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CHAPTER II THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

Semantics Theory Semantics is the technical term used to refer to the study of meaning. Unfortunately, meaning covers a variety of aspects of language, and there is no very general agreement either about what meaning is or about the way in which it should be described. As stated by Leech (1981:2), Semantics is the study of the meaning of words, phrases, or sentences in the language or semantics is the study of linguistic meaning. Semantics has long been an object of study within the philosophy. It is said that the term semantics itself was introduced into English at the end of the 19th century. Before the introduction of the term in 1894, the word semantick was once used in the phrase semantick philosophy to mean divination, of which meaning, of course, has nothing to do with meaning. The use of this term in English, perhaps can be traced back to the use of the French term semantique which was coined from the Greek in the previous year. In fact, the term semantics (or semantique in French) was not simply to refer to meaning but its development. Such as a concept of semantics has been even in use until the 20th century as can be evident from The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, published in 1972, which defines of words. Moreover Leech (1981:3), explain that semantic [smntik] adj.relating to meaning in language, n.pl. branch of philology concerned with (changes in) the

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meanings of words. The words means is by no means as hopelessly vague and confusing as some philosophers, linguists and literary critics have sough to show. The distinction between these senses is admittedly difficult to draw, as, indeed, are most of demarcation lines in linguistics. The subject of semantics by a method of elimination informally paraphrased as follow: The aim of linguistics is to give an account of a persons mastery of his native tongue, Semantics has to account for those aspects of this mastery not accounted for its grammar, The following skills fall into the category that is mentioned in the second point and are therefore the concern of semantics. There are several other terms have been used to refer to the study of meaning. They include significs, semasiology, semology, semiotics, sememics and semics. However, scholars have often used some of these terms to suit their own interests and orientation, i.e. in both wider and narrower senses than the definition given at the beginning of this section. Often the use of these terms includes other things beyond semantic proper, in which one or some other ways, they represent how the study of meaning has at best a very marginal place. According to Palmer (1976:5), Semantics is a component or level of linguistics of the same kind as phonetics or grammar. Moreover, nearly all linguistics have, explicitly or implicitly, accepted a linguistic model in which semantics is at one end and phonetics at the other, with grammar somewhere in

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the middle (though not necessarily that there are just these three levels). The plausibility of this obvious enough. And also, Palmer explains that if semantics is part linguistics it too must be no less scientific. Precisely what scientific or empirical means is a matter of some debate, but one essential requirement of a scientific study is that statements made within it must, in principle at least, be verifiable by observation. It is easy enough to apply this to phonetics, for we can observe what is happening we can listen to a person speaking. We can moreover describe the operations of the vocal organs, or with the aid of scientific instruments can measure precisely the physical characteristics of the sounds that are emitted. But there is, unfortunately, no similar, simple, way of dealing with semantics. The point is clear enough in phonetics. The phonetician is not primarily concerned with the particular sounds that are made at a particular time by a particular person. He may well study the pronunciation of e.g. book, but in order to do so he will listen to a number of individual utterances of this word and will make a generalized statement on the basis of these. Indeed, it is possible to day, with the help computer to produce an average utterance, computed by the computer and produced by equipment that can reproduce human speech sounds. What happens at each time a person speaks is not usually of interest in it self; it is rather part of the evidence for the generalizations. The same must be true of semantics. We shall not normally be concerned with the meaning any individual wishes to place on his words.

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Scope of Semantics Semantics is the study of linguistics meaning. It is not very general agreement either about the nature of meaning or about the way in which meaning in language is studied, each of which if often very influential in determining which facts of meaning are relevant for semantics. The first is the linguistic approach. The students of language or linguists have long been interested in the way in which meaning in a language is structured. There have been studies of the meanings of words and the semantic structure of the sentences. Some of them also have distinguished between different types of meaning in the language. The second is philosophical approach. Philosophers have investigated the relation between linguistic expressions, such as the words of language, and persons, things, and events in the world to which these words refer. Although there may be different approaches to semantics, three basic terms seem to be widely mentioned in each of these approaches, i.e. meaning, sense, and reference. In addition, there is an agreement between the competing approaches that semantic description is an attempt to reflect a speakers semantic knowledge. According to Alwashilah (1993:156-157), the main study of semantics is the relationship between object and linguistic symbols. In linguistic context, symbols are made up of sounds and characters. Humans are capable in creating symbols. And the symbols that have been created by humans will be used in the process of communication if all the symbols and the referent of the symbols have

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been approved by the people who are involved in the process of communication itself.

