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TheessenceofThePaThofPurificaTion (Visuddhimaggarasa)

e ssenceof T he P aThof P urificaTion (Visuddhimaggarasa) DR.OTTARANYANA

DR.OTTARANYANA

Dr.OttaraNyanaisthepresentheadoftheBirminghamBuddhistVihara.

HewasborninMyanmarin1949.HehasstudiedTheravadaBuddhismsince

childhoodunderseveraleminentscholarlymonks.Hepassedthehigher

examinationinspiritualstudiesandwasawardedtheprestigioustitlesof

SasanadhajaDhammacariya(1971)andSasanadhajaSiripavara-Dhamma-

cariya(1973).HegothisB.A.fromYangonUniversity(1986).

In1992hewenttoIndiaforfurtherstudyandobtainedM.A(1994),

M.Phil andTibetan Diploma (1995), PhD. (Samgha and Royalty, 1998) DegreesfromDelhiUniversityinIndia.

HestayedatMahasiMeditationCentreinYangonforthreeyears(1984-

1986) andworkedintheStatePariyattiSasanaUniversityinMandalayfrom

1986to1992asRegistrar,ProfessorofMyanmarLiteratureandSecretaryof

theAdministrationandAcademicBoard.In1999heworkedintheTheravada

BuddhistMissionaryUniversityinYangonasDeanoftheMeditation(Pati-

patti)FacultyandSecretaryoftheTextBookCommitteetill2003.

TheMyanmargovernmentconferredonhimthereligioustitlesMaha-

ganthavacakaPandita(1992), AggamahaganthavacakaPandita(2002)and Aggamaha Pandita (2011) for his academic activities. He now teaches Majjhimanikaya,Paligrammar,AbhidhammaandVipassanameditationinthe BirminghamBuddhistViharaandinEurope.Permissionwasrecentlyobtained fortheestablishmentofaBuddhistAcademyintheBirminghamBuddhist Vihara.

Tel:0121-4546591

Mobile:07729892076

Email:ottama2000@yahoo.co.uk

Webside:www.birminghambuddhistvihara.org

TThheeeesssseennccee

ooff

TThheePPaatthhooff

PPuurriiffiiccaattiioonn

(VisuDDhiMaGGarasa)

f f T T h h e e P P a a t t h h

DroTTaranYana

T h e E s s e n c e of T h e Pa t h o f P u r i f i c a t i o n

( Visu ddhimaggar asa)

Manual of Morality & Meditation

by D r O ttar a Nyana

Copyright2010DrOttaraNyana,BirminghamBuddhistVihara

Coverphoto:VicitraRamsiPagoda,GyogoneVillage,Irrawaddydivision,Myanmar

Coverdesign:MayNandar,Hamsawaddy,Yangon

PrintedinMalaysiabyarrangementwithSukhiHotu

VenerableNyanamoli'stranslationfromthePathofPurification,onwhichthisworkisbased,

hasbeenusedwithpermissionforfreedistributionoftheoriginalpublisher,theBuddhist

PublicationSociety,Kandy,SriLanka,www.bps.lk.

TripleGem Publications

2295ParkviewLane

ChinoHills

CA91709,USA

C ON TEN TS

Bib lio g r a p h y

xiv

L is t o f a b b revia tio n s u s ed

xv

Prefa ce

xvii

I n tro d u ctio n

xix

PA RT I

V I RTU E

1 . Pu rif ica t io n o f Virt u e

ChapterI

DesCrIptIonofVIrtue

Pa ra . Pa g es

1. Introductory

1

5

2. Virtue

4

6

(i)

WhatIsVIrtue?

4

8

(ii)

InWhatsenseIsItVIrtue?

6

9

(iii)

WhatareItsCharaCterIstIC,funCtIon,

manIfestatIonanDproxImateCause?

7

9

(iv)

WhatarethebenefItofVIrtue?

8

9

(v)

hoWmanykInDsofVIrtuearethere?

9

10

1. monad

10

11

2-8 Dyads

10

11

9-13 triads

12

12

14-17 tetrads

15

13

theVirtueofpatimokkharestraint

18

15

theVirtueofrestraintoffaculties

25

18

theVirtueofLivelihoodpurification

28

19

VirtueConcerningrequisites

36

22

pentads

47

29

(vi)

(vii)

Co n ten ts

Whatisthedefilingofit?

Whatisthecleansingofit?

Pa ra . Pa g es

50 31

52 32

chapterii

descriptionof

theasceticpractices

1.thethirteenkindsofasceticpractices

PA RT I I

C ON C EN TR ATI ON

2 36

2 . Pu rif ica t io n o f C o n s cio u s n es s

chapteriii

descriptionofconcentration-

takingaMeditationsubject

concentration

(i)

Whatisconcentration?

1 53

(ii)

inWhatsenseisitconcentration?

2 53

(iii)

Whatareitscharacteristic,function,

Manifestation,andproxiMatecause?

3 53

(iv)

hoWManykindsofconcentrationarethere?

4 53

(v-vi) WhatisitsdefileMent?Whatisitscleansing?

5 54

(vii) hoWshoulditbedeveloped?

6

55

developmentinbrief

6 55

developmentindetail:

55

thetenimpediments

7 56

thegoodfriends

16 58

temperaments

20 60

fortymeditationsubjects

25 63

self-dedication

29 64

Waysofexpounding

32 66

Co n ten ts

Pa ra . Pa g es

ChapterIV

DesCrIptIonof

theearthKasIna

theeighteenfaultsofamonastery

2

68

thefivefactorsoftheresting-place

3

68

thelesserimpediments

4

69

Detailedinstructionsfordevelopment

5

69

theearthkasina

5

69

Guardingthesign

10

73

thetenkindsofskillinabsorption

12

75

thefirstjhana

23

80

fivekindsofhappiness

25

81

Masteryinfiveways

31

85

thesecondjhana

32

86

thethirdjhana

33

87

thefourthjhana

36

89

thefivefoldreckoningofjhana

38

90

ChapterV

DesCrIptIonofthe

reMaInInGKasIṇas

thewaterkasiṇa

1

92

thefirekasiṇa

3

93

theairkasiṇa

5

94

thebluekasiṇa

6

94

theyellowkasiṇa

7

95

theredkasiṇa

8

95

thewhitekasiṇa

9

96

thelightkasiṇa

10

96

thelimited-spacekasiṇa

11

97

General

12

97

Co n ten ts

Pa ra . Pa g es

ChapterVI

DesCrIptIonoffoulness

asaMeDItatIonsubjeCt

Generaldefinitions

1 100

thebloated

2 101

thelivid

13 108

thefestering

14 108

thecutup

15 109

thegnawed

16 109

thescattered

17 109

thehackedandscattered

18 109

thebleeding

19 110

theworm-infested

20 110

askeleton

21 110

General

23 111

ChapterVII

DesCrIptIonof

sIxreColleCtIons

GeneralDefinition

1 116

(1)recollectionofthebuddha

2 117

(2) recollectionoftheDhamma

16 126

(3) recollectionofthesangha

21 128

(4) recollectionofvirtue

27 131

(5) recollectionofgenerosity

28 131

(6) recollectionofdeities

29 132

General

30 133

ChapterVIII

DesCrIptIonofother

reColleCtIonsas

MeDItatIonsubjeCts

Co n ten ts

Pa ra . Pa g es

(7)

Mindfulnessofdeath

1 134

(8)

Mindfulnessoccupiedwiththebody

12 140

(9)

Mindfulnessofbreathing

35 161

(10) Therecollectionofpeace

69 171

 

ChapTerIX

DesCrIpTIonofThe

DIvIneabIDIngs

Loving-kindness

1 174

Theelevenadvantagesofloving-kindness

11 179

Compassion

12 180

sympatheticJoy

15 181

equanimity

17 183

general

18 183

 

ChapTerX

DesCrIpTIonofThe

IMMaTerIaLsTaTes

Thebaseconsistingofboundlessspace

1 187

Thebaseconsistingofboundlessconsciousness

5 189

Thebaseconsistingofnothingness

6 190

Thebaseconsistingofneitherperceptionnornon-perception 7 191

8 192

general

ChapTerXI

DesCrIpTIonof

ConCenTraTIon-ConCLusIon

perceptionofrepulsivenessinnutriments

Definitionoftheelements

1 194

4 195

Co n ten ts

Methodofdevelopments(brief&detailed)

Additionalwaysofgivingattention

Thebenefitsofdevelopingconcentration

Pa ra . Pa g es

7 197

17 204

20 205

ChApTerXII

DesCrIpTIonofDIreCTKnowleDge

ThesupernorMAlpowers

Thebenefitsofconcentration(continued)

Thefivekindsofdirectknowledge

Thekindsofsupernormalpower

Tenkindsofsupernormalpower

1 207

2 207

3 207

7 210

ChApTer XIII DesCrIpTIonofDIreCT KnowleDge- ConClusIon

(2) Thedivineearelement (3) penetrationofminds (4) recollectionofpastlife (5) Thedivineeye–knowledgeofpassingaway andreappearanceofbeings

PA RT I I I

U N D E R S TA N D I N

G

1 220

4 222

5 223

12 228

Th e S o il in wh ich U n d er s ta n d in g G r o w s

ChApTerXIV

DesCrIpTIonofTheAggregATes

A. understanding

(i) whATIsunDersTAnDIng?

1 235

1 235

Co n ten ts

Pa ra . Pa g es

(ii)

InwhatsenseIsItunderstandIng

1 235

(iii)

whatareItscharacterIstIc,functIon

manIfestatIonandproxImatecause?

2

236

(iv)

howmanykIndsofunderstandIngarethere?

3 236

(v)

howIsItdeveloped?

4

236

B.

descriptionofthefiveaggregates

5 237

thematerialityaggregate

5 237

theconsciousnessaggregate

16 241

thefeelingaggregate

23 245

theperceptionaggregate

24 245

theformationsaggregate

25 246

c.

classesofknowledgeofthefiveaggregates

42 253

chapterxv

descrIptIonoftheBasesandelements

a.

descriptionofthetwelvebases

1 257

B.

descriptionoftheeighteenelements

4 259

chapterxvI

descrIptIonofthefacultIesandtruths

a.

descriptionofthe22faculties

1 261

B.

descriptionofthetruths

5 263

thetruthofsuffering

10 266

thetruthofthecessationofsuffering

19 271

discussiononnibbana

20 272

thetruthofthewayleadingtothe

cessationofsuffering

26 275

chapterxvII

descrIptIonoftheplaneofunderstandIng

a.

dependentorigination-definitionofthe

termdependentorigination

1 278

Co n ten ts

Pa ra . Pa g es

B. Dependentorigination–Exposition

 

I Preamble

 

3 279

II Briefexposition

4 279

III Detailedexposition

281

 

(1)

Ignorance

6 281

(2)

Formations

7 281

(3)

Consciousness

8 282

(4)

Mentality-materiality

9 282

(5)

TheSix-foldbase

10 282

(6)

Contact

11 283

(7)

Feeling

12 283

(8)

Craving

13 284

(9)

Clinging

14 284

(10) Becoming(being)

15 285

(11-12) Birth,etc

 

16 286

C.

