consider. Unlike any other heat source, the sun is constantly moving throughout the day. Ideally, you should move the oven to face the sun every hour or so. This is inconvenient if you plan to be out all day, although there is a workaround. You can position the oven so that it is pointing to the place where the sun will be in the middle of the day and that will maximise the heat you will harness. The food will still cook but cooking times will be even longer. ‘The first advantage is that there are none of the running costs associated with conventional ‘types of cooking, There's no expensive gas, coal, wood or electricity to pay for. Once you've made the initial outlay for the device, maintenance costs are minimal, There are so few moving parts that wear and tear is practically non- existent. A solar oven should be for life Beyond these two basics, there's a world of refinements and variables. The oven walls should be insulated to stop the heat from escaping. Some devices have a valve to allow steam and excess heat to escape. The designs vary but they all do the job, and your food is cooked without cost to yourself or the environment. 1a comparison tests, we found very little differences between the types of oven. The cheaper versions struggled to hold the heat in quite as well as the more expensive ones. This naturally meant the food took longer to ‘cook but it was just as tasty. Otherwise, the differences were largely cosmetic, although one of our reviewers liked the model with the turntable base as it enables you to turn the oven towards the sun without spilling the contents, This is because solar cooking is very slow and to a large extent unpredictable. Nowadays, we're spoiled by reliable cooking times. If you want to bake a potato in a microwave oven, you can do it in ten minutes and you know it will take exactly that. With a solar oven it could take all day and even then it might not be cooked properly. You'd have a better chance if the potato was cut up into smaller pieces, but then again, it would no longer be a baked potato. The advantages for the environment don’t stop there either. Even if you have a plentiful, free supply of firewood, the smoke from burning wood is known to be a particularly noxious blend. Cutting down trees will lead to deforestation, soil being washed away, and eventually desertification. Solar cooking avoids all of that too, and here's how. TEST 1 Paper 1 Reading and Use of En You are going to read an online article in which five professionals talk about critical thinking and reading. For questions 47-56, choose from the professionals (A-E). The professionals may be chosen more than once. Which professional makes the following statements? You should occasionally read texts that challenge what you believe. Understanding the writer better will bring greater enjoyment. You can be convinced by an argument despite the lack of logic in its presentation, Sometimes you don’t even need to read a text to know that worthless to you, Itis possible that closer analysis of a text will lead to greater self-knowledge. ‘You can be fooled by the professional-looking presentation of a text. A text cannot be considered appropriate to use until you ascertain that it is not biased. ttis important to develop an instinct for texts which are best avoided. You need to express your opinion in combination with valid opinions you have read. The writer's intention is that some messages are not immediately obvious, Paper 1 Reading and Use of English Critical thinking and reading Think about what you read and take nothing at face value - that’s the message our five experts share. A ‘As a student on a course of academic study, you will be required to present evidence of your own thinking in most things that you write. In order to reach that stage, you will necessarily have had to be critical of the things you read. The widespread availability of research papers on the Internet can undoubtedly make your studying easier. However, just because it has been made public, this is no guarantee of academic validity whatsoever. Has the paper been peer-reviewed, or is it the work of a lone writer who, for all we know, failed or never even finished the course? Print lends an air of authenticity but you need to be aware that, beyond the classy layout, suitable font and other nods to convention, content is king. This is where your thinking gets critical. If it doesn’t, you are in big trouble. 