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July 2011

The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm


How Social can change the way we look at the Internet
by Shrey Verma, Leader Outreach & PR, BUZZVALVE

Human interactions occur at various levels. In Psychology, human factor gives prominence to the social character of humans. This paper examines how new ecosystems in the social media space capture the basic essence of human interactions. We explore how the ecosystems can become invaluable sources of sub-conscious user data, that could be used to extrapolate human personality and behaviour. The paper looks at how data of such magnitude can alter future Search paradigms and also inquires into how social media ecosystems could introduce new dynamics in the Search process. In the end, we analyze the strategic vision of the Big Two of the online space, Google and Facebook, and how they are responding to the changing social media landscape.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 The Ecosystems a. Niche level interaction b. Social Gaming interaction c. Social Music and Entertainment 2 SOS Socially Optimized Search a. Using the Ecosystems: Static and Dynamic Data Collection b. Using the Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm
i. ii. iii. iv. Informational Relevancy Social Relevancy Locational Relevancy Personality Relevancy

3 The Big Two: Google and Facebook a. Strategic Moves b. Integrating the Ecosystems: The key to the future
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4 Conclusion

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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

1. THE ECOSYSTEMS
Applying the theoretical constructs of modern sociology and other studies, Social networking can be visualized as a graph with individual humans as nodes joined by interdependencies or interactions. Social networking platform Facebook has captured the basic interaction dynamic in the form of simple conversations and sharing. The web of human interactions is of a complex nature and extends to interactions taking place at various levels with differing modes and methods. Facebook, in many ways, has maximized the potential of basic interaction and hence constitutes the basic core or nucleus of the social media universe. The ideas for the future lie in how new ecosystems emerge around this basic nucleus by changing the level of interaction or by creating new modes of interaction.

Niche level interaction


The example of a niche level interaction platform that comes to our mind is Quora. The fundamental idea behind Quora is similar to that of Facebook. Both capture the basic conversational and sharing dynamic that exists between human beings. Quoras differentiation lies in its success of changing the level of interaction that exists on Facebook. Instead of sharing links and short messages on walls, the interactions between people revolve around asking questions and sharing answers to them. Quora has succeeded in building a culture through its platform, of encouraging people to analyze, ideate and throw informed opinion on questions dropped by others. Blogging platforms such as Blogger and Tumblr also constitute interaction that occurs at a more cerebral level, where creativity and debate flourish in abundance. Both Quora and blogging platforms like Blogger and Tumblr have capitalized on human psychology to exhibit and showcase knowledge. The end result: Not only do people come together to find information, but engage in expert analysis which is missing on a general platform like Facebook. While availability of information is important, assessment and analysis of such information is where niche level ecosystems manage to take the lead leaving others behind. While ideas are shared on Facebook, they are dissected and interrogated on Quora and through blogs. This has given birth to a new ecosystem of informed analysis, which we term as niche level interaction.
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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

Social Gaming Interaction


Social gaming captures many of the real world human instincts and behaviour. According to Shannon Appelcline, two forms of social gaming interaction warrant our attention a) competitive socialization and b) co-operative socialization. Competitive socialization In competitive socialization, the players compete against one another in order to survive or win. The game is designed to allow fierce battles between the players themselves. Within competitive socialization, resource competition is an important game construct. As in real life, where there is cut-throat competition for material wealth, women etc., games based on resource competition incorporate game elements where players compete against one another to capture resources and expand material wealth. Co-operative socialization Here, the game is designed by creating an environment for co-operation between players to fight or defeat a common enemy. The common enemy could be the game system itself. This allows players to not only interact with the game, but also socialize with other players as part of completing the game objective. Social game interaction is best captured through such game dynamics. A platform that has shown immense success in tapping into the above forms of game interaction is Zynga through its social media games like Farmville, Mafia Wars and many others. With Farmville, Zynga has capitalized on the concept of resource competition where players compete to grow their farm estates and other virtual assets. What is interesting to note here is that Zynga has also managed to incorporate elements of co-operative socialization in its games as well. By enabling users to lend farm resources to their friends or help them buy new resources in order to expand their friends farm estate does embody an element of cooperation in order to defeat a common enemy, in this case the game system. For instance, a message like this on a Facebook wall is an apt example of how Zynga captures co-operative socialization in its games: X needs help on Ys Risky Business Challenge in Zynga Poker! There is a special bonus for friends that go all in and win the hand to help complete the challenge The game challenge in this case is the common enemy bringing friends together to defeat it. Zyngas success lies in understanding these levels of human interactions and leveraging them to create a successful game product such as Farmville or Poker.
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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

