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ABSTRACT

Internet is an evolving phenomenon influencing every sphere of human activity bringing radical changes in the way people communicate with each other. It is one of the best discoveries which makes you connect round the globe just in a matter of seconds. It is simply defined as NETWORKS OF NETWORKS. With the ever increase in demand for new services and availability of key enabling technologies the telephone network is approaching the broadband networks. Broadband refers to a connection that has capacity to transmit large amount of data at high speed. Presently a connection having download speeds of 256 kbps or more is classified as broadband.When connected to the Internet such a connection allows surfing or downloading much faster than a dial-up or any other narrowband connections. Broad band applications are destined to rule the next part of the century huge opportunities it offers to the engineers in particular and common man in general. There is always increasing demand for higher capacity systems and more bandwidth for this exponential growth. There are many different broadband technologies both wired and wireless. BSNLs broadband service working under the brand name DataOne.This project describes various types of broadband access technologies , BSNLs access network of broadband, services offered, future scope of Broadband. for new generation, hence new various types of access technologies for broadband have to be found

CHAPTER-1 1.1 INRTODUCTION: Many networks exist in the world, often with different hardware and software. People connected to one network often want to communicate with people attached to a different one. This is possible with the help of Internetworking. The Internet is a global computer network made up of smaller computer networks. It has been called a "Network of Networks", that interchanges data by packet switching using the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). These smaller networks include: Local Area Networks (like networked offices or computer labs, and campus-wide Networks) Wide Area Networks (like city-wide networks) State and Regional Networks (including regional service providers and others) National and International Networks The Internet carries various information resources and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer and file sharing, online gaming, and the inter-linked hypertext documents and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). Though there are many other internet technologies, Broadband has gain the importance because of its speed & its enormous applications. Broadband in data communications is frequently used in a more technical sense to refer to data transmission where multiple pieces of data are sent simultaneously to increase the effective rate of transmission, regardless of actual data rate Broadband is a high capacity communications pipeline capable of delivering simultaneously a range of voice, video and date services to the home in a truly interactive manner.

1.2 MOTIVATION

The global telecommunications infrastructure has evolved over the past 100 years. The last two decades, however, have heralded seminal change that has accelerated this internet evolution manifold. The Internet is a network of network, connecting millions of computers across the world. Widespread adoption of PC devices, evolution of killer applications such as the WWW and e-mail, as well as its efficiency in transfer of data traffic across the world saw a surge in Internet users through the 1990s. The telecommunications world is at the crossroads today. As the amount of data traffic crossing the globe increases every second, the conventional infrastructure is seen to be increasingly incapable of handling it. As is usually the case the market found a way out. The clash of the old-world and the new led to a wave of innovation and evolution for telecommunications. Today, copper and fiber optic lines that used to carry voice traffic now also transmit data, fax, and video. Traditional circuit switching is giving way to more efficient and flexible packet switching technologies as a result of the explosive growth of IP (Internet Protocol) networks. Broadband is used today by almost 250 million people worldwide. It is revolutionizing the way people communicate, seek knowledge, access public services, entertain, and do business.The new broadband revolution wireline or wireless is making changes to the telecommunications landscape which could be as important as those made by the advent of the Internet and mobile telephony, yet with an even greater impact on content development and dissemination, thus leading to accelerated socioeconomic development. Broadband is provided by a series of technologies (e.g. cable, telephone wire, satellite, wireless) that give users the ability to send and receive data at volumes and speeds far greater than current dial-up Internet access over traditional telephone lines.

1.3 THESIS ORGANISATION The second chapter gives a brief introduction to various internet accessing technologies, overview of different broadband technologies, importance of the broadband in various sectors.
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The third chapter deals in particular about the ADSL technology, working of ADSL technology, Frequency plan of ADSL, ADSL Modulation (CAP and DMT Modulation Techniques). The fourth chapter gives a brief idea about BSNL NIB-II Broadband ADSL Deployment, ADSL broadband architecture, its infrastructure with neat figures. It discusses about the Components of Broad Band Access Network such as ADSL Modem, Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers (DSLAMs),Gigabit and Fast Ethernet Aggregation Switches (LAN Switches),Broad Band Remote Access Server (BBRAS),SSSS/SSSC (Subscriber Service Selection System/ Centre), Routers. The fifth chapter deals with Hardware Requirements, Merits And Demerits, Applications.

CHAPTER-2 2.1 INTERNET ACCESSING TECHNOLOGIES: There are mainly two traditional technologies in accessing internet. They are :1. Dial-up (Narrow Band)
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2. Broad Band 1.Dial-up Internet access Dial-up Internet Access is a form of Internet access via telephone lines. The user's computer or router uses an attached modem connected to a telephone line to dial into an Internet service provider's (ISP) node to establish a modem-to-modem link, which is then used to route Internet Protocol packets between the user's equipment and hosts on the Internet. Dial-up connections to the Internet require no additional infrastructure other than the telephone network and the computer modem. It is fast enough to read Information and download small files. but it have problems with video connection, multimedia websites and etc The limitation in the dial-up is due to voice communication. max voice range = 4KHZ = W sampling frequency = 2W = 2*4KHZ = 8KHZ sending bit rate = 8 bit i.e., 8*8kHZ = 64Kbps