The24Conditions

17 286

i. TheThreetimes

26 290

ii. CauseandFruits

27 271

 

3

. Pu rif ica t io n o f View

 

CHAPTERXVIII

 

DESCRIPTIONOFTHEPURITYOFVIEW

 

Introductory

1 294

Definingofmentality-materiality

2 294

 

(a)

Startingwithmentality

2 294

(b)

Startingwithmateriality

3 295

Briefdefinitionbasedonthefourprimaries

6 296

Threewaysinwhichtheimmaterialstates

becomeevident

 

7 297

Thereisnobeingapartfrommere

mentality-materiality

 

11 298

4 . Pu rif ica t io n b y Ov erco m in g D o u b t

Co n ten ts

Pa ra . Pa g es

ChapterXIX

DeSCrIptIONOFthe

pUrIFICatIONBYOVerCOMINGDOUBt

Waysofdiscerningcauseandcondition

1 301

NeithercreatedbyaMakernorcauseless

2 301

Itsoccurrenceisalwaysduetocondition

3 302

thereisnodoerapartfromkammaanditsresult

4 302

FullUnderstandingoftheKnown

6 304

5 . Pu rif ica t io n b y Kn o w led g e a n d Vis io n o f

W h a t is a n d W h a t is n o t Pa t h

ChapterXX DeSCrIptIONOFthe pUrIFICatION BYKNOWLeDGe aNDVISIONOFWhatISaNDWhatISNOtpath

Introductory

 

1 306

thethreekindsoffullunderstanding

2 306

 

1. Strengtheningofcomprehensioninfortyways

4 307

2. thematerialseptad

 

7 310

3. theeighteenprincipalinsights

17 316

4. Knowledgeofcontemplationofriseandfall(I)

18 317

5. thetenimperfectionofinsight

23 321

 

6

. Pu rif ica t io n b y Kn o w led g e

 

a

n d Vis io n o f t h e Wa y

 

ChapterXXI

 

DeSCrIptIONOFthepUrIFICatION

 

BYKNOWLeDGeaNDVISIONOFtheWaY

I

Introductory

1 326

Co n ten ts

II. Insightcontinued:

Pa ra . Pa g es

Theeightknowledgesandconformityasninth

2 326

1.Knowledgeofcontemplationofrise&fall(II)

2 326

2. Knowledgeofcontemplationofdissolution

4 327

3. Knowledgeofappearanceasterror(fearful)

6 330

4. Knowledgeofcontemplationofdanger

7 331

5. Knowledgeof contemplationofdispassion

8 332

6. Knowledgeofdesirefordeliverance

9 333

7. Contemplationofreflexion

10 334

Discerningformationsasvoid

12 335

8. Knowledgeofequanimityaboutformation

13 336

Thetriplegatewaytoliberation

15 338

Thesevenkindsofnobleperson

16 338

Thelastthreekindsofknowledgeareone

17 339

Insightleadingtoemergence

18 339

Thetwelvesimiles

21 341

9. ConformityKnowledge

23 342

TheInsightLeadingtoEmergence

24 343

 

7

. Pu rif ica t io n o f Kn o w led g e a n d Vis io n

 

CHAPTERXXII DESCRIPTIONOFTHE PURIFICATION BY KNOWLEDGEANDVISION

I. Change-of-lineage,thefourpaths,thefourfruitions

1 345

II.

Thestatesassociatedwiththepath

15 352

1.Thethirty-sevenstatespartakingofenlightenment

16 352

2.Emergenceandcouplingofthepowers

20 355

3.Statestobeabandoned

23 357

4.Fourfunctionsinasinglemoment

30 361

5.Fourfunctionsseparately

34 363

(a)Thethreekindsoffull-understanding

34 363

(b)Thethreekindsofabandoning

37 364

Co n ten ts

Pa ra . Pa g es

(c)Thethreekindsofrealizing

38 365

(d)Thetwokindsofdeveloping

39 365

Th e Ben ef it s o f U n d ers t a n d in g

ChapterXXIII

DESCRIPTIONOFTHEBENEFITS

INDEVELOPINGUNDERSTANDING

(iv)WHATARETHEBENEFITSOF

DEVELOPINGUNDERSTANDING

1 366

A. Removalofthevariousdefilements

2 366

B. FruitionAttainment

4 367

C. CessationAttainment

9 369

D. Accomplishmentofworthinesstoreceivegifts

21 375

CONCLUSION(EPILOGUE)

377

NOTES

381

IndexofSubjectsandProperNames

439

Pali-EnglishGlossaryofsomesubjectsandtechnicalterms

459

TableI. TheMaterialityAggregate

472

TableII.Thefifty-twoMentalFactors(ThreeAggregates)

473

TableIII.The89CittasAccordingtoPlane

474

TableIV.WordCorrection

475

ListofSponsors

476

BIBLIOGRAPHY

TRANSLATIONSOF VI S U D D HI M AG G A

English: ThePathofPurityby PeMaungTin,PTS,1922(Vol.I),1928

(Vol.II)1931Vol.III),London.

ThePathofPurificationbyVen.Ñāṇamoli,BuddhistEducational

Foundation,Taipei,Taiwan,2003(firstprintedinSri-Lanka,1956).

German: Visuddhimagga(derWegzurReinheit)’byVen.VerlagChristiani,

Konstanz,1952.

France: Visuddhimagga,LeChemindelaPureté,Fayard, Impriméen

France,Dépôtlégal:mai2002.

Sinhalese:KingParakkamabahu’stranslation(13AD),Chs.I-XX,Colombo,

1948.SinhalaVisuddhimargaya,ShriDharmavaṃsa,Ceylon,

1958(Chs.I-IX).

Burmese:VisuddhimagNissayabyPyiSayādaw,Hamsawady,Yangon,1918.

VisuddhimaginMyanmar,byKyet-thoSayādaw(UNandamālā),

(3Vols),Kaba-Aye,Yangon,1960.

VisuddhimaginMyanmarbyMahāsi Sayādaw(USobhana),

(4vols),KabaAye,Yangon,1969.

Devanagari:

VisuddhimaggawithParamatthamañjūsāṬīkā(2Vols.),

byDrRewataDhamma,SanskritUniversity,Vārāṇasi,India,1969.

SUMMARIESOFVISUDDHIMAGGA

Visuddhimaggasaṅgaha(Palm-leafscriptinPāḷi)byVen.Kavinda,

1795.

VisuddhimagAyathar(inMyanmar),UAriya(Aggamahāpaṇḍita),

NyaunglaybinTawyaSayādaw,HamsawadyPress,Yangon,1961.

ThePathofPurification(Visuddhimagga)2Vols,(Pāḷi&English)

SitaguInternationalBuddhistAcademy,Sagaing,Myanmar,2006.

TheRightWaytoNibbāna(VisuddhimaggainMyanmar),UMyint Swe(Dhammācariya,M.A),TextbookforBuddhistUniversities

(Yangon&Mandalay),2005.

LI S T OF A BBR EV I ATI ON S U S ED

All ed itio n s Pā ḷi Text S o ciety u n les s o th er wis e s ta ted

A.

AṅguttaraNikāya

AA.

AṅguttaraNikāya Aṭṭhakathā(Commentary)=Manorathapūraṇī

Cp.

Cariyāpiṭaka

Dh.

Dhammapada

DhA.

DhammapadaAṭṭhakathā(Commentary)

Dhs.

Dhammasaṅgaṇī

DhsA.

DhammasaṅgaṇīAṭṭhakathā(Commentary)=Atthasāliṇī

DhsAA.DhammasaṅgaṇīṬīkā(Sub-commentary)=MūlaṬīkā(pt.1)

Dhk.

Dhātukathā

D.

DīghaNikāya

DA.

DīghaNikāyaAṭṭhakathā(Commentary)=Sumaṅgalavilāsiṇī

EPP

TheEssenceofthePathofPurification(TripleGemed.)

Iti.

Itivuttaka

Jā.

Jātaka(Fausböll’sed.)

Kv.

Kathāvatthu

Mv.

Mahāvaṁsa

M.

MajjhimaNikāya

MA.

MajjhimaNikāyaAṭṭhakathā(Commentary)=Papañcasūdanī

Miln.

Milinda-pañhā

Netti.

Netti-parakaṇa

Nd1.

MahāNiddesa

Nd2.

CūḷaNiddesa(Siameseed.)

Ps.

Paṭisambhidāmagga

PsA.

PaṭisambhidāmaggaAṭṭhakathā(Commentary)=Saddhammappakāsiṇī

(SinhaleseHewavitarneed).

Ptn1.

Paṭṭhāna,ṬikaPaṭṭhāna

Ptn2.

Paṭṭhāna,DukaPaṭṭhāna(SiameseandBurmeseeds.)

Pm.

Paramattha-mañjūsāVisuddhimaggaAṭṭhakathā(Commentary)=MahāṬīkā(Vis.

Chs.ItoXVIISinhaleseVidyodayaed.;Chs.XVIIItoXXIIIBurmeseed.)

Pe.

Peṭakopadesa

Pv.

Petavatthu

PP

PathofPurification(CorporateBodyoftheBuddhaEducationalFoundationed.).

S.

SamyuttaNikāya

SA.

SamyuttaNikāyaAṭṭhakathā(Commentary)=Sarattappakāsiṇī

Sn.

Sutta-nipāta

SnA.

Sutta-nipātaAṭṭhakathā(Commentary)=Paramatthajotikā

Thag.

Thera-gāthā

Ud.

Udāna

Vbh.

Vibhaṅga

VbhA.

VibhaṅgaAṭṭhakathā(Commentary)=Sammohavinodanī

VbhAA.VibhaṅgaṬīkā(Sub-commentary)=MūlaṬīkā(pt.2)

VV. Vimāna-vatthu

Vin.i. VinayaPiṭaka(3)Mahāvagga

}

Vin.ii. VinayaPiṭaka(4)Cūḷavagga

}

Vin.iii. VinayaPiṭaka(1)Suttavibhaṅga1

} (Oldenburg’sed.)

Vin.iv. VinayaPiṭaka(2)Suttavibhaṅga2 }

}

Vis. Visuddhimagga(P.T.S.ed.AndHarvardOrientalSeriesed.)

Vin.v. VinayaPiṭaka(5)Parivāra

Numbersinsquarebracketsinthetextthus[25]refertothepagenumbersofthePāḷiTextSociety’s

ed.ofthePāḷi.Chapterandsectionheadingsandothernumberingshavebeeninsertedforclarity.

PREFACE

The Vis u d d h im a g g a isthe“greattreatise”ofTheravadaBuddhism, an encyclopaedic manual of Buddhist doctrine and meditation written in the 5th century by the great commentator Ven.Buddhaghosa.The author’s intentionincomposingthis bookwas toorganizethevarious teachingsoftheBuddha,foundthroughoutthePāḷiCanon,intoaclear and comprehensive path leading to Nibbāna, the state of complete purification. Asscholarshavesaid‘itisthegreattreatiseofTheravadaBuddhism, an encyclopaedic manual of doctrine and meditation’ and it is very difficultforordinaryreaders,evenmeditators,tounderstand.Meditation hasbecomepopular,togetherwithmindcultureandmentaltrainingin themodernage. Ithinkitistimetorewritethe Vis u d d h im a g g a (ThePathofPurifi- cation), based on Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli’s translation, as a Manual of Morality and Meditation. I have named it Vi s u d d h i m a g g a R a s a (The Essence of the Path of Purification) and it is aimed at the general reader.

Acknowledgements I should like to make my acknowledgements to all those without whosehelpIwouldneverhave beenabletostartthisbook,persistwith it,orcompleteit. FirstofallIwouldliketosincerelythankDr.U.Sīlānandābhivaṃsa, a former Rector of the International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University atYangon, for his scholarly Vis u d d h im a g g a lectures in the U.S.A.,andtoDr.U.Kumārābhivaṃsa(ChairmanoftheStateSaṅgha CouncilinMyanmar)whoencouragedmetowritethisbookandgave mevaluablesuggestions.Alsotoallofmyteacherswhotaughtmethe FiveNikāyas. Iamgreatlyindebtedtoseveralassistantswhohavewillinglyhelped me in the writing of this book. Let me state my thanks to the resident saṅgha and to myAbhidhamma students, Dr Mar Mar Lwin, Pamela HirschandDhammaJotika(Ellen)whohelpedmeintheirways.Iam also grateful to computer technicians Mr Robert Black, Zaw Lin, Ko HtatandKoPhyoe.

Prefa ce

IamgratefulforassistancewiththefirstdraftfromPamelaHirsch, anAbhidhammastudent,whoreaditthroughandmadeseveraluseful suggestionsforproducingtheindex,glossaryandtables.AlsotoMay Nandar who helped me with its contents, cover design and computer

technicianskillsaswell.IamindebtedtoMr.NickDwyerwhoagreed to edit the final version and has made a thorough job of reading it

throughandtoLindaTomlinsonwhodrewtheirworktogetherandpre-

paredthebookforprint. Iwouldliketothankallofmysupportersforthepublicationofthis book,especiallyDawThanThan(London),whoaskedmeseveraltimes tofinishthisbook,DhammaJotika(Birmingham),DrKyiToe+Daw Cho Cho and family (Milton Keynes) and Dr MyoThu + Dr Lin Lin Sein(daughter),MyoMyet Chel(Notts.)whodonatedlaptopcomputers tomeforthisdhammawork. IwouldliketothankU.TinHtoon,ofTripleGemPublications,for arrangingthepublishingofthisbook. Finally, I would like to acknowledge Ven. Nyanatusita and the BuddhistPublishingSociety,publishersof The Path of Purification.This abridgedversionwaspublishedwiththeirpermission.

