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A STUDY ON STUDENTS VOCABULARY SUFFICIENCY IN READING ENGLISH TEXTBOOK AT SMA N BANYUMAS

A Thesis

Submitted to English Department as a partial fulfillment of the Requirement for S.Pd Degree

Yeyen Jayanti 0801050205

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF PURWOKERTO 2010

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. The Background of The Research The objective of English language teaching in secondary school is to develop the students English skills which cover reading skill, listening skill, speaking skill, and writing skill. Those skills are supported by language elements, such as: structure, vocabulary, pronunciation, and spelling. The skills and the language elements are not taught separately, but they thought integrately. One of the important skills in language is reading. Reading plays a very important role in our life. Through reading we can develop our creativity and critical thinking. Thus, it ensures that we will be able to think and make good decisions for ourselves. Besides, we will know new things and have ability to broaden our interest. According to Finocchiaro (1974: 77) reading is getting meaning from printed or written material. To students, reading is also something crucial and indispensable, since the success of their study depends on a quarter part of their ability to read. If their reading skill is poor, they will have difficulty in getting the meaning of it. Moreover, they are very likely to fail in their study. On the other hand, if they have a good reading ability, they will have a better chance to succeed in their study at school.

One of the important factors in reading is vocabulary. Rubin (1982: 1) stated that vocabulary development is an essential factor in reading comprehension. A good vocabulary and good reading go hand in hand. Although we know the meaning of the words, it doesnt mean that we understand the whole text. Vocabulary refers to a list or a set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use (Hatch, 1995: 1). Learning vocabulary is one of the first steps of learning a second language. A vocabulary usually grows and evolves with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. Hatch (1995: 369) in her book Vocabulary, Semantics, and Language Education notes that High School students studying English in Spain are introduced to 800-1,000 English words in first year EFL class, 1,700-2,000 more in second year classes, and another 2,500-3,000 in third year. In three years they might acquire, at most, 6,000 words in English. Then they can expand their vocabularies by reading, playing word games, participating in vocabulary programs, etc. Understanding the meaning of whole text is very important. According to Aziez (2008: 24) students need to know at least 95% of the running words in text. It means that on average only one word in twenty words will be unfamiliar for them. In other words, if they know less than 95% of the total words in a text, they will get problem in comprehension, as they have no enough words to guess meaning from the unfamiliar words.

Because of the reasons above, the writer is interested in making such an observation to know the students vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook in SMA N Banyumas. By doing this research, we can get the description whether they have a good competence in reading textbook or not.

B. Reason for Choosing the Topic The researcher had some reasons to choose the topic those are: 1. Reading is one of the main problems confronted by every one who learn English as foreign language like in Senior High School. Without knowing the vocabulary, students can not understand the text well.
2. To understand the whole text meaning, students should know

minimally 95% of the running words in text. Hence, the writer wants to know how is students vocabulary sufficiency in SMA N Banyumas.

C. Problem of the Research The problem of the research is stated by the following question:
1. How is the students vocabulary sufficiency in reading English

textbook (Erlangga) at SMA N Banyumas? 2. What vocabulary gave problems to the students?

D. The Aim of the Research Based on the problem above, the aim of the study are:

1.

Knowing the students vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook at SMA N Banyumas.

2. Knowing the kind of vocabulary giving problems to students. E. The Contribution of the Research The contributions that are produced from the research on students vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook as follows: 1. For the students It is used to measure their vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook, so they can know how is their vocabulary sufficiency in reading. 2. For teacher By knowing the students vocabulary sufficiency, the teacher can choose an appropriate task in teaching reading.

F. Clarification of Terms The title of this research is A Study on Students Vocabulary Sufficiency in Reading English Textbook at SMA N Banyumas
1. Vocabulary Sufficiency

Hornby (2000: 1506) states that vocabulary is the total number of words that make up the language. Vocabulary refers to a list or a set of words for particular language or a list or a set of words that individual speaker of a language might use (Hatch, 1995: 1). In this case, vocabulary

is a set of words that individual speaker of language might use in understanding the text. In Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary (2000, 1353), it is written that Sufficiency is an amount that is enough for particular purpose. Vocabulary Sufficiency is amount of words that is enough to understand the meaning of text. 2. Textbook In Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary (2000, 1397), it is written that Textbook is a book that teaches a particular subject and that is used especially in school and collages. The writer used Look Ahead An English Course for Senior High School Students Year X, XI, and XII that published by Erlangga as the material in collecting the data.

