247
SUPPLEMENTARY DC CONTROLIN A TWO AREA AC/DC POWER SYSTEM
J.M. castellanos
SaSkPowex
Regina, sask.
RJ. Fleming
PowerSystemResearch
Group
university of Saskatchewan
saskatoon, sask.
Abstract:Thensearchreportedinthispaperconcernsthe
performance of supervisory control associated with a high voltage
Two Area Power System interconnected by HVAC and HVDC tie lines. The system includes supplementary DC control interacting with the conventional AC area controls. TaLing advantage of the fast controllability of DC links, supplementary control utilizing DC power modulation could simultaneously improve system dynamic stability,reduce area control error and inadvertent energy interchange. The supplementary DC _{p}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r} modulation is based on variation of the net power interchange due to step load disturbances in one of the control areas. A linear model was used for the power system to study small
changes around a base refmce state and only the power
fresuency control aspects of the 0veraU power system control problems were considered. Eigenstructure analysis of the state space model of the power system was used to evaluate system stability. Control aptimization was achiewd by minimization of a performance index which is a function of the Area Control Error (ACE). Computa simulation was used to obtain powcr system dynamic rrsponses to step load disturbances and to estimate the optimal controller parameters.
kb”s
area Capacity (power base), MW
nominal system frequency, Hz
subscript referring to mtrol area (i=1,2)
generated powex deviation, pu
net power interchange deviation, pu
change in load demand (load disturbance), pu
frequency deviation, Hz
WAC tie line power deviation,
HVDC tie line power deviation, pu
AGC control signal
supplanentary control signal
area control mor (API2+ B, Afi), pu
speed governor rime constant, s
pu
geon regdarion (h”a*
‘c, Wpu
steam chest time constant, s
inertia constant, s
load frequency characteristic, plmz
&, = 1Di, Tpi= 2 FI,/fDi)
~frequencynsponse ‘c (14 +DJ,pU&
synchronising coefscient, pu/Hz
DC system time constant, s
kpr
k,
kp
kl
s
PropOItional gain of AGC controller
integral gain of AGC controller
proportional gain ofsupplementary controller
integral gain of supplemen*
Laplaceoperator
controller
InMuctioa
~nthe last three ~esse~eralst~dies’~~*‘~*~~’~~avebeen conducted to emphasize the performance improvements of power
systemsbecause of HVDC controllability. Some of those studies
are related to the development of suitable models for studying hybrid AC/DC systems and a more detailed simulation of power
systems.In others, the influence of DC power modulation on the
stability of AC/DC power systems for various control schemes
hasbeen researched.
The
of this research was to extend the studies reported
above to investigate how HVDC control could be used to
improve the OVQau power system dynamic performance.
The requirements
for amtrol of frequency
and
net power
interchange, in a Two Area Interconnected Power System
(TAIPS), are implemeated bythe Automatic Generation Control
(AGC).
The
AGC control provides
automatic
variation
of
generation set points on the speed governors to keep system frequency and net power interchanges within scheduled values.
Usually HVDC systemsare opgated with constant power control
in accordance with a fixed scheduled DC power transmission; on
to load variation (small disturbance) from
time to time on the AC systems, AGC control action is required
to match the generation to power demand within predefined
fresuency limits.Utilidng the fastpower control charac“* ‘c of
controller to
modulate the DC power transfer, based on an AC system signal (e.g. net power interchange deviation from its scheduled value) it should be possible to simultaneously achieve the following objectives:
the other ,due
HVDC
systems with a suitable supplementary
_{i}_{)} improve system dynamic stabiity providing a positive
damping for the natural made of system oscillations,
_{5}_{)}
^{i}^{i}^{i}^{)}
mini” the area control (ACE) in both AC systems to
avoid excessive governing system operation, and
reduce the inadvertent energy interchange 0