BirminghamBuddhistVihāra

UnitedKingdom

Dr.OttaraÑāna

10thOctober2010

I N TR OD U C TI ON

SometimesIaskmyfriendsindhamma,laylecturersandmedita-

tionteachers:‘HaveyoureadTHEPATHOFPURIFICATION(VISU­-

DDHI-­­­MAGGA)?’‘Yes,Bhante’,theyusuallyreply,‘butit’svery difficulttounderstand.’Now,whyshouldthatbe? Visuddhimagga is theencyclopaediaofTheravadaBuddhism,acompendiumoftheLord

Buddha’sdoctrineandthemotherofallcommentaries. Ve n . Ñ ā ṇ a m o l i ,

thetranslatorof“ThePathofPurification”,alsostatedinhisintroduc-

tionthat:

‘The­Visuddhimagga—here­rendered­‘Path­of­Purification’—is

perhaps­unique­in­the­literature­of­the­world.­It­systematically

summarizes­and­interprets­the­teaching­of­the­Buddha­contained­in­the

pāḷi­Tipiṭ­aka,­which­is­now­recognized­in­Europe­as­the­oldest­and­most

authentic­record­of­the­Buddha’s­words.’(See.PPix)

Healsoadds:‘the­Visuddhimagga­itself­extracts­from­the­Tipiṭaka

all­the­central­doctrines­

on­subjects­of­more­or­less­relative­importance,­all­being­welded­into

an­intricate­edifice.’(See.PPxx)

Mydhammafriendshavealsosuggestedthatitwouldbeveryuseful

iftheteachingsoftheVisuddhimaggacouldbeclarifiedandabbreviated.

AssecretaryofthetextbookcommitteeduringmystayattheInterna-

tionalTheravadaBuddhistMissionaryUniversity,Yangon(1999to

2003),myresponsibilitywastooverseethesyllabus,curriculum,text-

booksandmeditationalteachingmaterialformystudents,especiallythe

VisuddhimaggainbothPāḷiandEnglish. AfteroverseeingthepublicationofDrRewataDhamma’slastbook, ‘TheProcessofConsciousnessandMatter’Istartedworkonthisnew

undertaking(withalittlehelpfrommyITfriends)inAugust,2008.

­and­explanation­interspersed­with­the­treatise

VISUDDHIMAGGA

TheVisuddhiMaggameansthepathtopurificationorthewayto

purificationorpurity.‘Magga’meansthepath.‘Visuddhi’meanspurifi-

cationorpurity.

I n tro d u ctio n

There are three stages in Buddha’s plan for spiritual development. The first is s īla (virtue), the second is s a m ā d h i (concentration) and the third is p a ñ ñ ā (understanding). Virtue is the foundation on which concentration and wisdom are built. Without virtue there can be no concentration. And without concentration there can be no penetration into the nature of things. These three stages of development are to be practised one after the other. The author, the Ven era b le Bu d d h a g h o s a, followed this structure.

Virtue is described in the first two chapters and so the first chapter deals with virtue.The second chapter deals with ‘ascetic practices’which are for the further purification of virtue.

From chapter three through chapter thirteen, concentration is described. In these chapters, the forty subjects of tranquillity meditation are explained in detail.The last two chapters in this part give the benefits of tranquillity or serenity meditation.

From chapter 14 through chapter 23, wisdom is described. In chap- ters 14-17, a theoretical knowledge of the aggregates, bases, faculties, elements and so on is explained.The description of vipassanā meditation begins with chapter 18 going through to chapter 22. The last chapter 23 explains the benefits of mental culture or vipassanā.

CONCERNING THE SUMMARY

The Vi s u d d h i m a g g a is full of information and contains various stories, quotations, references, grammatical discussions, expositions of Ab h id h a m m a , authorial points of view and those of other commentaries [and other doctrines], as well as similes, analytical and critical studies etc., hence, the Vis u d d h im a g g a is like a tall and beautiful tree lost in the midst of a thick forest.

The author of the Visuddhimagga wasVen. Buddhagosa, a great wise monk of Indian origin who took up residence in Sri Lanka in the 5th Century CE. Following in his footsteps is an awesome responsibility and the author has had to check everything carefully and respectfully, always with the Lord Buddha and Ven. Buddhaghosa in mind.

The aim has been to keep to the central doctrines, which are s ī l a , s a m ā d h i and p a ñ ñ ā (morality, control of the mind and wisdom) so that

Introduction

this epitome is truly ‘ T h e E s s e n c e o f t h e P a t h o f P u r i f i c a t i o n ’ ( Vis u d d h ima g g a Ra s a ) .

Some of the major changes and the reasons for them are itemised belowinthisnewbook.

1. Two introductory verses (Answer and Question) are changed to

Q&Atogetherwiththeircommentaries.(SeeCh.Ip.5-7)

2. Cuttingofquotations:someCanonicaltexts(quotations)aremen-

tionedasanewsystemforclearunderstanding.(SeeCh.Ip.10,20,

31,etc.)

3. Cuttingofstories:Butoneortwostoriesarekept amongthemany stories,ifitisnecessary.(See,Ch.XII)

4. Cuttingofgrammaticalexplanations: But if it is necessary some grammars are kept for clear understanding and for easy practice.

(See,p.100,116-124,246-248)

5. CuttingofdiscussionsfromtheAbhidhammapointofview: but somepointsarekepthereforclearunderstanding.(See,Ch.III,p.

61-64)

6. Cuttingofdiscussionsfromauthorialpointsofviewandthoseof othercommentaries[andotherdoctrines]: But some important

pointsarementionedhere.(See,p.40-42,169,272aboutNibbāna)

7. Cuttingofsimiles:Butasimileisalwayskeptifnecessaryforclear

understanding.(See,Ch.IVp.79)

8. CuttingofRelations: Connections (anusandhis) are mentioned in ancient commentaries and sub-commentaries at the beginning of eachnewchapterandnewsectionasthatistheirliterarystyle.Most ofthesehavebeencuthere.

9. Onlysomepointsarementionedforeasyunderstandingandprac- tice,insteadofusingdetailedexplanationsaboutsīla,samādhiand

paññā,etc.inthisbook.(See,p.14,54,235)

10. Onlycommoncharacteristics,functions,manifestations,and proxi-

matecausesarementionedhere,insteadofparticularcharacteris-

tics,functionsetc.,ofcetasikaandrūpas(like,contact,joyandeye,

earetc.,)

11. But characteristicsofsomeparamatthasarementionedinthisbook

Introduction

forclearunderstandingoftheirtruenature.(See,Ch.XIV,p.238-

240,251-253)

12. Abhidhammaandmeditationarelikethetwosidesofacoin.Itis difficult to understand meditation subject especially, vipassanā (insight)withoutAbhidhammaknowledge.Therefore,Abhidhamma iskeptinCh.XIIItoXXIII.

13. PARTIII:UNDERSTANDING(Ch.XIV: Rearranging ofAggregates).

(a)ConsciousnessAggregate(Viññāṇakkhanda).

Theaggregateofconsciousness(89Cittas)isdescribedinVisud-

dhimagga intheordergivenintheoriginalAbhidhammaTexts. Thisorderisdifferentfromtheonewearefamiliarwithbecause we are used to the series given inThe Manual ofAbhidhamma

(Abhidhammattha saṅgaha). The Visuddhimagga follows the equenceaccordingtotheoriginalAbhidhammatexts.Itiskeptto

faithfully,butthesectiononthe[14ModesorFunctionsofOccur-

renceofConsciousness]iscutherebecauseofitisnotofmuchuse

forthedevelopmentofmeditation.

(b)TheFormationsAggregate(Sankhārakkhandha)

The52cetasikasarementionedin Visuddhimagga followingthe

ordergiveninthefirstbookofAbhidhamma.IntheDhammasaṅ-

gaṇī, FirstConsciousnessismentioned.ThenLordBuddhasaid thatalongwiththisconsciousness,mentalfactorsarisesuchas;– contactarises,volitionarisesandsoon.Followingthatsequence,

thedescriptionisgiveninVisuddhimagga.

[Herein,theFormationAggregateismentionedinaccordancewith theManualofAbhidhammaforeasyunderstanding.](See,Ch.XIV,

p.246-253)

(c)[C.Classificationofthefiveaggregatesunderelevenheadings]

isalsocuthere.

14. Ch. XVII: The 24 conditions of (Paṭṭhāna) are mentioned as

separatefromthe12linksofDependentOrigination(Paṭiccasamu-

ppāda)forclearunderstandinginthischapter.

Introduction

15. Re-arrangementofnewparagraphstogetherwithnumbers:After cutting out plenty of points and paragraphs from the original text, ThePathofPurification,asmentionedabove,newparagraphsare necessary. Therefore, the present author carefully studied Visud- dhimagga in the original Pāḷi as well as The Path of Purification and rearranged new paragraphs meaningfully in accordance with Ven.Buddhaghosa’soriginalbook.

16. Puttinginnewtopics:Forclearunderstandingnewtopicswereinser- ted in accordance with VisuddhimaggaPāḷi. (See EPP. 15, 18, 19,

22,23,87,236)etc.

If a reader wants to study the stories, quotations, grammar and Abhidhamma etc. in more detail, he can see them in The Path of PurificationthroughthereferencesinNotes.

17. Changingofwordsandsentences: First we should know a saying:

No one is perfect (except Lord Buddha). The renowned Buddhist scholar, Ven. Ñāṇamoli, made a masterly translation of the ‘Visu- ddhimagga’ from the original Pāḷi into English as The Path of Purification. But as I mentioned above, Visuddhimagga is full of difficulties as regards language, doctrines etc., hence, no one can translateitintootherforeignlanguagesperfectly. Fortunately,IgotholdofaseriesofVisuddhimaggalecturesby Dr U Sīlānanda. During the 1980s, he gaveVisuddhimagga Lec- tures to his students in Tathāgata centre, U.S.A. As a great and learnedmonk,hislecturesarefullofknowledge,withgrammatical, critical,analyticalstudiesandcorrections.Thepresentauthoruses Dr U Sīlānanda’s corrections for both words and phrases in this book. I believe that Ven. Ñāṇamoli would have been happy if he had seen these corrections during his lifetime. Therefore, word corrections are mentioned in the body as well as in anAppendix for clear understanding. Phrase corrections are also mentioned in thenotestogetherwithreferences.

18. Indeclinablewords(Abyayapada)areveryimportanttounderstand true meanings in the Pāḷi language especially in the commentaries and sub-commentaries. Hence, these are changed and replaced by thetruemeaningsinthisbookinaccordancewithDrUSīlānanada’s lectures.(SeeNotes)

I n tro d u ctio n

TwoKindsofAbyayapadas:

a. U a p a s a g g a (Prefixes): n i, p a r a , u , d u , a n u , p a r i, a d h i, u p a ,etc.

b. Nip ā ta (Comprisingadverbs,conjunctions andinterjections):

ca , eva , p a n a , a th a , ya d i, ka m a ñ ca , kiñ cā p i, yā va , viya , etc.,

19. Names of persons, suttas, etc. and important words are given in

boldtypeforclearunderstanding.

20. Visuddhimagga Pali,SixBuddhistCouncilEdition(2Vols.)isused

intheNotesofthisbookespeciallyforquotations.Tablesarealso

used in this book as Appendices, from Dr U Silanada’s Abhid-

hammatableandDrRewataDhamma’slastbook,ProcessofCon-

sciousnessandMatter.

Although the author tried his best in his own way with the help of hisdhammafriends,hedoesnotsaythatthisisacompleteworkbecause this work is like painting in the air. But he will be happy if he sees the rightwaytoNibbāna.Theauthoralsohopesthatyoumayreadthisbook asyourowncompositionwithlovingeyesandapeacefulmind.

‘MayAlloftheReadersBeWellandHappy?’

DrOttaraÑāṇa BirminghamBuddhistVihara

06/03/2011(Sunday)

THE ES S EN C E O F THE PATH OF PU R I FI C ATI ON ( Vis u d d h ima g g a Ra s a )

PA RT I

V I RTU E

( S īla )

Na m o ta s s a b h a g a va to a r a h a to

s a m m ā s a m b u d d h a s s a

CHAPTERI

DESCRIPTIONOFVIRTUE

( S īla - n id d es a )

[1.INTRODUCTORY]

1. While the Blessed One was living at S ā v a t t h i , it seems, a certain deity cametohiminthenight,andinordertodoawaywith hisdoubtsheaskedthisquestion:

‘Theinnertangleandtheoutertangle─

Thisgenerationisentangledinatangle.

AndsoIaskofGotamathisquestion:

Whosucceedsindisentanglingthistangle?’(S.i,13).

