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CUPRINS

1. Studiul cuptoarelor cu arc..........pag. 3 1.1.Caracteristici generale.... ..pag. 5 1.2.Constructie... pag. 7 1.3.Functionare 1.4.Materiale folosite la realiarea cuptoarelor 2.Concluzii[22]. pag.13 3.Bibliografie..... pag.14

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1. STUDIUL CUPTOARELOR CU ARC

1.1.

CARACTERISTICI GENERALE

Posibilitatea folosirii arcului electric pentru topirea materialelor a fost aratata de V.V. Petrov in anul 1803, la numai 3 ani de descoperirea arcului voltaic. Nedispunand insa de alta sursa de curent decat de la baterie, cuptorul electric nu s-a putut introduce in practica. Problema cuptoarelor electrice este reluata dupa anul 1867, cand Faraday descopera fenomenele de inductie. Primele cuptoare au servit pentru lucrari de laborator, abia in 1878 fiind patentat primul cuptor cu arc care contine toate elementele cuptoarelor de azi. Forma cuptorului era cea a uni creuzet, avand un electrod metalic racit cu apa in vatra si un electrod de grafit in capacul creuzetului. Reglarea pozitiei electrodului de grafit fata de baie se facea automat cu ajutorul unui solenoid. S-au realizat si cuptoare cu ambii electrozi din grafit, asezati orizontal deasupra incarcaturii, care era incalzita prin radierea caldurii de catre arcul electric. Cuptoarele electrice cu curent continuu nu s-au raspandit prea mult in siderurgie, deoarece curentul electric era prea scump. Cuptoarele electrice, de capacitate industriala, revin in siderurgie dupa construirea primului generator puternic de curent alternativ ( 1981 DolivoDobrovolski ), primul tip de cuptor fiind cel Stassano ( 1898 ) cu arc cu actiune indirecta, apoi cutorul Hroult (1900) cu doi electrozi verticali in bolta, respectiv cu trei electrozi la curent trifazat, acesta fiind prototipul cuptorului cu arc de azi. Un alt cuptor este cel de tip Girod cu electrozi in bolta si in vatra, ultimul ajutand la incalzirea uniforma a baii metalice. Cuptoarele electrice trebuie sa asigure obtinerea unor oteluri de calitate superioara, a unei productivitati mari si a unui pret de cost scazut. Realizarea acestor conditii depinde de comportarea termica si metalurgica a cuptorului, deci de modul de transformare a energiei electrice in caldura, de caracteristicile care determina sensul si viteza reactiilor.

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6.Bibliografie

1. A.Jorio ,M.A.Pimento , A. Souza Filho , J. Jiang , R. Saito , G. Dresselhaus , G. Samsonidze, G.Chou , H. Son - Carbon Nanotubes , World Year of Physics , 2005 , slide 1-131 articole(1).pdf. 2. Peter J. F. Harris - Carbon Nanotubes and Related Structures - New Materials for the Twenty-first Century , Departament of ChemistryCambridge University Press , 1999 , pag. 1 -15 ,articole(2).pdf. 3. S.S. Xie , W. Z. Li , Z. W. Pan ,B. H. Chang , L. F. Sun , Carbon Nanotubes Arrays , The European Physical Journal D, 1999 , pag. 85 89 , articole(3).pdf. 4. Peter Scharff - Nanosystems of polymerized fullerens and carbon nanotubes , Techinische Universitat Ilmeneau Institut fur Physik, 2004 , pag. 153 166 , articol(4).pdf. 5. T. Natsuki , M. Endo - Structural dependence of nonlinear elastic propierties for carbon nanotubes using a continuum analysis , Applied Physics A Material Science & Processing , 2005 , pag. 1464 -1468 , articol(5).pdf. 6. Masako Yudasaka , Sumio Iijima , Vicent H. Crespi Single wall Carbon Nanohorns and Nanocones , Topics Appl. Physics , 2008 , pag. 605 629 , articole(6).pdf. 7. T. Natsuki , K. Tantrakarn , M. Endo Effects of carbon nanotubes structures on mechanical propierties , Applied Physiscs AMaterial Science & Processing , 2004 , pag. 117 -124 , articole(7) .pdf. 8. K .Behler , S. Osswald , H. Ye , S. Dimovski , Y. Gogotsi Effect of termal treatment on the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes , Journal of Nanoparticle Research , 2006 , pag. 615 629 , articole(8).pdf. 9. I.I. Bobrinetskii , V. K. Nevolin , V. I . Petrik , A.A. Stronganov , Yu. A . Chaplygin The Atomic Structure of Nanotubes Synthesized from a Carbon Mix of High Reaction Ability , Moscow State Institute of Electronic Engineering- Research Institute of Physics of Fullerenes and Advanced Materials (2002) , pag. 347- 349 , articole(9).pdf. 10. Jonathan N. Coleman , Umar Khan , Werner J. Blau , Yuri K. Gunko - A review of mechanical propierties of carbon nanotube-polymer composites , Carbon 44 (2006) , pag. 1624 1652 , articole(10).pdf.