Goals of Semantics According to Leech (1981:20-21), there are two questions which must be answered concerning with the goals of semantics theory; what should a semantics theory do and how should it do it? A semantics theory should attribute to each expression in the language which the semantics properties and relations. The answer to the second question is that a semantics theory should have at least two kinds of constraints: a. semantics theory of natural language should be finite; people are capable of storing only a finite amount of information but they nevertheless learn the semantics of natural languages, b. semantics theory of natural language should reflect the fact, except for idioms, expression are compositional. This means that their meaning is determined by the meaning of its constituents and their grammatical relations.

Sense and Reference Sense is closely related to reference. Palmer (1976:30) defined reference and sense as follows; Reference deals with the relationship between the linguistic elements, words, sentences, etc., and the non linguistic world of experience.

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Sense relates to the complex system of

relationships that hold between the

linguistic elements themselves (mostly the words); it is concerned only with intra linguistic relations. It might seem reasonable to argue that semantics is concerned only with the way we relate our language to our experience and so to say that reference is the essential element of semantics. Yet sense relationships have formed an important part of the study of language. For consider the words ram and ewe. These on the hand refer to particular kinds of animals and derive their meaning in this way. But they also belong to pattern in English that includes cow/bull, sow/boar, etc. Older grammars of English treated this as a part of grammar, because it was clearly related to sex, and sex was supposedly a matter of gender (since sex and gender are related in some degree in Latin). But there are other kinds of related words, e.g. duck/duckling, pig/piglet (involving adult and young), or between father/son, uncle/nephew (involving family relationships), and these are not usually thought to be grammatical. They are rather a part of the semantics structure of English. There are many other kinds of sense relations, too, e.g. those exemplified by narrow/wide, male/female, buy/sell. The dictionary is usually concerned with sense relations, with relating words to words, though most dictionaries state such relations in most unsystematic way. It could be argued, though, that the ultimate aim of dictionary is to supply its user with referential meaning, and that it does so by relating a word whose meaning is unknown to a word or words whose reference is already understood.

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Phrases, like words, normally both have sense and can be used to refer. Thus the phrase The man who is my father refers to a certain individual and has a certain sense which is different from that of The man who married my mother, although both expressions usually have the same reference. Phrases may, however, have sense, but no reference. Another example is: The present King of Indonesia is bald We have no trouble comprehending the meaning of this sentence, even though Indonesia now has no King. This sentence has a sense, but hasnt reference.

Meaning The term meaning is simply derived from the word mean. The word meaning has a number of definitions as suggested by semanticist, for instance, Leech (1981:23) notes three points of meaning. They are as follows: 1. Meaning involves the speakers intention to convey a certain meaning that may or may not be evident from the message itself. 2. Consequently, interpretation by the hearer is likely to depend on the context. 3. Meaning in the sense is something, which is performed rather than something that exists is static way. It involves action (the speaker produces and effects on the hearer) and the interaction (the meaning being

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negotiated between the speaker and the hearer on the basis of their mutual language).

There are some opinions about meaning according to semanticist: 1. Lyons (1977:2) says, the meaning can be distinguished by the technique of substituting other words in the same context and enquiry whether the resulting sentences are equivalent. 2. Crystal ( 1980:222) states, this basic notion is used in linguistics both as as datum and as a criterion of analysis: linguists study meaning, and also use meaning as a criterion for studying other aspects of language (especially through such notions as contrastivity and distinctiveness). 3. Bloomfield (1933:139) cities, meaning of a linguistics form as a situation in which the speakers utter it and response which it calls forth in the hearer. By the definitions above, so semantics meaning depends on the grammatical structure of the sentence. The meaning that the speakers say have to express their ideas, minds and feelings.

