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It enhances energy efficiency of the power plant. Presently about 65% of the total power is generated by thermal power plants. In order to keep maximum output from a given input, the units must run at the maximum possible efficiency. Power plant performance at various steps helps in improving the power generation capacity. BOILER EFFICIENCY is defined as the heat added to work in fluid expressed as a percentage of heat in the fuel being burnt. Boiler efficiency depends solely on the boilers ability to burn the fuel and transfer the resulting heat to water and steam. The pressure and temperature of steam, although profoundly altering cycle efficiency & turbine efficiency. Have no effect on boiler efficiency. In DIRECT METHOD boiler efficiency can be calculated as follows: Efficiency = [(enthalpy of steam-enthalpy of feed water) xsteam flow]/(quantity of coalxC.V) Again, enthalpy of steam can be calculated as the summation of the enthalpy in the main steam line and the enthalpy gain in the reheater part of the boiler. OBSERVATION: UNIT#3 (TOTAL CAPACITY=120 MW) Load on 14/7/05 is 87.5 MW Total load consumption: 55.7 TPH Load from IB Valley : 15.1 TPH Load from Middling : 40.6 TPH C.V of IB Valley coal : 2944 KCal/Kg C.V of Middling coal : 4375 KCal/Kg Main steam temperature: 533.48 C Main steam pressure : 120.65 Kg/cm2 Main steam flow : 262.2 TPH Pressure of the boiler(drum):130.8 Kg/cm2 Temperature at the economizer inlet: 210.18 oC Reheater: Inlet temperature: 258oC Inlet pressure : 28.3 Kg/cm2 Outlet temperature: 537.48 oC Outlet pressure : 23.3 Kg/cm2 CALCULATION: Enthalpy of main steam at 533.48 oC & 120.65Kg/cm2 pressure is hsteam =823.01KCal/Kg Enthalpy of steam at reheater inlet (at 2588 C & 28.3 Kg/cm2) is hrhi/l=692.7KCal/Kg Enthalpy of steam at reheater outlet (at 537.48 C & 23.3 Kg/cm2) is hrho/l=847.5KCal/Kg Total gain in enthalpy in reheater = hrho/l- hrhi/l = 847.5KCal/Kg-692.7KCal/Kg =154.8KCal/Kg Enthalpy of main steam (total)= 823.01KCal/Kg+154.8KCal/Kg =977.81KCal/Kg Total energy input to the boiler=(15.13 2944+40.63 4375)x10^3 KCal/Hr =(44454.4+177625)x10^3 KCal/Hr =222079x 10^3 KCal/Hr Enthalpy of feed water is calculated as: h=hf-Cp t

where, h: Enthalpy of feed water hf: Enthalpy at 130.8 Kg /cm2 Cp=1KCal/Kg t=[sat. temp at 130.8Kg/cm2- economizer inlet temp]= 329.84-210.1oC =119.748 oC h= 364-119.74 =244.26KCal/Kg Boiler Efficiency= {(823.01KCal/Kg+154.8KCal/Kg-244.26KCal/Kg)x262.2x10^3 KCal/Hr } / 222079x 10^3 KCal/Hr =86.61%

CALCULATION OF EFFICIENCY OF AIR PREHEATER Air preheaters are employed as thermal energy recovery system in steam power plants. The objective is to extract the maximum possible amount of thermal energy from the outgoing flue gas, which would otherwise be carried away to the atmosphere. The extracted thermal energy is utilized to heat up the Secondary Air & a part of the Primary Air. Hot Primary Air removes the surface moisture from the coal in the pulvreriser & therefore reduces the heat required by coal to reach its ignition temperature in the furnace. Also hot Secondary Air assists in effective combustion & to maintain the furnace temperature. Hence, the efficiency with which heat is transferred from flue gases to the air delivered by ID & FD fans is an important criteria for efficient operation of the power plant. To calculate the effectiveness of Air Preheaters, the following observations are recorded which forms the basis for subsequent calculations.