Due to this low data rate integration of Voice & Data on same line is not possible. To overcome these limitations we switch to Broad Band. 2.Broadband Internet access: Broadband Internet access, often shortened to just broadband, is high-speed Internet accesstypically contrasted with dial-up access over a modem. Broadband enables us to access the Internet over a phone line with out interrupting our phone service

It is a high-speed, high-capacity transmission medium that can carry signals from multiple independent network carriers. This is done on a single coaxial or fiber-optic cable by establishing different bandwidth channels. Broadband technology can support a wide range of frequencies. It is used to transmit data, voice and video over long distances simultaneously. Infrastructure: The broadband infrastructure consists of a core or backbone network and an access network. The backbone is usually an optical fiber network. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) has been chosen as the communication principle on which the broadband networks will be based. The main reason for its selection is the flexibility that it offers for handling services requiring very different bit rates. 2.2 Importance of Broadband: Broadband can provide you with the technical capability to access a wide range of resources, services, and products that can enhance your life in a variety of ways. These resources, services, and products include, but are not limited to: Education, Culture, & Entertainment : Broadband can overcome geographical and financial barriers to provide access to a wide range of educational, cultural, and recreational opportunities and resources.

Telehealth & Telemedicine: Broadband can facilitate provision of medical care to unserved and underserved populations through remote diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and consultations with specialists. Economic Development/E-Commerce: Broadband can promote economic development and revitalization through electronic commerce (e-commerce) by: Creating new jobs and attracting new industries. Providing access to regional, national, and worldwide markets.
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Electronic Government (E-Government) : Electronic government can help streamline peoples interaction with government agencies, and provide information about government policies, procedures, benefits, and programs. Public Safety and Homeland Security : Broadband can help protect the public by facilitating and promoting public safety information and procedures, including, but not limited to: Early warning/public alert systems and disaster preparation programs. Remote security monitoring and real time security background checks. Backup systems for public safety communications networks.

Broadband Communications Services: Broadband provides access to new telecommunications technologies such as Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) allowing voice communication using the Internet. Communications Services for People With Disabilities : Broadband permits users of Telecommunications Relay Services (TRS) to use Video Relay Services (VRS) to communicate more easily, quickly, and expressively with voice telephone users.

2.3Broadband Technologies: Broadband includes several high-speed transmission technologies such as:

Cable Modem Fiber Wireless


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Satellite Broadband over Powerlines (BPL) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

The broadband technology you choose will depend on a number of factors. These may include whether you are located in an urban or rural area, how broadband Internet access is packaged with other services (like voice telephone and home entertainment), price, and availability.

Cable Modem Cable modem service enables cable operators to provide broadband using the same coaxial cables that deliver pictures and sound to your TV set. Most cable modems are external devices that have two connections, one to the cable wall outlet and the other to a computer. They provide transmission speeds of 1.5 Mbps or more. Subscribers can access their cable modem service simply by turning on their computers without dialing-up an ISP. You can still watch cable TV while using it. Transmission speeds vary depending on the type of cable modem, cable network, and traffic load. Speeds are comparable to DSL.

Fig2.1: Cable modem Fiber Fiber, or fiber optic, is a newer technology available for providing broadband. Fiber optic technology converts electrical signals carrying data to light and sends the light through transparent glass fibers about the diameter of a human hair. Fiber transmits data at speeds far exceeding current DSL or cable modem speeds, typically by tens or even hundreds of Mbps.
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The actual speed you experience will vary depending upon a variety of factors, such as how close to your computer the service provider brings the fiber, and how the service

provider configures the service, including the amount of bandwidth used. The same fiber providing your broadband can also simultaneously deliver voice (VoIP) and video services, including video-on-demand. Telecommunications providers (mostly telephone companies) are offering fiber broadband in limited areas and have announced plans to expand their fiber networks and offer bundled voice, Internet access, and video services. Variations of the technology run the fiber all the way to the customers home or business, to the curb outside, or to a location somewhere between the providers facilities and the customer. An Optical fiber consists of a core of optically transparent material usually silica or borosilicate glass surrounded by a cladding of the same material but a slightly lower refractive index. Fiber sizes are usually expressed by first giving the core size followed by the cladding size. Thus, 50/125 means a core diameter of 50m and a cladding diameter of 125 m.

Fig2.2: Fiber structure


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Wireless Wireless broadband connects a home or business to the Internet using a radio link between the customers location and the service providers facility. Wireless broadband can be mobile or fixed. Wireless technologies using longer range directional equipment provide broadband service in remote or sparsely populated areas where DSL or cable modem service would be costly to provide. Speeds are generally comparable to DSL and cable modem. An external antenna is usually required.

Fig2.3: ADSL router with Wi-Fi

Fixed wireless broadband service is becoming more and more widely available at airports, city parks, bookstores, and other public locations called hotspots. Hotspots generally use a short-range technology that provides speeds up to 54 Mbps. Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) technology is also often used in conjunction with DSL or cable modem service to connect devices within a home or business to the Internet via a broadband connection.