Varieties of Meaning People express their meaning based on different point of view. And in this point, the varieties of meaning will be explained in the following explanation, they are:

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Leechs Seven Types of Meaning Leech has proposes seven varieties of meaning. His seven types of meaning can be summarized as follows (1981:9-23): 1. Conceptual Meaning, i.e. logical, cognitive, or denotative content. The word man, for example, has the following denotative, cognitive, or logical content as: Man : + Human + Male + Adult

As distinct from, say boy, which could be defined: Boy : + Human + Male - Adult

2. Connotative Meaning, i.e. what is communicated by virtue of what language refers to. For example, the word woman has the connotative weak, and pig the connotative dirty. 3. Social Meaning, i.e. what is communicated of the social circumstances of language use. For example, the words domicile, residence, abode, and home can have the same conceptual meaning, but they convey about different social circumstances of their use. Domicile Residence Adobe Home Cast Throw Chuck (very formal, official) (formal) (poetic) (general) (literary, biblical) (general) (casual, slang)

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4. Affective Meaning, i.e. what is communicated of the feelings and attitudes of the speaker or writer. This type of meaning is often explicitly through the conceptual or connotative content of the words used. A speaker often show his attitude towards his interlocutor, for example, by scaling his remarks according to politeness. With the object of getting people to be quite, he might say either of the following: a. I am terribly sorry to interrupt, but I wonder if you would be so kind as to lower your voices a little. b. Will you belt up? 5. Reflected Meaning, i.e. what is communicated through association with another sense of the same expression. This type of meaning, when one sense of a word forms part of our response to another sense. For example, it has become increasingly difficult to use term like intercourse, ejaculation, and erection, in innocent senses without conjuring up their sexual associations. 6. Collocative Meaning, i.e. what is communicated through association with words which tend to occur in the environment of a another word. For example, pretty, and handsome share common group in the meaning good looking, may be distinguished by the range of nouns with which they are likely to co occur or collocate.

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Pretty: Girl Boy Woman Flower Garden Color Village Etc.

Handsome:

Boy Man Car Vessei Overcoat Airlines Typewriter Etc.

7. Thematic Meaning, i.e. what is communicated by the way in which the message is organized in terms of order, focus, and emphasis. For example, it is often felt that an active sentence such: a. Mrs. Bessie Smith donated the first prize. b. The first prize was donated by Mrs. Bessie Smith. The sentence (a), has different meaning from its passive equivalent, and (b), although in conceptual content they seem to be same. In this description of the seven types of meaning, Leech further brings together the reflected meaning, collocative meaning, affective meaning, social meaning, and the connotative meaning, under the heading of associative meaning.

Linguistic and Speakers Meaning We can visualize two kinds of meaning; Linguistic meaning and speakers meaning (Siregar:1922).

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Linguistic meaning, generally known as the meaning of expressions in some form of language. One can understand linguistics meaning provided if he or she possesses adequate knowledge about grammatical rules and vocabularies of a language. The linguistic meaning is determined by the meaning of its constituents and their grammatical relations. For example: 1. I like to run. 2. The engines run well. 3. They run a mail order house. 4. He scored a run in the third inning. In those examples, the word of run has more than one the linguistics meaning base on the context of the sentence or dictionary. Speakers meaning is what speaker means when pragmatically producing his or her utterance. Although words can not be used to mean something what they do not mean, there is a tendency of a speaker to use a word to mean something different from what his or her words mean literally. Everyone knows that language can be used to express meaning, but it is not easy to define meaning. One problem is that there are several dimensions of meaning. Imagine that I ask you, Can you give me an apple?, while looking at a bowl of apples on the table beside you. What I literally asked is whether you have the ability to give me an apple; this is the semantic meaning of what I said. Sometimes people will make an annoying joke by responding only to the semantic meaning of such a question; theyll just answer, Yes, I can. But what I almost