Social Music & Entertainment


Video and movie sharing platforms like YouTube and Netflix have changed how people express themselves and interact with the broader audience. A confession or a real-life experience in the form of a video, when uploaded exemplifies interaction that takes place between an individual and the larger humanity. The level of interaction that YouTube provides is a one-many interaction. Watching and sharing movies with friends on Netflix is another way to express oneself by identifying with a storyline or genre. Turntable, another social platform is a perfect example of how new ecosystems can emerge by capturing real world behaviour and interactions online in a virtual setting. The social network platform revolves around the concept of listening to music with fellow human beings. A form of interaction that we adopt often in real life! The key here is that Turntable has been able to capture that virtually. It allows you to create a Room (similar to Chat Rooms), where instead of starting a simple conversation, a user is encouraged to don the mantle of a DJ and roll out music for others in the room. In effect, others who may enter the same room will hear what you are listening. The music, if liked by a other in the room, could result in a stimulating discussion between the user and the other person. A great way to start a conversation! Turntable has thus aided in actualizing a redefined concept of social interaction, creating a music ecosystem built around social networking. Figure 1 Emerging Ecosystems: Capturing Real life activities in the Virtual Space

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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

2. S.O.S SOCIALLY OPTIMIZED SEARCH Using the Ecosystems: Static & Dynamic Data Collection
We saw how new ecosystems have emerged around social media platforms such as Facebook. With the launch of Google+, the potential for new ecosystems to actualize has only got bigger. The ecosystems are also huge repositories of user data and behaviour patterns. In todays age, information is wealth and for platforms like Facebook and Google+, encouraging growth of new ecosystems around them can enhance their understanding of human thought patterns across the globe further. An asset that has high monetary value! Social Data embodies human thinking patterns more implicitly. Let us first understand the aspects of data collection that takes place on the Internet. This understanding is critical for appreciating the potential of a future Socially Optimized Search paradigm. There are primarily two broad categories of data that are being sourced from the Internet every second to map user behaviour and choices. They can be classified as 1) Static Data and 2) Dynamic Data. A search keyword or a phrase such as good places to eat on Google would be considered as static data. A phrase like good places to eat tells Google about an individuals possible interest in eating out, but nothing more. Its powerful search algorithm returns relevant results according to informational content, which caters to users search objectives well. Similarly, a map search for a generic keyword populates the map with pins, corresponding to those locations which show a certain level of relevance. There is however no relative ranking among the pins. Data of this kind is in abundance with Google, containing within it topics, places and questions troubling users minds. This data is static in nature, because it concerns a large group and the search data is not individual specific (there is a low chance of users being signed into Google, when searching). Also, search does not allow a two way information exchange between the user and the search engine. The information flow is one way from the search engine to the user. The other category of data that is being collected (though not by Google, but its competitor Facebook) is that which is related to user activity and their likes. This, we consider as dynamic data. Every time you like a content posted by your friend on Facebook, you are indirectly letting Facebook know of your interests. The data is dynamic because the rapidly changing user preferences are reflected instantly through likes and comments people post on walls frequently. The most recent thought or dilemma of a user is reflected in his/her status update or the latest comment or even the latest content that he/she has shared. The inherent nature of such data makes it dynamic.