neighbouring powa Symms (control areas).
between
A simplified line diagram of an i”ected
power
system and its functional control scheme is illustrate in Figure 1.
0780313194/93/$3.00 @ 1993 IEEE
AREA1
U
PL1
fi
! 
=
7 I
AGC system
control
_{I} PAC _{L}_{.}
P12
248
Figure 1. The Two Area Interconnected Power System (TAPS).
The power system pmposed is composed of two power system areas interconne~ted by parallel HVAC and RVDC tie lines.
Each AC power system is represented by thermal generation (a turbindgenezator), area load (PJ and system inmdon bus. The DC link includes two converter stations, one performing asanztik at the sending end, and the otha performing as an inverkr at the receiving end.
The basic control system includes the speed governing system, the AGC control system and the DC system control. A supplementary control is added, to the basic control scheme, to introduce a new control signal (VJ to the DC system.The AGC control of the TAPS is centred around 'tie line bias control strategYw9.TheAGC control senses frequency deviation and net power interchange deviation to compute the ACE signal, which is processed by the AGC controller (PI controller) to provide the control signal Ui(reference) to the speed governing system.
Ui=h A=,
+4JACEidt
(1)
The supplementary DC umtroller (PI controk) provides a new control signal U, (reference) to the constant DC power system
control to modulate the DC power flow based on the net power
interchange deviation fromitsscheduled
value.
"he derivation of the model for the TAPS is based on the
following assumptions:
i) the electrical in"ch 'ons within each individual control area are very strong, compared with the ties between neighbowing areas, such that each area could be Charactenzed* by a single frequency and can be represented by one equivalent machine;
E) the voltage magnitudes at the high voltage AC buses were
_{I}
AREA2
= 50 U2
PL2
h
control
maintaiued oonstant by voltage regulation action;
iii) incrernaral mechanical and electrical losses were
amsidered to be negligible, including those of the AC and DC links.
A smaIl perturbation transfer function block diagram of a two
area thermal system,interamnected
lines is shown in Fi 2. The fast supplementary
interacts with the conventional AGC controller to restore system hquency and net power interchange to scheduled values (zero steady state area control error).
via HVAC and HVDC tie
control
tatiQQ
The stak space equations of a two areas power system
interconnected via parallel AC and DC links can be derived from the dynamic model shown in Figure 2. The state variables are:
:frequency deviation, area 1
:deviation in generated power, area 1
:deviation in governor position, area 1 :fkquea~cydeviation, area 2
: deviation
in generated power, area 2
:deviation in govmor position, area 2
:AC power interchange deviation
: DC power interchange deviation
: control signal, area 1
: control signal,area 2
: control signal DC system
: change in load (disturbance), area 1
:change inload (man=),
area 2
r
Q
I
A
249
Figure 2.Transfer frmction block diagram ofthe AClDC TAIPS.
X=[x,
%
xloxll]= is the state vector,
V=[v,
v3'
is the
disturbance vector.
Translating the transfa functions (Figwe 2) which use Laplace notation into the state space form, tbe dynamics of the model are
rqrcsented by the aet of diffexential equations as follows:
j$ = X1%.$ 1
11
%TGl
TGl
TGl
9
Theref~thesystemsh~inFigure2canberrprcsentedby
the vector space equatian:
x=M(+Fy
(14)
AisthesLatecoeaclea
coefficient matrix, whose coefficlen' tsareobtainedfromthestate
space equations.
t matrix and Fistbe disturbana
A=
F=
1

TPI
0
1

R1 TGI
0
0
0
TI2
0
42T12
kPT12
%I

TPI
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Kpz

TPZ
0
0
0
kprB2Kpl
TPZ
0
0
0
1

TTI

1
TGl
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1

TP2
0
1
R2TG2
TI2
0
kP 1T12
250
0
0
0
k!

