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CHAPTER OUTLINE

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 Propagation of a Disturbance The Wave Model The Traveling Wave The Speed of Transverse Waves on Strings Reflection and Transmission of Waves Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on Strings Sound Waves The Doppler Effect Context ConnectionSeismic Waves

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

Q13.1 To use a slinky to create a longitudinal wave, pull a few coils back and release. For a transverse wave, jostle the end coil side to side. From v =

Q13.2 Q13.3

It depends on from what the wave reflects. If reflecting from a less dense string, the reflected part of the wave will be right side up.

The section of rope moves up and down in SHM. Its speed is always changing. The wave continues on with constant speed in one direction, setting further sections of the rope into up-and-down motion. As the source frequency is doubled, the speed of waves on the string stays constant and the wavelength is reduced by one half. As the source frequency is doubled, the speed of waves on the string stays constant. Higher tension makes wave speed higher. Greater linear density makes the wave move more slowly. As the wave passes from the massive string to the less massive string, the wave speed will increase according to v = increase.

Q13.9 Q13.10

Sound waves are longitudinal because elements of the mediumparcels of airmove parallel and antiparallel to the direction of wave motion.

361

362 Q13.11

Mechanical Waves

We assume that a perfect vacuum surrounds the clock. The sound waves require a medium for them to travel to your ear. The hammer on the alarm will strike the bell, and the vibration will spread as sound waves through the body of the clock. If a bone of your skull were in contact with the clock, you would hear the bell. However, in the absence of a surrounding medium like air or water, no sound can be radiated away. A larger-scale example of the same effect: Colossal storms raging on the Sun are deathly still for us. What happens to the sound energy within the clock? Here is the answer: As the sound wave travels through the steel and plastic, traversing joints and going around corners, its energy is converted into additional internal energy, raising the temperature of the materials. After the sound has died away, the clock will glow very slightly brighter in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The frequency increases by a factor of 2 because the wave speed, which is dependent only on the medium through which the wave travels, remains constant. When listening, you are approximately the same distance from all of the members of the group. If different frequencies traveled at different speeds, then you might hear the higher pitched frequencies before you heard the lower ones produced at the same time. Although it might be interesting to think that each listener heard his or her own personal performance depending on where they were seated, a time lag like this could make a Beethoven sonata sound as if it were written by Charles Ives. He saw the first wave he encountered, light traveling at 3.00 10 8 m s . At the same moment, infrared as well as visible light began warming his skin, but some time was required to raise the temperature of the outer skin layers before he noticed it. The meteor produced compressional waves in the air and in the ground. The wave in the ground, which can be called either sound or a seismic wave, traveled much faster than the wave in air, since the ground is much stiffer against compression. Our witness received it next and noticed it as a little earthquake. He was no doubt unable to distinguish the P and S waves. The first air-compression wave he received was a shock wave with an amplitude on the order of meters. It transported him off his doorstep. Then he could hear some additional direct sound, reflected sound, and perhaps the sound of the falling trees. For the sound from a source not to shift in frequency, the radial velocity of the source relative to the observer must be zero; that is, the source must not be moving toward or away from the observer. The source can be moving in a plane perpendicular to the line between it and the observer. Other possibilities: The source and observer might both have zero velocity. They might have equal velocities relative to the medium. The source might be moving around the observer on a sphere of constant radius. Even if the source speeds up on the sphere, slows down, or stops, the frequency heard will be equal to the frequency emitted by the source. Wind can change a Doppler shift but cannot cause one. Both v o and v s in our equations must be interpreted as speeds of observer and source relative to the air. If source and observer are moving relative to each other, the observer will hear one shifted frequency in still air and a different shifted frequency if wind is blowing. If the distance between source and observer is constant, there will never be a Doppler shift.

Q13.12 Q13.13

Q13.14

Q13.15

Q13.16

Chapter 13

363

Q13.17

Let t = ts t p represent the difference in arrival times of the two waves at a station at distance

d = v s ts = v p t p

s p

station places the hypocenter on a sphere around it. A measurement from a second station limits it to another sphere, which intersects with the first in a circle. Data from a third non-collinear station will generally limit the possibilities to a point.