G. Limitation of the Study The title of this study is A Study on Students Vocabulary Sufficiency in Reading English Textbook at SMA N Banyumas. It means an activity of gaining knowledge to measure ability of the students in their vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook. The writer chooses a text which is produced by Erlangga.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW

A. Vocabulary
1. Definition of Vocabulary

As mentioned at the previous chapter that vocabulary is one part of language, which is important to be learnt. Vocabulary means a total number of words which (with rules for combining it then) make up language (Hornby, 2000: 1506). In line with him, Hatch (1995: 1) writes that vocabulary refers to a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of language might use. From those definitions above, it can be concluded that vocabulary is one of important language elements that learnt by the students in order to communicate whether orally or written. 2. The Importance of Vocabulary

Vocabulary, much more than grammar, is the key of understanding what we hear and read; and communicating successfully with other people. For this reason it is very important for us to build up quickly a large store of words. Rivers in Nunan (1991: 117) argued that the acquisition of an adequate vocabulary is essential for the success of mastering, because without an extensive vocabulary, we will be unable to use structure and function. We may have learned for comprehensible communication. It forms an opinion that the development of a rich vocabulary is an important element in learning a second language. Vocabulary has important role in making up a language. It is clear that with good vocabularies, someone can do the communication well. Without it someone will be unable to show his or her ideas and give massage to another. According to Finocchiaro (1974: 73) the important of meaning has gained increasing currency in the last few years. Everything that has been said to this point presupposes a primary vocabulary. Messages between speakers and listeners must include meaningful words, a content of shared referents, shared experiences, and shared culture. Vocabulary is very important for the students, so they are hoped to master some skills such as reading, writing, speaking, and listening in what the speaker said. Vocabulary can help the students or the learners by the time the whole child enter school, he/ she has acquired a considerable understanding of a large number of words. Vocabulary is used in reading activity and it will be

developed a consciousness to use the words and the meaning of words well. The basic of vocabulary is the development in using new word and meaning. 3. Vocabulary Sufficiency At the beginning level we should concentrate on the function words and the more frequently used vocabulary items which are needed to give practice in the basic structures and sounds of the language. Precedence, however, should be given to the vocabulary which is intimately related to the environment and experiences of the students. Even though the major concern may seem to be with sounds and syntax, a store of content words from everyday life situations can make practice of the structures much more interesting to the students. There is no one know how many new words can be thought in one lesson. According to Finnochiaro (1974: 73) children of eight or nine may learn four or five new words, children of ten or eleven may learn seven or eight new words; secondary school students may learn fifteen to twenty new words; while highly motivated university students may absorb thirty or more words new words. Based on Hatch in her book Vocabulary, Semantics, and Language Education notes that High School students studying English in Spain are introduced to 800-1,000 English words in first year EFL class, 1,700-2,000 more in second year classes, and another 2,500-3,000 in third year (Hatch: 1995; 369). In three years they might acquire, at most, 6,000 words in English. Then they can expand their vocabularies by reading, playing word games, participating in vocabulary programs, etc.

Based on the statement above, they have different opinion of amount of children sufficiency in reading. This different may be caused by the difference in the conception of word or different method in vocabulary counting. According to Aziez (2008: 24) in understanding the meaning of whole text, students need to know 90 - 95% of the running words in text so they can guess meaning from the unfamiliar words. Its supported by Newmark (1988: 151) in his book A Textbook of Translation stated that technical translation is primarily distinguished from other forms of translation by terminology, although terminology usually only makes up about 5 10% of a text. This percentage of vocabulary knowledge in a running text seems out of question, since most vocabulary research uses it as a criterion when referring reading. However, the question of how many words make up the 95% is still controversy. Fox in Nunan (1991: 118) stated the reader who only possesses Wests 2,000 words will find the text practically incomprehensible, and he argues that learners who want to comprehend such material need a much more extensive receptive vocabulary. Receptive words are those which readers understand but which they do not necessarily use. Some researchers claim that for various languages the 5,000 most frequent words (or 3,000 word families) yield coverage of 90% to 95% of the word tokens in average texts. In other words, with the knowledge of 5,000 most frequent words at disposal readers can comprehend general texts successfully. This has been claimed, for instance, for Russian, French, English,

and Dutch (Hazenberg in Aziez, 2008: 24). Some others believe that the vocabulary size of 14,000 covers 95% of the tokens (all the words which appear in a text) in a running text. The gap between 5,000 and 14,000 is of course not a trivial one. This discrepancy may be caused by the difference in the conception of word or by the method of measuring vocabulary size. Aziez (2008: 24) states there are two categories of students sufficiency:
a. Students who cover at least 95% are sufficient in reading a text b. Students who know less 95% are not sufficient.

