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1.Top dead center refers to the position of the crank shaft at an crank angle of 0o.

This position is otherwise known as the clearance volume, Vc. At bottom dead center the crank angle is at 180 o. In this position the cylinder volume is at its maximum, V1. The difference between the maximum and minimum volume, V1- Vo, is defined as the displacement volume, Vd. 2. The majority of engines produced are automotive six cylinder engines, with about a 4" (100 mm) piston diameter (bore) and 4" (100mm) piston stroke , producing about 100 hp (75 kW). Since the heat transfer to the coolant and the heat convected from the exhaust are about equal to the power produced, the heat transfer to the coolant and to the exhaust will also be about 75 kW. For this typical automotive engine, the total cylinder volume or displacement is typically about 300 cubic inches (0.005 m3), and the total cylinder area is about 0.2 m3. Therefore the power density is about 75 kW/ 0.005 m3 or 15 MW/m3 of displacement. The heat transfer per unit cylinder area will be 75kW/0.2 m3 or 375 kW/m3. 3. Conduction ( within a solid ) Conduction heat transfer is energy transport due to molecular motion and interaction. Conduction heat transfer through solids is due to molecular vibration. Convection ( between two phases- bulk fluid motion) Convection heat transfer is energy transport due to bulk fluid motion. Convection heat transfer through gases and liquids from a solid boundary results from the fluid motion along the surface. Radiation ( closed ideal car , heat get radiates inside the car and radiates) Radiation heat transfer is energy transport due to emission of electromagnetic waves or photons from a surface or volume. The radiation does not require a heat transfer medium, and can occur in a vacuum. The heat transfer by radiation is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute material temperature.

. 4.The air and fuel mixture inducted into the cylinder is convectively heated by the intake manifold and valve. The heat transfer from the valve is modeled as flow over a cylinder, and the heat transfer in the intake manifold is modeled as entry length turbulent flow in a curved pipe.The hot exhaust gases convect heat to the exhaust manifold and the exhaust valve. The exhaust manifold conducts a portion of this heat to the head and radiates to the engine block. The exhaust heat transfer from the gas to the valve port, due to the pulsing flow, is about 50% greater than given by steady flow correlations.


Thrust force applied to the distance moved Drag opposition force to thrust force Gravity pulling force exerted by earth Lift - opposition force to gravity