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

Section 13.1 Propagation of a Disturbance

P13.1

Replace x by x vt = x 4.5t

to get

y=

ax 4.5tf

+3

P13.2

FIG. P13.2

Section 13.2 The Wave Model Section 13.3 The Traveling Wave

P13.3

f=

v 42.5 cm s = 4 = 31.9 cm = 0.319 m f 3 Hz

v=

364 P13.4

Mechanical Waves

v = f = 1.20 m

0.800 m s .

P13.5

(a)

Let u = 10 t 3 x +

(b)

g a

f FGH

IJ = 0.054 8 m = K IJ K

5.48 cm

(c)

k=

= 3 : = 0.667 m

= 2 f = 10 : f = 5.00 Hz

v y, max = 10 0.350 = 11.0 m s

(d)

P13.6

vy =

y = 0.350 10 cos 10 t 3 x + t 4

a fa

A = 2.00 cm

k = 2.11 rad m

=

f=

2 = 2.98 m k

= 3.62 rad s

v = f =

P13.7

= 0.576 Hz

= 2 f = 2 5 s 1 = 31.4 rad s

(a)

(b)

(c)

In y = A sin kx t + we take A = 12 cm . At x = 0 and t = 0 we have y = 12 cm sin . To make this fit y = 0 , we take = 0 . Then y = 12.0 cm sin 1.57 rad m x 31.4 rad s t

f db

g b

gi

(d)

vy t

A cos kx t = A 2 sin kx t t

gi

fe

= 118 m s 2 .

Chapter 13

365

*P13.8

f a

3 rad , or (since x A = 0 ),

g b

b0.157 rad cmgx b50.3 rad sgt = 0 b50.3 rad sgt rad . 3

B

This reduces to x B =

P13.9

(a)

b g

k=

2 = 7.85 m 1 0.800 m

b g

g

g

= 0.785

y = 0.080 0 sin 7.85 x + 6 t 0.785 m

Therefore,

y = 0.120 m sin

P13.10

f FGH x + 4 tIJK 8

dy : dt

(a)

vy =

ay =

dv : dt

fa f FGH x + 4 tIJK 8 v a0.200 s, 1.60 mf = 1.51 m s F I a = a0.120 mfa 4 f sinG x + 4 tJ H8 K a a0.200 s, 1.60 mf = 0

v y = 0.120 4 cos

y

(b)

k=

= 16.0 m

T = 0.500 s v=

= 4 =

2 : T

366 P13.11

Mechanical Waves

(a)

y x , t = A sin kx + t +

dy dt

= A cos = 2.00 m s

0, 0

Also,

2 2 = = 80.0 s 0.025 0 s T

A 2 = xi2 +

i 2 2

A = 0.021 5 m (b) A sin 0.020 0 = 2 = 2.51 = tan A cos 80.0 Your calculators answer tan 1 2.51 = 1.19 rad has a negative sine and positive cosine, just the reverse of what is required. You must look beyond your calculator to find

(c) (d) v y , max = A = 0.021 5 m 80.0 s = 5.41 m s

k= 2

ga

2 = 8.38 m 0.750 m

= 80.0 s

b g b

g b

P13.12

y = e b a x vt f

y y = bve b a x vt f and = be b a x vt f t x 2 y t 2 2y t 2 = b 2 v 2 e b a x vt f and = v2 2y x 2 2y x 2 = b 2 e b a x vt f

Therefore,

Chapter 13

367

P13.13

The down and back distance is 4.00 m + 4.00 m = 8.00 m . The speed is then

v= d total 4 8.00 m T = = 40.0 m s = t 0.800 s

Now, So

T = v 2 = 5.00 10 2 kg m 40.0 m s

jb

= 80.0 N

P13.14

T = Mg is the tension;