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11. Valentin N. Popov - Carbon Nanotubes: propierties and application , Materials Science and Engineering (2004) ,pag. 61 -102 , articole(11).pdf. 12. Celeste M. C . Pereira ,Paulo Novoa , Martha Martins , Stefan Forero , Felicitas Hepp , Laurent Pambaguian - Characterization of carbon nanotubes 3D-structures infused with low viscosity epoxy resin system , Composite Structures 92 (2010) , pag. 2252 2257 , articole(12).pdf. 13. Ahmad Aqel ,Khouloud M.M. Abou El-Nour ,Reda A. A. Ammar , Abdulrahman Al-Warthen - Carbon nanotubes , science and tehnology part (I) structure , synthesis and charactherisation , Arabian Journal of Chemistry (2010) , pag. 1 -23 , articole(13).pdf. 14. T. Belin , F. Epron - Characterization methods of carbon nanotubes , Material Science and Engineering (2005) , pag. 105-118 , articole(14).pdf. 15. Mohamed Abdalla , Derrick Dean , Merlin Theodore , Jennifer Fielding , Elijah Nyairo , Gary Price - Magnetically processed carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites: Morphology, thermal , and mechanical propierties , Polymer 51 (2010) pag. 1614-1620 , articole(15).pdf. 16. Zejian Liu ,Lu-Chang Qin - Structure and energetic of carbon nanotubes ropes , Carbon 43 (2005) , pag. 2146 2151 , articole(16).pdf. 17. Qian-Ming Gong , Zhi Li , Dan Li , Xiao-Dong Bai , Ji Liang - Fabrication and structure: a study of aligned carbon nanotube/carbon nanocoposites , Solid State Comunication 131 (2004) , pag. 399 404 , articole(17).pdf. 18. Melissa Paradise , Tarun Goswami - Carbon nanotubes Production and industrial application , Materials and Design 28 (2007) , pag. 1477 1489 , articole(18).pdf. 19. Y. H. Ho , C. P. Chang , F. L. Shyu , R. B. Chen , S. C. Chen , M. F. Lin Electonic and optical propierties of double-walled armchair carbon nanotubes , Carbon 42 (2004) , pag. 3159 3167 , articole(19).pdf. 20. M.S. Dresselhaus , G. Dresselhaus , J.C. Charlier , E. Hernandez Electronic, thermal and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, The Royal Socety, 10.1098/rsta.2004.1430 pag. 1 34 , articole(20).pdf. 21. Boris I. Yakobson, Phaedon Avouris - Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes , Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, TX, 772511892, USA, pag. 1 41 , articole(21).pdf

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22. Stancu Mihaela Sinteza si carecterizarea unor nanostructuri cu atomi de carbon, Universitatea Bucuresti Facultatea de fizica , Teza de doctorat , Bucuresti 2009, pag. 1 76 , articole(22).pdf

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