B. Reading Skill Reading is a process that has been done and used by readers to get information or message from the writer of text or passage or other written language. By reading, the students enlarge their point of view of their atmosphere and knowledge. Nevertheless, it is often difficult to convince students of English as a foreign language that the text in English can be understood even though there are vocabulary items and structures the students have never seen before. Briefly, it can be said that reading in a foreign language consists of grasping meaning in that language through its written representation (Lado, 1977: 223). From the statement above we can get useful things which are used in

daily life. For example we read an advertisement, newspaper, science and technology book, story etc. Dealing with reading skill, the following are some basic theories of reading skill: 1. The Nature of Reading Skill Many people will recall with distaste the basic primer with their highly improbable stories which were used to develop early literacy skills. Basically reading is a matter of decoding a series of written symbols into their aural equivalents. Cambourne in Nunan (1991: 64) provides the following illustration of how the process is supposed to work:

Print

Every letter

phonemes and graphemes matched

Meaning

Pronunciation

Blending

According to this model, the reader processes each letter as it is encountered. These letters, or graphemes, are matched with the phonemes of the language, which it is assumed the reader already knows. These phonemes, the minimal units of meaning in the sound system of the language, are blended together to form words. The derivation of meaning is thus the end process in which the language is translated from one form of symbolic representation to another. The act of reading has become an unconscious activity; its processes were stored in a type of memory called implicit or unconscious memory. In the

beginning, every step was a conscious process that had to be learned. Eventually, with a great deal of practice, reading gradually becomes a seamless, automatic activity carried out by the brain without conscious awareness. As with any task that has reached the point of being automatic. 2. The Process of Reading Reading should not be separated from the other skills. There are few cases in real life when we do not talk or write about what we have read or when we do not relate what we have read to something we might have heard. It is therefore important, to link the different skills through the reading activities. According to Grellet (1981: 6) there are some skills that can be linked to reading: a. Reading and writing, e.g. summarizing, mentioning what you have read in a letter, note-making, etc. b. Reading and listening, e.g. comparing an article and a news-bulletin, using recorded information to solve a written problem, matching opinions and texts, etc. c. Reading and speaking, e.g. discussion, debates, appreciation, etc. In the line of him, Nunan (1991: 70) also states in his book Language Teaching Methodology that reading is a dynamic process in which the text elements interact with other factors outside the text; in this case most particularly with the readers knowledge of the experiential content of the text. This suggests that there is a need to relate the language being taught to the context which carries it.

3. Reading Textbook

In reading we shouldnt read the whole of book or text, but we can read some of it to get specific information. In this part, the writer will discuss about the definition of textbook and technique in reading textbook. a. The Definition of Textbook Linguists define the word text as a stretch of connected spoken or written language which is capable of being discussed and analyzed as a single entity (Eyres, 2004: 112). In Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary (2000, 1397), it is written that textbook is a book that teaches a particular subject and that is used especially in school and collages. From the definition above, it can be concluded that textbook is a book used for particular subject in educational program. b. The Technique in Reading Textbook There are many steps in reading that could help the reader in understanding the text. According to Kamil (1982: 77) the technique called as SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review). SQ3R is a procedure of study with systematic and efficient strategy that promotes independent study skills. The important of SQ3R technique as follows: 1) Survey Skim or preview the passage to gain a general understanding of the chapter. The survey of passage provides the student can predict and

think about what the next will contain or help the students brain begin to focus on the topic of passage. 2) Question Locate each boldface heading in the passage and turn into a question. This step provides more detailed study of the passage and provides a purpose for reading passage. 3) Read As soon as the questions are formulated, read to locate the answer. The student gets information from the passage and comprehends the passage effectively.

4) Recite Pause and review the answer to the question. Outline or underline the important passage was written in the brief notes in a notebook for later review and study. Reciting the passage as you go retains your mind to concentrate and learn as it reads. 5) Review Reread that section of the chapter to refresh your memory, recite the answer after you have written it down and then continue your review process. Review provides another opportunity for repetition of the passage.

Another technique was stated by Mifflin (2003: 2) in the article Reading Your Textbook, there are sure ways to read a textbook;
1) You should begin by surveying what you are about to read. Look at

the major heading, the charts and pictures, read the summary, study the review questions. In addition, search your memory for anything you already know about what your assigned reading. The more you know about what youre reading, the easier it will be to process it into your long-term memory. 2) Read only one paragraph at a time, and before you begin to read that paragraph look for a reason to read the paragraph. Use clues such as the heading or topic sentence. Do not mark as your read. 3) When you finish the paragraph, put yourself in the position of your professor. What test question will ask you from the paragraph? Actually write that question in the margin of your textbook. 4) Now mark the answer to the question by underlining, numbering, boxing, circling, etc. 5) Want to make sure you always do well on pop quizzes and cut down on study time for major tests. Put this information in your long-term memory now by covering the text and asking yourself the question written in the margin. 6) Recite the answer in your own words. 7) You are now ready to read the next paragraph in your textbook.