Hereisthemeaninginbrief. Ta n g le isatermforthenetworkof craving.Forthatisatangleinthesenseoflacingtogether,likethe tanglecallednetworkofbranchesinbamboothickets,etc.,because itgoesonarisingagainandagainupanddown 1 amongtheobjects

ofconsciousnessbeginningwithwhatisvisible.Butitiscalled th e i n n e r t a n g l e a n d t h e o u t e r t a n g l e because it arises as craving for one’s own requisites and another’s, for one’s own person and an- other’s, and for the internal and external bases for consciousness. Sinceitarisesinthisway, th is g en er a tio n is en ta n g led in a ta n g le. As the bamboos, etc. are entangled by the bamboo tangle, etc., so toothisgeneration,inotherwords,thisorderoflivingbeings,isall

entangledbythetangleofcraving─themeaningisthatitisinter-

twined, interlaced by it.And because it is entangled like this, s o I

a s k o f G o ta m a th is q u es tio n : that is why I ask this. He addressed theBlessedOnebyhisracenameas G o ta m a . W h o s u cceed s in d is - en ta n g lin g th is ta n g le:whomaydisentanglethistanglethatkeeps thethreekindsofexistenceentangledinthisway?─Whatheasks is,whoiscapableofdisentanglingit?

TheEssenceof ThePathofPurification

2. However, when questioned thus, the B l e s s e d O n e uttered this stanzainreplytoexplainthemeaning:

‘Whenawiseman,establishedwellinVirtue,

DevelopsConsciousnessandUnderstanding,

Thenasabhikkhuardentandsagacious

Hesucceedsindisentanglingthistangle’.

Here is a brief commentary on the stanza. Established well in virtue: standing on virtue. It is only one actually fulfilling virtue whoisheresaidto‘standonvirtue’.Sothemeaninghereisthis:

beingestablishedwellinvirtuebyfulfillingvirtue.Aman:aliving being. Wise: possessing the kind of understanding that is born of

kammabymeansofarebirth-linkingwithtripleroot-cause.Devel-

opsConsciousnessandUnderstanding:developsbothconcentration

andinsight.Foritisconcentrationthatisdescribedhereunderthe

headingof‘consciousness’,andinsightunderthatof‘understand-

ing’ 2 . Ardent (ātāpī): possessing energy. For it is energy that is called ‘ardour (ātāpa): in the sense of burning up and consuming (ātāpana-paritāpana) defilements. He has that, thus he is ardent. Sagacious:itisunderstandingthatiscalled‘sagacity’;andherethe meaning is one who possesses this. This word shows protective understanding. For understanding is mentioned three times in the replytothequestion.Herein,thefirstisnativeunderstanding,the secondisunderstandingconsistingofinsight,whilethethirdisthe protective understanding that guides all affairs. He sees fear

(bhayaṁ ikkhati) intheroundofrebirths,thusheisa bhikkhu. He succeedsindisentanglingthistangle:Justasamanstandingonthe ground and taking up a well-sharpened knife might disentangle a greattangleofbamboos,sotoo,he─thisbhikkhuwhopossesses thesixthings,namely,thisvirtue,andthisconcentrationdescribed

undertheheadingofconsciousness,andthisthreefoldunderstand-

ing,andthisardour─,standingonthegroundofvirtueandtaking

upwiththehandofprotective-understandingexertedbythepower

ofenergy,theknifeofinsight-understandingwell-sharpenedonthe

stoneofconcentration,mightdisentangle,cutawayanddemolish

allthetangleofcravingthathadovergrownhisownlife'scontinuity.

ButitisatthemomentofthePaththatheissaidtobedisentangling

DescriptionofVirtue

thattangle:atthemomentoffruitionhehasdisentangledthetangle

andisworthyofthehighestofferingsintheworldwithitsdeities.

Th e Mea n in g s o f Vis u d d h im a g g a

3. Herein, p u r i f i c a t i o n should be understood as nibbāna, which beingdevoidofallstains,isutterlypure.The Pa th o f Pu r ifica tio n is the path to that purification; it is the means of approach (attain- ment)thatiscalled th e p a th . In some instances this path of purification is taught by insight alone, 3 asitissaid:

‘Formationsareallimpermanent:

Whenheseesthuswithunderstanding Andturnsawayfromwhatisill,

Thatisthepathtopurity’.(Dh.277)

Andinsomeinstancesbyjhānaandunderstandingasitissaid:

‘Heisnearuntonibbāna

Inwhomarejhānaandunderstanding’(Dh.372).

Andinsomeinstancesbydeeds ( ka m m a ) etc.,asitissaid:

‘Bydeeds,visionandrighteousness, Byvirtue,thesublimestlife─ Bythesearemortalspurified,

Andnotbylineageandwealth’(M.iii,262)

Andinsomeinstancesbyvirtue,etc.,asitissaid:

‘Hewhoispossessedofconstantvirtue, Hasunderstanding,andisconcentrated, Isstrenuousanddiligentaswell,

Willcrossthefloodsodifficulttocross’(S.i,53).

AndinsomeinstancesbytheFoundationsofMindfulness,etc.,as it is said: ‘Bhikkhus, this path is the only way for the purification of beings … for the realization of ‘nibbāna, that is to say, the four Foundations of Mindfulness’(D.ii,290); and similarly in the case oftheRightEfforts,andsoon.Butintheanswertothisquestionit istaughtbyvirtueandtheothertwo.

The Essence of ThePathofPurification

[2.VIRTUE]

4. (i) WHATISVIRTUE?Itisthestatesbeginningwithvolition presentinonewhoabstainsfromkillinglivingthings,etc.,orin onewhofulfilsthepracticeoftheduties.Forthisissaidinthe Paṭisambhidā:Whatisvirtue?Thereisvirtueasvolition,virtueas consciousness-concomitant, 4 virtueas‘restraint,virtueasnon-trans-

gression’(Ps.i,44).

Herein, Virtue as volition isthevolitionpresentinonewho abstainsfromkillinglivingthings,etc.,orinonewhofulfilsthe practiceoftheduties. Virtue as consciousness-concomitant isthe abstinenceinonewhoabstainsfromkillinglivingthings,andso on. Furthermore, Virtue as volition is the seven volitions that accompanythefirstsevenofthetencoursesofaction (kamma) in onewhoabandonsthekillingoflivingthings,andsoon. Virtue as consciousness-concomitant isthethreeremainingstatesconsisting ofnon-covetousness,non-ill-will,andrightview,statedintheway beginning‘Abandoningcovetousness,hedwellswithmindfree

fromcovetousness’(Di,71).

5. Virtue as restraint shouldbeunderstoodhereasrestraintinfive ways:restraintbytheRulesoftheCommunity (Pātimokkha),rest- raintbymindfulness,restraintbyknowledge,restraintbypatience, andrestraintbyenergy.Herein, ‘restraint by the Pātimokkha’ isthis:

‘Heisfurnished,fullyfurnished,withthisPātimokkharestraint’(Vbh. 246). ‘Restraint by mindfulness’ isthis:‘Heguardstheeye faculty,

entersuponrestraintoftheeyefaculty’(D.I,70).‘Restraintbyknowl-

edge’ isthis:

“Thecurrentsintheworldthatflow,Ajita,” saidtheBlessedOne, “Arestemmedbymeansofmindfulness; RestraintofcurrentsIproclaim,

Byunderstandingtheyaredammed”,(Sn.1035);

anduseofrequisitesisherecombinedwiththis.Butwhatiscalled ‘restraint by patience’ isthatgiveninthewaybeginning‘Heisone whobearscoldandheat’(M.i,10).Andwhatiscalled ‘restraint by energy’ isthatgiveninthewaybeginning‘Hedoesnotendurea

DescriptionofVirtue

thoughtofsense-desires‘whenitarises’(M.i,11);purificationof

livelihoodisherecombinedwiththis.Sothisfive-foldrestraint, andtheabstinence,inclansmenwhodreadevil,fromanychance oftransgressionmetwith,shouldallbeunderstoodtobe‘virtueas restraint’. Virtue as non-transgression isthenon-transgression,bybodyor speech,ofpreceptsofvirtuethathavebeenundertaken.

6.

(ii)

INWHATSENSEISITVIRTUE? Itisvirtue ( s īla ) inthe

senseofcomposing ( s īla n a ) . 5 Whatisthiscomposing?Itiseither acoordinating ( s a m ā d h ā n a ) ,meaningnon-inconsistencyofbodily

action,etc.duetovirtuousness;oritisanupholding (upadhāraṇa), 5 meaningastateofbasis (ādhāra) owingtoitsservingasfoundation forprofitablestates.

7.

(iii)

NowWHATAREITSCHARACTERISTIC,FUNCTION,

MANIFESTATION,ANDPROXIMATECAUSE?Thecoordi-

natingofbodilyaction,etc.andthefoundationofprofitablestates

isthecharacteristicofvirtue.

 

Virtueshouldbeunderstoodtohavethefunction(nature)of

stoppingmisconductasitsfunction(nature)inthesenseofaction,

andablamelessfunction(nature)asitsfunction(nature)inthesense

ofachievement.

 

Thisvirtueismanifestedasthekindsofpuritystatedthus:

‘Bodilypurity,verbalpurity,mentalpurity’(A.i,271);itismani-

fested,comestobeapprehended,asapurestate.Butconscience

andshamearesaid;bythosewhoknow,tobeitsproximatecause;

itsnearreason,isthemeaning.Forwhenconscienceandshameare

inexistence,virtuearisesandpersists;andwhentheyarenot,it

neitherarisesnorpersists.

8

(iv)

WHATARETHEBENEFITSOFVIRTUE? Itsbenefits

aretheacquisitionoftheseveralspecialqualitiesbeginningwith

non-remorse.Forthisissaid:‘Ānanda,profitablehabits(virtues)

havenon-remorseastheiraimandnon-remorseastheirbene-

fit.’(Av,1)Alsoitissaidfurther,‘Householder,therearethesefive

benefitsforthevirtuousintheperfectingofvirtue.Whatfive?

T h e Es s en ce o f ThePathofPurification

(i) Here,householder,onewhoisvirtuous,possessedofvirtue, comesintoalargefortuneasaconsequenceofdiligence.

(ii)

Afairnameisspreadabroad.

(iii)

Entersanassembly,whetherofkhattiyas(warriornobles) orbrahmansorhouseholdersorascetics,hedoesso withoutfearorhesitation.

(iv)

Diesunconfused.

(v)

Onthebreakupofthebody,afterdeath,reappearsina

happydestiny,intheheavenlyworld.(D.ii,86).

9. (v)HOWMANYKINDSOFVIRTUEARETHERE?

1.

Firstlyallthisvirtueisofonekindbyreasonofitsown

characteristicofcomposing.

2.

Itisoftwokindsaskeepingandavoiding.

3.

Likewiseasthatofgoodbehaviourandthatofthe

beginningofthelifeofpurity.

4.

Asabstinenceandnon-abstinence.

5.

Asdependentandindependent.

6.

Astemporaryandlifelong.

7.

Aslimitedandunlimited.

8.

Asmundaneandsupramundane.

9.

Itisofthreekindsasinferior,medium,andsuperior.

10.

Likewiseasgivingprecedencetoself,givingprecedence

totheworld,andgivingprecedencetotheDhamma(Law).

11.

Asadheredto,notadheredto,andtranquillized.

12.

Aspurified,unpurified,anddubious.

13.

AsthatoftheTrainer,thatoftheNon-trainer,andthatof

theneither-trainer-nor-non-trainer.

14.

Itisoffourkindsaspartakingofdiminution,of

stagnation,ofdistinction,ofpenetration.

15.

Likewiseasthatofbhikkhus,ofbhikkhunīs,ofthenot-

fully-admitted,ofthelaity.

16.

Asnatural,customary,necessary,duetopreviouscauses.

17.

AsvirtueofPātimokkharestraint,ofrestraintofsense

faculties,ofpurificationoflivelihood,andthatconcerning

requisites.

18.

Itisoffivekindsasvirtueconsistingoflimited

DescriptionofVirtue

purification,etc.;forthisissaidinthePaṭisambhidā:‘Five kindsofvirtue:virtueconsistinginlimitedpurification, virtueconsistingofunlimitedpurification,virtueconsisting offulfilledpurification,virtueconsistingofunadhered-to purification,virtueconsistingoftranquillizedpurification’

(Ps.1,42).

19.Likewiseasabandoning,refraining,volition,restraint,and

non-transgression.

10

1.

Herein,inthesectiondealingwiththatofonekind,themean-

ingshouldbeunderstoodasalreadystated.

 

2.

Inthesectiondealingwiththatoftwokinds:fulfillingatrain-

ing precept announced by the Blessed One thus: ‘This should be

done’is k e e p i n g ; not doing what is prohibited by him thus ‘This shouldnotbedone’is, a vo id in g ;Herein, keep in g isaccomplished byfaithandenergy, a vo idin g ,byfaithandmindfulness.