TP2
1

TT2
0
0
0
0
The formal optimal control approach includes all systcm
state variables in the optimal feedback amtrol; however, in this
all the system state variables in
study, it is not feasible to include
the feedback loop because of the unavailability of all of the state
variables in this case. Moreover, the configuration of the system
0
0
0
0
1

TT2

1

TG2
0 

0 

0 
[LPlBIKfl 
TPl 

+141 

 U1 

0 
4 
[kp1(+)
Bl%
TPI
+41
1421
1
TDC
+kILP '
TDC
0
0
1

TGl
0
0
0
00
0
0
00

0
0
1
TG2
0
0
0
000
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
TDC
kP1
TDC



Irp
TDC
controllers ispredeterrmn. ed (proportional plus integral control).
Thdm a pseudo optimal control was utilized in this research,
based only on the optimization of the controller parameters to minimize a selected performance index which includes a subset
of the state variables. The performance Criterion chosen must lead to the minimisation of the Area Control Error (ACE) in both control areas. The performance index selected is
represented by the time integral of the sum of the square of
control error (ISACE) in
in Area 2, averaged over a time period T.
Area 1 and the square of control error
ISACE =
1 I[(ACE,)' + (ACEJ'] dt
To
(17)
The performance index of Equation (17) is based directly on
generation requirements
a good measure of control effectiveness.
in both control areas, which represents
The performance index minimisation was carried out by a sub
routine called parameter Estimation of the TUTSIM program.
This subroutine minimizes the ISACE function by adjusting the controller parameters following a time response computer simulation. In the computation of the optimal parameters a
constraint of system frequency deviation was also included. The peak value of the first Swing of the system frequency deviation
was not allowed to exceed 0.025 Hz. This
is an arbitrary limit
based on accepted North American practice.
The estimated optimal AGC controller parameters and supplementary controller parameters, based on the system parameters shown in Appendix A, are:
251
*
lrpl =&
= 0.3 ; k,, = kn = 0.6
* kp = 0 ; k, = 12.0
sv
w!z!&
The stability of an i"nd power system is
measured in tenas of its capability to return to normal or stable operation ah having been subjected to some lrind of
disturbance. Dynamic stabiity refers to the stabiity of a power system subject to a relatively small and sudden or periodic
disturbance, including the effect of automatic control devices. In
gend, natural oscillation modes are in the fresuency range of
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{1} _{t}_{o} _{0}_{.}_{2} _{H}_{z}_{,} _{a}_{s}_{s}_{o}_{c}_{k}_{d}
with gwemors, and 0.2 to 3 Hz,
associated with exchanges of power between generating plants in a system.
sms
The system charactens. tic stability is a property of the system itself and does not depend on the input or driving
function of the system. The stability of a linear closed loop
system can be detemhed from the location of the closed loop poles in the s plane. Ifall closed loop poles lie to the left of the jo axis,any transient response eventually reaches equilibrium.
This represents a stable system. The fact that all closed loop
poles lie in the left half of the s plane
does not guarantee
satisfactory dynamic response characten'tics.s If dominant complex poles are located close to the jo axis, the dynamic
response may show excessive oscillations or a long settling time.
It is known that the eigenvalues of the state space dcient
matrix are the closed loop poles of the model system. For the
system npresented by the state equation :
x = AX+FV
(18)
the eigenvalue spectrum is the set of roots of the c aption : 
 
'c 
I UAI = 0 
(19) 