Besides that technique, Gray (1956: 44) stated there are certain facts relating to the behavior of the eyes in reading have been ascertained by observation and the use of various devices. 1) The eyes move from left to right along line, by short, quick movement and pauses, followed by a rapid return sweep from the end of one line to the beginning of the next. 2) The eyes pause, as a rule, from 4 to 10 times along a line of ordinary length. The first pause is a short distance from the beginning of the line, and the last pause somewhat farther from the end of the line. 3) Individuals vary widely in the number of pauses made in reading specific passages and, as a result, in their speed of reading. The amount read in a given period by some persons is as much as five or more times that read by others. 4) The number of pauses made by the same reader varies widely according to familiarity with the materials, their difficulty and interest. 5) A mature reader makes a relatively small number of pauses per line when reading simple material and proceeds line after line in about the same number. With difficult passages, the number of pauses per line may be much greater. Based on the technique above, reader or student can choose a technique or combine it. Therefore they had an appropriate technique for themselves. C. Basic Assumption

In understanding the meaning of whole text, students need to know at least 95% of the running words in text. It means that on average only one word in twenty words will be unfamiliar for them. In other words, if they know less than 95% of the total words in a text they will be in comprehension problem, as they have no enough words to guess the meaning from the unfamiliar words. Students who cover at least 95%, they have vocabulary sufficiency in reading a text. On the other hand, students who know less 95%, they did not have vocabulary sufficiency.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Researcah methodology is one important part of the scientific activities. The research can be caried out whereever we want to observe and get the answer to the problem that we want to solve. The problem of this research are how is students vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook and what vocabulary gave problems for the students . In getting the answer of the research problem above the writer uses descriptive quantitative. It means, the writer want to describe students vocabulary sufficiency.

A. Time and Place of The Research

The research had done in December 2009 until March 2010 and conducted at SMA N Banyumas, accademic year 2009/2010. To make it clearer, we can see the time schedule in the table below. No 1. 2 3 4 5 6 Activity Making proposal Making instrument Having seminar Collecting data Analyzing data Making a report Month Dec 2009 January 2010 February 2010 March 2010

B. Subject of the Research 1. Population Arikunto (2002: 108) says that population is the entire subject of the research. Population does not only mean person or human being but it can be animals or things as well. The population of this research is the students of SMA N Banyumas in academic year 2009/2010. It consists of three levels; they are tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade. The complete data can be seen as follow. Class X XI XII 2. Sample Male 125 117 96 Female 163 198 175 Total 288 315 271

Sample means a part of the investigated individual that represents the whole population (Arikunto, 2002: 109) according to Arikunto if the subject less than 100, it is better for the researcher to take all of the subject. But if the population is more than 100, researcher will take 10% 15% or 20% - 25% or more depending on the situation. In this research, the writer randomly choosed 20% of the students or chooses several of students from each grade. The writer took 36 students for tenth grade students, 38 students for eleventh grade students, 36 students for twelfth grade students. 3. Sampling technique Sampling technique is a way that is used by the writer to take the sample of the research. The sample must be representing the population. There are many sample techniques used in investigation. There are random sampling, stratified sampling, area probability sampling, purposive sampling, quote sampling, cluster sampling, proportional sampling, and double sampling techniques (Arikunto, 2002: 111). The writer chose random sampling in this research. The writer decided to take several of students for each level and took the class randomly. The steps in random sampling as followed:
1. The writer counted amount of all students in SMA N Banyumas, 2. The students were classified based on their level or grade (X, XI, XII)

3. The writer randomly chose several of students for each grade as

sample in this research.

C. Technique for Collecting the Data The writer used objective test to know the level of students vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook. Arikunto (2002: 127) explains that a test is a sequence of questions or exercise or other tools, which are used to measure knowledge, intelligence or talent of individual or group. The instrument of the test was translation tests. Translation tests were used to measure general achievement in foreign language, to give final grades in language courses, as a measure of proficiency to determine entrance in schools that require a foreign language (Lado, 1977: 32). Students had task then found the Indonesian translation or equivalents for the test words. Their answer should be based on the accompanying text, from which the test words were taken out. According to Aziez (2008: 24) there were four criteria for the test word choice. These criteria were: 1. They were not proper name; not name of a particular person, place, etc, written in capital letter. 2. They were not function words; not article, preposition, modal. 3. They were content words. 4. They were not familiar words; like book, pen, house, etc.

The material was taken from Look Ahead An English Course for Senior High Scholl Students Year X, XI, XII that published by Erlangga. In making the test, we could see the procedures below:
1. The writer chose a text in Erlangga English textbook for Senior High

School in Tenth, Eleventh, and Twelfth grade,


2. The words (for each text) were counted, 3. The writer put a part of the story that minimally consist of 150 words and

maximally consist of 200 words,


4. The words were ordered alphabetically, 5. The words that appear more than one times were deleted or the writer

counted one time for one words,


6. The words were separated based on their group like proper name, function

words, and content words,


7. Based on the criteria above, the writer used content words, 8. The content words were separated whether it was familiar or not, 9. The writer used unfamiliar content words as the testing words.