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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

Platforms such as Facebook and Quora have a considerable lead when it comes to social data. User likes, comments and recommendations open a window into the users consciousness. When a user asks a question on Quora or follows a particular question/topic, it tells us about the issues and problems occupying his/her mind in that time window. The act of following a question is data of an implicit nature, as the user does not explicitly voices his/her dilemma, but identifies his inner questions with topics and questions listed by others. Similarly, choices that users make while playing Farmville on Facebook, could help in understanding human behaviour further at the micro level. Game data of that nature could also shed light on individual user personalities and biases. Implicit data of such nature captures both behavioral and psychological aspects of human beings without them knowing about it. So, a user playing social games on Facebook is sub-consciously giving out data every second, which could be used by advertisers and marketers to design future products for micro-targeting purposes. The ecosystems are therefore an abundant source of sub-conscious user data. Data acquired from these mini-platforms built around Facebook or Google+ could provide a deeper understanding of human choices and help create an engaging online experience. Not only can the Search experience be enhanced by integrating user data from across platforms, but a new paradigm of intelligent online interaction with the user can be established too. The idea that is recurring in our discussions is twofold: 1) Ecosystems are a rich source of subconscious user data and 2) by using such data from the ecosystems, we can redefine user experience online, incorporating intelligent mechanics into Search processes. While we studied the first part of the above idea in this section, in the next section, we look at how data from ecosystems can be used to redefine the concept of Search in the future.

Using the Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search Paradigm


Our discussion will build on the ideas introduced in the previous section and mainly revolve around how the two broad categories of user data: Static and Dynamic upon convergence could alter the way a search result is arrived at. With the expansion of the social media space and emergence of ecosystems, new dynamics have gained prominence in driving user choices and desires. The challenge for Search lies in responding to such considerations in arriving at results. The idea of Search taking a critical turn in the future is inevitable. We propose 4 parameters that future Search strategies and algorithms must take into account: 1) Informational Relevancy, 2) Social Relevancy, 3) Locational Relevancy and 4) Personality Relevancy.
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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

Informational Relevancy Informational relevancy mainly concerns the relevancy of informational content with that of the search phrase or keywords entered. The present Search architecture more or less functions on this principle. The algorithms that exist today are complex, but the basic idea remains the same: ranking pages on the basis of rich and relevant content corresponding to keywords entered. This approach is and will remain one of the fundamental pillars of the future Search paradigm, constituting the initial filtering process. Social Relevancy Social Relevancy could form one of the principal factors driving search results in the future. The Web today is a galaxy of information. An information overload of this kind is often not helpful to meet search objectives from a users perspective. Social interaction data could act as a effective filter for search engines of the future. Dynamic data in the form of Facebook likes, comments, status updates, Twitter Retweets etc. are a great source of extrapolating user thought and preferences. This data could be used by search engines while extracting results from the Web. For instance, if in the recent past, a user liked or +1d content related to a particular Car Brand and retweeted information that spoke positively of the brand, a search by that user for best buy cars or best hatchbacks could first get populated by results with links to that particular Car brand, leaving other market leaders behind. Pages featuring products associated with that particular brand could show up at the very top on the basis of Social Relevance. Another avenue that search engines could tap into while executing the search process is sifting through the preferences of top influencers of the concerned user. For instance, if a user is influenced by a person on Twitter (the influence metric can be gauged by analyzing user replies to his/her influencer on Twitter, tweets of the influencer retweeted by the user, comments on the influencers Facebook wall etc.), the likes and dislikes of the influencer regarding a topic or a product could form an important dynamic in the search result. Lets say X is influenced by Y on social media. Y considers the bakery shop Nick Bakers the best in town. This is often reflected in his/her tweets, status updates etc. Now if X were to search for good bakery shops, Nick Bakers could figure among the top search results. Similarly, Ys own search history and links pursued with respect to a certain topic could be used, should X were to search on a similar topic in the future. Ys thumbs up to the website of the National Library for information related to Egyptian History could result in National Library featuring among the top results if X too were to key in Egyptian history in the Search bar.
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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