 

3.

In the second dyad, good behaviour is the best kind of

behaviour.Goodbehaviouritselfis that of good behaviour;orwhat isannouncedforthesakeofgoodbehaviouris that of good behaviour. This is a term for virtue other than that which has livelihood as eighth. 6 Itistheinitialstageofthelifeofpurityconsistinginthepath, thusitis that of the beginning of the life of purity.Thisisatermfor thevirtuethathaslivelihoodaseighth.Itistheinitialstageofthe pathbecauseithasactuallytobepurifiedinthepriorstagetoo.

 

4.

In the third dyad virtue as a b s t i n e n c e is simply abstention

fromkillinglivingthingsetc.;theotherkindsconsistingofvolition,

etc.arevirtueas n o n - a b s tin en ce.

11.

5.

In the fourth dyad there are two kinds of dependence:

dependencethroughcravinganddependencethroughfalseviews. Herein, that produced by one who wishes for a fortunate kind of becomingthus:‘Throughthisvirtuousconduct,(rite)Ishallbecome agreatdeityorsomeminordeity’(M.i,102)is d ep en d en t through craving;Thatproducedthroughsuchfalseviewaboutpurification as ‘Purification is through virtuous conduct (rites)’(Vbh.374) is dependent throughfalseview.Butthesupramundane,andthemun- dane that is the pre-requisite for the aforesaid supramundane, are in d ep en d en t.

T h e Es s en ce o f ThePathofPurification

6. In the fifth dyad t e m p o r a r y virtue is that undertaken after

decidingonatimelimit. Lifelong virtueisthatpractisedinthesame waybutundertakingitforaslongaslifelasts.

7. Inthesixthdyadthe limited isthatseentobelimitedbygain,

fame,relatives,limbs,orlife.Theoppositeis u n lim ited .

8. Intheseventhdyadallvirtuesubjecttocankersis m u n d a n e;

thatnotsubjecttocankersis s u p r a m u n d a n e.Herein,the m u n d a n e bringsaboutimprovementinfuturebecomingandisaprerequisite

fortheescapefrombecoming.The s u p r a m u n d a n e bringsaboutthe escapefrombecomingandistheplaneofReviewingKnowledge.

12.

9.

In the first of the triads the in fer io r is produced by inferior

zeal,purityofconsciousness,energy,orinquiry;the medium ispro- ducedbymediumzeal,etc.;the s u p er io r ,bysuperiorzeal,andso on.Thatundertakenoutofdesireforfameis in fer io r ;thatunder- takenoutofdesireforthefruitsofmeritis medium;thatundertaken forthesakeofthenoblestatethus‘Thishastobedone’is s u p er io r. Oragainthatdefiledbyself-praiseanddisparagementofothersetc. in the following way: ‘I am possessed of virtue, but these other bhikkhusareill-conductedandevil-natured’(M.i,193)is in fer io r ; undefiledmundanevirtueis medium;supramundaneis superior.Or againthatmotivatedbycraving,thepurposeofwhichis toenjoy continued existence, is i n f e r i o r ; that practised for the purpose of one’sowndeliveranceis medium;thevirtueoftheperfectionsprac- tisedforthedeliveranceofallbeingsis s u p er io r .Soitisofthree kindsasinferior,medium,andsuperior.

13.

10. In the second triad, that practised out of self-regard by one whoregardsselfanddesirestoabandonwhatisunbecomingtoself isvirtue g ivin g p reced en ce to s elf.Thatpractisedoutofregardfor theworldandoutofdesiretowardoffthecensureoftheworldis virtue g ivin g p reced en ce to th e w o r ld .Thatpractisedoutofregard fortheDhamma(Law)andoutofdesiretohonourthemajestyof theDhammaisvirtue g ivin g p reced en ce to th e D h a m m a . Soitisof threekindsasgivingprecedencetoself,andsoon.

14.

11. In the third triad the virtue that in the dyads was called ‘dependent’(no.5) is a d h e re d - t o because it is adhered-to through

Description of Virtue

craving and false view. That practised by the magnanimous ordinary man as the prerequisite of the path, and that associated with the path in Trainers, are n o n - a d h ered - to . That associated with trainers’ and

non-trainers’ fruition is t r a n q u i l i z e d . So it is of three kinds as adhered-to, and so on.

12. In the fourth triad that fulfilled by one who has committed

no offence or has made amends after committing one is p u re . So long as he has not made amends after committing an offence it is im p u re. Virtue in one who is dubious about whether a thing consti- tutes an offence or about what grade of offence has been committed

or about whether he has committed an offence is d u b io u s . Herein, the meditator should purify impure virtue. If dubious, he should avoid cases about which he is doubtful and should get his doubts cleared up. In this way his mind will be kept at rest. So it is of three kinds as pure, and so on.

13. In the fifth triad the virtue associated with the four paths and

with the first three fruitions is t h a t o f t h e t r a i n e r. That associated with the fruition of Arahantship is t h a t o f t h e n o n - t r a i n e r . The remaining kinds are th a t o f th e n eith er- tr a in er- n o r- n o n - tr a in er . So it is of three kinds as that of the Trainer, and so on.

15.

14. In the first of the tetrads:

The unvirtuous he cultivates, He visits not the virtuous, And in his ignorance he sees No fault in a transgression here,

With wrong thoughts often in his mind His faculties he will not guard ─ Virtue in such a constitution Comes to p a r ta ke o f d im in u tio n .

But he whose mind is satisfied With virtue that has been achieved, Who never thinks to stir himself And take a meditation subject up, Contented with mere virtuousness,

T h e Es s en ce o f ThePathofPurification

Norstrivingforahigherstate─ Hisvirtuebearstheappellation Of th a t p a r ta kin g o f s ta g n a tio n .

Butwho,possessedofvirtue,strives Withconcentrationforhisaim─ Thatbhikkhu’svirtueinitsfunction Iscalled p a r ta kin g o f d is tin ctio n .

Whofindsmerevirtuenotenough Buthasdispassionforhisgoal─ Hisvirtuethroughsuchaspiration Comesto p a r take o f p en etr a tio n .

16.

15.

Inthesecondtetradtherearetrainingpreceptsannouncedfor

bhikkhustokeepirrespectiveofwhatisannouncedforbhikkhunīs. Thisisthevirtueof bhikkhus.Therearetrainingpreceptsannounced for bhikkhunīs to keep irrespective of what is announced for bhikkhus.Thisisthevirtueof bhikkhunīs.Thetenpreceptsofvirtue formaleandfemalenovicesarethevirtueofthe n o t fu lly a d m itted . The five training precepts ─ ten when possible ─ as a permanent undertaking,andeightasthefactorsoftheUposathaDay, 7 formale andfemalelayfollowersarethevirtue o f th e la ity.Soitisoffour kindsasthevirtueofbhikkhus,andsoon. 16. In the third tetrad the non-trangression on the part of Uttarakuruhumanbeingsis natural virtue.Eachclan’sorlocality’s orsect’sownrulesofconductare cu s to m a r y vir tu e.Thevirtueof the Bodhisatta’s mother described thus, ‘It is the necessary rule, Ānanda,thatwhenthe Bo d h is a t t a hasdescendedintohismother’s womb,nothoughtofmenthatisconnectedwiththecordsofsense desirecomestoher’(D.ii,13)is n eces s a r y vir tu e.Butthevirtueof suchpurebeingsas Ma h ā - Ka s s a p a ,etc.,andoftheBodhisattain hisvariousbirthsisvirtue d u e to p revio u s ca u s es .Soitisoffour kindsasnaturalvirtue,andsoon.

17.

17.

Inthefourthtetrad:

(a) The virtue described by the B l e s s e d O n e thus, ‘Here a bhikkhudwellsrestrainedwiththePātimokkharestraint,possessed

DescriptionofVirtue

of the proper conduct and resort, and seeing fear in the slightest fault, he trains himself by undertaking the precepts of training’

(Vbh.244),isvirtueofPātimokkharestraint.

(b) Virtueofrestraintofthesensefacultiesisdescribedthus,

‘Onseeingavisibleobjectwiththeeye,heapprehendsneitherthe signs nor the particulars through which, if he left the eye faculty

unguarded, evil and unprofitable states of covetousness and grief mightinvadehim,heentersuponthewayofitsrestraint,heguards

theeyefaculty,undertakestherestraintoftheeyefaculty.Onhear-

ingasoundwiththeear

Ontastingaflavourwiththetongue

with the body

apprehends neither the signs nor the particulars through which, if

heleftthemindfacultyunguarded,evilandunprofitablestatesof

covetousnessandgriefmightinvadehim,heentersupontheway

ofitsrestraint,heguardsthemindfaculty,undertakestherestraint

ofthemindfaculty’(M.i,180).

Onsmellinganodourwiththenose

Ontouchingatangibleobject

On cognizing a mental object with the mind, he

(c) Abstinencefromsuchwronglivelihoodasentailstransgres-

sion of the six training precepts announced with respect to liveli- hoodandentailstheevilstatesbeginningwith‘Scheming,talking,

hinting, belittling, pursuing gain with gain’(M iii,75) is virtueof livelihoodpurification.

(d) Useofthefourrequisitesthatispurifiedbythereflection

stated in the way beginning ‘Reflecting wisely, he uses the robe

onlyforprotectionfromcold’(M.i.10)iscalledvirtueconcerning

requisites.

T h e Virt u e o f Pā t im o k k h a R es t ra in t

18. Abhikkhu:aclansmanwhohasgoneforthoutoffaithandisso styledbecauseheseesfearintheroundofrebirths(saṁsārebhayaṁ ikkhanatāya)orbecausehewearsclothgarmentsthataretornand pieced together, and so on. RestrainedwiththePātimokkhare- straint;herePātimokkha(RuleoftheCommunity 8 )’isthevirtueof thetrainingprecepts;foritfrees(mokkheti)himwhoprotects(pāti) it,guardsit.Itsetshimfree(mocayati)fromthepainsofthestates of loss, etc., and that is why it is called 'Pātimokkha'. ‘Restraint’

T h e Es s en ce o f ThePathofPurification

isrestraining;thisisatermforbodilyandverbalnon-transgression. The Pātimokkha itself as restraint is ‘Pātimokkha restraint’. Re- strainedwiththePātimokkharestraintmeansrestrainedbymeansof therestraintconsistingofthatPātimokkha;hehasit,possessesit.

19. The meaning of possessed of proper conduct and resort etc. should be understood in the way in which it is given in the text. I m p ro p e r c o n d u c t : Bodily transgression, verbal transgression, bodily and verbal transgression, this is called improper conduct. Alsoallunvirtuousnessisimproperconduct.Heresomeonemakes alivelihoodbygiftsofbamboos,orbygiftsofleaves,orbygifts offlowers,fruits,bathingpowder,toothsticks,orbyflattery,orby beansoupery,orbyfondling,orbygoingonerrandsonfoot,orby one or other of the sorts of wrong livelihood condemned by the Buddhas. Pro per co n d u ct s h o u ld b e u n d er s to o d in th e o p p o s ite wa y.

20. Proper resort: there is proper resort and improper resort. I m p r o p e r re s o r t : Here someone has prostitutes as resort, or he haswidows,oldmaids,eunuchs,bhikkhunīs,ortavernsasresort; or he dwells associated with kings, kings’ministers, sectarians, sectarians’disciples, in unbecoming association with laymen; or he cultivates, frequents, honours, such families as are faithless, untrusting, abusive and rude, who wish harm, wish ill, wish woe, wishnosurceaseofbondage,forbhikkhusandbhikkhunīs,formale andfemaledevotees. Pro p er res o r t s h ou ld b e u n d er s to o d in th e o p p o s ite wa y.

21. Furthermoreproperconductandresortshouldalsobetwo-fold

asbodilyandverbal.