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certainly want is for you to know that this is what I want. This speakers meaning is what I intend to communicate, and it goes beyond the literal. On the other hand, speaker meaning is what speaker means in producing an utterance. In saying, you are clever the speaker may mean you are bright (intelligent). Because the word clever means bright mentally, have intelligence in English or he may mean the opposite of what the words means, i.e. you are stupid. In other words, we can not change the meaning of the words into the one that they do not belong to. If we wish to redefine the meaning of each word as we use it we are free to do so, but this would be an artificial, clumsy use of language, and most people would not wait around very long to talk to us. A new word may be created, but it enters the language with its sound meaning relationship already determined. The Malay word amuck [amuk] enters English and it becomes amuck [mk] or run amuck following the may the English speakers pronounce the word. Although we are supposed not to make words mean what they do not mean, we sometimes mean something different from what our words mean (linguistically). In other words, we sometimes speak non literally. Another common way of speaking non literally is through the use of figurative meaning, such as hyperbole, metonymy, etc. There are so many terms of figurative meaning, such as figure of speech, figurative expression, and figurative language . And the term figurative meaning will be used in this thesis. Moreover, figurative meaning is the subject matter of this thesis, it will be covered more detail in the following explanations.

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Figurative Meaning Figurative meaning is language that uses words or expressions with a meaning that is different from the literal interpretation, When a writer uses

literal language, he or she is simply stating the facts as they are. Figurative meaning, in comparison, uses exaggerations or alterations to make a particular linguistic point. Figurative language seeks to clarify and accentuate meaning by referencing a word or phrase in terms of something familiar to the audience, usually to achieve special meaning. Beckson and Ganz (1957:80) state, Figurative language is language which makes us of certain devices called figure of speech, most of which are techniques for comparing dissimilar objects, to achieve effects beyond the range of literal language. As stated by Crystal (1999:116), Figure of Speech is an expressive use of language where words are used in a non literal way to suggest illuminating comparisons and resemblances. Figurative meaning uses "figures of speech" - a way of saying something other than the literal meaning of the words. Any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject. Figurative meaning and vocabulary have a great relationship that is reciprocal relationship. Figurative meaning and semantic is also have a great relationship because without the knowledge of the meaning of the word, even connotative meaning, it is difficult to understand figurative meaning, sometimes the people read the newspaper or the magazines, overlooked non literal

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expressions and read them literally. Of course, the meaning of the expression becomes odd or not understandable. Therefore, figurative meaning become essential in the learning of vocabularies. While, learning of vocabularies support the learning of semantics (Tarigan, 1995:113). There are two purposes of using figurative meaning namely pragmatic purpose and referential purpose. The referential purpose of using figurative meaning is to describe mental process or state, a concept, a person, an object, a quality or an action more comprehensively and concisely. While, the pragmatic purpose of using figurative meaning is to appeal the sense or interest, to clarify, to please, to delight and to surprise. And the most common of figurative meaning will be explained detaily in the kinds of figurative meaning .

Kinds of Figurative Meaning There are many kinds of figurative meaning. Leech (1981:11) has classified figurative meaning into eight. In this case, Irony, hyperbole, metaphor, litotes, simile, and personification will be explained. They are:

Irony Irony is facetious, sarcastical way of speaking. Keraf (1980:240) states, irony adalah gaya bahasa yang menyatakan makna ynag bertentangan dengan maksud berolok olok. Irony is a figure of speech when an expression used is the opposite of the thought in the speaker's mind, thus conveying a meaning.

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Etymologically, the word irony derived from the Greek word eironeia meaning deception or trick. Gray says ( 1984:108 ), irony is a manner of speaking or writing that is dispered through all kinds of literature. Irony consists of saying one thing while it means other. There is some argument about what qualifies as ironic, but all senses of irony revolve around the perceived notion of an incongruity between what is said and what is meant, or between an understanding or expectation of a reality and what actually happens. Example: Your room is clean The expression above can be considered as Irony when the expression above is uttered to the person who has the dirty room.

Hyperbole Hyperbole is a figurative for exaggeration. It tells more than the truth about the size, number, or degree of something without intending to deceive. Etymologically, the word hyperbole derived from the Greek word. It is from two words ; hyper means over and ballein means to throw. It may be used to evoke strong feelings or to create a strong impression, but is rarely meant to be taken literally.