Then, and

v=

Mg

m L

MgL L2 = 2 m t

e e

*P13.15

Since is constant, =

T2 T1 = 2 and 2 v 2 v1 T2 =

FG v IJ Hv K

2 1

T1 =

2

13.5 N .

r T r T

P13.16

mg = 2T sin T= mg 2 sin

3L 8 L 2

cos =

3 4

r mg FIG. P13.16

= 41.4 (a) v= T

v= mg = 2 sin 41.4

2 3

or

(b) v = 60.0 = 30.4 m and

v=

F 30.4 GH

ms

I J kg K

m = 3.89 kg

368

Mechanical Waves

P13.17

The total time is the sum of the two times. In each wire t= L =L v T

Let A represent the cross-sectional area of one wire. The mass of one wire can be written both as m = V = AL and also as m = L . Then we have Thus,

= A =

d 2

4

2 12

For copper,

0.137 + 0.192 = 0.329 s

12 3 2

12 3 2

j OP PP Q j OP PP Q

= 0.137 s

= 0.192 s

P13.18

(a) If the end is fixed, there is inversion of the pulse upon reflection. Thus, when they meet, they cancel and the amplitude is zero . If the end is free, there is no inversion on reflection. When they meet, the amplitude is 2 A = 2 0.150 m = 0.300 m .

(b)

P13.19

f= v

= 2 f = 120 rad s

P=

FG H

IJ a K

f a0.100f a30.0f =

2 2

1.07 kW

Chapter 13

369

P13.20

= 30.0 g m = 30.0 10 3 kg m

= 1.50 m

f = 50.0 Hz: 2 A = 0.150 m: (a) y = A sin

= 2 f = 314 s 1

A = 7.50 10 2 m

2

FIG. P13.20

2 2 2

(b)

P13.21

P=

1 1 2 A 2 v = 30.0 10 3 314 2 2

P = 625 W

A = 5.00 10 2 m Therefore, v=

= 4.00 10 2 kg m

T

P = 300 W

T = 100 N

= 50.0 m s

P=

1 2 A 2 v : 2

2 =

je

a f

j a50.0f

2

*P13.22

Originally,

P0 =

1 2 A 2 v 2 1 T P0 = 2 A 2 2

P0 = 2 A 2 T

The doubled string will have doubled mass-per-length. Presuming that we hold tension constant, it can carry power larger by 2 times. 2 P0 = 1 2 2 A T 2 2

1 2

P13.23

Since v light >> v sound : d 343 m s 16.2 s = 5.56 km

ga

370

Mechanical Waves

*P13.24

The sound pulse must travel 150 m before reflection and 150 m after reflection. We have d = vt t= 300 m d = = 0.196 s v 1 533 m s

P13.25

(a)

(b)

P13.26 *P13.27

The sound speed is v = 331 m s + 0.6 m s C 26 C = 347 m s (a) Let t represent the time for the echo to return. Then d= (b) 1 1 vt = 347 m s 24 10 3 s = 4.16 m . 2 2

t =

10 10 10 10 = = = = 0.455 s . v f f 22 10 6 1 s

(c)

L = 10 =

10 v 10 347 m s = = 0.158 mm f 22 10 6 1 s

*P13.28

(a)

If f = 2.4 MHz,

= 75.0 m

(b)

If f = 1 MHz , If f = 20 MHz ,

= =

P13.29

Pmax = v smax = v

2 v 2 smax = Pmax

FG 2 v IJ s H K 2 a1.20fa343 f e5.50 10 j = =

max 2

0.840

5.81 m

Chapter 13

371

P13.30

(a)

A = 2.00 m

(b) (c)

s = 2.00 cos 15.7 0.050 0 858 3.00 10 3 = 0.433 m v max = A = 2.00 m 858 s 1 = 1.72 mm s 2

=

a fb b

g a fe j

ge

P13.31

a0.100 mf = 62.8 m 2 v 2 b343 m sg = = a0.100 mf = 2.16 10 s Therefore, P = e0.200 N m j sin 62.8 x m 2.16 10

k=

ts .