Mobile wireless broadband services are also becoming available from mobile telephone service providers and others. These services are generally appropriate for highly-mobile customers and require a special PC card with a built in antenna that plugs into a users laptop computer. Generally, they provide lower speeds, in the range of several hundred Kbps.
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Satellite Just as satellites orbiting the earth provide necessary links for telephone and television service, they can also provide links for broadband. Satellite broadband is another form of wireless broadband, also useful for serving remote or sparsely populated areas. Downstream and upstream speeds for satellite broadband depend on several factors, including the provider and service package purchased, the consumers line of sight to the orbiting satellite, and the weather. Typically a consumer can expect to receive (download) at a speed of about 500 Kbps and send (upload) at a speed of about 80 Kbps. These speeds may be slower than DSL and cable modem, but download speed is about 10 times faster than download speed with dial-up Internet access. Service can be disrupted in extreme weather conditions. Broadband over Powerline (BPL) BPL is the delivery of broadband over the existing low and medium voltage electric power distribution network. BPL speeds are comparable to DSL and cable modem speeds. BPL can be provided to homes using existing electrical connections and outlets. BPL is an emerging technology, currently available in very limited areas. It has significant potential because power lines are installed virtually everywhere, alleviating the need to build new broadband facilities to every customer. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) DSL is a wireline transmission technology that transmits data faster over traditional copper telephone lines already installed to homes and businesses. DSL-based broadband provides transmission speeds ranging from several hundred Kbps to millions of bits per second (Mbps).

The availability and speed of your DSL service may depend on the distance from your home or business to the closest telephone company facility. The following are types of DSL transmission technologies:
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Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) used primarily by residential customers, such as Internet surfers, who receive a lot of data but do not send much. ADSL typically provides faster speed in the downstream direction than the upstream direction. ADSL allows faster downstream

data transmission over the same line used to provide voice service, without disrupting regular telephone calls on that line.

Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) used typically by businesses for services such as video conferencing, which need significant bandwidth both upstream and downstream

RADSL (Rate Adaptive DSL ) RADSL has a capability called rate adapt ion i.e. it can adjust to changes in line conditioning. Rate adapt ion bypasses impaired frequencies & the transmission continue. Simply we can say, rate adapt ion lets the DSL signal continue to transmit data even if noise is blocking some frequencies. It supports both symmetric & asymmetric use of the circuit.

Chapter-3 3.1 ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line): Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional modem can provide.ADSL has the distinguishing characteristic that the data can
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flow faster in one direction (used for download streaming) than the other(used for upload streaming) i.e., asymmetrically. ADSL is in place due to both technical and marketing reasons. On the technical side, there is likely to be more crosstalk from other circuits at the DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplex) end (where the wires from many local loops are close together) than at the customer premises. Thus the upload signal is weakest, while the download signal is strongest at the noisiest part of the local loop. It therefore makes DSLAM transmit at a higher bit rate than does the modem on the customer end. Since the typical home user in fact does prefer a higher download speed, thus telecom companies choose to make. 3.2Working of ADSL:

Fig3.1 ADSL Characteristics

To obtain the asymmetrical data transfer to suit requirement of Internet and LAN access, ADSL works by firstly splitting the available bandwidth on the twisted copper wire (telephone wires) into three different channel: 1)A high speed downstream channel (ranges from 1.5 to 8 Mbps) 2)A medium speed upstream channel (ranges from 16 kbps to 1 Mbps)
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3)POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) channel

Fig 3.2 DSL Environment

3.3Frequency plan for ADSL:

ADSL Modem Downstream DSLAM Upstream DSL DSLAM Custom Modem er

Fig 3.3 Frequency Plan of ADSL

First the POTS channel is splits off from the digital modem by filter, thus guaranteeing uninterrupted POTS. After the POTS channel are splitted from the digital data transfer bandwidth, the 26kHz to 1.1mhz data bandwidth could be further separated by using one of two ways as describe below: 1)Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) : FDM assigns one band for upstream data and one band for downstream data. Time division multiplexing divides the downstream path into one or more high speed channels and one or more low speed channels. But the upstream path is only multiplexed into corresponding low speed. 2)Echo cancellation : Echo cancellation assigns the upstream band to over-lap the downstream. To separate them is by local echo cancellation. This technique is common in V.32 and V.34

Modems (Conventional Modems). By using either one of the above techniques, ADSL splits off a 4khz region for POTS at the DC end of the band. 3.4 ADSL MODULATION: ADSL uses two types of Modulation 1.CAP(Carrierless Amplituse Phase Modulation) 2.DMT(Discrete Multi Tone) Among these two DMT is the most widely used one. CAP(Carrier less Amplitude Phase Modulation) : It is a variation of QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).QAM generates a DSSC (Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier) signal constructed from two multi-level PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulated) signals applied in phase quadrature to one another. CAP modulation produces the same form of signal as QAM without requiring in-phase and quadrature components of the carrier to the first be generated. The following diagrams illustrates the CAP modulation.