After getting words that suitable with those criteria, the writer gave the test for the students. The writer took The Gift text as the title for students in tenth grade. Based on that text, we had 164 total words, 106 words as without repeated words (tokens), and 51 words as testing words. For eleventh grade

students, we had The Stronger Man as the title that consists of 188 total words, 83 words as tokens, and 52 testing words. The last for twelfth grade students, we had Halloween as the title. It had 169 as the total words, 100 words as tokens, and 63 words as test words.

D. Technique for Analyzing Data In analyzing the data, the writer found students level mastery on the vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook. The writer measured the students individual sufficient of vocabulary in reading English textbook. This technique was used to find out how was the mastery of the student vocabulary in reading English textbook. In using the percentage score descriptive analysis, the writer followed procedures, they were:
1. Making a list of score obtained by the students. 2. Counting the total score. 3. Counting the percentage of correct replies used:

Pc =

fc x 100 % n

Where: Pc = Percentage of the correct answers. fc = the frequency of the correct answer of each students. n = testing words 4. Counting the percentage of wrong replies used: Pw =
fw x 100 % n

Where: Pw = Percentage of the correct answers. fw = the frequency of the wrong answer of each students. n = testing words 5. Counting the percentage of total wrong answer used: Ps =
fw x 100 % t

Where: Ps = Percentage of the total wrong answers. fw = the frequency of the wrong answer of each students. t = total words without repeated / tokens. 6. Counting the percentage of total correct answer used: `Pp = 100 % - Ps Where: Pp = Percentage of the total correct answers.

100% = a total percentage Ps = Percentage of total wrong answers

7. Counting summary or total score by added the data for each column. 8. Counting mean by: x M = N Where:

M x N

: mean : the total score : the number of students

Here was the table that was used in measuring the students individual ability: Resp No 1 2 SUM MEAN Where: % of Cor Rep % of Wr Rep % W > TOKEN % P > TOKEN : percentage of correct replays : percentage of wrong replays : percentage of wrong replays against the token : percentage of the proportion of knowledge against the token TOKEN : all the words that appear in text (without repeated words) After getting the result, the writer separated the result into two categories. There were two categories of students sufficiency:
1. Students who covered at least 95% had vocabulary sufficiency in reading a

Correct Replies

Wrong Replies

% of Cor Rep

% of

% W>

%P>

Wr Rep TOKEN TOKEN

text

2. Students who knew less 95% did not have vocabulary sufficiency.

CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION

A. Result of The Study 1. Result of Students Vocabulary Sufficiency The results of students vocabulary sufficiency of reading English textbook consist of three categories. They are the result from tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade.

a. Result of Tenth Grade Students in Vocabulary Sufficiency

After analyzing the data of tenth grade students in vocabulary sufficiency, the writer got the result that is shown in table 1 below: Table 1 Test Result of Tenth Grade Students Numb 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Correct Replies 42 41 40 40 39 39 39 38 38 38 38 38 38 37 37 37 37 37 37 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 35 35 35 35 Wrong Replies 9 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 % of % of %W> %P> Cr Rep Wr Rep TOKEN TOKEN 82,4 17,6 8,5 91,5 80,4 19,6 9,4 90,6 78,4 21,6 10,4 89,6 78,4 21,6 10,4 89,4 76,5 23,5 11,3 88,7 76,5 23,5 11,3 88,7 76,5 23,5 11,3 88,7 74,5 25,5 12,3 87,7 74,5 25,5 12,3 87,7 74,5 25,5 12,3 87,7 74,5 25,5 12,3 87,7 74,5 25,5 12,3 87,7 74,5 25,5 12,3 87,7 72,5 27,5 13,2 86,8 72,5 27,5 13,2 86,8 72,5 27,5 13,2 86,8 72,5 27,5 13,2 86,8 72,5 27,5 13,2 86,8 72,5 27,5 13,2 86,8 70,6 29,4 14,2 85,8 70,6 29,4 14,2 85,8 70,6 29,4 14,2 85,8 70,6 29,4 14,2 85,8 70,6 29,4 14,2 85,8 70,6 29,4 14,2 85,8 70,6 29,4 14,2 85,8 70,6 29,4 14,2 85,8 68,6 31,4 15,1 84,9 68,6 31,4 15,1 84,9 68,6 31,4 15,1 84,9 68,6 31,4 15,1 84,9

32 34 33 34 34 33 35 33 36 32 SUM 1324 MEAN 36,7

17 17 18 18 19 512 14,2

66,7 66,7 64,7 64,7 62,7 2595,8 72,1

33,3 33,3 35,3 35,3 37,3 1004,2 27,9

16 16 17 17 18 483,51 13,4

84 84 83 83 82 3116,2 86,6

Based on the table above, it can be known that the highest score of students vocabulary sufficiency at tenth grade is 91,5% while the lowest score is 82%. Then the mean of students vocabulary sufficiency is 86,6%. It means that tenth grade students do not fulfill the requirement of vocabulary sufficiency (the minimum score of vocabulary sufficiency is 95%)
b. Result of Eleventh Grade Students in Vocabulary Sufficiency