Locational Relevancy Search could also expand its tentacles to areas of Locational Relevancy. Locational aspects are of two types: One, based entirely on the geographical co-ordinates of the user and the search keyword entered. This would mean the search algorithm would take into consideration not only the aspects of Informational Relevancy but also the nearness factor with respect to the users current location. This aspect may not necessarily come into play at all times, but could be incorporated whenever appropriate. For instance, taking the example of Egyptian History forward, if the search result were to return the National Library and also the Historical Institute as top results, one of them could take precedence on the basis of the proximity to the users geographical location. Place related searches such as restaurants, coffee shops, shopping centers, health spas etc. could all utilize the locational aspect effectively to display intelligent results with the objective of making the entire user search experience easy and comfortable. The second aspect combines both Social and Locational Relevancy aspects in Search. Imagine a situation where a car accident victim were to find a doctor immediately and make an appointment directly from the scene of the accident. With the incorporation of social data on platforms like Google+ and Facebook, the accident victim could see who his/her friends have liked or +1d, thus acting as a personal recommendation without having to explicitly call them. Similarly, when in a book store, the users smartphone could automatically recommend books that their friends or influencers bought from the same book store. For example, Google could use its Google Latitude services to gather information on user check-in and then on the basis of the search history of the user in the past week as well as using the social data of the user, make intelligent recommendations instantly. A similar user experience could be offered by Facebook with its Facebook Places service by combining check-in data and social data that is present in abundant measure on its popular social networking platform. Personality Relevancy Personality Relevancy opens up possibilities for Search incorporating some form of artificial intelligence in the future. Based on daily dynamic data in the form of browser data, social data (Facebook likes, comments, status updates, tweets, retweets) and search data, Search engines could help analyze user personality and make accurate predictions on user preferences in the future. Incorporating this intelligence could constitute an important determinant in the overall search process. For instance, a search for climate change in the past few weeks and interaction with people associated with Greenpeace on Facebook and Twitter would be a good indicator towards a
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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

user being a climate enthusiast. Any future Search results for this particular user could then be calibrated accordingly, giving more weight to pages having a connection with environment, climate or related topics and issues. Video and movie sharing platforms like YouTube and Netflix are again a gold-mine of user personality data. A users video likes on YouTube or Netflix could be incorporated in future online search activity of the user. The process could also be reversed with information on user behaviour collected from other platforms such as blog, social networking platforms being used to recommend videos. The choice of movies watched on Netflix is a rich information bank on users movie tastes and personality. Is the user more interested in watching war/drama, comedy or action flicks? The favourite movie genres could tell a lot about the users psyche and personality makeup. User data from social music platforms like Turntable could give out quality information about an individuals recent music tastes. Music tastes of his/her influencers on social media could also be another important variable. Combining these two variables could give a fair understanding of the users music preferences. In-Game user activity and behaviour is again a rich data source to extrapolate user personality. The choices made by the user while playing a game could present analysts with data that could play a key role in mapping individual biases and inclinations to certain personality traits. This data could further be incorporated in Search results in the future. Micro-blogging platform Twitter also constitutes an abundant source of user data which could be studied to gauge user interests over a period of time. The nature of links shared or the topics and issues often tweeted about could all aggregate towards formation of a data bank that could provide meaningful insights on a users thought process and natural leanings. Browser activity data could prove to be a complete data package in terms of user activity and interests. Browser integration with social platforms could pave the path for establishing a bridge between Social and the wider Internet. Imagine if data in the form of daily log of websites visited, search keywords entered, locations visited through Google Maps or Facebook Places could all combine together to form a rough personality sketch of the user which could be an important addition to the Personality Relevancy factor in Search results. Personality Relevancy in many ways can automate Search. The challenge for future Search paradigms lie not in how and what results should get populated after a Search query, but what the Search query itself is most likely to be. Personality Relevancy addresses this challenge.

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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