B o d i l y i m p ro p e r c o n d u c t : ‘Here someone acts disrespectfully beforetheCommunity,andhestandsjostlingelderbhikkhus,sits jostlingthem,standsinfrontofthem,sitsinfrontofthem,sitson highseat,sitswithhisheadcovered,talksstandingup,talkswaving

walkswithsandalswhileelderbhikkhuswalkwithout

sandals,walksonahighwalkwhiletheywalkonalowwalk,walks

standspushingelder

hisarms,

onawalkwhiletheywalkontheground,

DescriptionofVirtue

bhikkhus,sitspushingthem,preventsnewbhikkhusfromgettinga

seat,

boltsthedoor,

putswoodonthestove,

andatthebathingplace

withoutaskingelderbhikkhushe

andinthebathhouse

heentersthewaterjostlingelderbhikkhus,entersitinfrontofthem,

bathes jostling them, bathes in front of them, comes out jostling

andenteringinsideahousehe

them,comesoutinfrontofthem,

goesjostlingelderbhikkhus,goesinfrontofthem,pushingforward

andwherefamilieshaveinnerprivate

hegoesinfrontofthem,

screened rooms in which the women of the family,

thefamilysit,thereheentersabruptly,andhestrokesachild’shead’

(Nd.1.228-9).

the girls of

22. Ve r b a l i m p ro p e r c o n d u c t : ‘Here someone acts disrespectfully beforetheCommunity.Withoutaskingelderbhikkhushetalkson the Dhamma, answers questions, recites the Pātimokkha, talks

havingenteredinsideahouse,

hespeakstoawomanoragirlthus,“You,so-and-soofsuch-and-

suchaclan,whatisthere?Istherericegruel?Is,therecookedrice? Isthereanyhardfoodtoeat?Whatshallwedrink?Whathardfood shall we eat?What soft food shall we eat? Or what will you give

standingup,talkswavinghisarms,

me?”─hechatterslikethis’(Nd.1.230).

Verbal proper conduct should be understood in the opposite way.

23. Furthermore, a bhikkhu is respectful, deferential, possessed of conscience and shame, wears his inner robe properly, wears his upper robe properly, his manner inspires confidence whether in movingforwardsorbackwards,lookingaheadoraside,bendingor stretching, his eyes are downcast, he has a good deportment, he guardsthedoorsofhissensefaculties,knowstherightmeasurein

eating,isdevotedtowakefulness,possessesmindfulnessandfull-

awareness, wants little, is contented, is strenuous, is a careful observer of good behaviour, and treats the teachers with great

respect.Thisiscalled p ro p er co n d u ct.

24. Properresortisofthreekinds:properresortassupport,proper resortasguarding,andproperresortasanchoring.Herein,whatis proper resort as support? A good friend who exhibits the ten

T h e Es s en ce o f ThePathofPurification

instances of talk, 9 in whose presence one hears what has not been heard,correctswhathasbeenheard,getsridofdoubt,rectifiesone’s view,andgainsconfidence:orbytrainingunderwhomonegrows in faith, virtue, learning, generosity and understanding ─ this is called p ro p er res o r t a s s u p p o r t. What is proper resort as guarding? Here ‘A bhikkhu, having entered inside a house, having gone into a street, goes with down- casteyes,seeingthelengthofaploughyoke,restrained,notlooking at an elephant, not looking at a horse, a carriage, a pedestrian, a woman, a man, not looking up, not looking down, not staring this wayandthat’(Nd1.474).Thisiscalled p ro p er res o r t a s g u a rd in g . Whatisproperresortasanchoring? Itisthefourfoundationsof mindfulness on which the mind is anchored; for this is said by the BlessedOne:‘Bhikkhus,whatisabhikkhu’sresort,hisownnative place?Itisthesefourfoundationsofmindfulness’(S.v,148). This iscalled p ro p er res o r t a s a n ch o r in g .

Th e Virt u e o f R es t ra in t o f Fa cu lt ies

25. On seeing a visible object with the eye:onseeingavisibleobject withtheeye-consciousnessthatiscapableofseeingvisibleobjects andhasborrowedthename‘eye’fromitsinstrument. Ap p reh en d s n eith er th e s ig n s :hedoesnotapprehendthesignof womanorman,oranysignthatisabasisfordefilementsuchasthe signofbeauty,etc.:hestopsatwhatismerelyseen. N o r th e p a r tic- ulars:hedoesnotapprehendanyaspectclassedashand,foot,smile, laughter,talk,lookingahead,lookingaside,etc.,whichhasacquired

the name ‘particular ( a n u b ya ñ ja n a ) ’because of its particularizing (anu anu byañjanato) defilements,becauseofitsmakingthemman- ifestthemselves.Heonlyapprehendswhatisreallythere.Likethe

E ld er Ma h ā Tis s a whodweltat C et iy a p a b b a ta .

26. ItseemsthatastheElderwasonhiswayfromCetiyapabbatato

Anurādhapura for alms, a certain daughter-in-law of a clan, who

hadquarrelledwithherhusbandandhadsetoutearlyfromAnurād-

hapuraalldressedupandsetoutlikeacelestialnymphtogotoher relatives’home, saw him on the road, and being low-minded, she

DescriptionofVirtue

laughedaloudlaugh.Wondering‘Whatisthat?’theElderlooked up,andfindinginthebonesofherteeththeperceptionoffoulness (ugliness),hereachedArahantship. 10 Henceitwassaid:

‘Hesawthebonesthatwereherteeth,

Andkeptinmindhisfirstperception;

Andstandingonthatveryspot

TheElderbecameanArahant’.

But her husband who was going after her saw the Elder and asked ‘Venerable sir, did you by any chance see a woman?’The Eldertoldhim:

‘Whetheritwasamanorwoman

ThatwentbyInoticednot;

Butonlythatonthishighroad

Theregoesagroupofbones’.

27. Astothewords th ro u g h wh ich ,etc.,themeaningis:byreason ofwhich,becauseofwhichnon-restraintoftheeyefaculty, if h e,if thatperson, left th e eye fa cu lty u n g u a rd ed ,remainedwiththeeye door unclosed by the door-panel of mindfulness, these s t a t e s o f covetousness,etc., might invade,mightpursue,mightthreaten, him. H e en ter s u p o n th e wa y o f its res tr a in t:heentersuponthewayof closingthateyefacultybythedoor-panelofmindfulness.Itisthe sameoneofwhomitissaid h e g u a rd s th e eye fa cu lty, u n d er ta kes th e res tr a in t o f th e eye fa cu lty. So also as regards the phrases o n h e a r i n g a s o u n d w i t h t h e ea r andsoon.Soitisthisvirtue,whichinbriefhasthecharacter- istic of avoiding apprehension of signs entailing defilement with respect to visible objects, etc. that should be understood as vir tu e

o f res tr a in t o f fa cu lties .

T h e Virt u e o f L iv elih o o d Pu rif ica t io n

28. T h e s ix p recep ts a n n o u n ced o n a cco u n t o f livelih o o d . (i) ‘Withlivelihoodascause,withlivelihoodasreason,oneof evil wishes, a prey to wishes, lays claim to a higher than human statethatisnon-existent,notafact’,thecontraventionisDefeat.

T h e Es s en ce o f ThePathofPurification

(ii) Withlivelihoodascause,withlivelihoodasreason,heacts

asgo-between’,thecontraventionofwhichisanoffenceentailing

aMeetingoftheOrder.

(iii) Withlivelihoodascause,withlivelihoodasreason,hesays:

“Abhikkhu who lives in your monastery is anArahant”, the con- traventionofwhichisaSeriousOffenceinonewhoisawareofit.

(iv) With livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, a

bhikkhu who is not sick eats superior food that he has ordered for his own use’, the contravention of which is an Offence Requiring Expiation.

(v) With livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, a

bhikkhunī who is not sick eats superior food that she has ordered

forherownuse’,thecontraventionofwhichisanOffenceRequir-

ingConfession.

(vi) With livelihood as cause, with livelihood as reason, one

whoisnotsickeatscurryorboiledricethathehasorderedforhis ownuse’,thecontraventionofwhichisanOffenceofWrongdoing

(Vin.v,146).

29. Asregards scheming,etc.,thisisthetext:‘Herein,whatisschem- ing? It is the grimacing, grimacery, scheming, schemery, schemed- ness, 11 bywhatiscalledrejectionofrequisitesorbyindirecttalk,or itisthedisposing,posing,composing,ofthedeportmentonthepart of one bent on gain, honour and renown, of one of evil wishes, a preytowishes─thisiscalledscheming.’

30. ‘Herein, what is t a l k i n g ? Talking at others, talking, talking round, talking up, continual talking up, persuading, continual persuading, suggesting, continual suggesting, ingratiating chatter, flattery, bean-soupery, fondling, on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown, of one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes ─ this iscalledtalking.’

31. ‘Herein,whatis h in tin g ?Asigntoothers,givingasign,indica- tion,givingindication,indirecttalk,roundabouttalk,onthepartof onebentongain,honourandrenown,ofoneofevilwishes,aprey towishes─thisiscalled hin tin g .’

Description of Virtue

32.

‘Herein, what is belittling? Abusing of others, disparaging, reproaching, snubbing, continual snubbing, ridicule, continual ridicule, denigration, continual denigration, tale bearing, backbiting, on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown, of one of evil wishes, a prey to wishes. This is called b elittlin g .’

33

‘Herein, what is pursuing gain with gain? Seeking, seeking for, seeking out, going in search of, searching for, searching out, mate- rial goods by means of material goods, such as carrying there goods that have been got from here, or carrying here goods that have been got from there, by one bent on gain, honour and renown, by one of

evil wishes, a prey to wishes ─ this is called p u r s u i n g g a i n w i t h

g

a in ’ (Vbh. 352-3 12 ).’

34.

Indirect talk is talk that keeps near to the subject.And here there should be told the story of the bhikkhu supported by a family. A bhikkhu, it seems, who was supported by a family, went into the house wanting to eat and sat down. The mistress of the house was unwilling to give. On seeing him she said, ‘There is no rice’, and she went to a neighbour’s house as though to get rice. The bhikkhu went into the storeroom. Looking round, he saw sugarcane in the corner behind the door, sugar in a bowl, a string of salt fish in a bas- ket, rice in a jar, and ghee in a pot. He came out and sat down. When the housewife came back, she said ‘I did not get any rice’. The bhikkhu said ‘Lay follower, I saw a sign just now that alms will not be easy to get today.’─ ‘What, venerable sir?’─ ‘I saw a snake that was like sugarcane put in the corner behind the door; looking for something to hit it with, I saw a stone like a lump of sugar in a bowl. When the snake had been hit with the clod, it spread out a hood like a string of salt fish in a basket, and its teeth as it tried to bite the clod were like rice grains in a jar. Then the saliva mixed with poison that came out of its mouth in its fury was like ghee put in a pot.’ She thought ‘There is no hoodwinking the shaveling’, so she gave him the sugarcane and she cooked the rice and gave it all to him with the ghee, the sugar and the fish.

35.

Now as regards the words T h e evil s ta tes b eg in n in g with : here the words b e g i n n i n g w i t h should be understood to include the many

T h e Es s en ce o f ThePathofPurification

evilstatesgiveninthe Brahmajāla Sutta inthewaybeginning‘Or

just as some worthy ascetics, while eating the food given by the faithful, make a living by wrong livelihood by such low arts as these,thatistosay,bypalmis¬try,byfortune-telling,bydivining omens, by interpreting dreams, marks on the body, holes gnawed

bymice;byfiresacrifice,byspoonoblation,

So this wrong livelihood entails the transgression of these six trainingpreceptsannouncedonaccountoflivelihood,anditentails theevilstatesbeginningwith‘Scheming,talking,hinting,belittling, pursuinggainwithgain’.Andsoitistheabstinencefromallsorts ofwronglivelihoodthatis vir tu e o f livelih o o d p u r ifica tio n .

’(D.i,9).

Virt u e C o n cern in g R eq u is it es

36.

(d) Hereisthetext:

(i) ‘Reflecting wisely, he uses the Robe only for protection

fromcold,forprotectionfromheat,forprotectionfromcontactwith

gadflies,flies,wind,burningandcreepingthings,andonlyforthe

purposeofconcealingtheprivateparts.

(ii) Reflecting wisely, he usesAlms food neither for amuse-

mentnorforintoxicationnorforsmarteningnorforembellishment,

but only for the endurance and continuance of this body, for the ending of discomfort, and for assisting the life of purity: “Thus I shall put a stop to old feelings and shall not arouse new feelings, andIshallbehealthyandblamelessandliveincomfort.”

(iii) Reflecting wisely, he uses the Resting place only for the

purposeofprotectionfromcold,forprotectionfromheat,forpro-

tectionfromcontactwithgadflies,flies,wind,burningandcreeping

things,andonlyforthepurposeofwardingofftheperilsofclimate

andenjoyingretreat.

(iv) Reflectingwisely,heusestheRequisiteofmedicineascure

forthesickonlyforprotectionfromarisenhurtfulfeelingsandfor

complete immunity from affliction (M.i,10). Herein re f l e c t i n g

w is ely is reflecting as the means and as the way; by knowing, by reviewing,isthemeaning.Andhereitisthereviewingstatedinthe waybeginning‘Forprotectionfromcold’thatshouldbeunderstood as‘reflectingwisely’. 13

DescriptionofVirtue

TheWaytoUndertaketheFourfoldVirtue

37.