The eigenvalues determine the time domain characten'slic 
of 
every dynamical modes of the system response.
All the eigenvalues of the basic AUDC system without SC lie in
left side of the complex plane; this represents a stable system.
the
The dominant polcs of the system are the complex conjugate pair A,, A,. The osciuatiOn frequency of these modes is 3.76rad/s#:
Table 1. Eigenvalues of the AC/DC system.
mode. The dominant complex poles (A8, &) are moved to the left, from the previous location (0.18 to 1.17), providing a positive damping to the system responses. Also, the oscillation frequency of this mode has deaeased slightly (3.76 to 3.09). Mode A, is slightly StllJitive to SC pmmeten variation. Fm 3and4illustrate thee&ctofSCcontrolla gainvaxiation onthe
dominant pole locatianS.
Q
_{U}
//b:
b
x
kp = 0.0
10.0
c kr = 0.5
b: kI = 13.5
113.6
a.3.4
~~3.2
3.0
::2.*
2.6
_{1}_{3}_{.}_{2}
**3.0
252
Figure 3 shows that A, moves to the left side in the s plane as
proportional gain is increased. The damping is increased and the oscillation frequency is decreased. Figure 4 shows that l9moves
left in the s plane as integral gain is increased. For low
values of gain, oscillation frequency is increased slightly and after
that it decreases faster around the optimal gain. The damping is continuously increased until the gain is a little less than optimal gain, after that starts to decrease slowly.
to the
The variation of supplementary controller _{p}_{a}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{f}_{i} on system stability show improvements in system damping and oscillation frequency reduction as proportional gain is increased and the integral gain is set in a range close to its optimal value.
Svstem Dvnamic Re
Simulation studies can be used to analyze and evaluate the
dynamic performance of a system. In
simulation process was canied out using a computer program called TUTSIM. It is an interactive program which simulates the dynamics of systems. The "UTSIM system accepts models in the form of block diagrams. It simulates these models and allows one to change system parameters interactively and compare resulting changes in system responses. In the research reported here the model input to the TUTSIhl system was based on the transfer
function block diagram of the Two Area Interconnected Power System (TAIPS) representation (Figure 2). Through this simulation program the dynamic response of the system was obtained for a specific input disturbance.
this research the computer
The simulated system responses were obtained for the twoarea power system model assuming it had been subjected to a step
load disturbance in one of the control areas. It was assumed that each area was working independently with no mutual assistance of power transfer scheduled through the link except following a disturbance. Initially the power system was in steady state condition determined by normal system operation. That means there were no system variable deviations from their scheduled values, in other words all the state variables of the system model were zero. Subsequently the area load was increased by a step (APJ in one of the control areas, so the system model responses oscillated until they were settled down by the action of the AGC and supplementary DC controls. The supplementary DC control, the main object of thisresearch work, imposed power modulation of the DC link based on the deviation of the power interchange (AP,3 between the individual power system areas.
The inadvertent energy interchange which is represented by the time integral of the net power interchange, was also computed in the simulation process. Furthermore the simulation process was used for the optimization of controller parameters @ropomonal and integral gains) of the AGC and supplementary
DC controls,pxeviously described.
Since the smallest time constant of the system model utilized is ,T = 0.05 seconds @C system time constant) the simulation time step chosen is 0.01 seconds, which is small enough so as not
to compromise the accuracy of system responses. The time period
of the simulation was determined by the reset time of the slowest system response examined. In thisresearch work the time period of the simulation was 20 seconds.
The simulation tests fora two area powex system interconne!cted
by parallel AC and DC tie lines, with AGC and supplementary
DC control (SC), were based in the transfer
function block
diagram shown in Figure 2. The parameter values for this system are shown in Appendix A.
Simulation Results
A set of simulation results is presented for different
interconnection types and control system characteristics of the two area power system. These simulation tests were canid out
to compare system dynamic responses under similar Operation conditions of the power system. The following _{c}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{s} were considered in the simulation prm:
i) Two area power system interconnected by two AC tie lines, with AGC control.
_{i}_{i}_{)}
iii)
_{i}_{v}_{)}
Two area power system inter~~nne~tedby AC and DC tie lines, with AGC and constant DC power controls.
Two area power system interconnected by a AC and DC tie lines, with AGC and Supplementary DC controls.
Two area power system interconnected by AC and DC tie lines,with AGC control and supplementary DC control including DC power limiter.
and DC links were set to have the same capacity (1096 of
area capacity). The interco~ected power system was operating at a power angle of U)" between system areas and the power transfer between artas was 200 Mw (10% of area capacity). The step load disturbance applied to the model system in Area 1was 1% (20 MW) of area capacity for all the cases. The DC power limiter of the DC control system,included in the third case, was 10% (20 MW) of Dc link capacity.
AC
The parameters of the AGC and SC controllers were optimal. These values are given in a previous section with the exception of the system which included two AC tie lines. The optimal pamneters of the AGC controller for a two area power system ink~~~~e~tedbytwo AC tie lines are: &,=kp2=0; k,,=k,=0.5.