3. THE BIG TWO: GOOGLE AND FACEBOOK Strategic Moves


Facebook has surpassed Google in dynamic data collection. Status updates, content sharing, likes and comments present Facebook with a huge opportunity to tap into user data, were it to think of entering the search business in the future. Which it is most likely to do! Its partnership with Microsoft has opened up new possibilities to acquire search data through Bing. The developing partnership between Facebook and Microsoft could essentially turn out to be the biggest threat to Googles search monopoly. The crux of this assertion lies in the possibility of combining the two broad categories of data that we have discussed above. A search result powered by algorithms which ranks pages not only on the basis of Informational Relevancy (as Google does it now), but also on the basis of recommendations and likes from friends on the immediate social network of the user. Search could take a critical turn in its journey, if the two ideas meet at a convergence point. Facebook has made an aggressive push towards filling the other half of the Search container (the first half being the dynamic data of users, which Facebook already has a tight grip on). First, it realized the importance of capturing the Email data space by integrating Email features with its Messaging service. It has also partnered with Microsoft Bing and has lent support to a fast growing social browser Rockmelt, making its intentions clear. Two areas where Facebook found itself weak: 1) static data related to Search and Email and 2) dynamic data through browser activity; both have been plugged by these recent strategic moves. The recent tie-up between Facebook and leading on-demand movie streaming website Netflix should be seen in light of Facebooks larger strategy of expanding its online footprint. With Googles YouTube stealing the march in video sharing, Facebook has found itself left behind in the area of social data related to movie/video sharing. Integration with Netflix is a move to counter this. Facebooks social strategy is reflected in Netflixs user-agreement. The terms of agreement at the user end states, By connecting your accounts, your Facebook friends will be able to see that youre a Netflix member as well as what youve watched, rated, whats in your queue and other information about your use of the Netflix service. Youll be able to see the same information about your friends who participate. Netflix may personalize and otherwise enhance your experience based on your Facebook information, such as your Likes and Interests. Google on the other hand finds itself shackled. While it has phenomenal control on static data in the form of search-related user behaviour and Gmail data, it lacks substantially on the
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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

dynamic data front. Googles recent push towards a dedicated social networking platform is a result of this realization. With the Google+ launch, the principal factor that Google seeks to plug in this high intensity battle is the one chink in its armour: dynamic data in the form of social behaviour and choices. It has made a slow start on this front with +1. Still, for Google, there is a mountain to climb. Failure to do so would mean a serious damage to the Search monopoly it has enjoyed over the years. Figure 2 Ecosystems in place currently (The Big Two)

Ecosystem

Google

Facebook

Basic Social Platform

Social Gaming Search

Browser Data Blogging data/ niche level interaction Social Music Email Data Video/Movie Sharing

Integrating the Ecosystems: The key to the future


The four Relevancy factors that we discussed earlier; Informational, Social, Locational and Personality can indeed be fused together to revolutionize the Search paradigm in the future.
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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

The foundational elements required to achieve this are already in place for the two giants in the online space, Google and Facebook. Google at present is primarily a data driven company. What needs to be understood here is that much of the data that Google has is of a one-dimensional nature. Search and Email data are never enough to understand user personality and choices completely. It only accounts for one of the many pillars required to sketch user profiles, thought process and behavioural patterns. However, data of that nature is an excellent barometer to gauge group behaviour at a macro level. Google has a phenomenal lead here. Where it does fall behind is on the social data front, which embodies human thinking patterns more implicitly. On the other hand, platforms such as Facebook and Quora have a considerable lead when it comes to micro-level choices at the individual level. Likes, comments and recommendations present a gateway to the human consciousness. Users have been uploading their personal content on the Internet through blogs, social networks and social gaming platforms. The success of Quora has meant search related data is moving away from conventional Search engines like Google to new ecosystems like Quora. Questions that up till now would most likely be keyed in on Google now find themselves listed on Quora for a more in-depth answer from real people. For both Google and Facebook, the challenge lies in how these ecosystems, which are an abundant source of sub-conscious user data, can be integrated to understand human choices more deeply and create an engaging online experience. There are two approaches towards integration that the two giants seem to be adopting: 1) Acquire or assimilate ecosystems on base platform.
i. A good example of this would be Zyngas games built on a base platform like Facebook. This allows both Zynga and Facebook access to valuable data related to user preferences and biases that we talked about earlier. Google could also make an aggressive push towards aiding growth of social games on its social networking platform, Google+. Facebooks integration with the rapidly growing Internet Browser Rockmelt. With a browser like Rockmelt, it could bite a piece of the browser data pie, which again is a source of rich sub-conscious user data. 12 iii. Facebooks integration with Netflix allowing users to personalize and enhance their movie experience based on Facebook information, such as Likes and Interests.

ii.

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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

iv.

BranchOut, a possible competitor to LinkedIn has developed its architecture on a platform like Facebook, integrating the already well-established network of Facebook users with its App.