(a)

So,inthisfourfoldvirtue, Pā tim o kkh a res tr a in t hastobe

undertakenbymeansof f a i t h .Forthatisaccomplishedbyfaith, sincetheannouncingoftrainingpreceptsisoutsidethedisciples’

province;andtheevidencehereistherefusaloftherequesttoallow

disciplestoannouncetrainingprecepts(SeeVin.iii,9-10).Having

thereforeundertakenthroughfaiththetrainingpreceptswithout

exceptionasannounced,oneshouldcompletelyperfectthemwith-

outregardforlife.Forthisissaid:

 

‘Asapheasant 14 guardshereggs, Orasayakhertail, Orlikeadarlingchild, Orlikeanonlyeye─

Soyouwhoareengaged,

Yourvirtuetoprotect,

Beprudentatalltimes

Andeverscrupulous’.

 

Alsoitissaidfurther,‘Sotoo,Sire,whenatrainingpreceptfor disciplesisannouncedbyme,mydisciplesdonottransgressiteven

forthesakeoflife(A.iv,201).

38.

ThestoryoftheEldersboundbyrobbersintheforestshouldbe understoodinthissense. Itseemsthatrobbersinthe Mah āvaṭṭan ī ForestboundanElder withblackcreepersandmadehimliedown.Whilehelaytherefor sevendaysheaugmentedhisinsight,andafterreachingthefruition ofNon-return,hediedthereandwasrebornintheBrahmāWorld. AlsotheyboundanotherElderin Ta m b a p a ṇ ṇ i Island(Ceylon) withstringcreepersandmadehimliedown.Whenaforestfire cameandthecreeperswerenotcut,heestablishedinsightand attainednibbānasimultaneouslywithhisdeath.Whenthe E l d e r

A b h a y a ,apreacherofthe D ī g h a N i k ā y a ,passedbywithfive hundredbhikkhus,hesawwhathadhappenedandhehadthe

Elder'sbodycrematedandashrinebuilt.Thereforeletotherclans-

menalso

T h e Es s en ce o f ThePathofPurification

MaintaintheRulesofConductpure,

Renouncinglifeiftherebeneed,

Ratherthanbreakvirtue’srestraint

BytheWorld’sSaviourdecreed.

39.

(b)

Res tr a in t o f th e s en s e fa cu lties shouldbeundertakenwith

 

i n d f u l n e s s .Forthatisaccomplishedbymindfulness,because whenthesensefaculties’functionsarefoundedonmindfulness, thereisnoliabilitytoinvasionbycovetousnessandtherest.So, recollecting the Fire Discourse, which begins thus, ‘Better, bhikkhus,theextirpationoftheeyefacultybyared-hotburning blazingglowingironspikethan,theapprehensionofsignsinthe

m

particularsofvisibleobjects,cognizablebytheeye’(S.iv,168),this

restraintshouldbeproperlyundertakenbypreventingwithunremit-

tingmindfulnessanyapprehensionintheobjectivefieldsconsisting

ofvisibledata,etc.ofanysigns,etc.likelytoencouragecovetous-

ness,etc.toinvadeconsciousnessoccurringinconnectionwiththe eyedoor,andsoon. Whennotundertakenthus,virtueofPātimokkharestraint also 15 isunenduring:itdoesnotlast,likeacropnotfencedinwith branches.Anditisraidedbytherobberdefilementsasavillage withopengatesisbythieves.Andlustleaksintohismindasrain doesintoabadlyroofedhouse.

40.

Thismindiscalled‘quicklytransformed’(A.1,10),sorestraint

ofthefacultiesshouldbeundertakenbyremovingarisenlustwith

thecontemplationoffoulness.

Abhikkhuwhoisfulfillingrestraintofthefacultiesshouldbe

likethe Elder Cittagutta residentintheGreatCaveat Kuraṇḍaka.

IntheGreatCaveofKuraṇḍaka,itseems,therewasalovelypaint-

ingoftheRenunciationoftheSevenBuddhas.Anumberof

Bhikkhuswanderingaboutamongthedwellingssawthepainting

andsaid‘Whatalovelypainting,venerablesir!’TheEldersaid‘For

morethansixtyyears,friends,Ihavelivedinthecave,andIdid

notknowwhethertherewasanypaintingthereornot.Now,today,

Iknowitthroughthosewhohaveeyes’.TheElder,itseems,though

hehadlivedthereforsolong,hadneverraisedhiseyesandlooked

Description of Virtue

up at the cave. And at the door of his cave there was a great iron- wood tree. And the Elder had never looked up at that either. He knew it was in flower when he saw its petals on the ground each year.

41. (c) L i v e l i h o o d p u r i f i c a t i o n is to be undertaken by means of energy. For that is accomplished by energy, because the abandoning of wrong livelihood is accomplished in one who has rightly applied energy. Abandoning, therefore, unbefitting wrong search, this should be undertaken with energy by means of the right kind of search consisting of going on alms round, etc., avoiding what is of impure origin as though it were a poisonous snake, and using only requisites of pure origin. Herein, for one who has not taken up the Ascetic Practices any requisites obtained from the Community, from a group of bhikkhus, or from laymen who have confidence in his special qualities of teaching the Dhamma, etc. are called ‘of pure origin’. But those obtained on alms round, etc. are of extremely pure origin. For one who has taken up the Ascetic Practices those obtained on alms round, etc. and ─ as long as this is in accordance with the rules of the ascetic practices ─ from people who have confidence in his special qualities of ascetism, are called ‘of pure origin’. And if he has got putrid urine with mixed gall nuts and ‘four sweets’ 16 for the purpose of curing a certain affliction, and he eats only the broken gall nuts, thinking ‘Other companions in the life of purity will eat the “four-sweets”’, his undertaking of the ascetic practices is befitt- ing, for he is then called a bhikkhu who is supreme in the Noble Ones’Heritages (SeeA.ii,28). As to the robe and the other requisites, no hint, indication, round- about talk, or intimation, about robes and alms food is allowable for a bhikkhu who is purifying his livelihood. But a hint, indication, or roundabout talk, about a resting place is allowable for one who has not taken up the ascetic practices. Herein, a ‘hint’is when one who is getting the preparing of the ground, etc. done for the purpose of making a resting place is asked, ‘What is being done, venerable sir? Who is having it done?’and he replies ‘No one’; or any other such giving of hints.An ‘indication’

T h e Es s en ce o f The Path of Purification

is saying, ‘Lay follower, where do you live?’─ ‘In a mansion, ven- erable sir,’ ─ ‘But, lay follower, a mansion is not allowed for bhikkhus.’or any other such giving of indication. ‘Roundabout talk’ is saying, ‘The resting place for the Community of Bhikkhus is crowded’; or any other such oblique talk. All, however, is allowed in the case of medicine. But when the disease is cured, is it or is it not allowed to use the medicine obtained in this way? Herein, the Vi n a y a s p e c i a l i s t s say that the opening has been given by the Blessed One, therefore it is allow- able. But the S u t t a n t a s p e c i a l i s t s say that though there is no offence, the livelihood is sullied, therefore it is not allowable.

42. But one who does not use hints, indications, roundabout talk, or intimation, though these are permitted by the Blessed One, and who depends only on the special qualities of fewness of wishes, etc. and makes use only of requisites obtained otherwise than by indication, etc., even when he thus risks his life, is called ‘supreme in living in effacement’ 17 like the Ven erab le S ā rip u t t a . It seems that the venerable one was cultivating seclusion at one

time, living in a certain forest with the Eld er Ma h ā - Mo g g a llā n a ,

day an affliction of colic arose in him, causing him great pain. In the evening the Elder Mahā-Moggallāna went to attend upon him. Seeing him lying down, he asked what the reason was. And then he asked ‘What used to make you better formerly, friend?’

one

The

Elder said ‘When I was a layman, friend, my mother used to

mix

ghee, honey, sugar and so on, and give me rice gruel with pure

milk. That used to make me better’. Then the other said, ‘So be it, friend. If either you or I have merit, perhaps tomorrow we shall get some’. Now a deity who dwelt in a tree at the end of the walk over- heard their conversation. Thinking, ‘I will find rice gruel for the

lord tomorrow’, he went meanwhile to the family who was support-

ing the Elder and entered into the body of the eldest son, causing

him discomfort.

Then he told the assembled relatives the price of the cure: ‘If

you prepare rice gruel of such a kind tomorrow for the Elder, I will

set this one free’. They said, ‘Even without being told by you we regularly supply the Elder’s needs’, and on the following day they

DescriptionofVirtue

preparedricegruelofthekindneeded.TheElderMahā-Moggallāna came in the morning and said, ‘Stay here, friend, till I come back fromthealmsround’.Thenhewentintothevillage.Thosepeople met him. They took his bowl, filled it with the stipulated kind of rice gruel, and gave it back to him. The Elder made as though to go,buttheysaid,‘Eat,venerablesir,weshallgiveyoumore’.When theElderhadeaten,theygavehimanotherbowlful.TheElderleft. Bringing the alms food to the venerable Sāriputta, he said, ‘Here, friendSāriputta,eat’.WhentheEldersawit,hethought‘Thegruel isverynice.Howwasitgot?’andseeinghowithadbeenobtained, hesaid,‘Friend,thealmsfoodcannotbeused’. Instead of thinking ‘He does not eat alms food brought by the likesofme’,theotheratoncetookthebowlbytherimandturned itoverononeside.AsthericegruelfellonthegroundtheElder’s affliction vanished. From then on it did not appear again during forty-fiveyears. ThenhesaidtothevenerableMahā-Moggallāna,‘Friend,even ifone’sbowelscomeoutandtrailontheground,itisnotfittingto eatgruelgotbyverbalintimation’.

43.

(d)

Virtue dependent on requisites istobeundertakenbymeans

of u n d e r s t a n d i n g . For that is accomplished by understanding,

becauseonewhopossessesunderstandingisabletoseetheadvan-

tages and the dangers in requisites. So one should abandon greed forrequisitesandundertakethatvirtuebyusingrequisitesobtained lawfully and properly, after reviewing them with understanding in thewayaforesaid. Herein, reviewing is of two kinds: at the time of receiving requisitesandatthetimeofusingthem.Foruseisblamelessinone whoatthetimeofreceivingrobes,etc.reviewsthemeitherasmere elementsorasrepulsive, 18 andputsthemasideforlateruse,andin onewhoreviewsthemthusatthetimeofusingthem.

44.

Hereisanexplanationtosettlethematter.Therearefourkinds of use: use as theft, 19 use as debt, use as an inheritance, use as a master. Herein, use by one who is unvirtuous and makes use of requisites,evensittinginthemidstofthecommunity,iscalled‘use astheft’.Usewithoutreviewingbyonewhoisvirtuousis‘useasa

T h e Es s en ce o f ThePathofPurification

debt’;thereforetherobeshouldbereviewedeverytimeitisused, and the alms food lump by lump. One who cannot do this should reviewitbeforethemeal,afterthemeal,inthefirstwatch,inthe middlewatch,andinthelastwatch.Ifdawnbreaksonhimwithout hishavingreviewedit,hefindshimselfinthepositionofonewho hasuseditasadebt.Alsotherestingplaceshouldbereviewedeach timeitisused. Recourse to mindfulness both in the accepting and the use of medicineisproper;butwhilethisisso,thoughthereisanoffence foronewhousesitwithoutmindfulnessaftermindfulacceptance, thereisnooffenceforonewhoismindfulinusingafteraccepting withoutmindfulness.

45. Pu r ifica tio n is o f fo u r kin ds :purificationbythe(confession 20 ), purificationbyrestraint,purificationbysearch,andpurificationby

reviewing. Herein, v i r t u e o f t h e P ā t i m o k k h a re s t r a i n t is called

‘purificationbytheconfession’;forthatissocalledbecauseitpu-

rifiesbymeansofconfession. Virtue of restraint of faculties iscalled ‘purificationbyrestraint’;forthatissocalledbecauseitpurifiesby means of the restraint in the mental resolution: ‘I shall not do so again’. Vi r t u e o f l i v e l i h o o d p u r i f i c a t i o n is called ‘purification by search’;forthatissocalledbecausesearchispurifiedinonewho abandons wrong search and gets requisites lawfully and properly.

Virtue dependent on requisites iscalled‘purificationbyreviewing’; forthatissocalledbecauseitpurifiesbythereviewingofthekind alreadydescribed.Henceitwassaidabove‘Thereisnooffencefor onewhoismindfulinusingafteracceptingwithoutmindfulness’.