8

P13.32

j e

j b343 m sge2.00 10

P13.33

(a)

(b)

(c)

b g bv v g a343 + 25.0f = 3.04 kHz f = 2 500 a343 40.0f F 343 + a25.0f IJ = 2.08 kHz f = 2 500G H 343 ( 40.0) K F 343 + a25.0f IJ = 2.62 kHz f = 2 500G H 343 40.0 K F 343 + 25.0 I = 2.40 kHz f = 2 500G H 343 a40.0f JK

f= f v + vo

s

372

Mechanical Waves

P13.34

(a)

= 2 f = 2

v max

3

O

0.021 7 m s

(b)

FG v + v IJ = b2 000 000 HzgFG 1 500 + 0.021 7 IJ = H v K H 1 500 K FG v IJ = b2 000 029 HzgF 1 500 I = GH 1 500 0.021 7 JK Hvv K

s

2 000 028.9 Hz

(c)

2 000 057.8 Hz

P13.35

f= f =

b1 v vg

S

S S S

1 040

a f

P13.36

The maximum speed of the speaker is described by 1 1 2 mv max = kA 2 2 2 v max = k A= m 20.0 N m 0.500 m = 1.00 m s 5.00 kg

The frequencies heard by the stationary observer range from fmin = f where v is the speed of sound.

FG v IJ to f Hv+v K

max

max

=f

FG v IJ Hvv K

max

439 Hz 441 Hz

Chapter 13

373

P13.37

f= f

FG v IJ Hvv K

s

F 340 I GH 340 b9.80t g JK 485a340f + a 485 fd9.80t i = a512fa340f F 512 485 IJ 340 = 1.93 s t =G H 485 K 9.80

485 = 512

fall

d1 =

1 2 gt f = 18.3 m : 2

treturn =

The fork continues to fall while the sound returns. ttotal fall = t f + treturn = 1.93 s + 0.053 8 s = 1.985 s d total =

P13.38

(a)

v = 331 m s + 0.6

m 10 C = 325 m s s C

(b)

Approaching the bell, the athlete hears a frequency of After passing the bell, she hears a lower frequency of The ratio is which gives 6 v 6 v o = 5 v + 5 v o or

FG v + v IJ H v K F v + b v g I f = f G H v JK

f= f

O O

f v vO 5 = = f v + vO 6 vO = v 325 m s = = 29.5 m s 11 11

P13.39

(a)

Sound moves upwind with speed 343 15 m s . Crests pass a stationary upwind point at frequency 900 Hz. Then

(b) (c)

By similar logic,

The source is moving through the air at 15 m/s toward the observer. The observer is stationary relative to the air. f= f

o s o s

941 Hz

(d)

The source is moving through the air at 15 m/s away from the downwind firefighter. Her speed relative to the air is 30 m/s toward the source. f= f

938 Hz

374

Mechanical Waves

P13.40

(a)

The longitudinal wave travels a shorter distance and is moving faster, so it will arrive at point B first.

(b)

The wave that travels through the Earth must travel a distance of at a speed of Therefore, it takes 2 R sin 30.0 = 2 6.37 10 6 m sin 30.0 = 6.37 10 6 m 7 800 m/s 6.37 10 6 m = 817 s 7 800 m s

The wave that travels along the Earths surface must travel a distance of at a speed of Therefore, it takes The time difference is

P13.41

s = R = R 4 500 m/s

FG radIJ = 6.67 10 H3 K

The distance the waves have traveled is d = 7.80 km s t = 4.50 km s t + 17.3 s where t is the travel time for the faster wave.

g b

ga

a fb g b ga f b4.50 km sga17.3 sf = 23.6 s or t = a7.80 4.50f km s and the distance is d = b7.80 km sga 23.6 sf = 184 km

Then, 7.80 4.50 km s t = 4.50 km s 17.3 s

Additional Problems

P13.42

Assume a typical distance between adjacent people ~ 1 m . Then the wave speed is v= x 1 m ~ ~ 10 m s t 0.1 s

Model the stadium as a circle with a radius of order 100 m. Then, the time for one circuit around the stadium is

2 2 r 2 10 T= ~ = 63 s ~ 1 min . v 10 m s

e j

Chapter 13

375

P13.43

Assuming the incline to be frictionless and taking the positive x-direction to be up the incline:

Fx = T Mg sin = 0

T = Mg sin v= T

Mg sin = mL

L m =L = v MgL sin

P13.44

Mgx = (a)

(b)