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Websters dictionary (1971 : 112) defined that hyperbole is an extravagant exaggeration that represents something as much greater or less, better or worse or more intense that it really is depicts the impossible as actual. Example: 1. I'm doing over 9000 things right now. 2. These books weigh a ton. In the first expression consists of the exaggeration, because the phrase doing over 9000 things means she or he is busy. And in the second expression, the phrase weigh a ton indicates an exaggeration. Through the phrase, the speaker wants to emphasize those books are heavy.

Metaphor Metaphor is a kind of figurative meaning which is an implicit comparison in which two unlike objects are compared by identifying or substituting one with other. Etymologically, the word metaphor derived from Greek word metaphor meaning transfer or carry over. It is derivation from meta meaning over across and pherein meaning to carry. Keraf (1980 : 242) states, Metafora adalah gaya bahasa perbandingan yang implicit jadi tanpa kata seperti atau sebagai diantara dua hal yang berbeda. Metaphor is an implied comparison between two unlike objects.

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Barnhart (1995 : 118) says, A metaphor is figure of speech in which a word or phrase is taken out of its usual setting and placed with another word to suggest a likeness. It is made more vivid by transferring to it the name or attributes of some other objects. Example: He is a strong tower The expression above, he is like a strong tower. Figuratively, he is a strong man. The word tower describes that man is strong like a tower.

Metonymy Metonymy is a figurative meaning in which the name of one object or idea is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. Metonymy is derived from Greek word meta means to change and only means name. metonymy is a change of name, the use of the one word for another, the use of an idea by means of terms involving association. Keraf (1980 : 242) states, Metonimia adalah gaya bahasa yang memakai nama ciri atau nama hal yang ditautkan dengan nama orang, barang, atau hal sebagai penggantinya. (Metonymy is figure of speech which uses name of thing, person, and the other to represents them. Example: The students are happy, when they read S. T. Alisyahbana The expression above consists of metonymy. Shown with the word S.T. Alisyahbana, literally, S.T. Alisyahbana is a famous novelist. Figuratively, the

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students are happy, when they read novel from S.T. Alisyahbana, not happy when they read S.T. Alistahbana itself.

Litotes In rhetoric, litotes is a figure of speech in which, rather than making a certain statement directly, a speaker expresses it even more effectively, or achieves emphasis, by denying its opposite, (Richard Nordquist, in Litoteshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Litotes). By its nature, litotes is a form of understatement, always deliberate and with the intention of subtle emphasis. However, the interpretation of litotes can depend on context, including cultural context. In speech, it may also depend on intonation and emphasis. The use of litotes appeals specifically to certain cultures including the northern Europeans and is popular with the British. It is a feature of Old English poetry and of the Icelandic sagas and is a means of much stoical restraint. Examples: 1. Im not unwell. 2. Not bad In the first expression consists of litotes, because the form above expresses understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite. Im not unwell, its mean I am fine. And the second expression also consist of litotes, Not bad is negative expressions. It is consists of opposite meaning, Not bad means good.

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Simile Simile is a kind of figurative meaning comparing two essentially unlike things. Simile expresses a direct comparison between things, which have one or more points in common and be recognized by the use of the word like and as. The word simile comes from the same Latin word simile, which mean like. Barnhart (1995 : 118) says, A simile is figurative of speech in which two quite different things are compared because they appear to be similar in at least one characteristic. Simile is also used to add clarify to the language or make it more careful. Example: her smile was like the sun In the expression above consists of simile. Smile and sun is comparing as a subject. Because the girl was very happy at that time, like the sun shine in the morning, sunny. It comparison of things that have pints of likeness.

Personification Personification consists of giving human characteristics to an object. Personification originally come from Latin word persona meaning person, actor or mask used in the teather and fic means to make. Shaw (1972 : 283) says, A personification is figure of speech in whish abstraction, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are having human form, character, traits or sensibilities.

