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Essex Literacy Team August 2003

Essex Literacy Team August 2003

Year 8 Non-fiction Reading and Writing Medium Term Plan


Objectives Word
10. extend the range of prepositions and connectives used to indicate purpose, e.g. in order to, so that, or express reservations, e.g. although, unless, if; 11. appreciate the impact of figurative language in texts; 12. recognise how the degree of formality influences word choice; 13. understand the implications when a word is in quotation marks or is used ironically;

Sentence
1. combine clauses into complex sentences, using the comma effectively as a boundary signpost and checking for fluency and clarity, e.g. using non-finite clauses; 2. explore the impact of a variety of sentence structures, e.g. recognising when it is effective 6. explore and compare different methods of grouping sentences into paragraphs of continuous text that are clearly focused and well developed, e.g. by chronology, comparison or through adding exemplification; 7. develop different ways of linking paragraphs, using a range of strategies to improve cohesion and coherence, e.g. choice of connectives, reference back, linking phrases; 9. adapt the stylistic conventions of the main non-fiction text types to fit different audiences and purposes, e.g. advertisements, documentaries, editorials; 12. explore and use different degrees of formality in written and oral texts, e.g. formal speeches, informal journals;

Reading
1. combine information from various sources into one coherent document; 3. make notes in different ways, choosing a form which suits the purpose, e.g. diagrammatic notes, making notes during a video, abbreviating for speed and ease of retrieval; 5. trace the development of themes, values or ideas in texts; 6. recognise bias and objectivity, distinguishing facts from hypotheses, theories or opinions; 7. identify the ways implied and explicit meanings are conveyed in different 10. analyse the overall structure of a text to identify how key ideas are developed, e.g. through the organisation of the content and the patterns of language used; 11. investigate the different ways familiar themes are explored and presented by different writers

Writing
2. re-read work to anticipate the effect on the reader and revise style and structure, as well as accuracy, 7. experiment with different language choices to imply meaning and to establish the tone of a piece, e.g 10. organise and present information, selecting and synthesising appropriate material and guiding the reader clearly through the text, e.g. a technological process, an information leaflet 13. present a case persuasively, making selective use of evidence, using appropriate rhetorical devices and anticipating responses and objections; 14. develop and signpost arguments in ways that make the logic clear to the reader; 15. give written advice which offers alternatives and takes account of the possible consequences, e.g. money management for young people; 16. weigh different viewpoints and present a balanced analysis of an event or issue, e.g. an environmental issue or historical investigation; 17. integrate evidence into writing to support analysis or conclusions, e.g. data, quotation;

Essex Literacy Team August 2003

Teaching Sequence
Guidance on Differentiation
Starters Carefully select structures relevant to needs and abilities, from 50 ideas for starters. Use Strand Tracker for equivalent objectives from other years The main body of the lesson Questioning in whole class work is the key to differentiation. Needs to relate to the lesson objectives. For the more able reference should be made, using Strand Tracker, to the objectives for the year above and for the less able, the year below. To differentiate for Year 7 less able, reference needs to be made to Year 5 & 6 objectives. When giving time-out to consider openended questions this is particularly important. Set-up of the classroom to allow paired discussion with carefully selected pairings. If learning support is available, TAs can monitor understanding of less able during whole class time, e.g. during a shared-reading investigation that involves annotating text on an OHT. Also if pupils are required to jointly answer a question using miniwhiteboards. On task time

See below, in the Outcomes sections of the Teaching Sequence. In some cases both task and outcome have been differentiated with appropriate objectives from other years or key stage. Where it is appropriate to differentiate by difficulty of text or length and composition of written task, appropriate objectives only have been given. These objectives will guide the variation.
Plenaries Carefully select structures relevant to needs and abilities from 50 ideas for plenaries.

Stage 1: Review Writing Focus Reviews: purpose, audience, form and language of a review. Encouraging pupils to think critically about, audience, form and language of a review, paired or group sharing and feedback about the pitfalls of book reviews, linking to starter activity (R10). They may raise: - often say nothing about the book - writer does not express their true opinion - writer says what they think the teacher wants them to hear - describe or retell the story without giving an opinion - does not take account of what the reader wants/needs to know - it is important to give the reader a brief idea of what the book is about

Essex Literacy Team August 2003

- it is important to give an opinion and support it with some reference to the book Features of review writing, making a link with the starter (S9 & R10). Demonstration of an investigation of a review. Provide a range of reviews, book, film, TV programme etc. for pairs/groups to investigate and report findings on their features at word, sentence and text level. Outcomes Annotated examples of reviews, labelling the features of the text. (S Y7, 13; Y8, 9; Y9, 7). Pupils above level 4 should choose two or three of the features of review writing. For each explain why it is a feature. Homework As outcomes, using a different example Starters Activate prior knowledge about reviews in the first instance, thinking back over book reviews done in school and jotting brief notes about, ease/difficulty, presenting and organising ideas, the language used, and balancing fact and opinion. Examination of book review writing frames and their usefulness/provision of structure to relate to structures of other reviews Stage 2: A film review, related to the unit theme, analysis in
more depth

Focus Initially class share knowledge of a recent film and offer opinions. Compare with a blurb about the film. Groups/pairs separate fact and opinion and share findings. (R6) First reading of a review (R10) of the recent the film, pupils annotate a copy or make brief notes (R3) about: - the length - layout - beginning and ending - choices of words - writers sense of audience Class shared reading of the review Outcomes A set of criteria for writing an effective review, using own notes and what has been learned in shared reading, including positives and pitfalls (S Y7, 13; Y8, 9; Y9, 7) (Wr Y7, 17; Y8, 15; Y9, 15) Homework Write brief notes summing up what has been learned so far about the review. (R - Y7, 4; Y8 & 9, 3) Collect some examples of reviews related to the theme (e.g. film, book or CD) Starters