8 With the wealth of information available, you sometimes need to make snap decisions about What it's worth dedicating your time to. Critical thinking aids this process and helps you skip things which are likely to be of little value to you, ‘Sometimes a sensationalist title is enough to tell you that the writer has an axe to grind and is. probably not going to be very objective. Be wary of this, whether in news reporting or in other areas that interest you. With a little more delving, a text can reveal giveaway clues that help you realise that the truth is somehow being distorted. Although it is human to make mistakes, writing which contains a number of them should not be trusted. If the same site regularly features writing like this, you can safely say that reliable information can be better sourced elsewhere. Steer clear of unreliable sites and publications completely and you will save a great deal of time c Nowhere does using a little critical thinking pay better dividends than when you are reading literature or poetry. While a superficial reading of a story or poem can provide a pleasant distraction, those who dig deeper are rewarded with an infinitely more stimulating appreciation of an art form. Great works of art stand up to closer analysis precisely because they are crafted in such a way that there are manifold hidden gems to be discovered. Sometimes, the full significance of something might take a lifetime to appreciate, whereas just alittle questioning about the use of a word, phrase, image or rhyme can more than repay you for your effort. Getting close to what the writer wants to convey is a labour of love, and it helps to open doors into hitherto unknown worlds. D Critical thinking when reading requires that you leave your own biases and prejudices at the door. Too many of us read things through the filter of our own beliefs. All that does is confirm what we already think, which could well be wrong. By all means, compare a text with ideas and beliefs of your own, and if the views tally with yours, great. But make sure you don't subconsciously select only these types of texts to read. Once in a while, seek ‘out an opposing viewpoint and pay attention. Analyse the writer's ideas if they are different to what you think, Put yourself in that writer's place. Is he or she just as committed to their beliefs as you are to yours? If they are wrong, how is this possible? Deconstruct their argument. If you do it fairly, you might learn some surprising facts about yourself E Text analysis operates on different levels and itis important to understand anything beneath the surface if you are to avoid getting carried away by tthe spirit or enthusiasm of a piece. Are the chosen words purely descriptive or overly emotive? Does the writer want you to go in a certain direction in your understanding of an issue, but without stating 30 explicitly? Think about examples; do they fully support the point the writer is making or is there a mismatch serving only the writer's hidden agenda? Is the opposing viewpoint sufficiently dealt with? is it, in fact, raised at all? When you can process a text in this way, you can assess its worth as an independent piece of writing. Only then can you begin to evaluate the place it occupies in your own studies and its suitability for your purpose. TEST 1 Paper 2 Writing (1 hour 30 minutes) ea) You must answer this question. Write your answer in 220-260 words in an appropriate style. 1. Your class has watched a documentary on initiatives which the public can take to help protect the environment. You have made the notes below: Which initiatives can the public take to help protect the environment? * Consuming less electricity + Recycling ‘+ Using greener means of transport ‘Some opinions expressed in the documentary: “Why should I use less electricity if nobody else does?” "Is a disgrace that we throw so much away.” “Public transport is better than cars; bicycles are better still.” Write an essay discussing two of the initiatives in your notes. You should explain which initiative would be more effective, giving reasons in support of your answer. You may, if you wish, make use of the opinions expressed in the documentary, but you should use your own words as far as possible. 20 vite an answer to one of the questions 2-4 in this part. Write your answer in 220-260 words in an appropriate style. 2 You have received an email from an English friend: I've finally decided to get fit because | spend far too long sitting down. Actually, I'd like your advice. | could join a gym as there’s one near my house. There's also a group which meets most evenings to play tennis, and | thought that might be more fun. ! know you've done both but | think I'm going to have to choose one, at least to start with, But which one? Let me know what you think, Rob Write your email in reply. You do not need to include email addresses. 3 You have just finished a month-long language course in an English-speaking country. The course contained intensive lessons, film viewings and discussions, as well as daily outings on which you were expected to speak English. The course organiser has asked all students to write a report about their experience. In your report, you should evaluate the course, explaining which aspects of it were the most and least useful. You should suggest changes you would recommend for future courses. ‘Write your report. 4 There are plans to build a new shopping centre close to where you live. You feel that the location is inappropriate as it will destroy an area of natural beauty and cause too much disturbance to local residents. You decide to write a proposal for the town council explaining the problems this location will cause, suggesting an alternative location, and explaining why your proposed location is better. Write your proposal. 2