Figures 5 to 11 illustrate the system dynamic responses for
various interconnection types and control systems of the
under the operating conditions described above. In the systems where no supplementary DC control is included, the system dynamic responses have practically the same settling down times in both cases.The oscillation frequency of the system responses
is higher for the TAPS interconnected by two AC lines with
AGC control than the TAPS interconnected
lines with AGC and constant DC power control. Figure 5 shows the frequency deviation responses in Area 1. By the action of SC
control the frequency deviationresponse isdamped faster,sothe
system frequency comes back to scheduled values in about 10 scconds or less. The first swing of the frequency deviation in Area 1 islarger for the TAPS which includes SC control. Figure 6 shows the frequency deviation responses in Area 2. The SC control action increases the damping of the dynamic frequency deviation response sigdicaavely. Moreover the first swing of frequency deviation in Area 2 is largely reduced. Therefore the dynamic frequeacy changes are very small in the system area which is not subjected to load distmbance. Figure 7 shows that the power interchange deviation responses experience a
significant dampiug improvement because of the SC control action. The dynamic response settles down in about 10 s for the
SC control which include DCPL, and in about 7 s for the SC
control without DCPL. Figure 8 illustrates that the inadvertent
TAIPS,
by AC and DC
253
energy interchange is drastically reduced by the action of the SC control, reaching a minimum value for the system without DCPL. Figures 9 and 10 show the arta amtrol enor dynamics in Area 1 and Area 2 rrspectively. Inboth control artas the control error signal isreduced (mainly in Area 2) and quickly stabilized by the action of SC control. Therefore the govaning system operation
in both areas would be mini
because of the control error
minimization. Since the system damping is mainly provided by the faster SC control, Area 2 has very low sensitivity, to load
1. Figure 11 illustrates the performance of the
changes in Area TAPS measured
by the performance indexISACE. By the action
of the SC control the ISACE is minimized, so the control
effectiveness isinneajed such that the dynamic performance of
the TAPS isimproved.
The fast supplementary DC amtrol (SC), based on net power interchange Variations, interacts with the conventional AC controls providing a positive damping to the dynamic system responses. The responses settle down faster, reaching a steady
state condition in about 10 seconds.
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
0041 &&&
I
14
Figure 5. Frequency deviation
responses in Area 1.
I
I
I
I
I
oe40
I
I
14
I
I
I
io
I
10
I
I
_{i}
m
I
m
ao!
I
' &&A
004s
14
'
i
IO
I
18
1
Figure 7. Net power interchange deviation responsts.
 ,\ \
Y
d. 1aOj
I
;\
I
\
1.
9 :
..,
i.
* a.
\,i<. a,*,
I
oe4r
'
*
"
c
&&A
e
14
'
.C
2.2.
,
ir
m
eo
Figure 8. Inadvertent energy interchange.
MQ1
0.owl
oe4r
I
I
' L&&'
I
1
l4YlOSo
Figure 6. Frequency deviation nspanses
in Area 2.
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{9}_{.} _{C}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{l} _{Q}_{Z}_{O}_{Z} _{o}_{f} _{A}_{r}_{e}_{a} _{1}_{.}
ooo1,
9.a
'U
0.0
i:
254
Figure 11. Performance index ISACE.
conclusions
It
was
found
that
the
stability of the TAPS
was
significantly improved with the implementation
supplementary control. The system damping is increased oscillation frequency of the system responses is reduced.
of the optimal
and the
_{S}_{i}_{m}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} results illustrate a signifkxnt dynamic performance
improvement ovd for the TAPS with supplementary control. The DC power modulation, based on the time integral of the net power interchange, intesaCting with the AGC control makes it possible to restore net power interchange and system frequency back to their scheduled values in less than 10 seconds following a disturbance (change in load). Furthermore, the control optimization, minimizes the area control errors (reducing system governors operations) and reduces the inadvertent energy interchange IEI.Thus the control effectiveness is improved.
Since the system damping is provided mainly by the faster SC, the control area which is not subjected to load disturbance is practically insensitive to load changes in the neighbouring control
area.
The effects of the DC power limiter on system responses show a small influence on the performance index value, but it causes an increase of the inadvertent energy interchange. It increases the mutual assistance between the individual power systems through the AC tieline and hence demands larger angle swings between
areas.
The integral action of the supplementary control causes a significant steady state deviation of the power transfer over the AC and DC links; one increases while the other decreases. Further research is required on this problem to devise a suitable means to compensate for or avoid it. It is suggested that the addition of a relatively slow "washout" action to the supplementary controller would accomplish _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s}_{.}
The values of optimal parameters of the supplementary controller depend on the size of the step load disturbance and of the value of the DC power limiter setting. This is due to the basic nonlinear characteristic of the system and online tuning of such param would be required to maintain optimal performance over a wide range of operation. This area requires further study.
References
1.
'Power
SpringerVerlag, klin/Hidelberg,
E. lhlman,
Transmission
by Direct
_{1}_{9}_{7}_{5}_{.}
Cumt',
2. J. Arrillaga, 'High Voltage Direct Current Transmission', Peter Peregrinus Ltd.,London, _{U}_{K} _{1}_{9}_{8}_{3}_{.}
3. 
IEEE Committee Report, 'Dynamic Performance 