L = L0 + x = L0 +

(c)

v=

TL = m

FG H

IJ K

F = ma implies T =

2 mv b = m 2 r . The r

*P13.45

Let M = mass of block, m = mass of string. For the block, speed of a wave on the string is then v= t= T = M 2 r

m r

= r

M m

r 1 = v

= t =

P13.46

(a)

Assume the spring is originally stationary throughout, extended to have a length L much greater than its equilibrium length. We start moving one end forward with the speed v at which a wave propagates on the spring. In this way we create a single pulse of compression that moves down the length of the spring. For an increment of spring with length dx and k mass dm, just as the pulse swallows it up, F = ma becomes kdx = adm or dm = a . But dm k dv v v2 = so a = . Also, a = = when vi = 0. But L = vt , so a = . Equating the two dx dt t L expressions for a, we have k

dx

v2 or v = L kL

kL

(b)

kL2 = m

b100 N mga2.00 mf

0.400 kg

= 31.6 m s .

376

Mechanical Waves

P13.47

v=

where

z

0

dx gx

1 g

x

1 2

= 2

0

L g

P13.48

(a)

(b)

(c)

FG mxg IJ + Mg , so the wave speed is: H LK T TL F MgL IJ = dx . v= = = xg + G H m K dt m L F MgL IJ OP dx 1 xg + b MgL m g Then t = z dt = z M xg + G t= g N H m KQ O MgL I 2 LF LF m+M MI t = MG Lg + t=2 JK FGH MgL IJK PP JK g MH m m gG m H Q N L F m 0I When M = 0 , as in the previous problem, t=2 GH m JK = 2 L g g F 1 m 1 m + KI F mI As m 0 we expand m + M = M G 1 + J = M G 1 + H MK H 2 M 8 M JK F M + em M j em M j + K M I L G JJ to obtain t=2 gG m H K LF1 m I mL t2 = gG2 MJ Mg H K

t L

0

1 2

1 2 x=L

1 2

x=0

12

12

12

1 2

1 8

32

P13.49

(a)

P x =

af af

1 1 3 2 2 bx 2 2 A 2 v = 2 A0 e 2 bx = A0 e k 2 2 2k

FG IJ H K

(b)

P 0 =

3

2k

2 A0

(c)

P x = e 2 bx P 0

4 450 km = 468 km h = 130 m s 9.50 h 130 m s v2 = = 1 730 m g 9.80 m s 2

af af

P13.50

v= d=

b e

P13.51

(a)

To have 0 = 0 we require b = 0 . Then so Then

af

af

af aL f =

m=

Chapter 13

377

x = mx + b

L

= mL + 0

L 0

L

L

x =

a f b

0 x L

+ 0

(b)

dx dx , the time required to move from x to x + dx is . The time required to move v dt from 0 to L is

From v =

t =

1

L 0

z z z FGH b

L

1 dx L dx = = v 0 T T 0

z

0

x dx

12 L 0

af

L 0 x

L L 0

IJ K

32

3 2 0

32 L

32 0

P13.52

Sound takes this time to reach the man: so the warning should be shouted no later than before the pot strikes. Since the whole time of fall is given by y = 1 2 gt : 2

343 m s 18.25 m = t = 1.93 s 1 9.80 m s 2 t 2 2

the warning needs to come into the fall, when the pot has fallen to be above the ground by

ja

= 12.2 m

20.0 m 12.2 m = 7.82 m sin = 1 cos 2 (each sign applying half the time) P = Pmax sin kx t = v smax 1 cos 2 kx t

P13.53

Therefore

378

Mechanical Waves

P13.54

The trucks form a train analogous to a wave train of crests with speed v = 19.7 m s 2 and unshifted frequency f = = 0.667 min 1 . 3.00 min (a) The cyclist as observer measures a lower Doppler-shifted frequency:

(b)

FG v + v IJ = e0.667 min jFG 19.7 + a4.47f IJ = 0.515 min H v K H 19.7 K F v + v IJ = e0.667 min jFG 19.7 + a1.56f IJ = 0.614 min f = f G H v K H 19.7 K

f= f

o

The cyclists speed has decreased very significantly, but there is only a modest increase in the frequency of trucks passing him.