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Keraf (1980 : 244) states, Personifikasi adalah gaya bahasa yang melekatkan sifat sifat insani kepada barang yang tidak bernyawa dan ide yang abstrak. Juga disebut penginsanan. Examples: 1. Earth. Receive an honoured guest. 2. The stars are envious of your eyes. In the first expression, earth as the inanimate object is depicted as human. Literally, it implies that the earth can greet someone with reception. It is absolutely impossible. Figuratively, it express that the earth become the nice place because it receive someone to leave. In the second expression, the word stars is the inanimate object is depicted as human. Stars are envious of your eyes, because her eyes are more beautiful than the stars which shine in every night.

Advertisement and Magazine 2. 9. 1 Advertisement 2. 9. 1. 1 Defining Advertising Advertising is a paid form of communication. Although some forms of advertising, such as a public service announcements, use donated space and time. Not only is the message paid for, but the sponsor is identified. The most advertising tries to persuade or influence the consumer to do something, although in some cases the point of the message is simply to make consumers aware of the product or company.

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The message is conveyed through many different kinds of mass media reaching a large audience of potential consumers. And then, because advertising is a form of mass communication, it also non personal. Moriarty and Burnett ( 2000:6 ) state, advertising is paid non personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience. Advertisement is also an important aspect of the business operation. Generally, the purpose is to stimulate consumers interest and lead to the sale of the merchandise. Carefully prepared advertisement can help the business become successful. Samson ( 1967:23 ) states, the following elements are found in every good advertisement: 1. Attention getting headline 2. Concise, readable body copy 3. Effective illustrations 4. Distinctive store logotype Thus, a good advertisement can fulfill our need that are interest to read, look, and even to buy it. In an idea world every manufacturer would be able to talk one on one with every consumer about the product or service being offered for sale. Although advertising delivered through interactive technology might be considered personal rather than mass communication, it is still a far cry from personal selling. Advertisers can provide more customization through interactive media such as the World Wide Web, but it is not the same as meeting with every

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customer individually to discuss a product or service. The key point is that interactive advertising reaches a large audience, just like traditional advertising.

2. 9. 1. 2 Types of Advertising Advertising is complex because so many different advertisers try to reach so many different types of audiences. This, the nine major types of advertising will be explained. 1. Brand Advertising The most visible type of advertising is national consumer advertising. Another name for this is brand advertising. Which focuses on the development of a long term brand identity and image. It tries to develop a distinctive brand image fro a product. 2. Retail or Local Advertising Retail advertising is local and focuses on the store where a variety of products can be purchased or where a service offered. The message announces products that are available locally, stimulates store traffic, and tries to create a distinctive image for the store. Retail advertising emphasizes price, availability, location, and hours or operation. 3. Political Advertising Politicians use political advertising to persuade people to vote for them, so it is an important part of the political process in the United State and other countries that permit candidate advertising. Although it is an important

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source of communication for voters, critics are concerned that political advertising tends to focus more on image than on issues. 4. Directory Advertising Another type of advertising is called directory because people refer to it to find out how to buy a product or service 5. Direct Response Advertising Direct response advertising can use any advertising medium, including direct mail, but the message is different from that of national and retail advertising in that it tries to stimulate a sale directly. The consumer can respond by telephone or mail, and the product is delivered directly to the consumer by mail or some other carrier. 6. Business to Business Advertising Business to business advertising includes messages directed at retailers. Wholesalers, and distributors, as well as industrial purchasers and professionals such as lawyers and physicians. Advertisers place most business advertising in business publications or professional journals. 7. Institutional Advertising Institutional advertising is also called corporate advertising. These messages focus on establishing a corporate identity or winning the public to the organizations point or view. 8. Public Service Advertising Public service advertising (PSA) communicates a message on behalf of some good cause, such as stooping drunk driving (Mother Against Drunk

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Driving) or preventing child abuse. These advertisements are usually created for free by advertising professionals and the media often donate the space and time. 9. Interactive Advertising Interactive advertising is delivered to individual consumers who have access to a computer and the internet. Advertisements are delivered via web pages, banner ads, and so forth. In this instance, the consumer can respond to the ad, modify it, expand it, or ignore it. We see, then, there isnt just one kind of advertising. In fact, advertising is a large and varied industry. All types of advertising demand creative, original messages that are strategically sound well executed.