C 
of North 
American HVDC Systems for 

Transient and Dynamic Stability Evaluations', IEEE 

Trans.,Vol. PAS 100,No 7,July 1981,pages 33563364. 

4. 
R. L. Cresap and W. A. Mittelstadt, 'Small Signal Modulation of the Pacific HVDC Intertie", IEEE Trans. 

_{V}_{o}_{l}_{.} _{P}_{A}_{S} 95,1976,page 536. 

5. 
Y. 
Yoshida and T. Machida, 'Study of the Effect of the 

DC Link on Frequency Control in Interc~~ectedAC Systems', IEEE Trans. Vol. PAS 88, No 7,July 1969, 

pages 10361042. 

_{6}_{.} 
Xia Zuzhi, 'A Study of Load Frequency 
Control 
for 
Interconnected Power Systems with a HVDC Tie Line",
IEE 4" International Conference on AC and DC TransmissiOn, London, Sept. 1985,pages 416424.
7. J. J. Dougherty and T. Hillesland, 'Power System Stability
DC
conside.ration
with
Dynamically
Responsive
Transmission Lines',
January 1970.
IEEE Trans. Vol. PAS 89, No 1,
8. 0. I. Elgerd, 'Eldc Energy System Theory', Second Edition, McGrawHill, 1982.
9. 
N. Cohn, 'Some 
Aspects of Tie Line Bias Control on 

Interconnected 
POWP Systems', 
AIEE Trans. Vol. 75, 

Feb. 1957, 
14151436. 

10. 
J. M. castellanos, 'Supplementary DC Control in a Two Ana AUDC Power System', MSc. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, 1992. 
255
mdix A: Power System Parametus
area power system have
the same 'cs. So it is assume that both areas have
For the purpose of thisstudy both
equal system paramems
(equal
time
constants
and
gain
coefficients). The nominal system parameters are:
Pbpc= 2000Mw
f
Pn
Hi
Di
&
=mHZ
=2oooMw
=sMwS/Mw
=
=
8.33 x IO)pu/Hz
2.4Wpu
TGi = 0.08s
TX
TpT
KpT
T,
Ti2
= 0.3s
= 20 s
= 120 WPU
= 0.05s
= 0.544 pu/Hz
TI, = 1.088 pu&
B, = 0.425pfi
('I" ni
by two AC lines)
The
frequency bias constant (B3 is set qual to the area
frequency nsponse (Pi)to minimize the control action in the
control area where not disturbance
OCCUT.
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