Observations: -

The following observations pertain to Unit #3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Generation Coal Consumption Total (Primary + Secondary) air flow Primary (Hot + Cold) air flow Flue gas inlet temperature (common to all heaters) Hot Primary Air flow Data regarding air preheaters Heater Air I/L temp. (Deg. C) 40.0 33.0 33.2 100.1 MW 60 Tons / Hour 400 Tons / Hour 171 Tons / Hour 310.6 Deg. C 65 % of total PA Air O/L temp. (Deg. C) 280.3 289.1 292.2 Flue gas O/L temp. (Deg. C) 130.2 168.6 168.0

Primary Air Heater ( PAH ) Secondary Air Heater A ( SAHA ) Secondary Air Heater B ( SAHB )

Calculations: Flue gas temperature differences: At PAH => ( 310.6 - 130.2 ) Deg. C = 180.4 Deg. C At SAHA => ( 310.6 168.6 ) Deg. C = 142.0 Deg. C At SAHB => ( 310.6 168.0 ) Deg. C = 142.6 Deg. C Average flue gas temperature difference = Tfg = ( 180.4 + 142.0 + 142.6 ) / 3 = 155 Deg. C Air temperature differences :At PAH => ( 280.3 40 ) Deg. C = 240.3 Deg. C At SAHA => ( 289.1 33 ) Deg. C = 256.1 Deg. C At SAHB => ( 292.2 33.2 ) Deg. C = 259.0 Deg. C Average air temperature difference = Tair = ( 240.3 + 256.1 + 259.0 ) / 3 = 251.8 Deg. C Secondary Air flow = ( 400 171 ) Tons / Hour = 229 TPH Hot Primary Air flow = 65 % of total PA flow = 0.65 X 171 TPH = 111.15 TPH Since the total secondary air & 65 % of primary air passes through air heaters, so total air flow through air heaters = ma = ( 229 + 111.15 ) TPH = 340.15 TPH The coal has 45 % ash content, 20 % of the total ash generated is considered as bottom ash which is not carried by flue gases. So flue gas flow through all the air heaters, mfg = total air flow + coal consumption bottom ash generation = 400 + 60 ( 60 X 0.45 X 0.2 ) TPH = 454.6 TPH So, heat released by flue gas at the heaters = mfg x Tfg x Sfg = 454.6 X 155 X 1.01 X 1000 KJ /Hr = 71161.63 X 1000 KJ / Hr where, ( Sfg = specific heat of flue gas = 1.01 KJ / Kg / Deg. C ) Heat gained by air in the heaters = ma x Tair x Sair

where, ( Sair

= 340.15 X 251.8 X 0.79 X 1000 KJ / Hr = 67663.32 X 1000 KJ / Hr = specific heat of air = 0.79 KJ / Kg / Deg. C )

So, Efficiency of Air Heaters = ( Heat gained by air in the heaters / heat released by flue gas at the heaters ) X 100 % = ( 67663.32 / 71167.63 ) X 100 % = 95.076 %

CALCULATION OF H.P. CYLINDER EFFICIENCY Cylinder efficiency: The cylinder efficiency is defined as the ratio of heat drop in a cylinder to the isentropic heat drop in that cylinder. In ideal case the expansion of steam in a cylinder (say H.P. cylinder) should be isentropic. But due to friction, windage or other sources of loss, the expansion differs from isentropic expansion. So, cylinder efficiency= Actual heat drop in cylinder

Isentropic heat drop in cylinder

x 100 %

Typical value of efficiency of HP cylinder = 89% Causes of H.P. cylinder efficiency variation: i) Short blades, particularly at early stages ii) Consequent high tip losses iii) Damage of tip seals & interstage glands iv) Increased roughness of blade surface

Determination of H.P. cylinder efficiency: Observation: Data collected on: 13.07.2005 Unit No.: 3 Load on Machine = 100 MW Frequency = 49.91 Hz. Steam Temperature at H.P. inlet = 535 oC Steam Pressure at H.P. inlet = 122 kg/cm2 Steam Temperature at H.P. outlet = 328 oC Steam Pressure at H.P. outlet = 27.9 kg/cm2 Enthalpy of steam at corresponding temperature and pressure: -

H3 = Enthalpy of steam at H.P. inlet at 535 oC & 122 kg/cm2= 821.98 kcal/kg H4 = Enthalpy of steam at C.R.H. at 328 oC & 29.9 kg/cm2= 733.62 kcal/kg H4s = Enthalpy of steam at C.R.H. at 27.9 kg/cm2 during isentropic expansion=719.07 kcal/kg Calculation: Effective heat drop = (H3-H4) = (821.98-733.62) kcal/kg = 102.91 kcal/kg