CAP TRANSMITTER & RECEIVER


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Upstrea POT kHz Downstre f2136 4 f1 136 S am k kHz 340 m kHz H 680 kHz z

952 kHz 1080 kHz

Fig 3.4 Frequency characteristics of CAP Discrete Multitone Modulation (DMT): DMT is basically a multicarrier modulation technique. DMT spread the original spectrum of the input signal over numerous sub-channels each of which carries a fraction of the total information. All these sub-channels transmit data in parallel to each other and are independently modulated with a carrier frequency. By using DSP techniques, multiple subchannels could be established using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), where the sub-carriers had to have orthoganlity with each other. As mentioned before, DMT utilizes the spectrum between 26kHz and 1.1Mhz. After using FDM or echo cancellation technique, this spectrum of bandwidth is split up into upstream band(26kHz to 138kHz) and downstream band (138kHz to 1.1MHz), which is then further divided into 256 discrete sub-channels each of which had a bandwidth of 4kHz. One of DMT most significant feature is that it is able to dynamically adapt to the line condition to obtain the maximum throughput for each unique telephone line.
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DMT does this by framing the data bits into chunks and spreads them over the subchannels. The allocation of data into each sub-channel is dependent on the characteristics of the line and on the SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of the line. There could be no data at all in a really noisy channel and there could be as high as 15 bits/Hz in a channel where SNR is optimum. By using the average signal to noise ration (SNR) of the sub-channel, the number of bits to be allocated to that sub-channel can be decided. The number of bits to be assigned to the nth channel could be calculated from this equation. The major stages in transmitting and receiving could be seen in the following block diagram .
Upstrea POT Downstre f1 4 f2 Sm k am H z

Fig 3.5 Frequency characteristics of DMT The chunk of bits that are being assigned to each sub-channel as described above are encoded as a set of quadrature amplitude modulated subsymbols. These subsymbols are then pass into an Inverse Fourier Transform(IFFT) which combines the subsymbols into a set of real-valued time domain samples, the output of the IFFT is then send a Parallel-to- Serial block with cyclic prefix which is added to remove InterSymbol Interference (ISI) between the sub-channels. The output is then pass into an digital to analog converter which is then send through the twisted copper telephone wire. The receiver would receive he signal from the twisted copper telephone wire and does the reverse process to obtained the required data. To reduce error in transmission and to counter those problem of using telephone lines as a data transfer medium, DMT had uses Reed Solomon forward error correction method .The size of this Reed Solomon codeword depends on the number of bits assigned to each sub-channel.

Chapter-4 4.1NIB-II Broadband ADSL Deployment: BSNL is in the process of commissioning of a world class, multi-gigabit, multiprotocol, convergent IP infrastructure through National Internet Backbone-II (NIB-II), that will provide convergent services through the same backbone and broadband access network. The Broadband service will be available on DSL technology (on the same copper cable that is used for connecting telephone), on a countrywide basis spanning 198 cities. In terms of infrastructure for broadband services NIB-II would put India at par with more advanced nations. The services that would be supported includes always-on broadband access to the Internet for residential and business customers, Content based services, Video multicasting, Video-on-demand and Interactive gaming, Audio and Video conferencing, IP Telephony, Distance learning, Messaging: plain and feature rich, Multi-site MPLS VPNs with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. The subscribe will be able to access the above services through Subscriber Service Selection System (SSSS) portal. BSNL has planned to setup NIB-II to provide world class infrastructure to offer various value added services to a broader customer base county-wide that will help to accelerate the Internet revolution in India. Moreover the NIB-II will create a platform, which enables e-governance, e-banking, e-earning, etc. with the key point of Service Lev el Agreements & Guarantee in tune with Global standards and customer expectations. NIB-II has been grouped into following three major projects. Project 1: - MPLS based IP Network infrastructure covering 71 cities along with associated NMS, PMS, Firewall and Caching platforms.
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Project 2.1: Access Gateway platform using Dialup comprising of Narrow Band RAS. Project 2.2: Access Gateway platform comprising of Broadband RAS and DSL equipment. Project 3: Messag ing and Storage platform and Provisioning, Billing and Customer care and Enterprise management system NIB-II Project 2.2 is for the deployment of broadband services in 198 cities with 69 important cities where Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) shall be deployed. The cities are categorized under A1 (3 cites), A2 (3 cites), A3 (6 cites), A4 (10 cites), B1 (21 cites), B2 (26 cites), and others (129 cities). Services planned through Project 2.2 Primary source of Internet bandwidth for retail users for application such as Web brousing, e-commerce etc Multicast video services, video on demad etc through Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS). Allow wholesale BRAS ports to be assigned to smaller ISPs through the franchises model where in the later has a separate network of DSLAMs, AAA through a revenue scheme of BSNL. Support for both prepaid and postpaid Broadband services.

4.2 FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE:

C S 2 F T B t F G R B M Ti r C Fr AA S4 o S 4 E i B e D ax er E i A r o8 D pli o r S 0 e r 10 40 1 g S o m SS tt0 e S 1 r u La /2 Kr m L M La er P 0 2 ye 0E M i P t e D N o 0 KE Dd r2 n o e r M L Fe M ar Gi b a r Dt kA g r & a l t w D N ar Fi E s D n o kS br A S F r L S gg fib ed L k A w E er re A M i ga M t tio c n h S wi tc h

Fig 4.1 Functional Architecture The Components of Broad Band Access Network are ADSL Modem Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers (DSLAMs) Gigabit and Fast Ethernet Aggregation Switches (LAN Switches) Broad Band Remote Access Server (BBRAS) SSSS/SSSC (Subscriber Service Selection System/ Centre)
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Routers The detailed description of each component is as follows 4.2.1 ADSL MODEM:DSL modem or DSL modem is a device used to connect a single computer or router to a DSL phone line, in order to use an ADSL service. Like other modems it is a type of transceiver. It is also called a DSL Transceiver or ATU-R. Some ADSL modems also manage the connection and sharing of the ADSL service with a group of machines: in this case, the unit is termed a DSL router or residential gateway. DSL routers have a functional block which performs framing, while other functional blocks perform Asynchronous Transfer Mode Segmentation and Reassembly, IEEE 802.1D bridging and/or IP routing.