2. 9. 1. 3 Roles of Advertising Advertising also can be explained in terms of the four roles it plays in business and in society. The Marketing Role, is the process a business uses to satisfy consumer needs and wants through goods and services. The particular consumers at whom the company directs its marketing effort constitute the target market. Marketing communication consist of several related communication techniques, including advertising, sales promotion, public relations, and personal selling. The Communication Role, is a form of mass communication. It transmits different types of market information to match buyers and sellers in the market

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place. Advertising both informs and transforms the product by creating an image that goes beyond straightforward facts. The Economic Role, The other approach, based on the economics of information theory, assumes that price elasticity is a function of consumer awareness and qualitative knowledge about the close brand substitutes. The basic premise in this advertising as information model is that advertising provides information about alternatives and increases price elasticity so that a small change in price creates a large change in product demand. The Social Role, Advertising also has a number of social roles. It informs us about new and improved products and teaches us how to use these innovation. It helps us compares products and features and make informed consumer decisions.

2. 9. 1. 4 Function of Advertising Function of advertising are: 1. Provide product and brand information, although many advertisements are devoid of information, providing the consumer with relevant information that will aid decision making is still the main function of advertising. 2. Provide incentives to take action, in most instances, consumers are reluctant to change established behavior. Even if they are somewhat dissatisfied with the current product or service, a habit has been established and learning about a new product is deemed difficult.

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3. Provide reminders and reinforcement, its amazing how much advertising is directed at current customers. Advertising must remind the consumer constantly about the name of the brand.

2. 9. 2 Magazines 2. 9. 2. 1 Definition of Magazines Magazines are a valuable medium for reaching many demographic groups. By their nature, magazines must fill a niche with unique editorial content to satisfy groups of readers as a result, they are extremely diverse in terms of their characteristics, readers, and reader interaction. In evaluating which magazines to place advertisements in, advertisers need to examine what characteristics distinguish one magazine from all others. Magazines are an extremely important group of advertising media, since the fact shows that every body reads magazine, because people can get much information by reading magazine (White, 1988 : 135). There are so many kinds of magazine, such as programme magazines, woman weeklies, womans monthlies, household magazine, shopping magazines, mens magazines, sport magazines, etc (136).

2. 9. 2. 2 Advertising in Magazine By putting advertisements on magazine, the audiences will see the pictures of the products that being offered by procedures and read the language of the advertisements. However, the most important thing of the advertisements on

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magazine is the language it self. Usually, the language of commercial advertising is designed in such away in order to be persuasive enough to stimulate the desire of the consumer to buy certain products, which meant that the advertisements should not only explain the product they are selling, but the advertisements must be able to develop an impression to the readers that they need the product being offered and it can bring more advantages to them

2. 9. 2. 3 The Advantages of Magazine The benefit of magazine advertising include the ability to reach specialized audiences: 1. Target audiences. The ability of magazine such as Mens Health, Fast Company, and Sassy to reach specialized audiences become a primary advantage of magazines. 2. Audience receptivity. Magazine have a high level of audience receptivity. The editorial environment of magazine lends authority and credibility to the advertising. 3. Long life span. Magazines have the longest life span of all media 4. Format. People also tend to read magazines at a slow rate, typically over a couple of days, so they offer an opportunity to use detailed copy. 5. Visual quality. The visual quality of magazines tends to be excellent because they are printed on high quality paper that provides superior photo reproduction in both black and white and color.

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6. Sales promotions. Advertisers can distribute various sales promotion devices, such as coupons, product samples, and information cards through magazines.

2. 9. 2. 4 The disadvantages of Magazine Magazines are limited by certain factors. The most prominent disadvantages are: 1. Limited flexibility. Although magazines offer advertisers many benefits, long lead time and limited flexibility are drawbacks. 2. Lack of immediacy. Some readers do not look at an issue of a magazine until long after it has reached their homes, sp the advertisements effect may take a long time to effect the reader. 3. High cost. For general audience magazine such as Newsweek, the cost per thousand (CPM) is quite high, and magazines of this type do not compare favorably with other media on this score. 4. Distribution. The final disadvantage of magazines is their limited distribution. With the exception of some magazines

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