The result of students vocabulary sufficiency for eleventh grade students can be seen in table 2 below: Table 2 Test Result of Eleventh Grade Students Numb 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Correct Replies 37 36 36 35 35 35 35 34 34 34 34 Wrong Replies 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 % of % of Cr Rep Wr Rep 71,2 28,8 69,2 30,8 69,2 30,8 67,3 32,7 67,3 32,7 67,3 32,7 67,3 32,7 65,4 34,6 65,4 34,6 65,4 34,6 65,4 34,6 %W> %P> TOKEN TOKEN 18,1 81,9 19,3 80,7 19,3 80,7 20,5 79,5 20,5 79,5 20,5 79,5 20,5 79,5 21,7 78,3 21,7 78,3 21,7 78,3 21,7 78,3

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 SUM MEAN

33 33 33 33 33 33 31 30 30 30 29 29 29 29 28 28 28 27 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 1151 28,8

19 19 19 19 19 19 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 26 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 829 20,7

63,5 63,5 63,5 63,5 63,5 63,5 59,6 57,7 57,7 57,7 55,8 55,8 55,8 55,8 53,9 53,9 53,9 52 52 50 48,1 46,2 46,2 44,2 44,2 42,3 42,3 2206,55 58,1

36,5 36,5 36,5 36,5 36,5 36,5 40,4 42,3 42,3 42,3 44,2 44,2 44,2 44,2 46,1 46,1 46,1 48 48 50 51,9 53,8 53,8 55,8 55,8 57,7 57,7 1593,5 41,9

22,9 22,9 22,9 22,9 22,9 22,9 25,3 26,5 26,5 26,5 27,7 27,7 27,7 27,7 28,9 28,9 28,9 30,1 30,1 31,3 32,5 33,7 33,7 34,9 34,9 36,1 36,1 998,6 26,3

77,1 77,1 77,1 77,1 77,1 77,1 74,7 73,5 73,5 73,5 72,3 72,3 72,3 72,3 71,1 71,1 71,1 69,9 69,9 68,7 67,5 66,3 66,3 65,1 65,1 63,9 63,9 2801,4 73,7

The highest score of students vocabulary sufficiency at eleventh grade is 81,1% while the lowest score is 63,9%. Then the mean of students vocabulary sufficiency is 73,7%. It means that eleventh grade students do not fulfill the requirement of vocabulary sufficiency (the minimum score of vocabulary sufficiency is 95%). c. Result of Twelfth Grade Students in Vocabulary Sufficiency

After counting the data of twelfth grade students in vocabulary sufficiency, the writer got the result that is shown in table 3 below: Table 3 Test Result of Twelfth Grade Students Numb 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Correct Wrong Replies Replies 42 21 41 22 41 22 40 23 40 23 38 25 38 25 37 26 37 26 37 26 36 27 36 27 35 28 35 28 35 28 34 29 33 30 32 31 32 31 31 32 31 32 31 32 31 32 31 32 30 33 30 33 30 33 30 33 30 33 30 33 29 34 28 35 28 35 % of % of Cr Rep Wr Rep 66,7 33,3 65,1 34,9 65,1 34,9 63,5 36,5 63,5 36,5 60,3 39,7 60,3 39,7 58,7 41,3 58,7 41,3 58,7 41,3 57,1 42,9 57,1 42,9 55,6 44,4 55,6 44,4 55,6 44,4 54 46 52,4 47,6 50,8 49,2 50,8 49,2 49,2 50,8 49,2 50,8 49,2 50,8 49,2 50,8 49,2 50,8 47,6 52,4 47,6 52,4 47,6 52,4 47,6 52,4 47,6 52,4 47,6 52,4 46 64 44,4 55,6 44,4 55,6 %W> %P> TOKEN TOKEN 21 79 22 78 22 78 23 77 23 77 25 75 25 75 26 74 26 74 26 74 27 73 27 73 28 72 28 72 28 72 29 71 30 70 31 69 31 69 32 68 32 68 32 68 32 68 32 68 33 67 33 67 33 67 33 67 33 67 33 67 34 66 35 65 35 65

34 35 36 SUM MEAN

26 25 24 1194 33,2

37 38 39 1074 29,8

41,3 39,7 38,1 1895,1 52,6

58,8 60,3 61,9 1705 47,4

37 38 39 1074 29,8

63 62 61 2526 70,2

In twelfth grade students the highest score of students vocabulary sufficiency is 79% while the lowest score is 61%. Then the mean of students vocabulary sufficiency is 70,2%. It means that twelfth grade students do not fulfill the requirement of vocabulary sufficiency (the minimum score of vocabulary sufficiency is 95%).
2. The Kinds of Vocabulary Giving Problems to the Students