Fig4.2: UT- 300R ADSL Modem

An ADSL Modem setup: In the image below, you'll see a typical scenario of one PC connected to the phone line via a ADSL modem.

Fig 4.3 ADSL Modem Setup

The above image shows two wires. First wire goes from the PC to the modem. The second wire goes from the modem to the phone line. Because it's ADSL, the second wire first plugs into something called a Filter. The Filter then goes into the phone socket. If you request a web page from your computer, the signal goes down the first wire to the modem. It then travels through the second wire, and down your phone line. When the web page is found on the internet, it is sent down the second wire, through the modem, then the first wire, and to your PC. An ADSL Modem modulates high-frequency tones for transmission to a DSLAM, and receives and demodulates them from the DSLAM, usually to serve a computer or computers Splitter:

If at your home/business, the same line is used for voice and data then you need to separate out these signals by using a splitter. The splitter will have one output for your telephone and one or more for the ADSL modem which in turn connects to your computer.

Fig4.4: ADSL Splitter If you have more than one phone socket connected to the ADSL enabled phone line then you will need a microfilter for each one. The extra phones can be plugged into the correct socket of the microfilter, the other socket of the extra microfilters, where you would normally attach the modem/router cable, can remain empty. Connecting More than one Phones/Fax parallel to Dataone Connection:

(1) Phone Socket (2) Phone (3) Phone (4) RJ-11 Tel Cable (5) Splitter (6) RJ-11 Tel Cable (7) RJ-11 Tel Cable (8) Phone Jack (9) ADSL Modem Fig 4.5: Connection of more than one phone 4.2.2 Digital subscriber line access multiplexer: A Digital Subscriber Line Access allows telephone lines to make faster connections to the Internet. It is a network device, located in the telephony exchanges of the service providers, that connects multiple customer Digital Subscriber Lines (DSLs) to a high-speed Internet backbone line using multiplexing techniques. By locating DSLAMs at locations remote to the telephone company central office (CO), telephone companies provide DSL service to locations previously beyond effective range. Operation of DSLAM: The DSLAM equipment at the telephone company collects the digital signals from its many modem ports and combines them into one signal via multiplexing. Customers connect to the DSLAM through ADSL modems or DSL routers, which are connected to the PSTN network via typical unshielded twisted pair telephone lines. Each DSLAM has multiple aggregation cards, and each such card can have multiple ports to which the customers lines are connected. .

Fig4.6: Operation of DSLAM

DSLAMs shall in general be collocated with existing PSTN exchanges which provide last mile access to customers over copper wire up to average span lengths of 3 kms.Size of DSLAM vary considerably from 480 Ports , 240 ports, 120 Ports, 64 ports, 48 Ports and 24 ports IP-DSLAM stands for Internet Protocol Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer. User traffic is mostly IP based. Traditional 20th century DSLAM used Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology to connect to upstream ATM routers/switches.

These devices then extract the IP traffic and pass it on to an IP network. IP-DSLAMs extract the IP traffic at the DSLAM itself. Thus it is all IP from there. Advantage of IP-DSLAM over

a traditional ATM DSLAM is in terms of lower capital expenditure and operational expenditure and a richer set of features and functionality.

Fig4.7: iAN8K B1000 The iAN8K B1000 IP DSLAM is used at the Vijayawada BSNL central office.The Ethernet WAN interface on the iAN8K B1000 IPDSLAM directly connects to an Internet router or LAN switch, thereby eliminating the traditional bandwidth bottleneck typical in an ATM network. It supports revenue generating services like IPTV, VoIP and Differentiated Broadband Data services. It supports full range of ADSL, VDSL and SHDSL access technologies. In India, 198 cities will have DSLAMs and Tier2 LAN switches (for aggregation of DSLAM). 4.2.3 Gigabit and Fast Ethernet Aggregation Switches (LAN SWITCHES): For aggregating multiple DSLAM and providing a common uplink to the core LAN switches are used. The DSLAM will in general be colocated with existing PSTN exchange, which provides last mile access to customers over copper wire up to average span lengths of 3 kms. All DSLAM will be aggregated through Fast Ethernet (FE) interface except 480 port DSLAM, which will be aggregated through Gigabit Ethernet (GigE) interface. All DSLAM are initially aggregated using Tier 2 LAN switch, through one pair of dark fiber. All Tier2 LAN switches are aggregated using TIER-1 LAN switch. The SX or GBIC module in LAN Switch used for connecting Tier2 to Tier1 will support 40km. The

following figure shows the aggregation of 240 port DSLAMs at Tier2 switch. And again all tier2 swiches are aggregated to Tier1 switch.