Isentropic heat drop = (H3-H4s) = (821.98-719.07) kcal/kg H.P. cylinder efficiency = (Effective heat drop)/ (Isentropic heat drop) x 100% = (88.36/102.91) x 100% = 85.86 %

CALCULATION OF CONDENSER & COOLING TOWER EFFICIENCY CONDENSER: The condenser is basically a heat exchanger where the steam, which was used to rotate the turbine, is condensed to water and recirculated in the boiler turbine circuit to complete the closed Rankine Cycle. The heat released by steam while the cooling water from the cooling tower absorbs condensing. The condenser here is double pass, counter flow heat exchanger. Simply for a counter flow heat exchanger; the effectiveness or the efficiency is given by, = [{Ch(Th1-Th2)}/{Cmin(Th1-Tc1)}]= [{Cc (Tc1-Tc2)}/{Cmin(Th1-Tc1)}] Where, Th1, Th2: Temp of the steam at inlet and steam after condensing at outlet. Tc1, Tc2: Temp of cooling water at inlet & outlet.

Cc:Mass flow rate3 Cp of cooling water. Ch: Mass flow rate of steam3 Cp. Cmin: smaller of Cc & Ch. OBSERVATION: On 12/7/05 on a generation of 94.5 MW, Cooling water Flow rate: 26000m3/Hr PASS A Temperature INLET 37 OUTLET 44.5 INLET 37 PASS B OUTLET 45.3

Condenser vaccum: -0.88Kg/cm2 Hotwell temperature: 508 C Flow rate: 282 TPH Condenser Inlet Temp: 56.68 C CALCULATIONS:

= [{Ch(Th1-Th2)}/{Cmin(Th1-Tc1)}]= [{Cc (Tc2-Tc1)}/{Cmin(Th1-Tc1)}] Now, Cc: Mass flow ratexCp of cooling water = 26000 TPH Cp Ch: Mass flow rate of steamxCp. =; (as phase change takes place) Cmin= Cc = (Tc2-Tc1) / (Th1-Tc1) = (44.5-37) / (56.6-37) =0.39 39% COOLING TOWER: The cooling tower from condenser needs to be cooled and this is done in a cooling tower. Here, used is a wet induced draft-cooling tower. The cooling tower works on principle of adiabatic humidification. Here the cooling water flows in opposite direction to atmospheric air. Some water evaporates drawing its latent heat from water thus cooling it .The air gets humidified and leaves from top of the cooling tower. Cooling tower parameters are designated as: Range Approach Effectiveness of cooling tower efficiency.

OBSERVATION: On 11/7/05 on 94.5 MW generation, Cooling water inlet temperature: 44.58 C Cooling water outlet temperature: 378 C Air inlet temperature: 328 C Humidity: 87% WBT corresponding to inlet air condition (from psychometric chart): 298 C CALCULATIONS: AIR OUT (3) x

AIR IN (1)

COOLED WATER (4) Effectiveness=(Tw4-Tw3)/(Tw4-Twb1)=(44.5-37)/(44.5-29)=0.48=48% Flow of water =18000TPH of which evaporation loss is 289.9 TPH, drift loss is 1.8 TPH which is replenished by make up water supply. CALCULATION OF IP CYLINDER EFFICIENCY

Ideally the expansion in Turbine should be isentropic. So, in the T- diagram the process should have followed the straight vertical path 1-2-3. But due to losses in the turbine (due to friction, etc.) the process followed is non-isentropic and hence is represented by the curve 1-2-3 in the T- It can be noted that, h2<h2 h3<h3 s2<s2 s3<s3

So it is clear, that the work done in actual expansion process is less than that done in isentropic process. Hence, the efficiency of the turbine can be calculated as follows: turb=Actual expansion work done in turbine/Isentropic work (theoretical)

Now, Let, m= Main steam flow rate m =HP6 extraction m=HP5 extraction Steam flow rate at IPT entry, m1=m-m Also, steam flow after HPH5 extraction (i.e. after point 2/2 in the T- diagram), m2 = m1-m= m-(m+m) Therefore, actual work done in the turbine, W=m1(h2-h1)+m2(h3-h2) = W1+W2 And, Isentropic work, I=m1(h2-h1)+m2(h3-h2) = I1+I2 turb= W/I OBSERVATION (DATED: 14/07/05) LOAD=100.2MW MAIN STEAM FLOW=302.1TPH POINT IPT Inlet IPT Outlet HPH5 Extraction TEMPERATURE (8 C) 524 289 395 PRESSURE (Kg/cm2) 25.5 4.36 10.4