2) Grow new ecosystems organically.


i. For instance, Google Answers, a product from Google could divert user traffic from Quora to itself, were it to add an impressive social element to it. Googles push towards Google Games on its newest social media platform Google+ is aimed at creating a gaming ecosystem within the larger Google framework. The organic growth approach towards integration is visible. Google aims to integrate both Blogger and Picasa with Google+. While it has found success in growing these ecosystems organically over the years, it will now integrate them to its base platform Google+.

ii.

iii.

Both Google and Facebook understand the importance of integration and consolidation of the larger social media space. There are still many stand-alone ecosystems that occupy a substantial chunk of the social real estate. The challenge for the two giants lies in how they can tap into those ecosystems by either of the two approaches mentioned above. Quora and Turntable could appeal to both Google and Facebook. Either of them lacks an ecosystem centered on Music. In addition to that, both have failed to create a niche level interaction ecosystem. Googles Blogger has tasted some success on this front, but the platform hasnt gained much traction among users due to lack of social features. Bloggers integration with Google+, a move already initiated by Google could address this problem. For Facebook, popular blogging platform Tumblr, provides an opportunity to own a substantial chunk of the Blogging Data Pie. With BranchOut capitalizing on Facebooks vast user base, opportunity for Google to integrate its social platform Google+ with LinkedIn definitely exists. Twitter is yet another source of rich user data which can provide a gateway to understanding user personalities well. Googles experiment with Real-time Search is a good move forward integrating Twitter streams with its search results. The future opens up possibilities of incorporating user streams to track user personality and interests to further refine Search results. How and where Twitter fits in the larger social universe will be interesting to watch. Figure 3 and Figure 4 help us understand the present configuration of the social universe and possible re-alignments and changes to the social landscape in the future.
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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

Figure 3 The Social Universe (Present scenario)

Figure 4 The Social Universe (Possible future re-alignments)

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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

4. CONCLUSION
Over the course of the paper, we analyzed the growth of new ecosystems around popular social networking platforms like Facebook and Twitter, the nucleus of the social universe. We argued how opportunities for the future reside in ecosystems growing around this basic nucleus. Later, we identified how these ecosystems have the potential to alter the Search paradigm. It is in this context that we studied the moves made by the Big Two of the online world, Google and Facebook. The possibilities that lie ahead are immense. First, there is ample space for growth of new ecosystems which are yet to capture our mindspace. New forms and levels of human interactions could result in new ecosystems that could in turn become rich sources of subconscious user data. While this holds true, the real challenge that stares technology giants Google and Facebook is how information derived from new ecosystems can be used both effectively and by ethical means to revolutionize the Search paradigm and redefine the online experience completely. With more complex data patterns emerging in the future, social networks integrated with the larger Web can prove to be a fertile ground for artificial intelligence to grow in the future. The possibility of the Web turning into a personal intelligent machine for ordinary users is a realistic proposition (not that it isnt already!). These developments could also pose a serious challenge to user privacy and the de-personalization of individual lives. Such outcomes could also create unwanted upheavals in society and it is only appropriate that companies and technologists keep user interests in mind while advancing with bigger strides into the future.

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The Social Ecosystems: Disrupting the Search paradigm

NOTES AND REFERENCES


REFERENCES
1. http://www.caymanmama.com/2011/07/07/Lawyer-Marketing-Facebook-SocialSearch-Game-Changer-Is-Google-Worried_201107079499.html 2. http://techcrunch.com/2011/07/03/google-six-front-war/ 3. http://bhorowitz.com/2011/06/28/why-the-browsermatters/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+type pad%2Falleyinsider%2Fsilicon_alley_insider+%28Silicon+Alley+Insider%29 4. Social Gaming Interactions - by Shannon Appelcline -http://www.skotos.net/articles/TTnT_138.phtml 5. http://blogs.investors.com/click/index.php/home/60-tech/2341-netflixs-deepintegration-with-facebook-under-way 6. http://reneperras.visionsmartnews.com/social-media-marketing-like-it-onfacebook_4205.html 7. http://www.jeffbullas.com/2011/07/11/why-googles-new-second-generation-socialnetwork-google-will-threaten-facebook/ 8. http://www.bnet.com/blog/corporate-governance/why-the-tweet-is-mightier-than-thead/787?tag=fd-featureRoto;fd-featureRoto2

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