Fig4.8: Aggregation of DSLAMS 4.2.4 BRAS(Broadband Remote access Server): BRAS called as Broadband Remote Access Server. First intelligent device in the whole chain. It terminates the customer session, authenticates, allott IP addresses and keeps track of user session for billing along with RADIUS. RADIUS is in conjunction with BRAS authenticates customer, upload customer profile in the SSSS and keeps track of billing The main functional equipment in broadband technology is BRAS. authentication platform with high speed data rate with in the core BRAS performs the following functions 1.Sends users request for authentication to AAA 2.Allots dynamic and static IP addresses 3. Controls IP traffic It is an

Fig4.9 SSX-1400 BRAS BRAS is a broad band access server with enhanced broad band access technology. It interfaces the core router on the network side and layer2 access equipment on the user side. It provides functions of user management, accounting control, address management, service control. provides high forwarding performance and flexible service processing capabilities enabling high speed internet access. BRAS isDeployed at the edge of the NIBII network. It is installed in all the A sites. It allots IP address to customer. It also control Bandwidth using rate limiting 4.2.5 Subscriber Service Selection System/ Centre: SSSC/S Called as Subscriber Service Selection System. When customer logs in he will be welcomed with this customized screen from where he can select various range of service. This provides on demand service without manual intervention. All the customers profile shall be stored centrally. The SSSS/SSSC will act as a portal into the Network, where advertisements, automatic Provisioning, and Service registration will take place.

The SSSS/SSSC will allow real time subscriber provisioning and usage collection data.The SSSC will allow service provider to define new services, modify the existing one and even delete the offered services under authorized user name and password.The following SSSS sun rack 900-38 is used at Vijayawada BSNL Data center.

Fig4.10: SSSS sun rack 900-38 .

4.2.6 Routers: Core router: Routers generally contain a specialized operating system (e.g. Cisco's IOS or Juniper Networks JUNOS and JUNOSe or Extreme Networks XOS), RAM, NVRAM, flash memory, and one or more processors. High-end routers contain many processors and specialized
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Application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) and do a great deal of parallel processing. Routers connect two or more logical subnets, which do not necessarily map one-to-one to the physical interfaces of the router. Routers operate in two different planes:

Control Plane, in which the router learns the outgoing interface that is most appropriate for forwarding specific packets to specific destinations. Control Plane processing leads to the construction of what is variously called a routing table or routing information base (RIB). . The routing table stores the best routes to certain network destinations, the "routing metrics" associated with those routes, and the path to the next hop router.

Forwarding Plane, which is responsible for the actual process of sending a packet received on a logical interface to an outbound logical interface. For the pure Internet Protocol (IP) forwarding function, router design tries to minimize the state information kept on individual packets. Once a packet is forwarded, the router should no longer retain statistical information about it.

The following Cisco 12416 Core router is used at Vijayawada data center.

Fig4.11: Cisco 12416 core router A core router is a router designed to operate in the Internet backbone, or core. To fulfill this role, a router must be able to support multiple telecommunications interfaces of the highest speed in use in the core Internet and must be able to forward IP packets at full speed on all of them. It must also support the routing protocols being used in the core. The largest provider of core routers in the 1980s and 1990s was Cisco Systems, who provided core routers as part of a broad product line.

Edge Router: An edge router is a device that routes data packets between one or more local area networks (LANs) and an ATM backbone network, whether a campus network or a wide area network (WAN). An edge router is an example of an edge device and is sometimes referred to as a boundary router. An edge router is sometimes contrasted with a core router, which forwards packets to computer hosts within a network (but not between networks).
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The Cisco 7613 Router is a high-performance router designed for deployment at the network edge where performance, IP services, and redundancy and fault resiliency are critical requirements. It enables Carrier Ethernet service providers to deploy an advanced network infrastructure that supports a range of IP video and triple-play (voice, video, and data) system applications in both the residential and business services markets. The Cisco 7613 enables enterprises to deploy advanced WAN and metropolitan-area network (MAN) networking solutions necessary to succeed in demanding, high-traffic environments.

The following Cisco 7600 Edge router is used at Vijayawada data center.

Fig4.12: Cisco7600seriesrouter

Connectivity diagram of Routers in India:


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Raipur Belgau Pondich Jamshed Hubli Mysor Nagpur Guwahati Durgap Tirupa Rajmund Vijaywada Kalik Trivandr Palgh Nodes Trich + Madur Coimbtore Nodes Ranchi B2Nodes Bhubneshwa - -- 47 Allahaba Manglor Chandigarh Hyderabad Ernakulam Patna Lucknow Indore Ahmedabad Pune Jaipur Jullundar B1 A4 A2+A3 A1 m 10 erry Kanpu Varan Noida Ghaziab Shilon Jabalp Rajkot Vadoda Surat pur e 9 Jodhpu Ajme Amrits Shiml Ferozp Ludhia Dehrad Agra Meer Gurga Faridab Ambal Mehsa Gwali Bhopa Nashi Kolhap Auranga Panji Kalya Dimap Siligur ti 5 Viza ary ur Mumb umi at Bangl y Chenn ai Kolka r SNoi d e asi ra r ar un ut on ad a na or l k bad m n ur i g
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ore ai ta da

