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CSCI 549-1900 Digital Electronics Hosur Aravind Nanda Kishore 111-00-2023

Quiz #1 Chapter 1 (CSCI549) 1) List several advantages of digital over analog circutits. The usual advantages of digital circuits when compared to analog circuits are: a) Noise Margin (resistance to noise/robustness) : Digital circuits are less affected by noise. If the noise is below a certain level (the noise margin), a digital circuit behaves as if there was no noise at all. The stream of bits can be reconstructed into a perfect replica of the original source. However, if the noise exceeds this level, the digital circuit cannot give correct results. b) Error Correction and Detection : Digital signals can be regenerated to achieve lossless data transmission, within certain limits. Analog signal transmission and processing, by contrast, always introduces noise. c) Easily Programmable : Digital systems interface well with computers and are easy to control with software. Design errors or bugs can be worked-around with a software upgrade, after the product is in customer hands. A digital system is often preferred because of (re-)programmability and ease of upgrading without requiring hardware changes. d) Cheap Electronic Circuits : More digital circuitry can be fabricated per square millimeter of integrated-circuit material. Information storage can be much easier in digital systems than in analog ones. In particular, the great noiseimmunity of digital systems makes it possible to store data and retrieve it later without degradation. In an analog system, aging and wear and tear will degrade the information in storage, but in a digital system, as long as the wear and tear is below a certain level, the information can be recovered perfectly. Theoretically, there is no data-loss when copying digital data. This is a great advantage over analog systems, which faithfully reproduce every bit of noise that makes its way into the signal. e) Easier to design. Exact values of voltage or current are not important, only the range (HIGH or LOW) in which they fall. f) Information storage is easy. g) Accuracy and precision are greater. h) Operations can be programmed. Analog systems can also be programmed, but the available operations variety and complexity is severely limited. i) Digital circuits are less affected by noise, as long as the noise is not large enough to prevent us from distinguishing HIGH from LOW. j) More digital circuitry can be fabricated on IC chips.

2) List at least ten devices that contain digital circuitry. a) Micro processors b) Cell phones c) Digital watches d) Micro controller e) Digital signal processor f) Digital filters g) Programmable logic devices h) Logic gates i) Flip flops j) Counters k) Shift registers. 3) Define Analog signal & Digital signal. Analog signal is defined as: A signal which is continuous and for which the time varying feature is a representation of some other time varying quantity. An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal. Analog signal has a theoretically infinite resolution. Analog signals act essentially like simulations of a continuous time varying quantity. They duplicate the features of the actual quantity by presenting a different quantity. In other words, they use one method of recording information and transfer it to a different format that, in turn, presents the information in that medium. Each analog signal uses a property of the final medium to convey the information for the signal. For example, a thermometer will utilize the heat of a particular object to determine its temperature. The heat is then transferred to mercury, which changes its position to display the temperature information on the gauge. Digital signal is defined as:

'Digital' describes the way that information - speech or music, for instance - is broken down into a code of electronic beeps and silences, or 'ones' and 'zeroes'. Signals sent this way suffer less interference and many sources of information, voices, music and data, for instance, can also be combined into a single transmission. This is possible because digital systems only need to 'sample' a voice conversation at regular short intervals. In the gaps between samples there is plenty of 'room' to be filled by other sampled calls. In fact, with the right technology, you can get many calls onto a single frequency and separate them all again when they are received. This is why some of the new digital radio stations offer data services at the

CSCI 549-1900 Digital Electronics Hosur Aravind Nanda Kishore 111-00-2023

same time as music or speech. You can get an idea of what digital radio signals would sound like if you could actually hear them, by dialing up a fax machine or listening to a computer telephone 'modem'.