46. UseoftherequisitesbythesevenkindsofTrainersiscalled‘use as an inheritance’; for they are the Buddha’s sons, therefore they make use of the requisites as the heirs of requisites belonging to theirfather.Buthowthen,isittheBlessedOne’srequisitesorthe laity's requisites that are used?Although given by the laity, they actuallybelongtotheBlessedOne,becauseitisbytheBlessedOne thattheyarepermitted.Thatiswhyitshouldbeunderstoodthatthe BlessedOne’srequisitesareused.Theconfirmationhereisinthe

DhammadāyādaSutta(M.Sutta3).

DescriptionofVirtue

Use by those whose cankers are destroyed is called ‘use as a master’; for they make use of them as masters because they have escapedtheslaveryofcraving. As regards these kinds of use, use as a master and use as an inheritanceareallowableforall.Useasadebtisnotallowable,to saynothingofuseastheft.Butthisuseofwhatisreviewedbyone whoisvirtuousisusefreedfromdebtbecauseitistheoppositeof use as a debt or is included in use as an inheritance too. For one possessedofvirtueiscalledaTrainertoobecauseofpossessingthis training. Asregardsthesethreekindsofuse,sinceuseasamasterisbest, when a bhikkhu undertakes v i r t u e d e p e n d e n t o n re q u i s i t e s , he shouldaspiretothatandusethemafterreviewingthemintheway described.(Forwhosoactsisonewhodoeswhatistobedone 21 ).

47. 18. Thefirstpentadinthefivefoldsection.

(a) The virtue of those not fully admitted to the Order should

beunderstoodas vir tu e co n s is tin g o f lim ited p u r ifica tio n ,because

itislimitedbythenumberoftrainingprecepts,thatis,5or8or10.

(b) ThatofthosefullyadmittedtotheOrderisdescribablethus:

Ninethousandmillions,andahundred

Andeightymillionsthenaswell,

Andfiftyplusahundredthousand,

Andthirty-sixagaintoswell

Thetotalrestraintdisciplines:

TheserulestheEnlightenedOneexplains Toldunderheadsforfillingout, WhichtheDisciplinerestraintcontains. 22

So,althoughlimitedinnumber,itshouldyetbeunderstoodas

v i r t u e c o n s i s t i n g o f u n l i m i t e d p u r i f i c a t i o n , since it is undertaken

withoutreserveandhasnoobviouslimitsuchasgain,fame,rela-

tives,limbsorlife.

48. (c) TheMagnanimousOrdinaryMan’svirtue,whichfromthe timeofadmissiontotheOrderisdevoidevenofthestainofawrong thought because of its extreme purity, like a gem of purest water,

TheEssenceof ThePathofPurification

likewell-refinedgold,becomestheproximatecauseforArahantship itself, which is why it is called consistingoffulfilledpurification; likethatoftheEldersSaṅgharakkhitatheGreatandSaṅgharakkhita theNephew. The E l d e r S a ṅ g h a r a k k h i t a t h e G re a t (Mahā-Saṅgha-rakk- hita), aged over sixty, was lying, it seems, on his deathbed. The Order of Bhikkhus questioned him about attainment of the supra- mundane state. The Elder said, ‘I have no supramundane state’. Thentheyoungbhikkhuwhowasattendingonhimsaid,‘Venerable sir, people have come as much as twelve leagues, thinking that you have reached nibbāna. It will be a disappointment for many ifyoudieasanordinaryman’─‘Friend,thinkingtoseetheBlessed One Metteyya, I did not try for insight. So help me to sit up and givemethechance.’HehelpedtheEldertositupandwentout.As he went out the Elder reachedArahantship and he gave a sign by snapping his fingers.The Order assembled and said to him, ‘Ven- erable sir, you have done a difficult thing in achieving the supra- mundane state in the hour of death.’ ─ ‘That was not difficult, friends.ButratherIwilltellyouwhatisdifficult.Friends,Iseeno actiondonebymewithoutmindfulnessandunknowinglysincethe timeIwentforth.’HisnephewalsoreachedArahantshipinthesame wayattheageoffiftyyears.

49.

(d) What should be understood as virtue consisting of purifi-

cationnotadheredto is Trainers’virtue, because it is not adhered to by false views, and ordinary men’s virtue when not adhered to bygreed.Likethevirtueofthe E ld er Tis s a , theLandowner’sSon

(Kuṭumbiyaputta-Tissa-thera).

WantingtobecomeestablishedinArahantshipindependenceon

suchvirtue,thisvenerableonetoldhisenemies:

‘Ibrokethebonesofbothmylegs

Togivethepledgeyouaskedfromme.

Iamrevoltedandashamed

Atdeathaccompaniedbygreed.

AndafterIhadthoughtonthis,

Andwiselythenappliedinsight,

DescriptionofVirtue

Whenthesunroseandshoneonme,

IhadbecomeanArahant’(seeMA.i,233).

(e) It is the virtue of theArahants, etc. that should be under-

stoodastranquilizedpurification,becauseoftranquilizationofall disturbance and because of purifiedness. So it is five kinds of as ‘consistingoflimitedpurification’,andsoon.

50.

(vi)

WHATISTHEDEFILINGOFIT?

Now that tornness, etc. is comprised under the breach that has gain,fame,etc.asitscause,andunderthesevenbondsofsexuality. Whenamanhasbrokenthetrainingcourseatthebeginningorat theendinanyinstanceofthesevenclassesofoffences, 23 hisvirtue iscalled to r n ,likeacloththatiscutattheedge.Butwhenhehas brokenitinthemiddle,itiscalled ren t,likeacloththatisrentin themiddle.Whenhehasbrokenittwiceorthriceinsuccession,it is called b lo tch ed , like a cow whose body is some such colour as blackorredwithadiscrepantcolourappearingonthebackorthe

belly.Whenhehasbrokenitalloveratintervals,itiscalled mottled, like a cow speckled all over with discrepant-coloured spots at in- tervals.Thisinthefirstplaceishowtherecomestobetornnesswith thebreachthathasgain,etc.asitscause.

51.

AndlikewisewiththeSevenBondsofSexuality;forthisissaid

bytheBlessedOne:

(i) ‘Here, brahman, some ascetic or brahman claims to lead

thelifeofpurityrightly;forhedoesnotenterintoactualsexualin-

tercourse with women. Yet he agrees to massage, manipulation,

bathingandrubbingdownbywomen.Heenjoysit,desiresitand

takessatisfactioninit.Thisiswhatistorn,rent,blotchedandmot-

tledinonewholeadsthelifeofpurity.Thismanissaidtoleada

lifeofpuritythatisunclean.Asonewhoisboundbythebondof

sexuality, he will not be released from birth, ageing and death, hewillnotbereleasedfromsuffering.

(ii) Furthermore, brahman, while he does not agree to these

things,yethejokes,playsandamuseshimselfwithwomen

(iii) Furthermore,brahman,

whilehedoesnotagreetothese

T h e Es s en ce o f ThePathofPurification

things,yethegazesand staresatwomeneyetoeye…

whilehedoesnotagreetothese

things, yet he listens to the sound of women, through a wall or throughafenceastheylaughortalkorsingorweep…

whilehedoesnotagreetothese

things,yetherecallslaughsandtalksaboutgamesthatheformerly

hadwithwomen

whilehedoesnotagreetothese

things,yetheseesahouseholderorahouseholder’ssonpossessed

of,endowedwith,andindulging,thefivecordsofsensedesire

(vii) Furthermore, brahman, while he does not agree to these

(iv) Furthermore,brahman,

(v) Furthermore,brahman,

(vi) Furthermore,brahman,

things, yet he leads the life of purity aspiring to some order of deities, thinking “Through this rite (virtue) or this ritual (vow) or

this asceticism I shall become a great deity or some lesser deity”. He enjoys it, desires it, and takes satisfaction in it.This, brahman, iswhatistorn,rent,blotchedandmottledinonewholeadsthelife

of purity. This man

(A.iv,54-6)

will not be released from suffering, I say.

(vii) WHATISTHECLEANSINGOFIT?

52. Untornness, however, is accomplished by the complete non- breaking of the training precepts, by making amends for those broken for which amends should be made, by the absence of the seven bounds of sexuality, and as well, by the non-arising of such evilthingsasanger,enmity,contempt,domineering,envy,avarice, deceit,fraud,obduracy,presumption,pride(conceit),haughtiness,

conceit(vanity),andnegligence(seeM.Sutta7),andbythearising

ofsuchqualitiesasfewnessofwishes,contentment,andeffacement

(seeM.Sutta24).

Virtuesnotbrokenforthepurposeofgain,etc.andrectifiedby makingamendsafterbeingbrokenbythefaultsofnegligence,etc. andnotdamagedbytheboundsofsexualityandbysuchevilthings asangerandenmity,arecalledentirelyuntorn,unrent,unblotched, and unmottled. And those same virtues are l i b e r a t i n g since they bringaboutthestateoffreedom,and p r a is ed b y th e wis e sinceitis bythewisethattheyarepraised,and u n - a d h ered - to sincetheyare not adhered to by means of craving and views, and c o n d u c i v e t o

DescriptionofVirtue

c o n c e n t r a t i o n since they conduce to access concentration or to absorptionconcentration.Thatiswhytheiruntornness,etc.should beunderstoodas‘cleansing’.

53. This cleansing comes about in two ways: through seeing the danger of failure in virtue, and through seeing the benefit of perfectedvirtue.Herein,thedangeroffailureinvirtuecanbeseen in accordance with such suttas as that beginning ‘Bhikkhus, there are these five dangers for the unvirtuous in the failure of virtue’

(A.iii,252).

Furthermore, on account of his unvirtuousness an unvirtuous personisdispleasingtodeitiesandhumanbeings,isuninstructable by his fellows in the life of purity, suffers when unvirtuousness is censured, and is remorseful when the virtuous are praised. Owing tothatunvirtuousnessheisasuglyashempcloth.Contactwithhim ispainfulbecausethoseimitatinghisconduct 24 arebroughttolong- lastingsufferinginthestatesofloss. He is worthless because he causes no great fruit to accrue to thosewhogivehimgifts.Heisashardtopurifyasacesspitmany

yearsold.Heislikealogfromapyre(seeIti.99);forheisoutside

both recluseship and the lay state. Though claiming the bhikkhu state he is no bhikkhu, so he is like a donkey following a herd of cattle. He is always nervous, like a man who is everyone's enemy. Heisasunfittolivewithasadeadcarcase. Thoughhemayhavethequalitiesoflearning,etc.,heisasunfit for the homage of his fellows in the life of purity as a charnel- groundfireisforthatofBrahmans.Heisasincapableofreaching the distinction of attainment as a blind man is of seeing a visible object. He is as careless of the Good Law as a guttersnipe is of a kingdom.Thoughhe fanciesheishappy,yethesuffersbecausehe reaps suffering as told in the Discourse on the Mass of Fire (A.iv,

128-34).

54. Seeing danger in the failure of virtue should be understood as reviewing in such ways as these.And seeing benefits in perfected virtueshouldbeunderstoodintheoppositesense. Furthermore,

T h e Es s en ce o f The Path of Purification

His virtue is immaculate. His wearing of the bowl and robes Gives pleasure and inspires trust, His Going Forth will bear its fruit.

A bhikkhu in his virtue pure

Has never fear that self-reproach

Will enter in his heart: indeed There is no darkness in the sun.

A bhikkhu in his virtue bright

Shines forth in the Ascetics’ wood 25 As by the brightness of his beams

The moon lights up the firmament.

Now if the bodily perfume

Of virtuous bhikkhus can succeed

In pleasing even deities,

What of the perfume of his virtue?

It is more perfect far than all

The other perfumes in the world,

Because the perfume virtue gives

Is borne unchecked in all directions.

The deeds done for a virtuous man, Though they be few, will bear much fruit, And so the virtuous man becomes

A vessel of honour and renown.

There are no dangers 26 here and now To plague the virtuous man at all; The virtuous man digs out the root Of suffering in lives to come.

Perfection among human kind And even among deities,

If wished for, is not hard to gain

For him whose virtue is perfected; But once his virtue is perfected,

DescriptionofVirtue

Hismindthenseeksnootherkind

Thantheperfectionofnibbāna,

Thestatewhereutterpeaceprevails.

Suchistheblessedfruitofvirtue,

Showingfullmanyavariedform,

Soletawisemanknowitwell

Thisrootofallperfection'sbranches.

Themindofonewhounderstandsthus,shuddersatfailurein

virtueandreachesouttowardstheperfectingofvirtue.Sovirtue

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