Fig4.13: Interconnectivity of Routers

Chapter-5 5.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS Hard ware requirements are at two ends 1.At central office 2.At customer end 1.At central office: a) DSLAM b) High level LAN switches c) BRAS d) Core network e) Access network 2.At customer end : 1)Customer P.C/Laptop: a) NIC card b) TCP/IP supporting software C)RAM with 256Mbps (For better BB Connectivity) d) Hard-disk with at least 20Gb capacity e) Internet explorer higher version 2) ADSL modem: ADSL provides fast point to point connection by modem.
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It contains two parts (PPPoE) a) splitter b) modem 5.2 Merits And Demerits: Advantages: Broadband allows you to take advantage of new services not available or not convenient to use with a dial-up Internet connection. One such service is Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), an alternative to traditional voice telephone service that may be less costly for you depending on your calling patterns. Some VoIP services only allow you to call other people using the same service, but others allow you to call anyone who has a telephone number including local, long distance, mobile, and international numbers. Broadband makes telemedicine possible: patients in rural areas can confer online with medical specialists in more urban areas and share information and test results very quickly. Broadband helps you efficiently access and use many reference and cultural resources, such as library and museum data bases and collections. You also need broadband to best take advantage of many distance learning opportunities, like online college or university courses, and continuing or senior education programs. Broadband is an important tool for expanding educational and economic consumers in remote locations. In addition to these new services, broadband allows you to shop on-line and Web surf more quickly and efficiently. Downloading and viewing videos and photos on your computer are much faster and easier. With broadband you can access the Internet by turning on your computer without needing to dial up your Internet Service Provider (ISP) over a telephone line, which permits you to use the Internet without tying up your
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opportunities for

telephone line. As of June 2007, more than 100 million broadband connections were deployed in the United States. Broadband is always onDoes not block phone lines and no need to reconnect to network after logging off. Less delay in transmission of content when using broadband Disadvantages: The broadband connectivity requires a lot of cabling. This reduces the flexibility 5.3 Applications Broadband services are the facilities that a network operator provide to support broadband application via an integrated subscriber access, where broadband applications are any end use of the broadband network capabilities. Some important broadband services and potential applications are listed below :TV Distribution - Enables subscribers to receive a number of television programmes of a chosen quality. - Is targeted at entertainment and educational applications. HI-Fi Distribution - Enables a subscriber to received one or more high quality sound programmes. - Entertainment and educational application. Video telephony Potential applications include : - Face to face individual or group communication - Still images ( docu7ments, pictures etc.) - Instruction and education - Professional consultation games playing ( interactive, multi-user ) - Business discussion s ( individuals, group, conferences )
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- Buying and selling Video Retrieval Application s include: - Video on demand - Advertising - Video publishing - Video training Data transfer services Typical applications include: - PC file transfer - Image retrieval - Electronic mail

Future scope of Broadband

Over the past ten years, the rapid deployment of emerging information technologies, including and Internet services, has had a great influence in changing our daily lives, and it continues to influence and affect our lives. It has brought about the innovation of conversion from analogue to digital in telecommunication media.. In the changing technology scenario, there is a possibility of new options being used for provisioning of Broadband services. Future broadband communications aim to provide seamless services for all types of mobile communication services regardless of network or handset type. This is expected to be achieved through IPbasednetworks that support portability for seamless interoperation between different networks, rather thanthrough a single new network. Therefore, in this section, we discuss the need for service continuity through interoperation between different networks and the technologies that will enable such interoperation. In a few years time, we expect to see significantly enhanced broadband technologies, which could provide the 150 dB system gain, even while offering data speeds of 256 kbps or more for each connection. The three most promising technologies are all standardbased and are therefore expected to meet the price targets required for Rural India. These technologies are: (i) IEEE 802.16 m, (ii) 3GPPLTE, (iii) 3GPP2-UMB. These next generation broadband wireless standards are important for India, as it would enable broadband wireless to reach urban as well as rural India, just like GSM / CDMA mobiles do today.

Chapter-6 POWER PLANT

TRANSFORMERS The transformer specifications are: KVA VOLTS LV 415 AMPS FREQUENCY : HV 33 KIRLORKAR POWERS : 50 HZ (Z=4.63) MANUFACTURER: : : 630 KVA INDOOR TYPE HV 11000

GENERATORS Supply 310kv at the time of power loss 4 kinds of generators are present numbered as 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. At the time of power loss either 1 combination of 1-2 or 1-3 etc are used.

BATTERY ROOM
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BATTERY ROOM AT BSNL VIJAYAWADA

The battery room consists of 25 batteries of capacity 2V each The switch mode power supply is used to rectify the power supply and the output of SMPS is 50 volts All the equipment require 50 volts for their functioning and the power required is managed in the power Plant The batteries provide the power to run the equipment when there is a power failure Hence the power plant is responsible for providing uninterrupted power supply This unit is charged with the help of batteries instead of giant capacitors. Here older generation batteries are used extensively for this purpose. Each units task here is to convert AC power to DC power. Hence this unit is referred as Conventional cell power plant. The SMPS is used to run the equipment as well as charge the batteries. Chapter -7 BSNL 3G :
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Main components of 3G Implementation 1. Mobile Telephone Switching Office 2. Base stations 3. Public Switched Telephone Network 4. Two Way Radio