The kinds of vocabulary that gave problems to the students were explained in three categories. They are the result from tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students.
a. Vocabulary that Gave Problems for Tenth Grade Students

After analyzing the data of tenth grade students in vocabulary sufficiency, the writer got the result that is shown in table below: Table 4 Vocabulary Problems in Tenth Grade Students Students Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Part of Speech Wrong Replies Adjective Adverb Noun Adjective Adverb Adjective Noun 4 16 1 0 6 0 0 Right Replies 32 20 35 36 30 36 36

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

Noun Adverb Verb adjective Noun Noun Adverb Adjective Adverb Verb Adjective Noun Noun Verb Noun Verb Adjective Verb Noun Verb Pronoun Pronoun Verb Adverb Verb Verb Noun Noun Adjective Noun Noun Adverb Verb Noun Adverb Verb Verb Adjective Noun Noun Noun Adverb Adverb Adverb

0 0 2 0 1 23 19 0 3 14 3 15 2 11 0 30 2 2 14 4 18 0 34 22 11 35 14 0 28 10 16 4 0 36 2 2 13 23 6 31 31 0 0 12

36 36 34 36 35 13 17 36 33 22 33 21 34 25 36 6 34 34 22 32 18 36 2 14 25 1 22 36 8 26 20 32 36 0 34 34 23 13 30 5 5 36 36 24

Based on the table above, it was known that the most difficult vocabulary in tenth grade students was noun (question number 41: chain) because no one of students got the right answer. Then the second difficulty was verb (question number 33: fixed), only one students who got right answer.
b. Vocabulary that Gave Problems for Eleventh Grade Students

After analyzing the data of eleventh grade students in vocabulary sufficiency, the writer got the result that is shown in table below: Table 5 Vocabulary Problems in Eleventh Grade Students

Students Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Part of Speech Wrong Replies Adverb Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Conjunction Verb Noun Adjective Adjective Conjunction Pronoun Noun Noun Verb Noun 15 0 1 4 34 22 0 5 38 25 9 9 1 37 37 30 Right Replies 23 38 37 34 4 16 38 33 0 13 29 29 37 1 1 8

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

Verb Verb Noun Noun Adverb Adverb Noun Verb Adverb Noun Preposition Noun Adverb Adjective Noun Noun Verb Verb Adjective Noun Adverb Verb Adjective Noun Verb Verb Verb Adverb Verb Noun Noun Verb Noun Verb Noun

23 38 2 0 0 20 0 38 36 0 6 17 0 13 38 38 17 0 9 0 2 4 37 26 37 4 19 32 16 30 23 7 16 18 1

15 0 36 38 38 18 38 0 2 38 32 21 38 25 0 0 21 38 29 38 36 34 1 12 1 34 19 6 22 8 15 31 22 20 37

Based on the table above, it was known that the most difficult vocabulary in eleventh grade students were noun, verb, and adverb. No one of students got the right answer in:
1)

Noun number 31 (shoulders) and 32 (arms)

2)

Verb in number 18 (cast) and 24 (led) Adverb in number 9 (any).


c. Vocabulary that Gave Problems for Twelfth Grade Students

3)

After analyzing the data of twelfth grade students in vocabulary sufficiency, the writer got the result that is shown in table below: Table 6 Vocabulary Problems in Twelfth Grade Students Students Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Part of Speech Adjective Noun Verb Noun Noun Noun Noun Noun Verb Adjective Noun Verb Adjective Noun Noun Verb Noun Verb Adjective Noun Noun Noun Preposition Noun Noun Verb Noun Wrong Replies 1 0 19 0 0 1 10 0 3 34 4 26 7 36 5 34 10 13 16 0 27 9 31 0 36 33 9 Right Replies 35 36 17 36 36 35 26 36 33 2 32 10 29 0 31 2 26 23 20 36 9 27 5 36 0 3 27

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

Adjective Noun Adverb Verb Preposition Adjective Preposition Noun Noun Verb Noun Verb Verb Noun Verb Noun Noun Noun Verb Preposition Noun Adjective Verb Noun Adjective Noun Noun Verb Noun Adverb Verb Noun Noun Noun Verb Noun

12 35 9 35 36 36 1 24 2 33 36 20 0 36 22 0 10 36 36 1 34 1 0 22 36 6 16 33 18 1 25 0 0 26 35 36

24 1 27 1 0 0 35 12 34 3 0 16 36 0 14 36 26 0 0 35 2 35 36 14 0 30 20 3 18 35 11 36 36 10 1 0

Based on the table above, it was known that the most difficult vocabulary in twelfth grade students were noun, verb, preposition, and adjective. No one of students got the right answer in:

1) Noun number 14 (Halloween), 25 (Celtic), 38 (spirits), 41

(preceding), 45 (Celts), and 63 (deities)


2)

Verb in number 46 (sought) Preposition in number 32 (into) Adjective in number 33 (following) and 52 (sacred).