USEFUL DATA: FULL LOAD EXTRACTION FLOW FOR: HPH5 HPH6 19.201TPH 36.633TPH

CALCULATIONS: h1=839.52 KCal/Kg h2=769.30 KCal/Kg h3=713.36 KCal/Kg h2=777.09 KCal/Kg h3=727.03KCal/Kg

m=(36.6634 120)x100.2 TPH= 30.588555 TPH m=(19.2014 120)x100.2 TPH=16.0328 TPH m1=(302.1-30.588555) TPH=271.511445 TPH m2=(271.511445-16.0328) TPH=255.478645 TPH I=[271.511445(839.52-769.3)+255.478645(769.3-713.36)]x10^3 =33357.009063 10^3 KCal/Hr W=[271.511445(839.52-777.09)+255.478645(777.09-727.03)]x10^3 =29739.723 10^3 KCal/Hr =W4 I =(29739.724 33357.00906)x100 = 89%

The methods used for the removal of dust from gases are many but for power applications they are limited to two types, the mechanical collector, which by centrifugal action causes the dust particles to leave the gas stream by inertia and the electrostatic precipitator, which uses electric forces to remove the dust from the gas stream. If gravity settlers and centrifugal separators are devices that drives the particles against a solid wall & if neither can function effectively (at an industrial scale) for particles below about 5 diameters, then for wall collection devices to work on smaller particles they must exert forces that are more powerful than gravity or centrifugal forces. The ESP is very much like a gravity settler or a centrifugal separator, but the electrostatic forces drives the particles to the wall. The principles on which an ESP operates are that the dust-laden gases pass into a chamber where the individual particles of dust are given an electric charge by absorption of free ions from a high voltage D.C Ionizing field. Electric forces cause a stream of ion to pass from the discharge electrodes to the collecting electrodes and the particles of dust entrained in the gas are deflected out of the gas stream into the collecting surfaces where they are retained, either by electrical or molecular attraction. An intermittent blow usually referred as Rapping removes them. This causes the dust particles to drop in the dust hoppers situated below the collecting electrodes. CORONA DISCHARGE

GAS FLOW

DISCHARGE ELECTRODE

COLLECTING ELECTRODE

FIG: SECTIONAL PLAN SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF PRCIPITATOR ELECTRODES There are four different stages of in the process: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ionization of gases and charging of dust particles. Migration of the particle to the collector. Deposition of charged particles on the collecting surface. Dislodging of particles from the collecting surface.

In ESPs the resisting force is the Stokes viscous drag force, but the force moving the particle towards the wall is electrostatic. This force is practically proportional to the particle diameter squared, and thus the ratio of driving force to resisting force is proportional to the diameter. Thus it is harder for an ESP to collect small particles than larger ones. COLLECTING EFFICIENCY: Usually collecting efficiency should be given by the ratio of the difference in dust concentration to the inlet dust concentration. = {(Ci-Co)/Ci}x100 (1)

where, : Efficiency in percentage. Ci: Inlet dust concentration. Co: Outlet dust concentration. But, the Deutsch Anderson eqn is the most widely used simple eqn for designing, analysis & comparison of the ESP. the Deutsch Anderson eqn is given by: =100x{1-e^(-k)} where, k = wmx(A/Q)= wm{L/(RxV)}

Q: Volume of the gas passing through ESP. L: Effective ESP length. R: Spacing of the electrode. Wm: Apparent migration velocity (drift velocity). V: Gas velocity. A: Collecting area. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA: The performance criteria of the ESP as collected on 11/07/05-15/07/05 are given below. A. Characteristics Of Dust:

i.

Particle Size Distribution: The size distribution of the fly ash entering the inlet of the ESP plays a major role in its performance. The particle size distribution is given in the table below: MICRON SIZE 10 10-20 20-30 30-40 Over 40 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY WEIGHT 32 24 14 10 20

ii.

iii.

Chemical Composition: Chemical composition of the fly ash produced from this plant is given below: CHEMICALS % Loi AVERAGE 1.8

iv.

Electrical Resistivity: For temperature below 1608 C, the resistivity is dominated by surface conduction over the fly ash particles, which in turn is greatly influenced by chemical composition. (i.e. H2O, SO3 etc.). At higher temperature, or in a perfectly dry atmosphere the fly ash behaves as a semi insulator. Here the operating temperature is 150oC.