1. Mobile Telephone Switching Office

The Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) is the mobile equivalent to a PSTN Central Office. The MTSO contains the switching equipment or Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for routing mobile phone calls. It also contains the equipment for controlling the cell sites that are connected to the MSC. The systems in the MTSO are the heart of a cellular system. It is responsible interconnecting calls with the local and long distance landline telephone companies, compiling billing information (with the help of its CBM/SDM), etc. It also provides resources needed to efficiently serve a mobile subscriber such as registration, authentication, location updating and call routing. It's subordinate BSC/RNC are responsible for assigning frequencies to each call, reassigning frequencies for handoffss, controlling handoffs so a mobile phone leaving one cell (formally known as BTS)'s coverage area, can be switched automatically to a channel in the next cell. All cellular systems have at least one MTSO which will contain at least one MSC. The MSC is responsible for switching calls to mobile units as well as to the local telephone system, recording billing data and processing data from the cell site controllers. The MSC is connected to a close telephone exchange by a trunk group. This provides an interface to the (Public Switched Telephone Network) (PSTN). It also provides connectivity to the PSTN. The region to be served by a Cellular Geographic Serving Area(CGSA) is split into geographic cells. These cells are ideally hexagonal in shape and they are initially laid out with their centers about 4 to 8 miles apart from each other. Other MTSO equipment, the cell site controllers provide control functions for a group of cell sites and actions of mobile phones through command and control data channels. To achieve this, there has to be a method of connectivity between the MTSO and the cell site.

2. Base stations
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A base station is a radio receiver/transmitter that serves as the hub of the local wireless network, and may also be the gatewaybetween a wired network and the wireless network. It typically consists of a low-power transmitter and wireless router. 3. Public Switched Telephone Network The public switched telephone network (PSTN) also referred to as the Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) is the network of the world's public circuit-switched telephone networks. It is a worldwide net of telephone lines, fiberoptic cables, microwave transmission links, cellular networks, communications satellites, and undersea telephone cables connected by switching centers, which allows any telephone in the world to communicate with any other. Originally a network of fixed-line analog telephone systems, the PSTN is now almost entirely digital in its core and includes mobile as well as fixed telephones. The technical operation of the PSTN utilises standards created by the ITU-T. These standards allow different networks in different countries to interconnect seamlessly. There is also a single global address space for telephone numbers based on the E.163and E.164 standards. The combination of the interconnected networks and the single numbering plan make it possible for any phone in the world to dial any other phone. 4. Two Way Radio A two-way radio is a radio that can both transmit and receive (a transceiver), unlike a broadcast receiver which only receives content. Two-way radios are available in mobile, stationary base and hand-held portable configurations. Hand-held radios are often called walkie-talkies or handie-talkies. A push-totalk or Press To Transmit button is often present to activate the transmitter. A mobile phone or cellular telephone is an example of a two-way radio that both transmits and receives at the same time (or full-duplex). It uses two different radio frequencies to carry the two directions of the conversation simultaneously.

Chapter 8 Main Distribution Frame Main Distribution Frame is the mediator between exchange and subscriber. Main Functions 1. IVRS INTERACTIVE VOICE RESPONSE SYSTEM 2. Faults control 3. Dot Soft 4. Line Testing 5. Broadband Maintenance 6. Leased Line Maintenance The Main Distribution Frame is responsible for maintenance and faults control in network Hardware the above mentioned are the functionalities of MDF. IVRS INTERACTIVE VOICE RESPONSE SYSTEM

Interactive Voice Response System(IVRS) is a technology that allows a computer to detect voice and dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) keypad inputs. IVR technology is used extensively in telecommunication, but is also being introduced into automobile systems for hands-free operation. Current deployment in automobiles revolves around satellite navigation, audio and mobile phone systems. In telecommunications, IVR allows customers to access a companys database via a telephone keypad or by speech recognition, after which they can service their own inquiries by following the instructions. IVR systems can respond with pre-recorded or dynamically generated audio to further direct users on how to proceed. IVR systems can be used to control almost any function
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where the interface can be broken down into a series of simple menu choices. In telecommunications applications, such as customer support lines, IVR systems generally scale well to handle large call volumes. It has become common in industries that have recently entered the telecommunications industry to refer to an Automated Attendant as an IVR. The terms Automated Attendant and IVR are distinct and mean different things to traditional telecommunications professionals, whereas emerging telephony and VoIP professionals often use the term IVR as a catch-all to signify any kind of telephony menu, even a basic automated attendant. The term VRU, for Voice Response Unit, is sometimes used as well.

Conclusion Hence this project discussed the importance of Broadband and various technologies, in specifically about the ADSL broadband, BSNL 3G , POWER PLANT with its infrastructure. Thus we can say that ,Broadband access will drastically change the way people work, play and live. The higher connection speeds enables several new exciting multimedia application such as real time internet audio/video streaming, viewing the video clips of news events and movie trailers and taking virtual tours of hotels and resort areas before making reservations etc. it is expected that services like video on demand, teleshopping , telebanking etc. will take off in a big way. Broadband access will allow the people to telecommute effectively as though they are physically present in that office. The vision of Broadband home is that broadband multimedia , video, audio, voice and data will be delivered to and within the home to personal end point devices ushering in a new era of converged communication.

References BSNL in-plant training material


www.wikipedia.com www.cisco.com www.bsnl.co.in www.scribd.com