3) 4)

B. Discussion of The Result

From the three classes of respondents, only two candidates were predicted to face minor difficulty in reading English textbook. They were from tenth grade that knew 91,5% and 90,6% of the whole words in text. The other students found that their textbook was too demanding material. The highest score of students vocabulary sufficiency for tenth grade students is 91,5% and the lowest score is 83%. For eleventh grade students, the highest score is 81,1% while the lowest score is 63,9%. The highest score of students vocabulary sufficiency at twelfth grade students is 79% and the lowest score is 61%. To sum up, the result of the highest and lowest score can be seen in table 4 below: Table 7 The Highest and the Lowest Score of Students Vocabulary Sufficiency in Reading English Textbook Class X XI XII The highest score 91,5% 81,1% 79% The lowest score 83% 63,9% 61%

From the data above we know that the lowest score of students vocabulary sufficiency was come from twelfth grade students and the highest score was come from tenth grade students. The mean of students vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook is 86,6% for tenth grade students, 73,7% for eleventh grade students, and 70,2% for twelfth grade students. It means the mean of tenth grade students is the highest mean and the lowest mean is twelfth grade students.. In counting students vocabulary sufficiency of English textbook, the writer used data from proportion of words knowledge. Then the proportion of words knowledge will be compared with the standard score. According to Aziez (2008: 24) standard score that used in counting vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook are:
1. Students who cover at least 95% are sufficient in reading a text 2. Students who know less 95% are not sufficient.

By comparing the proportion of words knowledge with the standard score, the writer got the result that none of the students met the minimum requirement of the successful reading (the minimum score of vocabulary sufficiency is 95%). It was an indication that the students at SMA Banyumas did not have sufficient vocabulary in reading English textbook. The kinds of vocabulary that gave problems for students at SMA Banyumas were different for each grade students.
1. The most difficult vocabulary in tenth grade students was noun (question

number 41: chain) because no one of students got the right answer. Then

the second difficulty was verb (question number 33: fixed), only one students who got right answer.
2. The most difficult vocabulary in eleventh grade students were noun, verb,

and adverb. No one of students got the right answer in: a) Noun number 31 (shoulders) and 32 (arms)
b) Verb in number 18 (cast) and 24 (led)

c) Adverb in number 9 (any).


3. The most difficult vocabulary in twelfth grade students were noun, verb,

preposition, and adjective. No one of students got the right answer in: a) Noun number 14 (Halloween), 25 (Celtic), 38 (spirits), 41 (preceding), 45 (Celts), and 63 (deities) b) Verb in number 46 (sought) c) Preposition in number 32 (into) d) Adjective in number 33 (following) and 52 (sacred).

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATION

In the last chapter, the writer deals with conclusion and implication. In conclusion, the writer will give simple result of the research. Then for implication, the writer would like to give some suggestion in teaching and learning reading. A. Conclusion After analyzing the data, it was found that the mean of students vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook were 86,6% for tenth grade students, 73,7% for eleventh grade students, and 70,2% for twelfth grade students. So it could be concluded that the students of SMA Negeri

Banyumas did not have sufficient vocabulary (the minimum score of vocabulary sufficiency is 95%).

B. IMPLICATION Eventhough the ideal result of this research couldnt be reach, it is hoped that this research can give value and contribution for the reader especially in teaching reading and learning process. In process of collecting the data, the writer found some problems that are faced by the students in learning reading. Those problems are: 1. They didnt know which meaning that is appropriate with the text. 2. They had no enough vocabulary in their memory.
3. They preferred to guess the meaning.

The writer also gives some suggestions that can be used by the students and the teacher. 1. For the students
a) They should read the text as many as possible. By reading more, they

will know which words that appropriate with the context. b) They should repeat the words and the meaning so it will be saved in long term memory.
c) They should open the dictionary when they found difficulty words in

reading. 2. For the teacher

a) Based on the fact that the students at SMA Banyumas did not have

vocabulary sufficiency in reading English textbook so the teacher should try to overcome students problems, for example by giving many exercises. It is used to anticipate different type of the text which stimulating their interest and more familiar with the context. b) The creativity of teacher is needed in teaching reading skills. Its caused the teacher should make the students understand of reading text. The texts should be selected based on students ability level, situation, and condition. c) The teacher should consider that vocabulary is an important factor in understanding the text. Noticing the criteria above it can be concluded that the students at SMA Banyumas did not have sufficient vocabulary in reading English textbook.