B.

Characteristics Of Gases: For an ESP designed for higher collection efficiency, it is of major importance to have a good flue gas distribution inside the chamber. This ensures the effective utilization of the collecting area provided in the precipitator. This is obtained by providing the deflection plates on the primary and the secondary screens.

Gas temperature: 143oC Moisture Content: 4% Gas Flow Rate: 115.9 m3/sec Pressure Drop: 13.0Kg/cm2

SPECIFICATION OF THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR: ESP SIZE: 2P, 1C, 27GP(400mmx48x73), 5F (53 14.6) GAS VOLUME: 844736m3/Hr OPERATING TEMPERATURE: 150 oC NUMBER OF PRECIPITATORS/BOILER: 2 NUMBER OFCHAMBERS: 1 NUMBER OF GAS PASSENGERS FOR ESP: 27 COLLECTING SURFACE HEIGHT: 14.62m COLLECTING SURFACE SPACING: 400mm COLLECTING SURFACE LENGTH: 4.45x5 NUMBER OF FIELDS PER ESP: 5 SET QUANTITY/SIZES: 5NO, 1000Ma, and 105kv INLET DUST CONCENTRATION: 117.5gm/Nm3 OUTLET DUST CONCENTRATION: 50mg/Nm3

CALCULATION: Drift velocity, wm=[Dx 0xE2{ 4 ( +2)}]/ ={20x10^(-6)x8.85x10^(-12) x(105x1000)^2x.75}/{1.8x10^(-5) =0.0813 m/sec where, D=20 0=8.853 10^(-12) C/V.m E=105KV { 4 ( +2)}=0.75, 5 6 =1.8x10^(-5) Kg/m.s K=(wmxL)/(RxV)

The role of efficiency monitoring lies in maximizing generation from the thermal power plants. It increases the energy efficiency of the power plant. Turbine efficiency: The cylinder efficiency is defined as the ratio of heat drop in a cylinder to the isentropic heat drop in that cylinder. In ideal case the expansion of steam in a cylinder (say H.P. cylinder) should be isentropic. But due to friction, windage or other sources of loss, the expansion differs from isentropic expansion. So it is clear, that the work done in actual expansion process is less than that done in isentropic process. Hence, the efficiency of the turbine can be calculated as follows: turbine=Actual expansion work done in turbine/Isentropic work (theoretical) Extraction Steam System In order to increase the cycle efficiency, the condensate & feed water is preheated by bleed steam from turbine. Heating is carried out in six stages in three LP heaters, a deaerator & two HP heaters. OBSERVATION:

Main Steam Flow Rate: 285.05 TPH LAOD (MW) 120 87.5 EXTRACTION STEAM FLOW (TPH) LPH-2 LPH-3 12.523 14.74 9.13154 10.75

POINT LPT inlet LPH3 extraction LPH2 extraction LPH1 extraction LPT outlet LPH3 extraction LPH2 extraction LPH1 extraction LPT outlet

PRESSURE (Kg/cm2) 5.1624 2.2526 0.8853 0.3393 0.1033 2.2526 0.8853 0.3393 0.1033

ENTHALPY (KCal/Kg) 724.3095 685.27 644.694 627.9 578.648 674.24375 637.6 599.9756 560.143

NOTE: In the above table the dryness fraction of the extracted steam is taken to be 1, as the LPH extraction steam quality was not obtainable. It can be assumed to be one with marginal errors, because it will be greater than 0.95. CALCULATION: Now, main steam flow rate = 285.05 TPH Actual work done=[285.05x(724.3095-685.27)+(285.05-10.75)x (685.27-644.694)+(285.05-10.75-9.1314)x(644.694-627.9)+ (285.05-10.75-9.13147.717)x(627.9-578.648)]x10^3 KCal/Hr =39,391.4545x10^3 KCal/Hr Isentropic work done=[285.05x(724.3095-674.24375)+ (285.05-10.75)x(674.24375-637.6)+ (285.05-10.75-9.1314)x (637.6-599.9756)+ (285.05-10.75-9.1314-7.717)x (599.9756-560.143)]x10^3 KCal/Hr =44,554.3886x10^3 KCal/Hr

The efficiency of the LP turbine = LPT =Actual work done 4 isentropic work done =39,391.4545x10^3/44, 554.3886x10^3 =88.41%

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