Essex Literacy Team August 2003 Use homework from the previous stage, reading out sentences explaining the features of review writing (S9) Dictionary work, picking out key words and phrases from the chosen reviews (W6c)

Essex Literacy Team August 2003

Stage 3: Writing a review Focus Preparing to write own review, individually and in pairs looking back at work done so far, especially at examples of reviews and the lists of features. Pupils choose what to review, e.g. a TV programme, computer game, film etc. and where the review will appear, e.g. magazine, website, newspaper. (Wr1 Y7, 8 & 9) Research content in terms of, kind of reader, magazine, including, fact and opinion, detail, sense of audience. Discuss what a typical reader would be with a partner and key words and sentences to use. Focus especially how to interest the reader. (R Y7, 5; Y8 & 9, 4) Make an outline plan of the review (Wr1, Y7). Peer marking of drafts. (Wr2) Outcomes Final draft of review (Wr Y7, 19; Y8, 18; Y9, 17) Homework Draft review, length dependent on the ability level of the pupils. Starters Paired discussion and sharing of findings related to the foci for this stage Focus Stage 4: Information text Information leaflet related to the unit theme, in shared reading investigate, annotate and relate to the features of a persuasive information text. (R - Y7, 7, 8 & 9; Y8, 5, 6 & 7; Y9, 7) How successful is the leaflet in its purpose in terms of information, clarity, breadth of audience, persuasion of audience to action/view. How does the leaflet construct an argument? (R Y7, 7, 8 & 9; Y8, 5, 6 & 7; Y9, 7) Outcomes Explanation about why information texts are written in this way, including quotations from the text to illustrate use of, present tense, use of third person and comment on the organisation of paragraphs (Wr Y7, 12; Y8, 11; Y9, 10). Homework A chart listing the features of the leaflet, under the headings layout, vocabulary, sentences, whole text based on the whole class investigation. (R Y7, 4; Y8 & 9, 3). Starters x 3 Relate to the conventions of information, explanation and persuasive text. (S - Y7, 13; Y8, 9; Y9, 7) Stage 5: Constructing an argument Focus Putting forward an opinion and constructing an argument; dealing with challenges to their position; using evidence and

Essex Literacy Team August 2003

recognising when they are misusing evidence - role play public meeting debate related to the theme. Preparing to put forward an argument, making notes on the argument to be put forward in role. (R Y7, 4; Y8 & 9, 3. Wr Y7, 16; Y8 & 9, 14) Public meeting role play (S/L Y7 & 8, 15; Y9, 12). Structuring an action plan (Wr Y7, & 8, 3; Y9, 2). Outcomes Plan of action from debate (Wr Y7, 12; Y8, 11; Y9, 10). Homework Written recap of the arguments put forward in debate and possible action to be taken (Y7, 16; Y8 & 9, 14) Starters Defining argument (7c) Differences between information and argument texts (S9) Sharing homework ideas Stage 6: Investigating a newspaper report related to the theme Focus Shared reading of a newspaper article related to the theme initially focusing on tone, level of seriousness, the aim of the piece. (R Y7, 7 & 15; Y8, 5 & 10; Y9, 7 & 11) What arguments could be offered for the opposite view? (Wr Y7, 15; Y8 & 9, 13) Structuring a comparison of original leaflet and newspaper report. (Wr Y7, 18; Y8 & 9, 16) Outcomes Own newspaper column taking the opposite view (Wr Y7, 15; Y8 & 9, 13) Homework Short comparison of the two texts. (Wr Y7, 18; Y8 & 9, 16) Starters Illustrate how many non-fiction texts cross the boundaries of text types. Use newspaper extracts that entertain, argue and attempt to persuade finding illustrative examples to share. (S Y7, 13; Y8, 9; Y9,7) Connectives used to structure comparison, e.g. whereas. while, on the other hand, in contrast, both, similarly, conversely, on the one hand. (W Y7, 20; Y8,10; Y9, 8) Stage 7: Letter to your MP based on the theme Focus Drafting the letter, start by listing the main points of the letter, using ideas generated in previous lessons. Rank-order the points starting with the most important. Structure organisation using a writing frame where necessary. (Wr Y7, 8 & 9, 1)

Essex Literacy Team August 2003 Shared writing pooling ideas to write a class letter. (Wr Y7, 10; Y8, 7; Y9, 10) Outcomes Own letter to an MP. (Wr Y7, 10; Y8, 7; Y9, 10) Homework Part of the draft Starters Brainstorm of key requirements of a letter to an MP Degrees of formality, investigating the differences between spoken and written argument. (S Y7, 15; Y8, 12; Y9, 9)

Essex Literacy Team August 2003

Some features of review writing


(Based on criteria from The Non-Fiction Book: English and Media Centre 2001) Words include, lots of adjectives include lots of nouns include specialist vocabulary include jokes, puns and word play Sentences present tense informal in tone use simple and compound sentences for clarity of facts use more complex sentences to explain opinion use sentences without a verb for impact use rhetorical questions to grab attention Whole text uses bold print and headlines includes a visual image short (200 500 words) often written in columns clear idea of audience is contains personal opinion refers to other products/texts/people includes facts about products/texts/people summarises product/text analyses product/text offers an evaluation