P13.55

v= (a)

ja

P13.56

f=

fv v u

f = f =

fv v u

a f

v u

2 2

f f = fv

FG 1 1 IJ H v u v + uK

2u v

v

2

fv v + u v + u

f=

v 2 1 u2

v

2uvf

2

1 u2

(b)

130 km h = 36.1 m s

f =

340

2

a fa f =

85.9 Hz

*P13.57

(a)

f= f so 1

bv v g

diver

f v diver = f v

v diver = v 1

FG H

f f

IJ K F GH I JK

with v = 343 m s , f = 1 800 Hz and f = 2 150 Hz we find v diver = 343 1 (b) 1 800 = 55.8 m s . 2 150

If the waves are reflected, and the skydiver is moving into them, we have f = f

bv + v g f = f LM v OP bv + v g v MN bv v g PQ v

diver diver diver

so f = 1 800

2 500 Hz .

Chapter 13

379

*P13.58

(a)

FIG. P13.58(a)

(b)

= =

S

(c)

(d)

(e) *P13.59

f IJ a K v v F v + v I a343 + 40.0f m s = = G J = 1 000 s = 0.383 m f f H v K F v v IJ = b1 000 Hzg a343 30.0f m s = 1.03 kHz f = fG a343 40.0f m s H vv K FG H

1

O S

Use the Doppler formula, and remember that the bat is a moving source. If the velocity of the insect is v x , 40.4 = 40.0

x x

P13.60

(a)

If the source and the observer are moving away from each other, we have: S 0 = 180 , and since cos180 = 1 , we get Equation 13.30 with negative values for both vO and vS . If vO = 0 m s then f = v f . Also, when the train is 40.0 m from the intersection, v vS cos S 4 and the car is 30.0 m from the intersection, cos S = so 5 f= 343 m s 500 Hz 343 m s 0.800 25.0 m s

(b)

ga

f a f

or f = 531 Hz . Note that as the train approaches, passes, and departs from the intersection, S varies from 0 to 180 and the frequency heard by the observer varies from: fmax = fmin = 343 m s v 500 Hz = 539 Hz f= 343 m s 25.0 m s v vS cos 0 343 m s v 500 Hz = 466 Hz f= 343 m s + 25.0 m s v vS cos 180

380

Mechanical Waves

P13.2 P13.4 P13.6 P13.8 P13.10

see the solution 0.800 m s 2.00 cm, 2.98 m, 0.576 Hz, 1.72 m/s 6.67 cm (a) 1.51 m/s, 0 m s ; (b) 16.0 m, 0.500 s, 32.0 m/s see the solution 1.64 m s 2 (a) v = 30.4

2

(a) 0.021 7 m/s; (b) 2 000 028.9 Hz; (c) 2 000 057.8 Hz 439 Hz and 441 Hz (a) 325 m/s; (b) 29.5 m/s (a) longitudinal ; (b) 665 s ~1 min (a) 2Mg ; (b) L0 + (c) 2 Mg ; k 2 Mg 2 Mg L0 + m k

P13.12 P13.14

P13.16

F GH

ms

I J kg K

FG H

IJ K

m ; (b) 3.89 kg

P13.46 P13.48

(a) v =

kL

P13.18 P13.20

(a) zero; (b) 0.300 m (a) y = 7.50 10 2 sin 4.19 x 314t ; (b) 625 W

see the solution 130 m/s, 1 730 m 7.82 m (a) 0.515 min ; (b) 0.614 min (a) 2u v

v

j a

P13.50 P13.52

2 P0 0.196 s 5.67 mm (a) 0.625 mm; (b) 1.50 mm to 75.0 m (a) 2.00 m , 40.0 cm, 54.6 m/s; (b) 0.433 m ; (c) 1.72 mm/s 0.103 Pa

P13.54 P13.56

1 u2

f ; (b) 85.9 Hz

P13.58 P13.60

(a) see the solution; (b) 0.343 m; (c) 0.303 m; (d) 0.383 m; (e) 1.03 kHz (a) see the solution; (b) 531 Hz

P13.32

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